Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

53

, ..
52 : -
. 2- . .: , 2012.
37 .

-
.
,
.

53


c .., 2012

c


-
( ), 2012


. ? , , -
,
. ,
, , -
.
.
-
-
-
.
( ) -
-
.
, -
-
. -
,
, .
,
, .
-
( ).
( ).
, -
. ,
-
.
-
, , -
.



, ()
, -
(v  c, c = 3108 /),
-
x, y, z px , py , pz , . .
- r p.

3
, ,
, , pr  h, p -
, r -
, h (h/2 = ~ = 1,0541034 2 /).
, , -
, -
.
, , ,
, -

. -
, - -

. -
? ,

.
, -
. . -
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
mv
p= q , (1)
2
1 vc2
m , v . , v  c
(1)
p = mv.
, -
. -
, .
(1) , -
,

d mv
q = F, (2)
dt 1 v
2
c2

F , . p ,
(2) .

4
, F , . .
F = F (r, p, t).
(2) 1905 -
, .
(2) -
. ,
:

d mv
q = F, v(0) = 0. (3)
dt 1 v
2
c2

(3),
m2 v 2 2
2 = (F t) ,
1 vc2
. .
Ft
m
v=q . (4)
Ft 2

1+ mc

, (4)
Ft
v = .
m
,
v
v=q 2 . (5)
v
1 +
c

F ,
,
v ,
(5) ,
v c.
,
, .

, ,
d mv 2
 
dA
=F v = ,
dt 2 dt

5
dA = F dr .
2
, E = mv 2
-
, v. -
.
(2) v,

d v = dA .
mv q (6)
dt 1 v
2 dt
c2

:
v
= , v = v ,
c
2 = 1.
,
d dA
mc2 p = . (7)
dt 1 2 dt

d d d
p =p + 2 p =
dt 1 2 1 2 dt dt 1 2
d 2 d d
= p + 2 p = p .
dt 1 2 dt 1 2 dt 1 2
,
d 2 )3/2 ,
p = (1
dt 1 2
. .
d 2 )3/2 = mc2 d p 1
mc2 p = mc2 (1 . (8)
dt 1 2 dt 1 2
(8) (7),

2
d mc = dA .
q
dt 1 v2 dt
c2

, v(0) = 0, -
:
mc2
E = q mc2 . (9)
v2
1 c2

6

1/2
v2 1 v2

1 =1+ + ...,
c2 2 c2
(9) v  c

mv 2
E = ,
2
.

, -
, ,
v = 0, , mc2 . ,

E = E + mc2 ,

. .
mc2
E=q . (10)
2
1 vc2

mc2 .
(1) (10), ,

E
p= v. (11)
c2
v = c .
,
. , , -
, ,
( , ).
(11)

E
p= . (12)
c
, -
. (1), (10) (11)
, .
m , v
.

7
,
,
. ,
X
mc2 6= mi c2 ,
i

mi .
,
,
.
(1) (10), ,

E 2 (pc)2 = m2 c4 , (13)
. . p
E= (mc2 )2 + (pc)2 . (14)
(13) -
. .
, , p  mc, -
. (12).
--
. : e + e+ , . .
(-), , .
:
p p
E = cp = (mc2 )2 + (p c)2 + (mc2 )2 + (p+ c)2 . (15)

,
p = 0, p+ = 0.
:

E = 2mc2 .

(15) ,

p > p + p+ . (16)

p = p + p+ . (17)

(17) . 1.

8

, - a b

p 6 p + p+ . (18)
c
(18) (16). -
, - . 1
. -
,
. -
.

2
P
2M
. ,
:
e + e+ .
-
:
e + e+ 2.
.
:
+ e + e+ .
, , .

-
,
:
r = r 0 + V t,
V = const. (19)
t = t0 ,
,
V = (V, 0, 0).
(19)
x = x0 + V t,
y = y0 ,
(20)
z = z0,
t = t0 .

9

x0 = x V t,
y 0 = y,
(21)
z 0 = z,
t0 = t.
(19)
d2 r d2 r 0
2
= 02 , F = F 0.
dt dt
, -
. -
, ,
-
,
, -
, (
. ).
.
1 2 ()
p
l = (x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2 + (z1 z2 )2 .
()
q
l0 = (x01 x02 )2 + (y10 y20 )2 + (z10 z20 )2 .

(21),
l = l0 . (22)
, -
.
, ,
, .
, (2)
.

-
. , , -
.
. , -
, . -

10
--
.
, -
, . , -
, :

hM, i.

, -
, M, -
, :

a M, b M, a b = c M.

, M

1. : (a b) c = a (b c).
2. e M, ,
aM
a e = e a = a.
3. a b, ,

a b = b a = e, b = a1 .
, , hM, i .
.
1. -
. .
a (a).
2. ,
(x), [0, 1], (0) =
= 0, (1) = 1 (. 2).
, - y
[0, 1] .
b
-
. , (x)
(x)

f (x) = ( )(x) = ((x)).


x
(x) x. a
(x) -
. 2
1 (x). .

11

(x) = x2 , 1 (x) = x. ,

( 1 )(x) = ( x)2 = x,
.
3. (19) .
V ,

.
.
-
,
V 1 , -
,
V 2 . ,
, -
, V1
V2 :
V = V 1 + V 2.
, , -
, . .
, .

,
.. , :

x0 + V t t0 + V2 x0
x= q , y = y0 , z = z0, t= q c . (23)
2 2
1 Vc2 1 Vc2

xVt t V2 x
x0 = q , y 0 = y, z 0 = z, t0 = q c . (24)
2 2
1 Vc2 1 Vc2

, V  c (23) (24) -
(20) (21).
?
(24), (x0 = 0, y 0 = 0, z 0 =
= 0)
x = V t.

12
, -
x, y, z V x.
,
(x, y, z, t), ,
(x0 , y 0 , z 0 , t0 ), ,
V x .
, -
V , c.
, .
,
c2 t2 x2 y 2 z 2
. ,
2 V2 2
2 2 c2 t0 + c2 x0 + 2V t0 x0
c t = V2
,
1 c2
2 2
x0 + V 2 t0 + 2V x0 t0
x2 = 2 ,
1 Vc2
2 2
y2 = y0 , z2 = z0 ,
. .
c2 t 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 =
2 2 2 2 V2 02 2 2 2
c2 t0 x0 y 0 z 0 + c2 (x + y 0 + z 0 ) V 2 t0
= 2 =
1 Vc2
2 2 2 2
= c2 t0 x0 y 0 z 0 ,
.
. -
, , ,
. , , -
, -
, , .

c2 t2 x2 y 2 z 2
(0,
0, 0, 0) (t, x, y, z). -
,
. -
.

13

t -
T -
.
a A
e
(ct, x) (ct0 , x0 ), -
E
: x0 -
F X
ct, x ct0
a
(. 3).
f
x x x0 , ct ct0
, . 3
. 3 .
OA :
OA = cte1 + xe2 = ct0 e01 + x0 e02 . (25)
e1 , e2 , e01 , e02
-
(. 3). (25) e01 ,
ct cos = ct0 + x0 sin . (26)
, (25) e02 ,
x cos = ct0 sin + x0 . (27)
, r
V V2
sin = , cos = 1 ,
c c2
(26) (27)
ct0 + Vc x0 V t 0 + x0
ct = q , x= q . (28)
2 2
1 Vc2 1 Vc2

(28) (23).
t t
T m T

m M A M

a
a

o X X
o
a a

x x

. 4 . 5

14
, . -
, . 4
O, A. -
? .
(ct, x) (. 4).
OM = ct, OM 0 = ct0 , ,
r
0 0 V2
t = t cos = t 1 2 .
c
(ct0 , x0 ) (. 5).
r
0 V2
t = t 1 2 .
c
, .

t t
T T

a a

o B X B X
o
a a

A x A x

. 6 . 7

, (ct, x) , -
x. ,
t = 0, OA = x. (ct0 , x0 )
OA0 = x0 (. 6). , x0 = x cos , . .

x0
x = q .
2
1 Vc2

(ct0 , x0 ), ,
t = 0, OA0 = x0 (. 7).
(ct, x) OA = x. ,

x = x0 cos ,

15
. .
x
x0 = q .
2
1 Vc2

,
. l0 ,
l,
r
V2
l = l0 1 .
c2

,
, .
.
: -
. 20
, -
10 .
, -
10 . .
.
20- 5- ?!
,
- ?
, . -
.
r
V2 1
1 2
= ,
c 2


V 3
= .
c 2

-
(. 8). - -
(. 9). ,
,
.
, , ,
.

16
t

x
a
. 8

e
X
f g

. 9

17

(23)
dx0 + V dt0
dx = q ,
2
1 Vc2
dy = dy 0 , dz = dz 0 , (29)
0 V 0
dt + c2 dx
dt = q .
V2
1 c2

,
ds2 = c2 dt2 dx2 dy 2 dz 2 = invariant. (30)
, ds -
, .
(29)
dr dr 0
V = , V0= ,
dt dt0

q q
V2 V2
vx0 +V vy0 1 c2 vz0 1 c2
vx = 0 V
vx
, vy = 0 V
vx
, vz = 0 V
vx
. (31)
1+ c2 1+ c2 1+ c2

(31) -
. c
vx = vx0 + V, vy = vy0 , vz = vz0 .
vx = v, vy = 0, vz = 0, vy0 = 0, vz0 = 0, vx0 = v 0 ,
v0 + V
v= 0 . (32)
1 + vc2V
, (32) ,
, ,
.


:
ds2 = c2 dt2 dx2 dy 2 dz 2 .

18
, .

ds2 = c2 dt2 dr 2 .

ds2 > 0,

c2 dt2 dr 2 = c2 dt02 dr 02 . (33)

, ,
, , -
(dr 0 = 0). ,
ds2 > 0, . (33)
 2
v 2 (t)
 
1 dr
c2 dt02 = 1 2 = c2 dt2 1 2
c dt c
r
0 v 2 (t)
dt = dt 1 ,
c2
dr
V (t) = .
dt
r
0 v 2 (t)
dt = dt 1 ;
c2
tZ2 r
0 v 2 (t)
t = t02 t01 = 1 dt. (34)
c2
t1

(34) .
.
ds2 < 0. -
. ,
.
2 2
c2 dt2 dr 2 = c2 dt0 dr 0 < 0,

, , dt0 = 0:

c2 dt2 dr 2 = dr 02 . (35)

dr 2 dl02 , dr 02 dl2 .

19
(35)
c2 dt2 + dl2 = dl02 . (36)
, dl < dl0 .
(23),

dt0 + v2 dx0
dt = q c . (37)
2
1 vc

dt0 = 0, , (37) (36),


r
v2
dl = dl0 1 2 .
c
, , -
-
.

, , -
, . -
, , .
,

dx0 = dy 0 = dz 0 = 0.


2
ds2 = c2 dt2 dx2 dy 2 dz 2 = c2 dt0 c2 d 2 , (38)

d . (38) ,
r
v2
d = dt 1 2 . (39)
c
, (ds2 > 0).
,
-
.
. -
-
. ,
, .

20
, , -
. , , -
. ,
, , , -
. ?
,
. . -
.
:

c2 d 2 = c2 dt2 dr2 r2 d2 dz 2 . (40)

: r = r0 = const, z = 0, A = t; :
r = r0 = const, z = 0, E = t.
(40)

2 r02
 
2 2 2
dA = dE = dt 1 2 ,
c

. . .
, -
. -
:
0 = t,
t t0 = t,
r r0 = r,
z z 0 = z.
, (40)

2 r2 2r2
 
2 2
c d = 1 2 c2 dt2 d cdt dr2 r2 d2 dz 2 . (41)
c c

: A = 0, r = r0 , z = 0;
: E = 2t, r = r0 , z = 0.
(41)

2 r02
 
2 2
dA = dt 1 2 ,
c

2 r02 2 r02
   
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
dE = dt 1 2 + 4 r0 dt 4 r0 dt = dt 1 2 .
c c
, .

21
. ,

e + e + ,
+ e+ + e + ,

= 2106 . -
-
, .
, .
2,994108 /, 0,998
, . .
r
v2
1 2 = 0,063.
c
v 600 ,
,
. ?
, (-
).
r
0 0 v2
t = , x = x 1 .
c2
,
, , , H,

r
v2
h=H 1 2.
c
h = 600 , H = 9500 .
, . .
, .

t0
H = vt, t = q =q = 31,7106 ,
v2 v2
1 c2 1 c2

. . H = 9500 .
-
, -
:

= x vt,
x t = t, y = y, z = z.

22
,

v2
 
2 2 2
x2 d
xdt d
ds = c dt 1 2 2vd y 2 d
z2.
c

,
r 2
v2 v d
x dx2
ds2 = c2 dt 1 2 2 q v2
y 2 d
d z2.
c c 1 v2 1 c2
c2


r
v2 v d
x x2
d
d = dt 1 2 2 q , dl2 = v2
y 2 d
d z2.
c c 1 2v2 1 c2
c

d
x = 0, t = t.


r
v2
= t 1 .
c2

v
x = vt = q = 9500 .
v2
1 c2

,
-
.

? : -
. : -

, , (P , V , T ). ? -
. :
, , . -
: , .
.

23
a , -
b ( , -
). ,
, ,

a2 + b2 ...
.
, ? -
-. -? -
, ,
.
, , - , -
(x, y, z), x, y, z . -
-

r (x, y, z).

-
p
r x2 + y 2 + z 2 .

( ),
, -
:

r (x, y, z);

r 1 + r 2 = (x1 + x2 , y1 + y2 , z1 + z2 ).
r 1 r 2 -
r 1 r 2 , , -
, r 1 r 2 , -
. ,
, -
. ,

r 1 + (r 2 + r 3 ) = (r 1 + r 2 ) + r 3 ;

r1 + r2 = r2 + r1 ;
(r 1 + r 2 ) = r 1 + r 2 ;
(1 + 2 )r = 1 r + 2 r.
-
.

24
, y
Y
-, -
.
Ox1 x2 x3 Ox01 x02 x03 - f
X
O. ik r
x0i xk . - -
f
, x


: . 10
3
X
xi x0i = ik xk . (42)
k=1
z
(. 10).
x x0 = x cos + y sin ,
y y 0 = x sin + y cos .
,
cos 2

cos 0 cos sin 0
ik = cos( ) cos 0 = sin cos 0 .
0 0 0 0 0 0
(42), - r -
,
. A (A1 , A2 , A3 )
-: -

X3
Ai A0i = ik Ak , (43)
k=1
. . -
-. -
.

. -
:
dv
m = F. (44)
dt
, (44) , -
, z (. 11)?

25
y ( -
Y -) :
x x0 = x cos + y sin ,
(45)
f y y 0 = x sin + y cos .
X
r -
, v ?
f
x ,

. 11 vx , vy :
vx vx0 = vx cos + vy sin ,
(46)
vy vy0 = vx sin + vy cos ,
. . -.
F :
Fx Fx0 = Fx cos + Fy sin ,
(47)
Fy Fy0 = Fx sin + Fy cos .
-
,
-.
, , (44).
1
, dr ; dt, , dt ,
dr
dt = v .
F  ,
: m dv
dt F .
, -
,
(44).
(2).
. :
df df
f , f ,
dt ds
ds . (30)
dt2 ,
ds2
= c2 v 2
dt2
, ds > 0,
dt 1 1
= = q = t.
ds c2 v 2 c 1 v2
c2

26
,
df dt
f= = f t,
dt ds
. . r
f v2
f = = f c 1 .
t c2
,
mx my mz
q = mcx, q = mcy, q = mcz.
v2 v2 v2
1 c2 1 c2 1 c2

r
d 1 d v2 d
= =c 1 2 ,
dt t ds c ds
(2)

Fx Fy Fz
mc2 x = q , mc2 y = q , mc2 z = q . (48)
v2 v2 v2
1 c2 1 c2 1 c2

, (48) -
, -
x, y, z. ,
, -
. .
(30) ds2 ,
2 2 2 2
1 = c2 t x y z . (49)

s,

c2 t t x x y y z z = 0


x y z
c2 t = x+ y+ z = x x + y y + z z . (50)
t t t
(50) mc (48),
1
mc2 (c t ) = q F v. (51)
v2
c 1 c2

27
. -
(ct, x, y, z) -
- ( , 4---
). x ,
0, 1, 2, 3,
x0 = ct, x1 = x, x2 = y, x3 = z.
4--
x20 x21 x22 x23 . (52)
-
, , , .
(48), (51)
,

F v Fx Fy Fz
q , q , q , q
v2 v2 v2 v2
c 1 c2 1 c2 1 c2 1 c2

4-,
4-- x .


mv mc2
q = mcr, q = mc2 (ct).
2 v2
1 vc2 1 c2

, Ec , p 4--
:    
E E
, px , py , pz = , p = p . (53)
c c
p 4- . -

E2
p2 = m2 c2 . (54)
c2
(54) (13). , -
, (54)
:
!2 !2
X X
Ei pi c = invariant. (55)
i i

28

4-: 4- , . .
4- 4- -
. (54)
.
-
4- (53):

p0x + Vc E 0 E 0 + V p0x
px = q , py = p0y , pz = p0z , E= q .
2 2
1 Vc2 1 Vc2

-
,
? ,

dl2 = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 (56)

-
. -
(30).
, , -
, ,
.
, .
(ct -
), -

ds2 = c2 dt2 dx2 dy 2 dz 2 . (57)


(57) -
, . . ,
.
-
, , -
, . .
ds2 > 0 , ds2 < 0 -
, ds2 = 0 ,
.
(57) , -
, . . -
.

29
: -
, . -
. -
(56) , , (r, , z)
(, , ) :

dl2 = dr2 + r2 d2 + dz 2 ,
dl2 = d2 + 2 d2 + 2 sin2 d2 .


(). -
. - .. , . , . -
, . . ,
, -,
. -
-
.

m.
, ,
E1 (. 12).

a b
. 12

( --
). ,
(54) E0 .
, -
(55). (55) - (-
)

(E1 + mc2 )2 p21 c2 ,

- (2E0 )2 . ,

(E1 + mc2 )2 p21 c2 = 4E02 .

30
p21 c2 = E12 m2 c4 ,
r
1
E0 = (E1 + mc2 )mc2 . (58)
2

(qc)2 = E02 m2 c4 .

E0  mc2 ,

E0
q=
.
c
,
l ,

~
q ,
l
~ 1034 .
. (mc2 =
= 0,5103 ). l 1015 ,
, E0

~c 1034 3108
20 .
l 1017 1,61019

(33) ,

2E02 2 4102 ()2


E1 = = 1,6106 .
mc2 0,5103
. ?
, -, E1 , -
- .
, -
, . . .
, -
E1 . -
-
E0 = E1 .

31
, :

,
.
17 .
m1 m2 .
n m01 , m02 , . . .

E1 + m2 c2 = E10 + E20 + . . . + En0 ,
(59)
P 1 = p01 + p02 + . . . + p0n .

(27):
!2 !2
X X
Ei (pi c) = invariant. (60)
i i

(-
). (35)
, .
(60)
, .

(E1 + m2 c2 )2 p21 c2 = (m01 c2 + m02 c2 + . . . + m0n c2 )2 .

p21 c2 = E12 m21 c4 , E1k = E1 m1 c2 ,



  
m0i m1 m2
P P
mi + m1 + m2
i i
(E1k )min = ,
2m2
 
m1 Q
(E1k )min = Q 1 + + . (61)
m2 2m2 c2
(61) .
X
Q= m0i c2 (m1 + m2 )c2
i

( -
, ).

32
Q , -
, .
(E1k )min Q, -
Q, -
.

, , ? ,
, -
, -
. -
.
.
? , -
-
:
(ct, x, y, z), . -
.
-
,
.

ds2 = c2 dt2 dx2 dy 2 dz 2 ,

, -
. -
.
. -
, -
. -
. ,

.

33

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
. . . . . . . . 14
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

34