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In this paper we obtain conditions for a k- quasi contraction on a generalized metric space with a partial order to have a fixed point. Using this, we derive certain known results as corollaries.

In this paper we obtain conditions for a k- quasi contraction on a generalized metric space with a partial order to have a fixed point. Using this, we derive certain known results as corollaries.

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 2, ( Part -1) February 2017, pp.18-25

Generalized Metric Space with Partial Order

1

K.P.R. Sastry, 2G. Appala Naidu, 3Ch. Srinivasa Rao, and 4B. Ramu Naidu*

ABSTRACT

In this paper we obtain conditions for a k- quasi contraction on a generalized metric space with a partial order to

have a fixed point. Using this, we derive certain known results as corollaries.

Keywords: Generalized metric space, weak k-quasi contraction, fixed point, part ial order.

AMS: Subject classification (2010): 54H25, 47H10.

The concept of metric was introduced by space. Jleli and Samet extended many results

Frechet [10] as an extension of the distance on the available in fixed point theory such as Banach

real line. Banach contraction principle was given a contraction principle, Ciric [6].

shape in the context of met ric spaces. Later several Sastry et al.[18] dealt with fixed point

generalizations of Banach contraction principle results in generalized metric spaces, extended Ciric

were obtained. Also many generalizations of metric theorem [7] in generalized metric spaces with less

spaces were obtained and Banach contraction stringent conditions and obtained Banach

principle was extended to such spaces. Some of the contraction principle in generalized metric spaces

generalizations of Banach contraction principle as a corollary. In this paper we obtain fixed point

were also extended to the generalized versions of results in generalized metric spaces endowed with a

metric spaces. Czerwik [8] introduced the concept partial o rder.

of b-metric spaces in 1993. Since then fixed point

results in b-metric spaces were obtained by several II. PRELIMINARIES

authors. Hit zler and Seda [12] introduced the In this section we give the definition of a

notion of dislocated metric spaces, in the year generalized metric space, obtain certain properties

2000. In dislocated metric spaces the self distance of generalized met ric which we use in the later

of a point may be non-zero and this concept has development. For examp les of generalized metric

played a very important role in topology and spaces see Sastry et al.[18] We also give various

logical programming. Several authors have studied definit ions of generalizat ions of metric spaces

fixed point theory extensively, [see 2,6,11,14]. which are included in the notion of generalized

Co mbin ing several generalizations of metric spaces metric spaces.

Jleli and Samet [13] obtained a new generalizat ion

A metric on a non- empty set X is a mapping d : X X [0, ) satisfying the following conditions:

2.1.1 for every x, y X X ,we have

d x, y 0 x y;

2.1.2 for every x, y X X ,we have

d x, y d y, x ;

2.1.3 for every x, y, z X X X , we have

d x, y d x, z d z, y .

2.2 Definiti on:- (Czerwik[8]) Let X be a non-empty set and d : X X 0, be a given mapping.

We say that d is a b -metric on X if it satisfies the following conditions:

2.2.1 for every x, y X X ,

www.ijera.co m DOI: 10.9790/9622-0702011825 18 | P a g e

K.P.R. Sastry et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 2, ( Part -1) February 2017, pp.18-25

d x, y 0 x y;

2.2.2 for every x, y X X ,we have

d x, y d y, x ;

2.2.3 there exists s 1 such that ,for every x, y, z X X X , we have

d x, y s d x, z d z, y

In this case , X , d is said to be a b -metric space.

The concept of convergence in such spaces in similar to that of metric spaces .

2.3 Definition:-(Hit zler and Seda [12]) Let X be a non-empty set and d : X X 0, be a given

mapping.

We say that d is a d islocated metric on X if it satisfies the follo wing conditions:

2.3.1 for every x, y X X ,

d x, y 0 x y;

2.3.2 for every x, y X X ,we have

d x, y d y, x ;

2.3.3 for every x, y, z X X X ,we have

d x, y d x, z d z, y .

In this case X , d is said to be a dislocated metric space.

The mot ivation of defin ing this new notion is to get better results in logic programming semantics .

The concept of convergence in such spaces is similar to that of met ric spaces.

Let X be a non-empty set and D : X X 0, be a given mapping. For every x X , let us define

the set

C D, X , x xn X lim

n .

D xn , x 0

We say that D is a generalized metric on X if it satisfies the following conditions:

2.5.1 for every x, y X X ,

D x, y 0 x y;

2.5.2 for every x, y X X ,we have

D x, y D y, x ;

2.5.3 there exists 0 such that

If x, y X X , xn C D, X , x , then D( x, y) limsup D( xn, y) .

n

We also say that is a coefficient of X . Thus we say that X , D is a generalized metric space with

coefficient . In general we drop .

K.P.R. Sastry et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 2, ( Part -1) February 2017, pp.18-25

(i) Remark :- Obviously, if the set C D, X , x is empty for every x X ,then ( X , D) is a generalized

metric space if and only if 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 are satisfied.

(ii) Remark:- It may be observed that metrc spaces, b-metric spaces and dislocated metric spaces are included

in the class of generalized metric spaces.

say that x D -converges to x

n if

x C D, X , x .

n

n a sequence in X and

Proof:- Using the property 2.5.3 , we have

D( x, y) limsup D( xn, y) = 0,

n

n X . We say that

x is a D -Cauchy sequence if

n

lim

m,n D xn , xnm 0 .

2.9 Definition :- Let X , D be a generalized metric space. It is said to be D -complete if every D - Cauchy

sequence in X is convergent to some element in X .

f n1 x f f n x for n 1, 2,3,... Then f n x is called the sequence of iterates of f at x .

Jleli and Samet [13] extended Banach contraction principle to generalized metric spaces as follo ws.

2.11 Theorem :- ( Jleli and Samet [1] ,Proposition 3.2)(Banach contraction principle for generalized met ric

spaces).

Let ( X , D) be a co mplete generalized metric space and f : X X

be such that D f ( x), f ( y) k D( x, y) for so me k [0,1) and for all x, y X .

Suppose there exists x0 X such that =sup n

D x0 , f n x0 < Then f n x0 converges to some w

x and w is a fixed point of f. Further if w is another fixed point of f with D(w,w) < then w=w.

Then D x, x =0

Proof:- We have D x, x lim sup n D xn , x = lim D xn , x = .0 (since xn x)

n n

=0

Hence D x, x = 0.

K.P.R. Sastry et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 2, ( Part -1) February 2017, pp.18-25

Suppose C D, X , x . Then D x, x = 0.

Proof :- C D, X , x xn C D, X , x xn x D x, x = 0.

(byTheorem 2.12)

In this section we define a generalized metric space with partial order, weak k-quasi contraction and obtain

conditions for a weak k -quasi contractive self map on a generalized metric space with a partial order to have a

fixed point.

3.1 Definiti on :- L et X , D be a generalized metric space and be a partial order on X . Then we say

that X , D, is a generalized metric with a partial order. If x, y X and either x y or y x then

we say that x and y are comparable.

If x is a sequence in X

n such that xn xn 1 n, then we say that x is an increasing

n

sequence;

If xn 1 xn n, we say that x is a decreasing sequence.

n

x y f x f y .

3.2 Definition:- (Jleli and Samet [13]) Suppose X , D, is a generalized metric space with a partial

order. We say that

(3.2.1) X is D- regular (increasing) if xn is an increasing sequence in X , xn is D-convergent to x

implies xn x n

and xn yn implies x y .

(3.2.2) X is D-regular (decreasing) if xn is a decreasing sequence in X , xn is D-convergent to

x => x n x n and xn yn implies x y .

3.3 Definition :- (Jleli and Samet [13]) Suppose X , D, is a generalized metric space with partial

order,

f : X X and k (0,1). We say that f is a weak k -contraction if

D f x , f y k D x, y whenever x and y are comparable.

We say that f is R-type contraction (Vats [19]) if k and q such that k 0,1 and q 1 2k such that

1

D x, fy D y, fx

D fx, fy k max D x, y , D x, fx , D y, fy , for x y , whenever

2 q

x and y are comparable.

We say that f is a weak k -quasi contraction if

whenever x and y are comparable.

We say that f is weak continuous (increasing) if x is an increasing sequence in X ,

n

and x is D-convergent to x

n => {f( xn )} D-converges to f x .

K.P.R. Sastry et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 2, ( Part -1) February 2017, pp.18-25

n

sequence in X , x

n D-converges to x => f x D-converges f x .

n

3.4 Theorem :- Suppose X , D, is a D-complete generalized metric space with a partial order .

Suppose the following conditions hold in X .

(3.4.1) X , D, is D-regular (increasing) .

(3.4.2) f : X X is an increasing function.

(3.4.3) f is a weak k -quasi contraction for some k (0,1).

(3.4.4) There exists x0 X such that x0 f x0 and

supn D x0 , f n x0 ............................. (3.4.4.1)

Then {f (x0 )} D-converges to some w X .

n

More over if w is another fixed point of f comparable with w such that D(w,w) < and D(w,w) <

then w=w.

Proof:- x0 f( x0 ) => f( x0 ) f 2 ( x0 ) (since f is increasing)

=>f 2 ( x0 ) f 3 ( x0 )

In general f n ( x0 ) f n+1 ( x0 ) for n = 0,1,2,

Thus {f n (x0)} is an increasing sequence. ------------------------ (3.4.5)

We first show that D (f n ( x0 ), f n m ( x0 )) k n for n = 0,1,2,

and m=0,1,2,

The result is true if n=0, by (3.4.4.1)

Now assume the truth for n, i.e. D(f n ( x0 ), f n+m ( x0 )) k n

for m=0,1,2,... ................................... (3.4.6)

We show that D(f n+1( x0 ), f n+1+m ( x0 )) k n+1 for m = 0,1,2,... ................... (3.4.7)

From (3.4.5) we get f n (x0 ) and f n+m (x0) are comparable; infact

f n x0 f nm x0 ---------------------------------(3.4.8)

Hence D(f n+1( x0 ), f n+1 ( x0 )) k max {D( f n ( x0 ), f n ( x0 )), D(f n ( x0 ), f n+1 ( x0 ))

D(f n ( x0 , f n+1 ( x0 )), D(f n ( x0 ), f n+1 ( x0 )), D(f n ( x0 ), f n+1 ( x0 ))}

k.k n (by (3.4.6))

= k n+1 .

From this it follows that (3.4.7) is true if m=0.

Assume the truth of (3.4.7) for m.

Now D(f n+1 ( x0 ),f n+1+m+1 ( x0 ) k max {D(f n ( x0 ), f n+1+m( x0 ), D(f n ( x0 ), f n+1 ( x0 )),

D(f n+1+m( x0 ), f n+1+m+1( x0 )),D(f n ( x0 ), f n+1+m+1( x0 )), D(f n+1+m ( x0 ), f n+1 ( x0 ))}

(since f n ( x0 ),f n+1+m ( x0 ) are comparable, by (3.4.8))

k max {k n ,k n ,k n+1+m ,k n ,kn+1+m }

(by (3.4.6),(3.4.4.2) and (3.4.7))

= k.k n

= k n+1 .

Hence (3.4.7)

holds for m=0,1,2,.

Consequently (3.4.6) holds. Hence

K.P.R. Sastry et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 2, ( Part -1) February 2017, pp.18-25

This shows that {f n (

x0 )} is a Cauchy seguence and hence

converges to a limit, say, w X.

Since X , D, is D-regular (increasing) it follows that f n (x0) w for every n.

Now D(f n+1 ( x0 ),f(w)) kmax {D(f n (x0 ),w),D(f n (x0),f n+1 (x0)),D(w, f(w)),D(f n (x0 ),f(w)), D(w,fn+1 (x0))}.

Let > 0. Then there exists N such that D(f n (x0),w) < for n N.

Hence for n N we have D(f n+1 (x0 ),f(w)) k max { ,k n , limsup n D(f n (x0),f(w)),

limsup n D(f n (xn ),f(w), )} --------------- (3.4.9)

Suppose k < 1

Then lim sup n D (f n+1 (x0 ),f(w)) max { k ,0,k limsupn D(f n (x0), f(w)),

k limsup n D(f n (x0), f(w)),k } (from (3.4.9))

max {max{(k, k )}.limsup n D(f n (x0),f(w),k }

(since k < 1 and k < 1)

Therefore lim sup n D(f n (x0 ),f(w))= 0, since is arbitrary and

lim sup n D (f n (x0 ) , f(w)) < (by hypothesis)

.. f n (x0) f(w).

.. f (w) = w

Therefore w is a fixed point of f .

Suppose wis also a fixed point of f co mparable with w such that D(w, w) < and D(w,w) < .

Then D(w, w) = D(f(w),f(w)) k max

{D(w, w),D(w,f(w)),D(w,f(w),D(w,f(w),D(w,f(w))}

= k max {D(w,w),D(w,w),D(w,w),D(w,w),D(w,w)}

= k max {D(w,w),0,D(w,w)}

= k max {D(w,w),0,0} (since w is a fixed point with D(w,w) < )

= k D(w,w)

Therefore D(w,w) = 0 (since D(w,w) < )

Therefore w = w.

3.4.1 :

1

Note:- If we replace (3.4.1) by f : X X is weak continuous (increasing) then also the

3.4.1

1

conclusion of theorem 3.4 holds . However, (3.4.1) is a condition on the space X while is a condition

of the map f.

The following Theorem can be proved following the lines of proof of the above theorem.

3.5 Theorem:- Suppose X , D, is a D-co mplete generalized metric space with a partial order.

Suppose the following conditions hold in X.

(3.5.1) X , D, is D-regular (decreasing).

(3.5.2) f: X X is a decreasing function.

(3.5.3) f is a weak k -quasi contraction for some k (0,1)

(3.5.4) there exists x0 X such that x 0 f(x0 ) and

= sup n D( x0 , f n ( x0 )) < and D(f n ( x0 ), f n+1 ( x0 )) kn for all n.

Then { f n (x0 )} D-converges to some w X.

If limsup n D (f n ( x0 ), f(w)) < and k 1 then w is a fixed point of f .

Moreover if w is also a fixed point of f comparable with w such that D(w,w) < and

D(w,w) < then w=w.

Note:- If we replace (3.5.1) by (3.5.1) : f: X X is weak continuous (decreasing), still the conclusion

of the theorem holds.

K.P.R. Sastry et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 2, ( Part -1) February 2017, pp.18-25

3.6 Corollary :- (Vats et al.[19],Theorem 0.1) Let X , D, be a generalized metric space with a partial

Let f : X X satisfy the following.

f is R-type contraction. (i.e)

1 D x, fy D y, fx

D fx, fy k max D x, y , D x, fx , D y, fy , for x y , whenever

2

q

x and y are comparable.

where k and q are reals such that k 0,1 and q 1 2k

f is an increasing function, q 2 and k 1

Let us assume that there exists a point x0 X such that x0 f x0

sup n D x0 , f n x0 ...........................(1)

and

D f n x0 , f n 1 x0 k n n .....................(2)

x0 converges to some z X . If D f z , x0 and

D z, f z , then z is a fixed po int of f .

Proof :- Under the given conditions it follows that f is a k- quasi contraction and hence the conclusion

follows fro m Theorem 3.4

Note:- Here also the condition: X , D, is D-regular (increasing) can be replaced by the condition:

f : X X is weak continuous (increasing)

Fourth Author B.Ramu Naidu is grateful A:Multivalued fractals in b-metric spaces.

to Special officer, AU.P.G.Centre, Vizianagaram Cent.Eur.J.Math. 8(2),367-377 (2010)

for providing necessary permissions and facilities [6]. Ciric,LB:A generalization of Banachs

to carry on this research. contraction principle. Proc.

Am.Math,Soc.45(2),267-273 (1974)

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