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THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCESSIBILITY FOR ELDERLY AND DISABLED

PEOPLE AT MOSQUE - CASE STUDY AT MOSQUES AROUND TANJUNG SURAT,

JOHOR DARUL TAKZIM

This report has been submitted to the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture,

Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA(Perak), to fulfill the requirement of

AAR635 Topical Study course.

Prepared by:

Name : NUR AQILAH BINTI MASKURI

UiTM No. : 2010372209

Program : Bachelor of Science (Architecture)

Year/Semester : 04/08

Session : September 2016 January 2017

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Faculty : Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this research paper and the research to which it refers are the product of

my own work and that any ideas or quotations from the work of other people, published or

otherwise are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard academic practices.

Name : NUR AQILAH BINTI MASKURI

UiTM No. : 2010372209

This research had been checked by:

Supervisor : En. Farid Al Hakeem Bin Yuserrie

Course Coordinator : En. Sufian Bin Che Amat

_________________________ ___________________

Signature of Supervisor Date

_________________________ ___________________

Signature of Course Coordinator Date

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Assalamualaikum w.b.t,

First and foremost, many compliments are proceed to the Most Merciful and Most

Gracious, Allah S.W.T for this given opportunities in completing this research paper. Neither

single person shall succeed if there is no permission granted by Him.

I would like to express my gratitude to my tropical study course coordinator, En.

Sufian,Bin Che Amat, for her supportive encouragement and guidance. Huge thanks to my

supportive supervisor, En. Farid Al Hakeem Bin Yuserrie, for being abundantly helpful and

offered me an endless support, guidance and invaluable assistance. I appreciate the guidance

given by other supervisor as well as the panels especially in my research presentation that has

improved my presentation skills, thanks to their comment and advice.

Other than that, I would like to express my special gratitude to Ar.Haji Mohammad

Mokhtar Bin Haji Ali, whose contribution in simulating suggestion and encouragement

helped me to coordinate my project especially in writing this report. I would like to express

my appreciate to all the residents at Tanjung Surat for being cooperative.

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Not to forget, I would also like to thank my beloved parent, Pn. Fauziah Binti Ahmad

for always being so understanding and supportive. Last but not least, a special thanks to all of

my course members, who always been there to assist in gathering information and discussion.

Thank you.

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ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the importance of accessibility for elderly and disabled

person in mosque at Tanjung Surat, Johor Darul Takzim, 12 respondents who are the residents

of Tanjung Surat, Johor Darul Takzim were to give their opinion on accessibility for elderly

and disabled person in mosque. Questionnaires were used for the data collections process.

The multiple regression analysis shows that 97.12 percent of the respondents believe that the

mosque have poor accessibility. Results also provided in empirical proofs fit the moderation

of the accessibility for elderly and disabled person.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page Number

VERFICATION i

DECLARATION ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

ABSTRACT iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS v

LIST OF FIGURES vi

CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Study 1


1.2 Problem Statement 4
1.3 Purpose of Study 5
1.4 Aims and Objectives 5

CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction 6

2.2 Accessibility Mosques Built in Environment 6

2.3 Disabled Person and Elderly 8

2.4 Accessibility As A Ergonomic Factor 10

CHAPTER THREE : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction 12

3.2 Data Finding Through Surveys 12

3.3 Finding Through Interview 13

3.4 Summary 13

CHAPTER FOUR : DATA ANALYSIS

8
4.1 Introduction 15

4.2 Data Through Survey 15

4.2.1 Respondents Background 16

4.2.2 Accessibility Of Mosque 17

4.2.3 Personal Often To Mosque Information 19

4.2.4 Accessible And Legible Mosque Route 22

4.2.5 Toilets And Ablution Areas 23

4.3 Interview Findings 25

4.3.1 Interview with Architect 25

4.4 Summary 26

CHAPTER FIVE : CONCLUSION AND LIMITATIONS

5.1 Conclusion 27

5.2 Further Studies and Limitation 27

REFERENCES 28

LIST OF FIGURE

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Page Number

Figure 1 : Respondents Gender 16

Figure 2 : Number of Respondents Based On Their Age Group 16

Figure 3 : The number of respondents who gives their opinion about the
statement based on the provided answer for Question 1 18

Figure 4 : The percentage of respondents opinions on the given


Answer for Question 2 18

Figure 5 : The respond with given answer for Question 3 19

Figure 6 : The respond with given answer for Question 4 20

Figure 7 : The respond with given answer for Question 5 20

Figure 8 : The respond with given answer for Question 6 21

Figure 9 : The respond with given answer for Question 7 22

Figure 10 : The respond with given answer for Question 8 23

Figure 11 : The respond with given answer for Question 9 24

Figure 10 : The respond with given answer for Question 10 24

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CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY

This research is carried out to study the importance accessibility for the elderly and

disabled person in mosque. Mosque is known as the spiritual sanctuary for Muslims, acting as

a centre for worship, religious activity centre, teaching and learning of Al-Quran, Hadith and

Sunnah as well as organizing public events and seminars such as talks and weddings.

Muslims are encouraged to attend congregational prayers at all five praying times and to

participate in communal activities as well as intellectual discourses conducted at Mosque

{17} It is not for the Mushrikn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the

Oneness of Allh), to maintain the Mosques of Allh (i.e. to pray and worship Allh therein,

to look after their cleanliness and their building, etc.), while they witness against their

ownselves of disbelief. The works of such are in vain and in Fire shall they abide. {18} The

Mosques of Allh shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allh and the Last Day;

perform As-Salt (Iqmat-as-Salt), and give Zakt and fear none but Allh. It is they who

are expected to be on true guidance.

{Surah At-Taubah: 17-18}1

1
Al-Quran translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from
http://www.iium.edu.my/deed/quran/nobelquran/index_t.html

11
{107}And as for those who put up a mosque by way of harming and disbelief, and to

disunite the believers, and as an outpost for those who warred against Allh and His

Messenger (Muhammad SAW) aforetime, they will indeed swear that their intention is

nothing but good. Allh bears witness that they are certainly liars.

{Surah At-Taubah: 107}2.

According to (NST, July 2013), Mosque and Surau has been among popular building

typology and facility that are often visited by the Muslim Persons with Disabilities (PwDs)

and the elderly other than the general public, as Mosque and Surau remained as a place of

worship for devoted Muslims to perform the five daily prayers. In an article reported by

Bernama, the Raja Muda of Perlis, Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra Jamalullail, insisted that all

new buildings to be equipped with a surau and also said that some building owners provide

prayer room merely to meet the criteria for building approval. Furthermore, Tuanku Syed

Faizuddin added that the prayer room should have a place for ablution, adequate lighting,

fans or air-conditioning, facilities for the disabled and segregation area for both men and

women.3 It is further state in the Qur'an and also in Hadith 36; about the significance of

fulfilling the needs of a Muslim:

2 Al-Quran translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from


http://www.iium.edu.my/deed/quran/nobelquran/index_t.html
3
Bernama (July 2013). Surau should be easily accessible. Retrieved 24th July 2013, p. 21 from New
Straits Times.

12
{8} O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allh and be just witnesses and let not

the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety, and

fear Allh. Verily, Allh is WellAcquainted with what you do.

{Surah Al-M'idah: 8}4

Abu Hurayrah (radi Allahu anhu) reported: The Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa

sallam) said, I saw a man going about in Jannah (and enjoying himself) as a reward for

cutting from the middle of the road, a tree which was causing inconvenience to the Muslims.

[Hadith Sahih Muslim] 5

If mosques are made accessible, it is not only the disabled who will enjoy the

facilities, but also the elderly and the sick. As the Prophet said, "you are given sustenance and

victory for the virtue of those who are weak among you". A simple lift at the entrance of the

mosque or a handrail in the ablution area, could make all the difference between a mosque

that is inclusive and caters for all, and one that excludes some of its worshippers by virtue of

careless planning.

4 Al-Quran translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from

http://www.iium.edu.my/deed/quran/nobelquran/index_t.html

5 Hadith translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from http://muslimjapan.com/343.html

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As someone with a disability, and a carer for a disabled person, have long been bothered by

the lack of facilities for the disabled in mosques. Many mosques design:

i. have steep stairs with no ramp or even a handrail.


ii. The ablution area is often tiled and slippery, but with no handle or rail.6

This study will discover the opinion of the residents Tanjung Surat, Johor on

accessibility for the elderly and disabled person in mosque. The findings will be determined

by some surveys and several methodologies. The residents were to answer the questions in

the survey.

5.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

When being asked about the accessibility for the elderly and disabled person in

mosque, most residents have different answers as accessibility is difference for every

mosque, depending on their design and concept, type of space planning and the scale and

function for the mosque.

6 Muhammad Zulfikar Rakhmat, May 31, 2016 Mosques ought to be accessible to


disabled

14
Rokiah A., (personal communication, 25 October, 2016) stated that it is difficult to

go to the ablutions caused much of a place of worship for not being able to walk long

distances.7 The complaint was supported by Ahmad Y., (personal communication, October

28, 2016) who says that using wheelchair it is dissicult to enter the mosque because too

many steps stair and will ask for the help of others. 8 Hence, this study will attempt to

identify the accessibility for the elderly and disabled person in mosque at Tanjung Surat

among the residents.

6.1 PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of the study is to discover the importance accessibility for elderly and

disabled person in mosque at Tanjung Surat, Johor.

Hence, this could be a contribution to improve the design of accessibility in mosque at

Tanjung Surat, Johor, and also to help improving the quality of space in mosque.

7
Rokiah Ibrahim, personal interview, 25 October, 2016)

8
Ahmad Yaacob, personal interview, October 28, 2016)

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1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVE

The aim for this study is to determine the accessibility for the elderly and disabled

person in mosque at Tanjung Surat, Johor. Hence, the followings objectives are to be

achieved:

i. To discover the opinion of the workers on accessibility in mosque at Tanjung

Surat, Johor.
ii. To find out the effect on the elderly and disabled person for accessibility in

mosque.

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CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter will state the issues that have been debated regarding the accessibility for

the elderly and disabled person in mosque. Various intellectual contexts were found in books,

articles journals and the past thesis or dissertations are included. Then, the intention of this

study will be described in this chapter, thus clarify the accessibility for the elderly and

disabled person in mosque.

2.2 ACCESSIBILITY MOSQUES BUILT IN ENVIRONMENT

When discussing about the accessibility, there will never be definite answer to the

question as it depends on several factors. Accessibility depends on varies in design concepts,

design requirement, design guidelines, scale and also function but it is according to the

architects in implementing good design practice and it is also even better when architects

apply a design for all concept. The accessibility is important to be provided for all Muslim

regardless of ability or disability to pray at Masjid comfortably and safe. From Islamic

perspective, providing accessibility and applying Universal Design principal in Masjid design

in considering the need to provide for Persons with Disabilities (Persons with Disabilities

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(PwDs)) and the elderly has deliberately making Masjid a place of ease and convenient for all

people to come to Masjid.9

Defining accessibility may be a distressful thing as it is both dreary and obvious. In

Malaysia, set of Malaysia Standard has been developed as a guide-line for the developer and

designer to build public facilities which can be accessible by the vulnerable group such as

elderly and disabled population to provide design specification such as height of ramp and

handrail, slope of ramp and finishing material. Therefore, it is necessary for praying facilities

designer to promote an adequate environment for the elderly and disabled, considering their

needs, capabilities, abilities and limitations.

Even though ablutions space is considered as one of the important public facilities

especially in country with high Muslim population, there are numbers of design guideline for

mosque but still lacking in guideline, research or document specifically on ablution area. 10 It

is further state in the Qur'an and also in Hadith; about the significance of fulfilling the needs of a

Muslim:

Abu Hurayrah (radi Allahu anhu) reported: The Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa

sallam) said, Whosoever relieves from a believer some grief pertaining to this world, Allah

will relieve from him some grief pertaining to the Hereafter. Whosoever alleviates the

difficulties of a needy person who cannot pay his debt, Allah will alleviate his difficulties in

9
Masjid design, accessibility, Universal Design, Persons with Disabilities (Persons with Disabilities (PwDs)),
Malaysian Standards.
10
Siti Zawiah DAWAL1, Wan Nor Liza MAHADI, Marizan MUBIN, 2015
Wudu Workstation Design for Elderly and Disabled People in Malaysias Mosques

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both this world and the Hereafter. Whosoever conceals the faults of a Muslim, Allah will

conceal his faults in this world and the Hereafter. Allah will aid a servant (of His) so long as

the servant aids his brother. Whosoever follows a path to seek knowledge therein, Allah will

make easy for him a path to Paradise. No people gather together in one of the houses of

Allah, reciting the Book of Allah and studying it among themselves, except that tranquility

descends upon them, mercy covers them, the angels surround them, and Allah makes mention

of them amongst those who are in His presence. Whosoever is slowed down by his deeds will

not be hastened forward by his lineage.

[Hadith Sahih Muslim] 11

The act of saving or protecting people from harm and loss is greatly pleased by Allah, no

matter how small the contribution is towards other people. It is the act of considering about the

difficulties faced by others and also the act of providing easy and safe access for the general

public in this case, to the Masjid.

2.2 DISABLED PERSON AND THE ELDERLY

Federal laws define a person with a disability as "Any person who has a physical or

mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; has a record of

such impairment; or is regarded as having such an impairment."12

11
Hadith translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from http://muslimjapan.com/343.html
12
U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, Definition of Disability
https://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/disabilities/inhousing

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Utusan Malaysia, May 2013 Many Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) Muslims has

expressed their frustration and dilemma in visiting main Masjid throughout Malaysia and in

Kuala Lumpur. From a local newspaper, they reported that Persons with Disabilities (PwDs)

also has the intention and desire of wanting to go to Masjid to perform their congregational

prayer together with other Muslims but when the Masjid or the destination facility does not

provide good infrastructure or more or less an accessible environment for Persons with

Disabilities (PwDs), has made their trip to the Masjid difficult and depressing.13

From an Islamic perspective, aging is a process of growing old or developing the

appearance and characteristics of old age or being an elderly and this process of aging are

given a philosophical explanation in the Quran but it is not an essential pre-requisite of

death. This, categorize elderlies as partly related to Persons with Disabilities (Persons with

Disabilities (PwDs)) that also require certain needs and support in helping their everyday

life.14 The following Quran verse gives us valuable philosophical insight into the process of

ageing and aging is something that is definite;

13
{70} And Allh has created you and Che Ahmad M. S (May 2013). Lebur Hasrat Beribadat;
Kesukaran golongan OKU dalam menunaikan ibadat di Masjid atau surau sering dipandang sebelah mata
segelintir pihak. Retrieved 16th May 2013, p. 1 - 4 from Mega; Utusan Malaysia.
14
ASIAH ABDUL RAHIM[a], NUR AMIRAH ABD. SAMAD[b], CHE RAISKANDAR CHE RAHIM[b],and
AIMAN BADHRULHISHAM[b], PROVIDING ACCESSIBILITY FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
(PwDs) IN MALAYSIAN EXISTING MOSQUES

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then He will cause you to die, and of you there are some who are sent back to senility

(a feeble age), so that they know nothing after having known (much). Truly! Allh is All-

Knowing, All-Powerful.

{Surah An-Nahl: 70}15

Islam reminds the young of this basic truth of the human condition, through a narration of

the Prophet in which he stated If a young man honors an elderly on account of his age, God

appoints someone to honor him in his old age.

[Hadith from At-Tirmidhi] 16

2.3 ACCESSIBILITY AS AN ERGONOMIC FACTOR

Most designer will neglect design of supporting area such as toilets and ablution

space since most of them emphasized on aesthetic appearance of their design. As elderly

population is increasing, their requirement should be taken into design consideration so that

they will function with limited assistance from other people. Ergonomic aspect also should be

taken into the consideration for safe and low risk environment. In Malaysia, research on

anthropometric data is expanding which can be used to design an ergonomic ablution area at

mosques for public use.17

15
Al-Quran translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from
http://www.iium.edu.my/deed/quran/nobelquran/index_t.html

16
Hadith translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from http://muslimjapan.com/343.html
17
Siti Zawiah DAWAL1, Wan Nor Liza MAHADI, Marizan MUBIN, 2015

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Wudu Workstation Design for Elderly and Disabled People in Malaysias Mosques
This incongruity, or gap, may be reduced or conquered through a universal design in

terms of products or furniture design, the built environments settings, and measures of

adaption and upgrading according to Persons With Disabilities Act 2008, Uniform Buildings

By-Laws and related Malaysian Standards documents such as MS 1184: 2002 Code of

Practice on Access for Disabled Persons to Public Buildings (First Revision); MS 1331: 2003

Code of Practice for Access of Disabled Persons Outside Buildings (First Revision);

MS1183: Specification for Fire Precautions in The Design and Construction of Buildings

PART 8 : Code of Practice for Means of Escape for Disable People; and MS 2015: Public

Toilet, PART 1 (2006): Minimum Design Criteria.18

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18
ASIAH ABDUL RAHIM[a], NUR AMIRAH ABD. SAMAD[b], CHE RAISKANDAR CHE RAHIM[b],and
AIMAN BADHRULHISHAM[b], PROVIDING ACCESSIBILITY FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
(PwDs) IN MALAYSIAN EXISTING MOSQUES
CHAPTER THREE : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, research methodology which has been done to obtain data

regarding the accessibility for the elderly and disabled person in mosque at Tanjung Surat,

Johor.

Research methodology is a way to find out the findings for a given problem or

specific matter. Different criteria for solving or searching the given research problem is used

by researchers. They could use different sources with various types of methods in order to

solve the problem. Methodology can also be defined as the ways of searching or solving

problems. (Industrial Research Institute, 2010)10

3.2 DATA FINDING THROUGH SURVEY

Residents of Tanjung Surat, Johor are given surveys to be answered. The aim of the

surveys conducted was to obtain response, opinion and data on their perception on

accessibility for the elderly and disabled person in mosque. The result of the database will be

used to identify the thoughts the residents on the accessibility at mosque. This survey had the

following goals:

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10
Industrial Research Institute (2010), Research Management, Michigan: Industrial Research Institute

i. Collect demographic data about the respondents

ii. To discover respondents opinion about the topic

Respondents were given a printed out survey paper in order to conduct this survey.

Questions are the same including demographic data to gather data about the respondents

background and their opinion. Following the demographic surveys, respondents wew needed

to give own opinion about the topic.

3.3 FINDING THROUGH INTERVIEW

Interview was made to discover the opinion of interviewees thought about the topic.

The interview session was held in MNRs Architect and being done in a personal

communication. More flexible answer and question style can be done by doing interview.

3.4 SUMMARY

These stated methodologies are really hoped can help in having a more strong

sources and data for this study. These methodologies can also help in finding different points

of views and data findings.

Despite of having limitation on finding data through these methodologies, the data

still can be gained with cooperation from respondents. In chapter 4 (Data Analysis), the

information gathered will be analysed in gaining the result of the respondents opinions

24
regarding the accessibility for the elderly and disabled person in m osque at Tanjung Surat,

Johor.

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CHAPTER FOUR : DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, data obtained from all the methodologies used will be analysed

and elaborated. This analysis will help us in getting the conclusion of the topic, The

Importance Of Accessibility For The Elderly And Disabled Person In Mosque At Tanjung

Surat, Johor.

4.2 DATA THROUGH SURVEY

The surveys conducted through printed forms. 12 respondents, all are from

Tanjung Surat residents were involved in this survey. All of the survey question including the

background of the respondents, their general knowledge, and respondents observation and

their opinion about the issues.

Demographic question are include in this survey. Respondents had to state their

gender, age, and position. However, the respondents were kept anonymous. Question about

the accessibility and questions on ergonomic the elderly and disabled person in mosque are

provided. This is to ensure the accessibility for the elderly and disabled person in mosque, not

a ransom perception.

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4.2.1 RESPONDENTS BACKGROUND

Number of Respondents Male


Female

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Figure 1 : Respondents Gender

Based on Figure 1, the bar chart shows the number of male and female respondents

who were taking part in this survey. Total number of male residents that took part in this

survey is 9, which sums up to 75% and only 25% of them are female.

61-65

66-70

71-75 Male
Female

76-80

81-85

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Figure 2 : Number of Respondents Based On Their Age Group

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Figure 2 shows the number of respondents according to their age group. 4 male

respondents from the age group of 81-85 years old is the highest number which represents

33.33% of all respondents who take part in this survey, followed by respondents from age

group of 76-80 years old which quantity of male and female respondents in this age group are

both 2, representing 16.67% each. There is 8.33% of female respondent which is one from

age group of 81-85 years. This number is the same for the number of male respondents in the

age group of 61-65 years old, 66-70 years old and 71-75 years old.

The total number of respondents by age group of 81-85 years old consists of 5

respondents (4 males and 1 female) is the highest of all, which represents 41.67%, followed

bya age group of 76-80 years old, which consists of respondents, representing 33.33% from

all of the respondents. Respondents from age group of 61-65 years old, 66-70 years old and

71-75 years old share same number of respondent which each age group consist of one

respondent, which is 8.33%.

4.2.2 ACCESSIBILITY OF MOSQUE

In this section, there are questions regarding the accessibility of mosque in Tanjung

Surat, Johor. Questions are given with provided answers for respondents.

28
12

10

6 Yes
No
4

0
" "

Figure 3 : The number of respondents who gives their opinion about the
statement based on the provided answer for Question 1

Based on the bar chart in Figure 3, 100% respondents agreed that ramp is provided in

the mosque, which means all twelve (12) respondents answered Yes for provision of the

ramp in the mosque.

"Are there stair makes it easier and ergonomic?"

25% Yes
No

75%

Figure 4 : The percentage of respondents opinions on the given


Answer for Question 2

29
The pie chart above shows the percentage of answers for the question Are there stair

makes it easier and ergonomic? 25 per cent of the respondents which represented three (3)

out of twelve (12) respondents took part in this survey agreed that there are stair makes it

easier provided in mosque, and ergonomic. However, the other nine (9) respondents of 75 per

cent of disagreed.

4.3.2 PERSONAL OFTEN TO MOSQUE INFORMATION

In this section, question are given to obtain the personal often to the mosque

for each residents. Each question was given with provided answers.

"Which of the following your often to mosque?"

17%
Prayer
8%
Event
Education
75%

Figure 5 : The respond with given answer for Question 3

The pie chart in Figure 5 above shows the answer from the respondents on describing

their often to mosque. 8.33% or one (1) respondent has an event while 16.67% or two (2)

30
respondent an education. Majority of the respondents, which are nine (9) of them which

represents 75% of all respondents a prayer in mosque.

31
6

4
More than 5 times

3 4-5 times
2-3 times
Less than 2 times
2

0
" "

Figure 6 : The respond with given answer for Question 4

The bar chart in Figure 6 shows the respond for Question 4, How often to mosque

within 1 day? 50% of the residents in Tanjung Surat go to mosque for more than 5 times.

One respondent or 8.33% are less than two times in his often to mosque. Another five (5) of

them are divided to 2-3 times and 4-5 times often to mosque which are 2 and 3 of them

consecutively.

9
8
7
6
5 Yes
No
4
3
2
1
0
" "

Figure 7 : The respond with provided answer for Question 5

32
Figure 7 shows a bar chart on the respond with provided answers for Question 5, Are

you praying in the mosque everyday? three (3) respondents out of twelve answered with

No. This represents 25% of them. The other 75% does not does not praying in mosque

everyday.

9
8
7
6
5 Yes
4 No
3
2
1
0
" "

Figure 8 : The respond with provided answer for Question 6

The figure above shows the responds for Question 6. The number of respondents who

use a wheelchair and chair for prayer is three (3) which brings to a percentage of 25. The

other 75% does not use a wheelchair or chair for prayer in the mosque. This may be a reason

for Question 6, where the number of respondents who are often to the mosque is the same as

the number of person use a wheelchair and chair for prayer in the mosque.

33
4.2.4 ACCESSIBLE AND LEGIBLE MOSQUE ROUTE

In this section, respondents were to give their opinion indicating the accessible

and legible mosque route in Tanjung Surat. Each question was given with provided answers.

12

10

8
Yes
6 No

0
" "

Figure 9 : The respond with provided answer for Question 7

Question 7 asked the respondents on the stair and ramp according to the requirement

and ergonomic. Figure 9 shows the result of the question.

Eleven (11) out of twelve (12) respondents said agreed that stair and ramp according

to the requirement and ergonomic. This shows that only 8.33% of the respondents agreed the

stair and ramp according to the requirement and ergonomic.

34
10
9
8
7
6 Yes
5 No
4
3
2
1
0
" "

Figure 10 : The respond with given answer for Question 8

Bar chart above shows the answer responded by respondents on Question 8, "Do you

feel inadequate facilities provided in the mosque?". Ten (10) of the respondents answered

Yes which means 83.33% of the respondents felt the facilities in mosque Tanjung Surat are

inadequate. Only 17.67% of the respondents does not agreed to the sufficient facilities

provided in the mosque.

4.2.5 TOILETS AND ABLUTION AREAS

In this section, respondents were to give their opinion indicating the toilets and

ablution areas in mosque route in Tanjung Surat. Each question was given with provided

answers.

35
9
8
7
6
5 Yes
No
4
3
2
1
0
" "

Figure 11 : The responds with provided answers for Question 9

The chart above shows the responds for Question 9, Is the toilets and ablution areas

easier to used for the elderly and disabled person?. 75% of the respondents have thought that

there are many steps and barriers in toilets and ablution areas

8
7
6
5
Yes
4 No
3
2
1
0
" "

Figure 12 : The responds with provided answer for Question 10

Figure 12 shows the responds for the Question 10 Do you think ablution areas and

toilets is according to size and anthropometric?. Majority of the respondents answered Yes

36
which means the ablution areas and toilets according to size and anthropometric for the elder

and disabled person.

4.3 DATA THROUGH INTERVIEW

Interview was made with Ar. Haji Mohammad Mokhtar Bin Haji Ali, a professional

architect cum principal of MNR Architect.

4.3.1 INTERVIEW WITH ARCHITECT

An interview was made with Ar. Haji Mohammad Mokhtar Bin Haji Ali the principal

of MNR Architect. Ar. Haji Mohammad Mokhtar Bin Haji Ali is a successful architect. His

outstanding project with KPJ Healthcare Specialisthad also awarded internationally for the

design and features.

The interview was held to obtain the opinion of the anthropometry disabled person on

the mosque. The interview was held on Monday, November 21st 2016.

Since Ar. Haji Mohammad Mokhtar Bin Haji Ali get project to build mosque at

Kulaijaya, Johor, the space of mosque are easy to accessibility and provided facilities for the

elderly and disabled person. They separated some space for the elderly and disabled person

used wheelchair brought in from outside are dirty and filthy as it would have dirt and

probably animal stool.

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4.4 SUMMARY

Data was obtained successfully, thanks to the coorperation of all respondents and

interviewees. Data finding shows the level of satisfactory of the respondents towards the

accessibility for the elderly and disabled person in mosque at Tanjung Surat, Johor. The

interview helped in defining the accessibility in mosque Tanjung Surat, Johor.

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CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION AND LIMITATIONS

5.1 CONCLUSION

Number of mosques and musolla built up to 2014 reached almost 6,000 in Malaysia

which will kept on increasing every year as well as number of elderly and disabled

population especially in Muslim community. Advancement of healthcare sector and

awareness of healthy daily lifestyle and diet were some of the factor contributed to the in-

crease of elderly and disabled population. There-fore, it is important for the new mosques and

musolla to provide with ergonomic ablution unit to prevent health problem to the elderly and

disabled.

5.2 FURTHER STUDIES AND LIMITATIONS

If there are any possibalities that this study will be further it will conclude a more

detailed literature review, findings and documentations. As this study only focused on the

residents Tanjung Surat opinion and the significance accessibility for the elderly and disabled

person, any further study were hoped to cover about the best accessibility design, space

design layout and many more.

To be summarised, there are some limitation on studying the literature reviews due to

time constrain to study all founded the massieve literature sources. This study is barely done

with surfaces on the highlighted information regarding the topic.

39
REFERENCE

BOOKS

MS 1184: 2002 Code of Practice on Access for Disabled Persons to Public Buildings (First
Revision)

MS 1331: 2003 Code of Practice for Access of Disabled Persons Outside Buildings (First
Revision)

MS1183: Specification for Fire Precautions in the Design and Construction of Buildings
PART 8: Code of Practice for Means of Escape for Disable People

MS 2015: Public Toilet, PART 1 (2006): Minimum Design Criteria.

THESIS/DISSERTATIONS

Siti Zawiah DAWAL1, Wan Nor Liza MAHADI, Marizan MUBIN,


2015
Wudu Workstation Design for Elderly and Disabled People in
Malaysias Mosques

Asiah Abdul Rahim, Azila Ahmad Sarkawi, IzawatiTukiman, Nur Amirah Abd. Samad
masjid for all: access audit on masjid sultan idris shah, ipoh,Masjid negeri, seremban and
msjid tunku mizan, putrajaya
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286861624

40
JOURNAL

Al-Quran translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from


http://www.iium.edu.my/deed/quran/nobelquran/index_t.html

Bernama (July 2013). Surau should be easily accessible. Retrieved 24th July 2013, p. 21 from
New Straits Times.

Che Ahmad M. S (May 2013). Lebur Hasrat Beribadat; Kesukaran golongan OKU dalam
menunaikan ibadat di Masjid atau surau sering dipandang sebelah mata segelintir pihak.
Retrieved 16th May 2013, p. 1 - 4 from Mega; Utusan Malaysia.

Hadith translation. (2013). Retrieved 25th Oct, 2013, from http://muslimjapan.com/343.html

Industrial Research Institute (2010), Research Management, Michigan: Industrial Research


Institute

WEB

U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, Definition of Disability


https://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?
src=/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/disabilities/inhousing

Muhammad Zulfikar Rakhmat, May 31, 2016 Mosques ought to be accessible to disabled
http://www.thenational.ae/opinion/comment/mosques-ought-to-be-accessible-to-disabled

INTERVIEW

Rokiah I., personal interview, 25 October 2016

Ahmad Y., personal interview, 28 October 2016

Ar. Haji Mohammad Mokhtar Bin Haji Ali, personal interview, 21 November 2016

41