Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 48

7

Windows 7 Networking
Section Topics
TCP/IP Fundamentals
Next Generation TCP/IP Stack
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocols
Network and Sharing Center
BranchCache

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-1

Global Knowledge Training


LLC
L

Windows 7 Networking

Section Objectives

After completing this section, you will be able to:

Explain the fundamentals of TCP/IP with Windows 7


Identify the methods used to configure IP addressing on Windows 7
Describe the Windows 7 enhancements to IPv6
Describe the fundamentals of DHCP
Describe the features of the Networking and Sharing Center
Explain the role of Windows 7 within a BranchCache network

Section Overview
Computer networking involves the ability to share, manipulate, and collaborate on data. The
network is the single tool that can make a business extremely productive and, hopefully,
profitable. One of the most important duties of the Windows 7 administrator is to constantly make
sure that his or her network is up and functioning properly. Successful system administrators
understand general networking concepts. This section introduces the Windows 7 networking
technologies as well as networking in general. By applying this information, you can successfully
manage and monitor your networks so that your networks can operate smoothly and efficiently.

7-2
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

TCP/IP Fundamentals

Figure 197: TCP/IP Fundamentals

TCP/IP is a suite of protocols. In the early 1970s, TCP/IP started as a very simple protocol suite. It
has since grown into something much more capable and complex. TCP/IP is implemented as a set
of layers. The four layers in the TCP/IP model are derived from a seven-layer model known as the
OSI model. Because the OSI model is just that, a model, the TCP/IP protocol suite does not have
to fit the OSI mold completely. The OSI model is simply a reference on which most technologies
today are based.
Figure 197 lists the subjects that are described in this topic.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-3

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

TCP/IP and the Internet

Figure 198: TCP/IP and the Internet

TCP/IP is the most widely used protocol suite today. The future of the Internet is tied to TCP/IP.
In fact, the Internet as it is known today began as the ARPANET, a network commissioned by the
Defense Department as a resilient form of communication in the event of some natural or man-
made calamity (such as a nuclear attack).
In the beginning, the ARPANET was owned by the military and its contractors. That grew to
include universities working on military projects and certain government institutions. Over time,
the military relied less and less on the ARPANET as a secure means of communication. In the
early 1990s, they released it to the public as the Internet.
For years, the core technology of the ARPANET was the TCP/IP protocol. TCP/IP addressing and
routing gave the network its fault tolerance. TCP/IP, ever evolving, gained more and more
capabilities. New protocols, network types, and services are always being integrated into it and
added on top of it. Without TCP/IP and its potential for growth, the robust and resilient network of
the Internet would not exist.

7-4
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Network Architecture

Figure 199: Network Architecture

The network architecture in Windows Server 2008 R2 changed to reflect a new emphasis on
speed, security, and the tight integration of IPv6. Even with these enhancements, the core of the
networking architecture still conforms to the seven-layer OSI model. The following topic
describes the layers of the new Windows TCP/IP stack.

Layers of the New Windows TCP/IP Stack


The Windows TCP/IP stack presents four of the seven layers represented in the OSI model
reference. The three missing layers are incorporated into other layers of this stack.

Application layer: This is the layer where the Winsock, NetBIOS, and the WSK APIs
are implemented. Programmers write their applications to the appropriate API, and the
requests are translated and sent down the protocol stack. WSK is the new Winsock
Kernel NPI. It replaces the aging TDI that is still implemented for backward
compatibility.
Transport layer: This layer contains the TCP and UDP protocols along with raw
mode for transmitting packets that do not need either TCP or UDP.
Network layer: Sometimes known as the Internet layer, this is where the IPv4 and
IPv6 live side-by-side and run simultaneously. These protocols most importantly deal
with routing information from one network to another.
Framing layer: Also known as the data-link or physical layer, this is the layer where
data coming from IPv4 and IPv6 is placed into the appropriate framing structure for the
medium being used.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-5

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

IPv4 Addressing

Figure 200: IPv4 Addressing

Providing addressing and routing capabilities is one of the primary functions of TCP/IP. Every
computer that communicates directly with another computer over the Internet must have a unique
IP address.
The identifier given to each host is called an IP address. This address follows a 32-bit binary form
that is converted into a decimal value for human readability:
10000010.00000001.00000011.00000110 = 130.1.3.6
You can compare the IP address to a home address. Your country, zip code, and street number tell
the post office how to get mail to you. With TCP/IP, each router on the network breaks down and
analyzes the IP address components and then forwards the information to the appropriate
destination until the message reaches the intended recipient.
Figure 200 lists the subjects that are described in this topic.

7-6
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Network and Host Bits

Figure 201: Network and Host Bits

Of the 32 bits that make up the IP address, some are set aside for the network ID and others are
reserved for host IDs on that network.
Either an ISP or the IANA provides the network ID. The host IDs can be freely chosen by the
network administrator from the range available on their network ID.
The address class determines which bits are set aside for the network. Each address class has a
default network mask that defines the network ID portion of the IP address.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-7

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Network Mask

Figure 202: Network Mask

Along with the IP address, another important detail must be provided: the network mask,
sometimes referred to as a subnet mask. Like the IP address, the mask is also a series of 1s and 0s.
The difference is that the mask must have contiguous ones from left to right. Anything else results
in a zero.
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 = 255.255.255.0
The mask is used as a filter to pass the IP address through. The filtering process is based on a
binary ANDing routine. With the ANDing routine, any time a 1 and 1 are in the same position, the
resulting binary value is a binary 1. Any other combination always generates a zero.

Binary Combination Resulting Value


1 AND 1 1
1 AND 0 0
0 AND 1 0
0 AND 0 0
Figure 203: Binary ANDing

Consider the following IP address and subnet mask:


10000010.00000001.00000011.00000110 = 130.1.3.6
AND
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 = 255.255.255.0
_______________________________________________
10000010.00000001.00000011.00000000 = 130.1.3.0
The resulting IP address is considered as the network number. Both the source and destination IP
addresses pass through the subnet mask in this way. If the results are the same, the hosts are
considered local to each other. If the results are different, the hosts are considered remote from
each other and the traffic goes to a default gateway (router).
This comparison occurs at each router along the way, until finally the message reaches the
destination host.

7-8
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Address Classes

Figure 204: Address Classes

Initially, address classing was intended to allocate the IP addresses available on the Internet in the
most efficient way possible. What it really does is reserve predefined ranges of IP addresses for
large numbers of hosts on a network and reserves others for medium-sized and small-sized
networks.
Class A and B network IDs are completely used up (aside from the occasional ID that is returned
to the pool). A sizable number of Class C networks are still available.
Each of the A, B, and C classes has a default network mask associated with it:

Class A: 255.0.0.0
Class B: 255.255.0.0
Class C: 255.255.255.0
It is up to the network administrator to subdivide the network further, if necessary, by creating a
subnet mask beyond the default network mask.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-9

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Private IP Addressing

Figure 205: Private IP Addressing

IANA reserved a subset of the public address space for the purpose of private IP addressing.
Initially designed to promote flexibility in addressing and routing schemes on private networks,
these ranges have the side effect of delaying the transition from our current IPv4 to IPv6.
Many organizations are now using one of the private address ranges to protect their local networks
from intrusion, as well. The private addresses cannot be used on the public Internet as either a
source or destination host. The first router hearing such a message drops it.
A private address that communicates with the outside world must communicate through an
intermediary, such as a NAT or a proxy. These gateways translate the private address into a usable
public IP address before it hits the Internet.

7-10
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Default Gateway

Figure 206: Default Gateway

Default gateway configuration is important if a host needs to transmit data beyond its local
network segment. Configuring the default gateway involves finding the IP address of the router
that lets the host send data to other networks.
The default gateway or router setting becomes involved as a direct result of the IP addresses and
network masks being used on the hosts of a network. Any time a TCP/IP host sends a packet on
the network, the local TCP/IP protocol of the host runs the IP address through the network mask.
The result tells IP whether the destination host is local or remote to the sender.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-11

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Configuring Windows 7 Addressing

Figure 207: Configuring Windows 7 Addressing

Configuring the TCP/IP settings for network adapters on Windows 7 is very much the same as it
has been since Windows 2000. The most visible difference is that IPv6 is now installed by default.
The following topics describe how to configure TCP/IP settings using the graphical and
command-line methods.

7-12
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Graphical Configuration

Figure 208: Graphical Configuration

In the Windows GUI, the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties dialog box is still the
mainstay of TCP/IP address configuration. To reach this dialog box, click Start, Control Panel,
Network and Internet, Network and Sharing Center, and Manage Network Connections.
Once the general properties dialog box is open, you can dynamically configure the various settings
by choosing the Obtain an IP address automatically option, or manually by changing the
following options:

IP address: The unique identifier for this device


Subnet mask: The network portion of the IP address
Default gateway: The router that sends information beyond the local network segment
Preferred DNS server: The first DNS server queried for name resolution
Alternate DNS server: The alternate DNS server queried if the first DNS server fails
to respond
Advanced:
IP settings: Assign multiple IP addresses and default gateways to the adapter
DNS: Specify more than two DNS servers, create a DNS suffix search list, and
turn dynamic update on or off for the adapter
WINS: Add WINS for NetBIOS name resolution

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-13

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Command-Line Configuration

Figure 209: Command-Line Configuration

You can also configure TCP/IP details from the command line. This is very important to learn
because there is no way to graphically configure TCP/IP settings on the server core operating
system.
Use the netsh command from the command-line on either the full or core versions of Windows
Server 2008. Use the netsh command to configure IP settings on demand, or with a script for
repetitive operations.
When used on-demand, the Netsh tool has its own console and command structure. The Netsh tool
uses the following top-level commands:
Usage: netsh [-a AliasFile] [-c Context] [-r RemoteDevice] [-u
[DomainName\]UserName] [-p Password | *]
[Command | -f ScriptFile]

Commands in this context:


? - Displays a list of commands.
add - Adds a configuration entry to a list of
entries.
advfirewall - Changes to the `netsh advfirewall' context.
bridge - Changes to the `netsh bridge' context.
delete - Deletes a configuration entry from a list of
entries.
dhcpclient - Changes to the `netsh dhcpclient' context.
dump - Displays a configuration script.
exec - Runs a script file.
firewall - Changes to the `netsh firewall' context.
help - Displays a list of commands.
http - Changes to the `netsh http' context.
interface - Changes to the `netsh interface' context.
ipsec - Changes to the `netsh ipsec' context.

7-14
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking
lan - Changes to the `netsh lan' context.
nap - Changes to the `netsh nap' context.
netio - Changes to the `netsh netio' context.
p2p - Changes to the `netsh p2p' context.
ras - Changes to the `netsh ras' context.
rpc - Changes to the `netsh rpc' context.
set - Updates configuration settings.
show - Displays information.
winhttp - Changes to the `netsh winhttp' context.
winsock - Changes to the `netsh winsock' context.
wlan - Changes to the `netsh wlan' context.
The following sub-contexts are available:
advfirewall bridge dhcpclient firewall http interface ipsec lan
nap netio p2p ras rpc winhttp winsock wlan

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-15

Global Knowledge Training


LLC
L

Windows 7 Networking

Next Generation TCP/IP Stack

Figure 210: Next Generation TCP/IP Stack

While creating Windows 7, Microsoft overhauled many different aspects of Windows operating
system and the networking subsystem is no exception. Microsoft integrated many of the latest
Internet RFC standards into the new operating system. Some of these changes are speed and
security enhancements made to existing components; whereas other changes are brand new
features. Some of the new functionality was introduced with Windows Vista.
Figure 210 lists the subjects that are described in this topic.

7-16
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

New Features

Figure 211: New Features

The new networking stack in Windows 7 offers many new features, including the following.

Dual IPv4 and IPv6 Stacks


In previous Windows versions, IPv6 was an afterthought. Even today, very few networks
implement IPv6. However, many networks will soon switch to IPv6 to take advantage of new
advances in network and computing technology. In Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008, IPv6 is
enabled by default and runs side-by-side with IPv4.

Winsock Kernel NPI


WSK (Winsock Kernel) is a kernel-mode software NPI (network programming interface) that
performs network communication using a sockets-like programming technique similar to that
supported in user-mode Winsock 2. The WSK model is simpler for programmers to use, exposes
features of the next generation TCP/IP stack, improves performance, and allows TDI-based
services to easily port to WSK.

Strong Host Model Support


On a multi-homed system, the strong host model stipulates that a system should accept locally
destined packets only if the destination address matches an address assigned to the interface on
which the packet was received. The weak host model allows the receipt of packets to either
interface of the system.

Windows Filtering Platform


WFP (Windows Filtering Platform) replaces the firewall and filter hooks and allows filtering at all
levels of the protocol stack. Using WFP, software developers can more easily integrate data
inspection services into the operating system.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-17

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

TCP Offload Support


New TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) offload mechanisms allow processors on the NIC with
a properly written NDIS driver for the card to perform most of the TCP processing. This relieves a
huge burden on a systems CPU and boosts the performance of network communications.

qWAVE Components
qWAVE (Quality Windows Audio-Video Experience) is a collection of components based on QoS
that allow multimedia traffic to be prioritized on wired and wireless networks. The qWAVE
components examine bandwidth and QoS capability to provide consistent usage of the networks
resources.

Networking Enhancements

Figure 212: Networking Enhancements

The improvements in existing network components are almost as profound as the addition of new
features, if not more so. These changes improve the performance, security, and scalability of the
Windows 7 network subsystems. The following topics describe these improvements.

Multiprocessor Scaling
Prior versions of the NDIS architecture limited the processing of traffic from a network card to a
single processor. Now, the NDIS architecture can distribute that traffic across multiple processors
for increased throughput.

Fewer Reboots Due to Network Reconfiguration


The development of new methods for storing configuration data prevent reboots from being
necessary.

Better Roaming Support


Computers that move between networks can more easily discover the network they are on and the
proper settings to use.

7-18
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

DoS Attack Resistance


With the enhancements, the hardened protocol stack now protects against the onslaught of DoS
attacks that proliferate across the Internet.

Autotuned TCP Receive Window


The TCP receive window is now automatically tuned based on the network environment that is
detected at the time.

Compound TCP
Over connections with a higher amount of latency, CTCP (Compound TCP) increases the
performance of large file copies by appropriately tuning the TCP window size based on the speed
of the network, the round-trip time, and the size of the data that needs transmitting.

ECN Support
ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) allows routers to explicitly inform hosts of congestion by
marking packets as they are forwarded. Without ECN, hosts drop their transmission rate whenever
packets are lost, even if the problem is not due to congestion.

Enhanced Wireless Performance


Windows 7 now conforms to RFCs 2582, 2883, 2018, 3517, and 4138 to improve performance in
wireless environments.

TCP Fast Reconnect


TCP Fast Reconnect provides continued connectivity as systems travel from one wireless network
to another.

Routing Improvements
Detection of an unreachable neighbor goes further than dead gateway detection in discovering that
a router is no longer available and looking for a new gateway. Previously only a feature of IPv6,
this is now extended to IPv4.
Failback support allows systems that have switched to a different gateway to switch back when the
original router comes back online.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-19

Global Knowledge Training


LLC
L

Windows 7 Networking

IPv6 Protocol

Figure 213: IPv6 Protocol

IPv6 is an update to the TCP/IP protocol that drastically changes the way addresses are assigned
on networks. It is based on a 128-bit addressing scheme instead of 32 bits like the current IPv4
addressing scheme. The following topics describe the attributes of IPv6.

128-Bit Address Space


The address in IPv6 is four times larger than an address in IPv4. A 32-bit address space allows for
2^32 or 4,294,967,296 possible addresses. A 128-bit address space allows for 2^128 or
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 (3.4 10^38) possible addresses.
In the late 1970s when the IPv4 address space was designed, no one thought that it might become
exhausted. By 1992, it was clear that a replacement was necessary. To address this concern, IPv6
was given a value large enough to, conceivably, last forever. Put another way, a 128-bit address
space provides 655,570,793,348,866,943,898,599 (6.5 10^23) addresses for every square meter
of the earths surface.

Better Routing
The large size of the IPv6 address pool can be subdivided into hierarchical routing domains that
reflect the topology of the modern-day Internet. The use of 128 bits provides multiple levels of
hierarchy and flexibility in designing hierarchical addressing and routing that is lacking on the
IPv4-based Internet.

Enhanced Security
Instead of just being an add-on technology as it is with IPv4, IPSec is now a protocol requirement
in IPv6.

7-20
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Mobile IPv6
Using mobile IPv6, clients can move around from location to location without the worry of being
disconnected. A permanent address is assigned to the node to so it can be found regardless of the
network it is on.

Inherent QoS Functionality


Predefined files in the IPv6 header provide for QoS information that should be embedded within
each packet. This allows routers to easily determine the handling characteristics of the packet from
the source to the destination.

IPv6 Enhancements

Figure 214: IPv6 Enhancements

Although IPv6 is tightly integrated into the Windows 7 operating system, support for the protocol
is not new. Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 both used IPv6 for some time now, but users
had to install and enable it. Since this more rudimentary implementation, numerous improvements
have been made:

Enabled out of the box: No installation is necessary for IPv6. It is automatically


turned on and runs right beside IPv4.
Graphical configuration: In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, IPv6 was
configured exclusively from the command line. Now, the standard GUI for configuring
IPv4 has been implemented for IPv6 as well. Command-line configuration is still
available.
Enhanced Teredo support: Teredo, an automatic tunneling technology, tunnels IPv6
messages through the IPv4 Internet. With the implementation in Windows 7, Teredo
hinders network scanning of translated addresses.
Integrated IPSec for IPv6 traffic: Users can now configure IPSec policies for IPv6
traffic the same way that they configured IPSec policies for IPv4 in the past.
MLDv2: MLDv2 (Multicast Listener Discovery version 2) is the IPv6 replacement for
the IGMPv3 protocol on IPv4 and is now supported by Windows 7.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-21

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

LLMNR: LLMNR (Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution) allows both IPv4 and
IPv6 clients to discover each others names without a DNS server present.
Support for ipv6-literal.net names: This special zone format allows applications that
do not support IPv6 addresses to use the addresses through a standard DNS name. As
an example:
For the IPv6 address:
2002:ec8:28:3:f98a:5b31:6700:67aa
The corresponding ipv6-literal.net name is:
2002-ec8-28-3-f98a-5b31-6700-67aa.ipv6-literal.net
RRAS support for IPv6 over PPP: The Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 RRAS
services now allow PPP connections to use IPv6 through the server.
Reduced address scanning vulnerabilities: Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008
now generate random interface IDs for non-temporary auto-configured IPv6 addresses,
including public and link-local addresses. This reduces the vulnerabilities present when
the known manufacturer ID of an interface is used.
Support for DHCPv6: The IPv6 client in Windows Server 2008 and Windows 7 are
now DHCPv6 capable.

LLTDM and LLTDR Protocols

Figure 215: LLTDM and LLTDR Protocols

The Windows Vista and Windows 7 operating systems bring a new network mapping feature that
uses two base protocols: LLTDM (Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper) and LLTDR (Link-
Layer Topology Discovery Responder). These protocols are advancements from the old master
browser NetBIOS services. They are responsible for discovering networks and also other network
devices capable of speaking the two protocols. Currently, these protocols work only with the
Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2008 R2 product lines.
The Windows Firewall with Advanced Features enables and disables these protocols based on the
rules configured for each network profile or type chosen. For example, network discovery is not
allowed on public network categories.

7-22
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Discontinued Networking Technologies

Figure 216: Discontinued Networking Technologies

Microsoft has long put enormous effort into making sure that as much backward compatibility
exists in the latest operating system to keep the older applications and services working. This
compatibility comes at the cost of performance, security, and the inclusion of new technologies.
For Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008, Microsoft discontinued many older
technologies that are very infrequently used today. People who may be upset by this of course
have the option to stay with the older versions of Windows to keep these features.
Figure 216 briefly lists some of the discontinued networking features. Other features and options
that do not relate to networking have also been pulled from the operating system.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-23

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Figure 217: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a service that runs on a Windows server and
automatically provides IP addresses to hosts on the network. Automatic address assignment helps
to lighten the load that administrators face when dealing with the addressing of computers on the
network.
The following topics describe DHCP at a high level and the role of the DHCP in IPv6.

7-24
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

DHCP Fundamentals

Figure 218: DHCP Fundamentals

DHCP uses a client-server model for communication. When a client needs an address, it sends out
a DHCP Discover broadcast. Any DHCP servers that hear this broadcast reply with a DHCP Offer
message. The DHCP client replies with a DHCP Request message. Finally, the server confirms
address assignment with a DHCP Acknowledgement message.
The DHCP consists of several components on the server and the clients within the network. These
components include:

DHCP server: This server is responsible for issuing and revoking IP configurations
from clients and working with DNS servers to create A (IPv4 host) or AAAA (IPv6
host) records.
DHCP client: This client is the Windows 7 installed client that receives the client
configuration from the DHCP server. The client DHCP process works with the DHCP
server to configure the DNS record described above.
DHCP scope: This scope is the range of IP addresses assigned to the DHCP clients.
The DHCP scope also contains IP addresses excluded from distribution and IP
addresses reserved for various devices and printers via MAC addresses.
DHCP scope options: These options are enhancements to the DHCP scope.
Information contained as options are as simple as IP addressing information for DNS
servers, WINS servers, default gateway routers, NetBIOS broadcast types, and the new
Windows 7 only option: DHCP Network Hints.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-25

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Role of DHCP in IPv6

Figure 219: Role of DHCP in IPv6

When you require more addressing control, enable the DHCPv6 component. IPv6 allows inherent
automatic address assignment and may not need a full DHCPv6 implementation. The following
topics describe the role of DHCP in IPv6.

DHCP Is Optional
IPv6 automatically assigns itself an address based upon information that it gathers from Router
Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages. Router messages have two flags that are known
as the M flag (Managed Address Configuration) and the O flag (Other Stateful Configuration).
When the M flag is set to 1, it tells the IPv6 client to look to a DHCPv6 service for addressing. If
the O flag is set to 1, the client uses DHCPv6 for other options such as DNS server addresses.

IPv6 Router Determines the Network Address


Without any of the flags set, the IPv6 router uses its Solicitation and Advertisement messages to
inform the hosts of the network address that they should use.

IPv6 Clients Autoconfigure the Host Address


The IPv6 clients pick up on the router messages and use the network numbering that is advertised.
Then they assign the host address on their own.

DHCPv6 Can Be Used for More Control


If more control of addressing is necessary, you can set IPv6-capable routers relay the DHCPv6
requests to a centralized DHCPv6 server for address assignment.

7-26
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Network and Sharing Center

Figure 220: Network and Sharing Center

One of the most welcome changes to the Windows 7 operating system is the streamlining and
reconfiguring of the network settings. This change makes the entire configuration much more
intuitive for the user and the administrator. Windows XP forced you to navigate to many different
locations to accomplish some basic tasks. With the Windows 7 product line, the Network and
Sharing Center provides access to all these tasks in one central location. This applet is your one-
stop location for all the Windows 7 networking and Internet configuration options.
As shown in Figure 220, this topic describes the functionality of the Network and Sharing Center
in Windows 7.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-27

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Accessing the Network and Sharing Center

Figure 221: Accessing the Network and Sharing Center

You can access the Network and Sharing Center from a few different locations. You can access it
one of the following ways:

Start menu, Search box


Start menu, Control Panel
System tray (Right-click the Network icon and click the Open Network and Sharing
Center link)
The Network and Sharing Center offers many configuration applets and locations for you to
manage networking configurations and connections. It provides visual diagrams and maps of your
home or office networks. The visual tools are very useful tools for determining how to configure
your network connection. A quick glance shows the status of your Internet connection. A red X
indicates a broken connection between your Windows 7 device and the Internet.

7-28
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Displaying a Network Map

Figure 222: Displaying a Network Map

The network map is a feature that is enabled depending on the chosen network profile type. The
Windows Firewall with Advanced Features assigns the various rules that apply to the chosen
networking profile. For instance, if you choose the public profile, network discovery, and file
sharing are turned off. So when you choose the public profile, the Network Map feature does
not work.

Helpful Hint
The LLTDM is responsible for the mapping features that are available
in the Network and Sharing Center. If you choose the public profile,
this driver is blocked from outgoing and incoming communication.
You can override the default settings of the public network by toggling
the Network Discovery and File Sharing options or by customizing
your network.

Caution
When you make changes to the default network settings, you may be
opening up security risks, especially on the public network.

On the Network Map window, you can view a detailed map of your network. This map shows you
all of the devices currently connected to your network. Of course, these devices must support the
mapping protocols and drivers known as LLTDM and LLTDR. This means that Windows Vista
and Windows 7 devices will show up on the map as well as networking devices that support the
protocols mentioned. These network devices typically are routers, switches, and wireless access
points.
Administering and Maintaining W Windows
indows 7
7-29

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

The mapping feature does take some time to render a map, especially if the network contains
many approved devices. You must consider the traffic that this process causes and determine
whether to allow the discovery process on your networks.

Helpful Hint
You can download a compatibility pack for Windows XP that allows the
discovery of Windows XP devices on the network. However, this does
not allow the Windows XP devices to create maps.

Helpful Hint
If you correctly configure the networking feature and choose the
correct network profile but the mapping feature does not work, look to
the firewall for the possibility of a blocked UDP or TCP port 2177.

Helpful Hint
Use Group Policy to allow or disallow the mapping process on all
Windows Vista and Windows 7 computers. Just because you block the
2177 port on your firewalls, does not mean that the memory-starved
devices will not attempt to send discovery and mapper packets to the
network.

7-30
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Network and Sharing Center Wizards

Figure 223: Network and Sharing Center Wizards

Windows 7 provides the following wizards for making connections to various networks:

Set up a new connection or network


Connect to a network
Choose homegroup and sharing options
Troubleshoot problems
These wizards make it very easy for you to create connections to the networks that you need to
access. However, the connections that you create must conform to the Windows 7 classification
scheme. So the first time that a Windows 7 computer connects to a network, you must classify its
location or type as one of the following: Home, Work, or Public. This is a requirement for all
network communication and is very valuable to the overall security of the Windows 7 and
Windows Vista networks. If for instance, you are sitting in the airport and are connecting to the
Wi-Fi hotspot in the terminal, the Windows 7 Network Classification Scheme utility would
require you to choose a network type. The appropriate choice for volatile networks such as an
airport is the Public classification. By choosing the Public classification, you protect yourself
because the Windows Firewall with Advanced Features prevents you from discovery and
mapping; your computer and all of its data and resources are protected.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-31

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Set Up a New Connection or Network Wizard

Figure 224: Set Up a New Connection or Network Wizard

The Set Up a Connection or Network option allows you to connect to a wireless, broadband or
dial-up connection to the internet. It also provides the option to manually connect to a wireless
network. It can be used to connect to the workplace through a VPN or using dial-up. It can also
be used to set up an ad-hoc wireless connection when a wireless access point is unavailable.

7-32
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Connect to a Network Wizard

Figure 225: Connect to a Network Wizard

Windows 7 makes it easier to configure wireless networks that do not broadcast their SSID, also
known as the Wireless Network Name. With the Windows XP wireless networking model, these
networks did not show up; they were invisible to the user. While this is considered a security
feature of wireless networking, plenty of freeware packages on the Internet can discover the
presence of non-broadcasting wireless networks. With Windows 7, the non-broadcasting wireless
networks display in the new Wireless Network dialog box as unnamed networks.
You do not need to manually add a non-broadcasting wireless network as a preferred network in
the list of preferred networks. To connect to a network, simply click the unnamed network in the
list, make the choice to connect, supply the appropriate SSID value, and if required, supply the
encryption key. This process is much easier than in Windows Vista.

Helpful Hint
The Connect to a network wizard contains a feature that allows you to
manually connect to a wireless network. This is provided in case
multiple unnamed networks exist in the wireless networking dialog box.
Instead of trying every connection, simply create a manual connection
to a wireless network and set it as the preferred network.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-33

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Choose Homegroup and Sharing Options Wizard

Figure 226: Choose Homegroup and Sharing Options Wizard

You can enable the homegroup configuration from the Network and Sharing Center. A benefit of
the homegroup is the Windows 7 library. This is again the Windows 7 aggregate view of shared
resources and system folders, both local and remote.
With the Windows 7 homegroups and libraries, you can point to data that lives on many
computers, and possibly different networks, in a clear and concise manner within a library. The
new Windows Media Center also integrates with the homegroup and the library functions so that
folders watch and autoupdate as content changes. You no longer have to navigate a file structure
to see your data.

7-34
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Troubleshoot Problems Wizard

Figure 227: Troubleshoot Problems Wizard

The Troubleshoot problems Network and Internet feature built into Windows 7 networks
provides seven main tools for troubleshooting most issues that may occur. The wizard presents the
user with several questions designed to configure a troubleshooting method that, hopefully,
corrects the problem. You can troubleshoot the following issues:

Internet connections
Shared folders
Homegroups
Network adapters
Incoming connections
Connection to a workplace using DirectAccess
Printing

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-35

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Setting the Network Location

Figure 228: Setting the Network Location

The Windows 7 product line carried over the Windows Vista classification schemes. The benefits
are many, but the main purpose is to make you to choose a network location type when you
successfully connect to a network. This network location type drives the network settings
configuration. Behind the scenes, the Windows Firewall passes down the incoming and outgoing
rules based on the network profile configuration, which is based on the network type that you
chose.

7-36
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Changing Adapter Settings

Figure 229: Changing Adapter Settings

You can also directly access your network interface from the Network and Sharing Center. Simply
click the link for the connection name and then click the Properties button. You can make many
adjustments and configurations from the Properties dialog box.

Helpful Hint
When you search for the word adapters, Windows 7 takes you to the
Network Connections section of Control Panel and you can see a list
of your adapters.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-37

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

BranchCache

Figure 230: BranchCache

BranchCache keeps a cached copy of the data on the Windows Server 2008 R2 BranchCache
server. This reduces data access times by as much as 50 percent as compared to pulling the data
from the remote file server every time the user requires access to the data.
This topic defines BranchCache and describes the hosted and distributed cache modes of the
BranchCache feature built in to Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7.

7-38
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

What Is BranchCache?

Figure 231: What Is BranchCache?

BranchCache helps to reduce the file transfer traffic between a headquarters location and its
remote offices. BranchCache operates in one of two modes: the Hosted Cache mode, where a
Windows Server 2008 R2 device hosts a cached copy of the data, or a Distributed Cache mode
where a BranchCache server is not required. In a Distributed Cache mode, computers in the
branch store cached copies of the data and as the data is requested, this data is sent to new
Windows 7 devices. This is all managed by the BranchCache process and drivers.

Helpful Hint
BranchCache supports all of the popular protocols for Web content
such as HTTP and HTTPS as well as SMB for file server
communication. Because of this standards-based support,
BranchCache supports all modern file types by extension. The
BranchCache process caches only read requests to files, so it never
interferes with any user that is writing to a remote file. BranchCache
also only caches data that has been requested, so it is very efficient at
dealing with bandwidth or the lack of it.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-39

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Hosted Cache Mode

Figure 232: Hosted Cache Mode

In the Hosted Cache mode data is downloaded to BranchCache-enabled servers in the branch
office by BranchCache-enabled clients. The Hosted Cache mode does not require a dedicated
server and is enabled on any physical or virtual server that is running Windows Server 2008 R2 in
the branch office.
The following process is used to cache and retrieve data:
1. The Windows 7 client connects to the server containing data files and requests them
as normal.
2. The data-containing server authenticates the client as normal and returns content
metadata over the standard data channel.
3. The client uses hashes in the metadata to search for the file in the local Hosted Cache
server. If this is the first time any client has retrieved the file, the client retrieves the
file directly from the original server that has the data.
4. The client exchanges content identifiers with the Hosted Cache server over an SSL
connection.
5. The Hosted Cache server retrieves the set of data blocks that are not cached from
the client.
6. If another Windows 7 client requests the same file from the data-containing server,
authentication occurs and content identifiers are once again returned.
7. The client exchanges the content identifiers with the Hosted Cache server over an SSL
channel. The Hosted Cache server encrypts the cached data and returns it to the client.
8. The client decrypts the data, and verifies that the content has not been modified.

7-40
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Distributed Cache Mode

Figure 233: Distributed Cache Mode

In a Distributed Cache mode, Windows 7 clients cache the content and exchange the data with
other authorized Windows 7 clients in the same location. Distributed Cache mode is best for
branch offices with less than 50 users.
With the Distributed Cache mode, a local Hosted Cache server is not required. Windows 7 clients
cooperate with each other to cache and retrieve files. The WS-Discovery multicast protocol is
utilized to find other Windows 7 devices with locally cached data.
Distributed Cache mode operates on a per subnet basis.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-41

Global Knowledge Training L


LLC

Windows 7 Networking

Acronyms
The following acronyms are used in this section:

AAAA address (IPv6 host record)


API application programming interface
ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BAP Bandwidth Allocation Protocol
CTCP Compound TCP
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHCPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6
DNS Domain Name System
DoS denial of service
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
ECN Explicit Congestion Notification
GUI graphical user interface
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
ID identifier
IGMPv3 Internet Group Management Protocol version 3
IP Internet Protocol
IPSec IP Security
IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4
IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange
ISP Internet service provider
LAN local area network
LLMNR Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution
LLTDM Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper
LLTDR Link-Layer Topology Discovery Responder
MAC media access control
MLDv2 Multicast Listener Discovery version 2
MS-CHAP Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
NAP Network Access Policy
NAT Network Address Translation
NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System
7-42
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

NIC network interface card


NPI network programming interface
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
P2P peer-to-peer
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
QoS Quality of Service
qWAVE Quality Windows Audio-Video Experience
RAS Remote Access Service
RPC remote procedure call
RFC Request for Comments
RRAS Routing and Remote Access Service
SFM Services for Macintosh
SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol
SMB Server Message Block
SPAP Shiva Password Authentication Protocol
SPX Software package exchange
SSID service set identifier
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TDI transport driver interface
UDP User Datagram Protocol
VPN virtual private network
WFP Windows Filtering Platform
WINS Windows Internet Naming Service
Winsock Windows Sockets
WLAN wireless local area network
WS-Discovery Web Services Discovery
WSK Winsock Kernel

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-43

Global Knowledge Training


LLC
L

Windows 7 Networking

Section Review

Summary
TCP/IP is a suite of addressing and routing protocols that consists of four layers:
Application layer: Implements the Winsock, NetBIOS, and the WSK APIs.
Transport layer: Contains the TCP and UDP protocols along with raw mode for
transmitting packets that do not need either TCP or UDP.
Network layer: Routes information from one network to another via the IPv4 and
IPv6 which live side-by-side and run simultaneously.
Framing layer: Places data coming from IPv4 and IPv6 into the appropriate
framing structure for the medium being used.
You can configure the TCP/IP settings for network adapters on Windows 7 using the
following methods:
Graphical configuration: Use the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)
Properties dialog box to automatically obtain IP addresses or manually change the
IP address, subnet mask, default gateway and others options.
Command-line configuration: Use the NetSH command-line tool to configure IP
settings on demand, or with a script for repetitive operations.
Enhancements made to IP version 6 for the Windows 7 client operating system include
the following:
128-bit address space: There are for 3.4 x 10^38 possible addresses
(340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456)
Better routing: Routing is built around the Internet architecture
Enhanced security: IPSec is a protocol requirement
Improved mobile IPv6: Maintains connectivity with address changes
Inherent QoS functionality: Traffic flow fields are part of the IPv6 header
The DHCP service runs on a Windows server and automatically provides IP addresses
to hosts on the network using the following client-server communication model
process:
1. Client sends out a Discover message.
2. Servers answer with an Offer message.
3. Client replies with Request message.
4. Server confirms with an Acknowledgement message.
The DHCP consists of these components::
DHCP server: Responsible for issuing and revoking IP configurations from
clients and also creating A or AAAA records.
DHCP client: Receives the client configuration from the DHCP server.
DHCP scope: Contains the range of IP addresses assigned to the DHCP clients, as
well as, IP addresses excluded from distribution or reserved for other various
devices.
DHCP scope options: Contains enhancements to the DHCP scope ranging from
IP addressing information for DNS servers to the new Windows 7 only option:
DHCP Network Hints.

7-44
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Features of the Networking and Sharing Center include the following:


Display a network map: View diagrams and maps of your home or office
networks
Network and Sharing Center wizards: Create connections to networks of all
types using the following wizards in the Network and Sharing Center:
o Setup a new connection or network
o Connect to a network
o Choose homegroup or sharing options
o Troubleshooting problems
Setting the Network Location: Select the location type when the Windows client
connects to a network.
Changing Adapter Settings: Manage details and properties for the network
adapter.
In Distributed BranchCache mode, Windows 7 clients cache the data and exchange the
data with other authorized Windows 7 clients in the same location.

Knowledge Check
1. Can Windows XP computers appear in a Windows 7 Network Map?

2. The ________________ layer, sometimes known as the Internet layer, is responsible for routing
information from one network to another.
3. Josh wishes to use the IPv6 local loopback address to verify if the IPv6 network stack is
responding as designed. What address should he use with ping inside the command prompt?
a. 127.0.0.1
b. 127.EEOD:0000:0000:00000:0001
c. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
d. fe80::1c8c:3026:9d2c:bc66%13
4. Which of the following features in the Network and Sharing Center are useful when trying to
diagnose network-related problems? (Choose all that apply).
a. Network maps
b. Change adapter settings
c. Troubleshoot problems wizard
d. Set network locations

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-45

Global Knowledge Training


LLC
L

Windows 7 Networking

5. Place the steps for the DHCP service process in the correct order. Write the numbers in the
Answer column.

Answer Description
Client replies with Request message

Server confirms with an Acknowledgement message

Client sends out a Discover message

Servers answer with an Offer message

6. Clients running Windows Vista and Windows 7 can retrieve cached files from each other when
running in the Distributed BranchCache mode.
a. True
b. False
7. Which of the following methods could you use to configure TCP/IP settings? (Choose all
that apply):
a. Automatically obtain IP addresses in the Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) Properties
dialog box.
b. Use the Network Display Map feature to view and edit the IPv6 settings.
c. Use the NetSH command-line tool to configure IP settings on demand.
d. Manually change the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway and others options from the
Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) Properties dialog box.
8. For each Windows 7 enhancement t of IPv6, write a brief description in the space provided:
Better routing

Enhanced security

Improved mobile IPv6

7-46
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL

Windows 7 Networking

Knowledge Check Answer Key


The correct answers to the Knowledge Check questions are bolded.
1. Can Windows XP computers appear in a Windows 7 Network Map?
Yes they can, provided that you download and install the LLTD protocol.
2. The Network layer, sometimes known as the Internet layer, is responsible for routing information
from one network to another.
3. Josh wishes to use the IPv6 local loopback address to verify if the IPv6 network stack is
responding as designed. What address should he use with ping inside the command prompt?
a. 127.0.0.1
b. 127.EEOD:0000:0000:00000:0001
c. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
d. fe80::1c8c:3026:9d2c:bc66%13
4. Which of the following features in the Network and Sharing Center are useful when trying to
diagnose network-related problems? (Choose all that apply).
a. Network maps
b. Change adapter settings
c. Troubleshoot problems wizard
d. Set network locations
5. Place the steps for the DHCP service process in the correct order. Write the numbers in the
Answer column.

Answer Description
3 Client replies with Request message

4 Server confirms with an Acknowledgement message

1 Client sends out a Discover message

2 Servers answer with an Offer message

6. Clients running Windows Vista and Windows 7 can retrieve cached files from each other when
running in the Distributed BranchCache mode.
a. True
b. False
Client computers must be running Windows 7.
7. Which of the following methods could you use to configure TCP/IP settings? (Choose all
that apply):
a. Automatically obtain IP addresses in the Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6)
Properties dialog box.
b. Use the Network Display Map feature to view and edit the IPv6 settings.
c. Use the NetSH command-line tool to configure IP settings on demand.
d. Manually change the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway and others options from
the Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) Properties dialog box.

Administering and Maintaining W Windows


indows 7
7-47

Global Knowledge Training


LLC
L

Windows 7 Networking

8. For each Windows 7 enhancement of IPv6, write a brief description in the space provided:
Better routing:
Routing is built around the Internet architecture
Enhanced security:
IPSec is a protocol requirement
Improved mobile IPv6:
Maintains connectivity with address changes

7-48
Administering
Adminnistering
and Maintaining Windows 7

Global
Gloobal Knowledge Training LLC L
LL