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COMPLETE REVISION

June 2002

Process Industry Practices


Structural

PIP STS02380
Application of ACI 336.1-01,
Specification for the Construction of
Drilled Piers
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these
technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and
engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While
this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users,
individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take
precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and
particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering
situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The
use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of
preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the
same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All
Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and
regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines
should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or
regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or
acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team and
will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn.
Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at www.pip.org.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PIP will not consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice.

PRINTING HISTORY
August 1996 Issued
June 2002 Complete Revision

Not printed with State funds


COMPLETE REVISION
June 2002

Process Industry Practices


Structural

PIP STS02380
Application of ACI 336.1-01,
Specification for the Construction of
Drilled Piers
Table of Contents

Introduction ...................................... 2
Purpose...................................................... 2
Scope......................................................... 2

References ....................................... 2
Process Industry Practices ........................ 2
Industry Codes and Standards .................. 2
Government Regulations ........................... 2

Definitions ........................................ 2

Modifications to ACI 336.1-01 ......... 2


1.1 Scope................................................. 3
1.2 Definitions .......................................... 3
1.6 Project conditions .............................. 3
1.7 Quality assurance .............................. 4
1.8 Submittals by the contractor .............. 4
1.9 Regulatory requirements ................... 4
2.3 Reinforcing steel ................................ 4
2.4 Concrete ............................................ 5
3.1 Tolerances ......................................... 5
3.2 Dry method ........................................ 5
3.3 Steel casing and liner ........................ 6
3.5 Concrete ............................................ 6
3.6 Casing withdrawal.............................. 6

Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 6


PIP STS02380 COMPLETE REVISION
Application of ACI 336.1-01, Specification for the Construction of Drilled Piers June 2002

Introduction

Purpose
This Practice provides the contractor with a specification for drilled pier construction.

Scope
This Practice describes the requirements for construction of drilled piers (also called caissons
or drilled shafts).

This document is a complete revision of PIP STS02380, and therefore revision markings are
not provided.

References
When adopted in this Practice or in the contract documents, the latest edition of the
following codes, standards, specifications, and references in effect on the date of contract
award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein when
appropriate.

Process Industry Practices (PIP)


PIP STS03001 - Plain and Reinforced Concrete Specification

Industry Codes and Standards

American Concrete Institute (ACI)


ACI 336.1-01 - Specification for the Construction of Drilled Piers

Government Regulations
Federal Standards and Instructions of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), including any additional requirements by state or local
agencies that have jurisdiction where drilled piers are to be constructed, shall apply.

Definitions
buyer: The party who awards the contract to the contractor. The buyer may be the owner or
owners authorized agent.

Modifications to ACI 336.1-01


Drilled pier construction shall conform to all requirements of ACI 336.1-01 except as
modified herein. Any approval, authorization, acceptance, decision, determination, or
activity required herein or in ACI 336.1-01 of the owner, engineer, architect/engineer,
owners representative, owners representative-geotechnical engineer, or structural engineer
shall be made by representative(s) as designated by the buyer or in the contract documents.

Page 2 of 6 Process Industry Practices


COMPLETE REVISION PIP STS02380
June 2002 Application of ACI 336.1-01, Specification for the Construction of Drilled Piers

The paragraph numbers and associated headings used in following text are those used in
ACI 336.1-01. This Practice does not modify all paragraphs in ACI 336.1-01. Therefore, the
paragraph numbers in this Practice may not be sequential.

Terms used in this Practice to introduce the requirements in ACI 336.1-01 are defined as
follows:

Modify to Read: This term is used to introduce a requirement that modifies a requirement in
ACI 336.1-01. Modifications are indicated by underlining.

Add: This term is used to introduce requirement(s) that is/are additional to the requirements
in ACI 336.1-01.

SECTION 1 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1.1 Scope
Add:
1.1.1.1 These specifications also apply to drilled piers of diameters as small as
24 inches up to approximately 40 feet deep, constructed using the slurry
method, and to drilled piers of diameters as small as 12 inches (300 mm) for
shallow piers (less than 12 feet deep), drilled in cohesive soils and
constructed using the dry method.

1.2 Definitions
Add:
Rock Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents, rock shall be defined
as material that cannot be excavated with a conventional earth auger or
underreaming tool and that requires hard drilling with special rock augers,
core barrels, air tools, or blasting.

1.6 Project conditions


Modify to Read:
1.6.3 Existing underground utilities
If required by the contract documents, the contractor shall locate in the field
all existing underground structures and utilities. Determine if there are
conflicts with the work. Report any conflicts to the owners representative.
Cease work in this area until the conflicts are resolved and approved by the
buyer.
1.6.4 Job conferences
A pre-award conference and/or pre-construction conference should be held
between the buyer and the contractor(s) to review project information and
contractors and buyers respective scopes of work. Conference topics
should include but not be limited to safety requirements, site entry
procedures, job schedules, available subsurface information, underground

Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 6


PIP STS02380 COMPLETE REVISION
Application of ACI 336.1-01, Specification for the Construction of Drilled Piers June 2002

utility identification and location, surveying for location and elevation of


drilled piers, special installation requirements, handling design changes,
reinforcing steel placement and alignment, electrical ground cable
attachment, concrete, anchor bolt location and installation, excavated
materials disposal, action required if potentially contaminated soil is
encountered, testing and inspection, and required reports. Contractor shall
attend all pre-award, pre-construction, and other job conferences required by
the contract documents or established by the buyer.

1.7 Quality assurance


Add:
1.7.2.g If temporary casings are to be used, submit detailed procedures to be
followed should the contractor elect to leave a temporary casing in place as
permitted in Section 3.3.2.2.

1.8 Submittals by the contractor


Modify to Read:
1.8.1.4 Proposed concrete materials and mixture proportions conforming to the
requirements of PIP STS03001. (2.4.1)
Add:
1.8.1.16 Procedures to be followed for leaving temporary casing in place, if
applicable. (1.7.2.g)
Add:

1.9 Regulatory requirements


Comply with Federal Standards and Instructions of the U.S. Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA), including any additional requirements by state or
local agencies that have jurisdiction where drilled piers are to be installed.

SECTION 2 - PRODUCTS
2.3 Reinforcing steel
Modify to Read:
2.3.1 Reinforcing steel shall be new, deformed billet steel conforming to
ASTM A615, Grade 60, unless specified otherwise in the contract documents.
Bars to be welded shall conform to ASTM A 706. Shop drawings and mill
test reports on reinforcing steel shall be submitted. Welding procedures shall
be submitted, if applicable.

Page 4 of 6 Process Industry Practices


COMPLETE REVISION PIP STS02380
June 2002 Application of ACI 336.1-01, Specification for the Construction of Drilled Piers

2.4 Concrete
Modify to Read:
2.4.1 Concrete and concrete work shall conform to PIP STS03001. Concrete
materials and mixture proportion information shall be submitted in
accordance with PIP STS03001.
2.4.2 Concrete of the specified slump and strength shall be provided and placed.
Concrete for use in the dry method (Section 3.2) shall have a nominal
maximum aggregate size of 1 inch (25 mm). Concrete for use in the slurry
displacement method (Section 3.7) shall have a nominal maximum aggregate
size of 3/4 inches (19 mm).
Add:
2.4.8 Unless specified otherwise in the contract documents, concrete shall have a
28-day minimum compressive strength of 3000 psi.

SECTION 3 - EXECUTION
3.1 Tolerances
Modify to Read:
3.1.7 Anchorage embedment tolerance
Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents, install anchor bolts
embedded in the drilled pier shaft to the tolerances of PIP STS03001,
Section 6.4. Otherwise, limit the vertical and horizontal deviations of
reinforcing steel protruding from the drilled pier shaft to within 0.5 inches
(13 mm) of the specified location.

3.2 Dry method


Modify to Read:
3.2.3.1 For drilled piers bearing on rock, explore bearing stratum with a probe hole
to a minimum depth equal to 1.5 times the diameter of the bearing area or a
maximum of 10 feet (3 m) below the bottom of each drilled pier, unless
otherwise directed by the owners representative-geotechnical engineer or by
the contract documents.
3.2.3.2 For piers with diameters 30 inches or larger, provide a safe method for
personnel access to inspect the bottom of the drilled pier. Alternatives to
direct downhole inspection shall be approved by the owner's representative-
geotechnical engineer.
Add:
3.2.3.5 Unless otherwise approved by the geotechnical engineer or buyer, if a drilled
pier location is within three (3) diameters of the bearing area (center-to-
center) of an adjacent new drilled pier, drilling shall commence only after
concrete in the adjacent foundation has been in place for not less than
12 hours.

Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 6


PIP STS02380 COMPLETE REVISION
Application of ACI 336.1-01, Specification for the Construction of Drilled Piers June 2002

3.3 Steel casing and liner


Modify to Read:
3.3.2.2 Withdrawal of temporary casing is the contractors option, provided the
requirements of Section 3.6 and any additional requirements of the owners
representative-geotechnical engineer are met.
Modify to Read:

3.5 Concrete
Concrete work shall conform to PIP STS03001.
3.5.6 Guide placement of free-fall concrete so as not to hit the reinforcement, hole
sides, or anchor bolt assemblies. Free-fall concrete is not allowed in
reinforced drilled piers having diameters of less than 18 inches (450 mm).
Vibration of concrete free falling more than 20 feet (6 m) is not required.

3.6 Casing withdrawal


Modify to Read:
3.6.2 Coordinate casing withdrawal with concrete placement so that the concrete
pressure head exceeds the anticipated outside soil and water pressure above
the bottom of the casing at all times during casing withdrawal. Additionally,
the rate of casing withdrawal shall be such that the bottom edge of the casing
remains at least 5 feet (1.5 m) below the top of the fresh concrete until the
bottom of the casing reaches within 5 feet (1.5 m) of the cut-off elevation.

Page 6 of 6 Process Industry Practices