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FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGLISH-II

GROUP NO. 7

Muskan Agarwal
Namrata Mistry
Nayank Mehta
Nehil Parmar
Niral Patel

SUBMITTED TO:-
Module Leader Ms. Achala Trivedi

COURSE BBA 2016 (Section-B)


TABLE OF CONTENT

SR No. CONTENT

1. AutoBiography of Sri Aurobindo Ghose

2. Poem :- To The Cuckoo

3. Stanza Interpretation

4. Critique Analysis
Autobiography

INTRODUCTION

Sri Aurobindo also called as Aurobindo Ghose , was born on 15 August 1872 was an
Indian nationalist ,philosopher ,yogi ,guru and poet. He joined the Indian movement for
independence from british rule, for a while was one of its influential leaders and then
became a spiritual reformer, introducing his vision on human progress and spiritual
evolution.

Aurobindo studied for the Indian civil service at Kings college, Cambridge, England.
After returning to India he took up various civil service works under the Maharaja of the
princely state of Baroda and began increasingly involved in nationalist politics and the
nascent revolutionary movement in Bengal. He was arrested in the aftermath of a number
of bomb outrages linked to his organisation, but was only convicted and imprisoned for
writing articles against british rule in India. He was released when no evidence could be
provided , following the murder of prosecution witness during the trial. During his stay in
the jail he had mystical and spiritual experiences, after which he moved to pondicherry,
leaving politics for spiritual work.

During his stay in pondicherry, Aurobindo developed a method of spiritual practice he


called Integral yoga. The central theme of his vision was the evolution of human life into
a life divine. He believed in a spiritual realisation that not only liberated man but
transformed his nature , enabling a divine life on earth, In 1926, with the help of his
spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa, he founded Sri Aurobindo Ashram. He died on 5
December 1950 in pondicherry.
POEM :- To The Cuckoo

Sounds of thewakening world, the years increase,

Passage of wind and all his dewy powers

With breath and laughter of new-bathd flowers

And that deep light of heaven above the trees

Awake mid leaves that muse in golden peace

Sweet noise of birds, but most in heavenly showers

The cuckoos voice pervades the lucid hours,

Is priest and summoner of these melodies.


The spent and weary streams refresh their youth

At that creative rain and barren groves

Regain their face of flowers; in thee the ruth

Of Nature wakening her dead children moves.

But chiefly to renew thou hast the art

Fresh childhood in the obscured human heart.

-By Sri Aurobindo

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF SRI AUROBINDO GHOSE

Sri Aurobindo was born in Calcutta on 15 August, 1872. The young Aurobindo was a
brilliant student who was consistently amongst the top of his class in English, and for
much of this time, he and his two brothers were supported by his scholarships. He
attended what was at the time one of the best public schools in London (St. Pauls) and
later studied in Cambridge where he obtained the highest score ever awarded in
Greek. Aurobindo Ghose was a multifaceted person. He was a freedom fighter, poet,
scholar, yogi and philosopher. He spent his life working towards the cause of Indias
freedom, and for further evolution of life on earth.

In 1893, Aurobindo Ghose, returned to India, and became the Vice-principal of the State
college in Baroda. He drew a salary of Rs.750/-. He was held in great respect by the
Maharaja of Baroda. Aurobindo was an accomplished scholar in Greek and Latin. From
1893 to 1906 he extensively studied Sanskrit, Bengali literature, Philosophy and Political
Science.
These were years of self-culture, of literary activity for much of the poetry afterwards
published from Pondicherry was written at this time and of preparation for his future
work. In England he had received, according to his father's express instructions, an
entirely occidental education without any contact with the culture of India and the
East. At Baroda he made up the deficiency, learned Sanskrit and several modern Indian
languages, assimilated the spirit of Indian civilisation and its forms past and present. A
great part of the last years of this period was spent on leave in silent political activity, for
he was debarred from public action by his position at Baroda. The outbreak of the
agitation against the partition of Bengal in 1905 gave him the opportunity to give up the
Baroda Service and join openly in the political movement. He left Baroda in 1906 and
went to Calcutta as Principal of the newly-founded Bengal National College.

The famous Alipore Bomb Case proved to be a turning point in Sri Aurobindo Ghoshs
life. For a year Aurobindo was an undertrial prisoner in solitary confinement in the
Alipore Central Jail. He utilized this period of incarceration for an intense study and
practice of the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. Chittaranjan Das defended Sri Aurobindo,
who was acquitted after a memorable trial.

During his time in prison, Aurobindo Ghosh, had developed interest in yoga and
meditation. After his release he started practicing pranayama and meditation. Sri
Aurobindo Ghose migrated from Calcutta to Pondicherry in 1910. At Pondicherry, he
stayed at a friends place. At first, he lived there with four or five companions. Gradually
the number of members increased and an Ashram was founded. In 1914 after four years
of concentrated yoga at Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo launched Arya, a 64 page monthly
review. For the next six and a half years this became the vehicle for most of his most
important writings, which appeared in serialised form. These included Essays on The
Gita, The Secret of The Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, The Upanishads, The
Foundations of Indian Culture, War and Self-determination, The Human Cycle, The Ideal
of Human Unity, and The Future Poetry.

In 1926, Sri Aurobindo Ghose retired from public life. Sri Aurobindos philosophy is
based on facts, experience and personal realisations and on having the vision of a seer or
Rishi. Aurobindos spirituality was inseparably united with reason. The goal of Sri
Aurobindo was not merely the liberation of the individual from the chain that fetters him
and realization of the self, but to work out the will of the Divine in the world, to effect a
spiritual transformation and to bring down the divine nature and a divine life into the
mental, vital and physical nature and life of humanity.

CRITIQUE :- Comparison of Poem with Poet

The poet laureate who launched the romantic age in Britain with themes of nature in his
poetry, Sri Aurobindo Ghose To the Cuckoo is a classic example of his style of poetry.
Consisting of 8 quatrains, this poem is directly addressed to the cuckoo bird. The poets
tone throughout the poem is reverential and nostalgic. To the cuckoo begins in a very
conventional manner, with the poet welcoming the bird, calling him a blithe new-
comer , hence projecting an image of a carefree, merry bird who is disconnected from
the restraints of the human materialistic life, and who revels in his freedom. The poet is
happy on seeing the bird, but calls the bird wandering voice as he has only heard his
voice, but never seen the cuckoo in person.
The poet then begins narrating how he came across the cuckoos song, while he was lying
on the grass. He recognises the bird by his distinguishable twofold cry which echoes
across hills and valleys, submerging the poet in his voice. In the third stanza the poet
confesses how the birds songs about flowers and valleys actually transport him to his
childhood days and acts as a catalyst in bringing back memories of his past. Then the poet
moves on to clearly state that in actuality he has never seen the bird, but has only heard
his voice. The cuckoo remains a mystery to the poet. Continuing with the nostalgic tones,
the poet narrates how in his school days he used to desperately search for the cuckoo in
every possible haunt, be it bushes or trees or the sky.
The cuckoos melody enthralled the poet and awakened within him a desire to find the
source of this enchantment Sri Aurobindo Ghose used to wander aimlessly in search of
the cuckoo because he wanted to see his object of devotion with his own eyes. In this
stanza itself the poet declares his love for the cuckoo and gives the reader an insight as to
what the bird truly meant to him and how he still hopes and yearns to see the bird. Even
though a lot of time has passed since his boyhood, he hasnt given up and believes that he
will succeed in locating his cuckoo bird. The poet travels back to the present with the
seventh stanza as he informs the cuckoo bird that he still listens to his voice while lying
down on the grass. Using the cuckoos voice as a porthole, the poet travels back to the
golden days of his childhood. Referring to his childhood as golden, the poet explains how
precious his past memories are to him. In the final stanza the poet States the two
contradictory pictures of the earth, as a place filled with restrictions of materialistic life
and as a place that is brimming with mystical wonders of nature. Such a versatile place is
fit for the cuckoos dwelling as it too is mysterious, having such a voice, yet hidden from
the poets view. Sri Aurobindo Ghose to the cuckoo is an ode to the mysterious nature of
the cuckoo bird, and at the same time it celebrates the beauty of nature. Sri Aurobindo
Ghose lives up to his reputation of being a romantic poet as he refers to the days of his
childhood as golden and visionary. Directly addressed to the cuckoo, this poem has
undertones of a reference to time as like the bird, it s presence can be felt, but it is
intangible and beyond the periphery of human vision.