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Piping Stress

Handbook
Second Edition

Victor Helguero M.
Piping Stress
Handbook

Second Edition
Design Criteria for Allowable Loads'
Moments, and Stresses

Design Criteria for Pumps with Steel larger reactions. The vendor must submit comparable cri-
teria for pump cases constructed of cast hon.
Nozzles and Casings
Suction and discharge nozzles should be designed to
withstand forces and moments from the thermal expan-
sion or contraction of prping. Piping reactions should be
API Code 610: Steel Pump Force, computed in conformance with ANSI Code B31 . or I
Moment, and Stress Limitations ANSI Code 831.3 for pressure piping and should be de-
signed within the limiting criteria set by this standard. The
The following criteria apply for pumps with 12-in. dis- modulus of elasticity must be adjusted for the operating
charge nozzles or smaller. The forces contained herein are temperature condition.
considered minimum criteria and should be adjusted Each nozzle should be capable of withstanding double
where the vendor has experimental or test data permitting the forces and amounts listed in Table 8-1 applied simulta-

Table 8-1
Nozzle Loadings
Nomlnal Size ot Nozzle Flange (in.)
Fotce/ oment < 2 6810 12 14b '| 6D

Each top nozzle


E 160 240 320 560 850 t,2N 1,500 1,600 1,900
F, (compression) 200 300 400 700 1,100 1,500 1,800 2,000 2,3w
Fy (tension) 100 150 2W 350 530 750 920 1,000 1,200
F, 130 200 260 460 700 1,000 1,200 1,300 1,500
Each side nozzle
R 160 240 320 560 850 1,200 1,500 1,600 1,900
Fy 130 2W 260 4ffi 7W 1,000 1,zffi 1,300 1,500
F, 200 300 400 700 I,100 1,500 I ,800 2,000 2,300
Each end nozzle
F" 200 300 400 700 1,100 1,500 1,800 2,000 2,300
F 130 2W 260 4@ 700 1,000 r,2w 1,300 1,500
F, 160 240 320 560 850 1,200 1,500 1,600 I,900
Each nozzle
Mr 340 700 980 1,700 2,6N 3,700 4,500 4,7N 5,400
My 260 530 740 1,300 1,900 2,800 3,400 3,500 4,000
M" 170 350 500 870 1,300 1,800 2,2W 2,300 2,7W
J = Verticalgo" to shaft
M= Moneu ft-h z = Hoizontalgo' to shaJt
x= Axis parolzl to shaft
Reprcduced from Centritugal Pumps for ceneral Refinery Services, Suth Edition, 1981 , Standad 610 Table 2. Repinted courtes, of the Ameican Petroleum
Institute.

257
25A Piping Stress Handbook

neously to the pump through each nozzle, in addition to The resultant applied force or moment may be in-
internal pressure, without causing an hternal rub or ad- creased up to double the values in Table 8-2 if the maxi-
versely affecting the operation of the pumps or seal. mum combined limit on the installed equipment is not ex-
The baseplate and pedestal support assembly should be ceeded. This limit is determined by the summation of the
adequate to limit the shaft displacement, when measured forces and moments from Table 8-2 on both nozzles si-
at the coupling, to a maximum of 0.005 in. in any direc- multaneously, taken about a point defined by the intersec-
tion when subjected to the loads shown in Table 8-1. tion of the axis of the shaft and the centerline of the pedes-
These loads represent the total effect of all external me- tals.
chanical forces that may be applied to a fully grouted For heavy-duty baseplates the total applied resultant
pump base. They are to be applied to the pump through forces and moments on the suction and discharge nozzles
the suction and/or discharge nozzle (see Figure 8-1): should not be more than twice the eouivalent of those
For purposes of evaluating computed piping-imposed given in Thble 8-1. For applied resultant forces and mo-
external moments and forces, these forces be transferred ments that are greater than these, allowable values shall
from both suction and discharge flanges to the intersec- be mutually agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.
tion of the X, Y, and Z axes. An algebraic surffnation
should then be made for comparison with the moment lim-
itation just given. The vendor should submit alternative
criteria for pumps larger than 12 in.
Because a particular nozzle on a pump will not always
be subjected to the maximum allowable resultant force Design Criteria for Pumps with Cast lron
and moment simultaneously, an increase in either the re-
sultant applied force or the resultant applied moment may or Aluminum Nozzles and Casings
be made if the following limitations can be satisfied at that
nozzle:.
Aluminum Pump Force, Moment, and
(F"iF.) + (M^/M.) < 2, F"/F, < 2, and M"/M. ( C Stress Limitations
where C : 2, for nozzles 6 in. and smaller
= (D + 6)/D, for nozzles 8 in. and larger The following criteria apply for pumps with 4-in. or
M" = resultant applied moment at the nozzle, ft- smaller discharge nozzles (suction nozzles may be larger).
lb The forces contained herein are considered minimum cri-
E = resultant applied force at the nozzle, lb teria and should be adjusted where the vendor has experi-
M. : resultant moment (from Table 8-2), ft-lb mental or test data permitting larger reactions.
F, : resultant force (from Table 8-2) lb Suction and discharge nozzles should be designed to
D = nominal diameter of nozzle flange. in. withstand forces and moments from the thermal expan-
sion or contraction of piping. Piping reactions shall be
computed in conformance with the petroleum refinery
piping code for pressure piping ANSI Code 831.3, Sec-
tion 319, and should be designed within the limiting crite-
ria set by this standard. The modulus of elasticity should
be adjusted for the operating temperature condition.

Table 8-2
Suggested Allowable Resullant
Forces and Momenis
(For Vendor's Standard Baseplates)
E io^
-de.. Resultant Nominal Size of Nozzle Flange (in.)
Force/Moment 23 4 6 810 124
F 430 640 860 1,500 2,300 2,',700 2,900
M. 690 1,400 2,000 3,500 5,200 6,600 8,200
Figure 8-1. Pump coordinate system.
Design Criteria for Allowable Loads, Moments, and Stresses 259

Each nozde should be capable of withstanding forces Limit tension and comDression forces to 500 lb
from external piping determined by the following formu-
Ias: where F Force, lb
r Resultant of forces
X Axis parallel to shaft
. Suction nozzles: v Vertical 90' to shaft
z Horizontal 90' to shaft
F"(1.6w(50D w Weight of pump only, lb
D Diameter, nominal diameter
r Discharge nozzles: d Discharge or exhaust
S Suction or intake
F,6 ( (2w - F.,) < 50D
F. is the resultant shear force in the plane of any specific
o Top suction and top discharge nozzles are further lim- flange face.
ited by:
Each suction and discharge nozzle should be designed
F.. and F,.a : (Fx2 + Fz2)L/'z to withstand the forces described for the specific configu-
ration. Unit stresses in each nozzle should be limited to:
and for suction nozzles one-third of the allowable hot stresses for pipe sizes ( 4
in.; one-half of the allowable hot stresses for pipe sizes
F*(1.3w(40D > 4 in.; as shown in ANSI Codes B31.1 and 831.3.
Fr" (in compression) 1.2w ( ( 50D The baseplate and pedestal support assembly on pumps
(
Fr, (in tension) 25D having a discharge nozzle of 4 in. should be adequate to
F",(w(35D limit the shaft displacement, when measured at the cou-
pling, to a maximum of 0.005 in. in any direction when
and for discharge nozzles subjected to the following loads. These loads represent the
tot;l effect of all externil mechanical forces tliat may be
F*a ( (1.8w r F*) < 40D applied to a ful1y grouted pump base. They are to be ap-
Fra (in compression) (2w Fr") ( t < 50D plied to the pump through the suction andior discharge
Fra (in tension) 0.5w < 25D( nozzle.
F,a((wtF,,)<35D
M, : 3.0 W* ftlb
o End suction and top discharge pumps are further limited
Mv : 2.0 wx ftlb
by:
Mz = 1.5 W+ ft-lb
M* : Moment in Y-Z plane
F": G^'?+Fy.)- My : Moment in X-Z Plane
M, : Moment in X-Y plane
and
W : Weight of pump only, lb
F,6: (Fl + F"a'?)"'
For purpose of evaluating computed piping-imposed
and for suction nozzles external moments and forces, they should be transferred
from both suction and discharge flanges to the intersec-
F".(1.2w(50D tion of the X, Y and Z axes. An algebraic summation
Fr.(0.6w(35D should then be made for comparison with the moment lim-
F.,< w(40D itation just given.
The vendor must submit alternative criteria for pumps
and for discharge nozzles having a discharge flange of 4 in. NPS. It is suggested
that these criteria be developed as a result of tests'
F"a((1.8wtF*)<40D
Fra (in compression) 2w + Fy. ( < 50D
Fra (in tension) 0.5w 25D( (
F.a((w1F".)935D * Minimum W is 500 lb in tlpse computations.
260 Piping Stress Handbook

Design Criteria for Turbine Drivers with D. : Pipe size of the connection (IpS) up to g
Steel Nozzles and Casings in. in diameter. For sizes greater than this
use Dc : (16 + IpS)/3 in.

The combined resultants of the forces and moments of


Steel Turbines Force, Moment, and the inlets, extraction, and exlaust connections, resolved at
Stress Limitations the centerlines of the exhaust connection and shaft must
not exceed the following two conditions:

At the operating temperature, using the hot modulus F.


(2s0 D. - M.)
"E," resultant bending moments are permissible up to a
value that would cause a bending stress of S5/4 in a con-
nection having a section modulus equal to the connecting where F, : Combined resultant of inlet. extraction.
piping for the same size where the comection is 4 in. IpS and exhaust forces, lb
or larger. On smaller size connections a stress of S"/3 is M, : Combined resultant of inlet, extraction,
permitted. (56 is as defined by ANSI Code 83l . I or ANSI and exhaust moments and moments re-
Code B31.3 (current issue) for the material of construc- sulting from forces, ftJb
non. ) D. : Diameter (in.) of a circular opening equal
The resultant shear force at the face of the flanee and to the total areas of the inlet, extraction
any individual component may not exceed 2,000 lb. The and exhaust openings up to a value of 9
resultant forces and individual components are limited in. in diameter. For values beyond this,
further as follows: :
use D. (i8 * equivalent diameter)/3
ln.
o Individual comDonents:
Components of these resultants should not exceed:
F-< 1.3w( 160D
F( .6w( 130D F." < 50 D., M_ <250D,
F,< w( 160D F
'vr < 125 D., My. < 125D.
F < 100 D., M., < 125D.
o Resultant components:

Algebraic summation of F." ( 1.6w


Algebraic surnmation of Fo ( w Vertical Exhaust Connection
Algebraic summation of F,' ( l.6w
r Combined resultant: For installation of turbines with a vertical exhaust and
an umestrained expansion joint at the exhaust, an addi-
(F.*), + F.y, + F-r)'" ( 2w
tional amount of force caused by pressure loading is
allowed. (The additional force referred to is perpendicu-
Use up to 100% cold spring and satisfl the operaring lar to the face of the exhaust flange and central.) For this
condition only. type ofapplication, calculate the vertical force component
The total resultant force and total resultant moment im- on the exhaust connection, excluding pressure loading,
posed on the turbine at any connection must not exceed and compare with the value of t/o the pressure loading on
the following: the exlaust. Use the larger of these two numbers for a
vertical force component on exhaust connections in mak-
ing the calculations just outlined.
(s0oD" - M)
The force caused by the pressure loading on the exhaust
is allowed in addition to the values established bv the Dre-
ceding up to a maximum value of vertical force (ib) o; the
where F : Resultant force (lb), including pressure exhaust connection (including pressure loading) of 151/:
forces where unrestrained exoansion times the exhaust area (in.2).
joints are used at the connection. except These values of allowable force and moment Dertain to
on vertical exhausts the turbine structure only. They do not pertain to the
M: Resultant moment, ftlb forces and moments in the cormecting piping, flange, and
Design Criteria for Allowable Loads, Moments, and Stresses 261

flange bolting that should not exceed the allowable stress resultant forces and individual components will be limited
as defined by applicable codes and regulatory bodies. (See further as follows:
Figure 8-2.)
o Individual components:

F"(1.3w(40D
Fr(.6w(35D
Design Criteria for Turbine Drivers with F"< w(40D
Cast lron or Aluminum Nozzles and . Resultant components:
Casings
Algebraic summation of F,* ( 1.6w
Algebraic summation of Fo ( w
Cast lron or Aluminum Turbine Force, Algebraic summation of F'" ( 1.6w
Moment and Stress Limitations . Combined resultant:

At the operating temperature, using the hot modulus (F*2+F,r2+F''?),n<2w


"8," resultant bending moments are permissible up to a
value which would cause a bending stress of 56/4 in a con- Use cold spring, but comply to these limitations in both
nection having a section modulus equal to the connecting operating and installed conditions.
piping for the same size where the connection is 4 in. IPS
or larger. On smaller size connections a stress of Sr,/3 is The total resultant force and total resultant moment im-
permitted. (56 is as defined by ANSI Code B3l. 1 or ANSI posed on the turbine at any connection must not exceed
Code 831.3 (current issue) for the material of construc- the following:
tlon.)
The resultant shear force at the face of the flange and
anv individual component should not exceed 500 lb. The
F<
(s00D. - M)

where F = Resultant force (lb), including pressure


forces where unrestrained expansion
joints are used at the comection, except
RIGHT ANGLE TO
TURBINE SHAFT-
on vertical exhausts
/ M: Resultant moment, ft-lb
D": Pipe size of the connection (IPS) up to an
S-in. diameter. For sizes greater than this
use a D" :(16 + IPS)/3 in.

The combined resultants of the forces and moments of


the inlet. extraction, and exhaust connections, resolved at
the centerlines of the exhaust connections must not exceed
the following two conditions.

l.F.< (2s0 D. - M)

where F. : Combined resultant of inlet, extrac-


tion, and exhaust forces, lb
M,: Combined resultant of inlet, extrac-
tion, and exhaust moments and mo-
Figure 8-2. Turbine coordinate system. ments resulting from forces, ft-lb
262 Piping Stress Handbook

D. : Diameter (in.) of a circular opening o Combined resultant:


equal to the total areas of the inlet,
extraction, and exhaust openings up (F*2+Fry2+F.z;rnE2*
to a value of 9 in. in diameter. For
values beyond this, use D. Use 100% cold spring and satisf the operating condi
(18 + equivalent diameter)/3 in. tion only.

2. Components of these resultants should not exceed:

F* 50 D., < M* < 250 D.


The total resultant force ald total resultant moment im-
posed on the compressor at any comection must not ex-
Fy. 125 D., < My. < 125 D,
ceed the following:
F". 100 D,, < M". < 125 D,

F< (925D. - M)
J

where F = Resultant force (lb), including pressure


Design Criteria for Compressors with forces where unrestrained expanston
Steel Nozzles and Casings joints are used at the connection.
M: Resultant moment, ftlb
D: Pipe size of the connection (IPS) up to 8
inches in diameter. For sizes greater than
Centrifugal Steel Compressor Force, this use D" : (16 + IPS)/3 in.
Moment, and Stress Limitations
The combined resultants of the forces and moments of
At the operating temperature, using the hot modulus the suction interstage and discharge connections, resolved
"8," resultant bending moments are permissible up to a at the centerlines of the discharge comection must not ex-
value that would cause a bending stress of $,/4 in a con- ceed the followins two conditions.
nection having a section modulus equal to the comecting
piping for the same size where the connection is 4 in. IPS
or larger. On smaller-size comections a stress of S1/3 is
1.F.<
(463 D. - M.)
permitted. (S1 is as defined by ANSI Code B31.1 or ANSI
Code 831.3 (current issue) for the material of construc-
tion.) where F. : Combined resultant of suction, inter-
The resultant shear force at the face of the flanee and stage and discharge forces, lb
any individual component should not exceed 2,60 lb. MI: Combined resultant of suction, inter-
The resultant forces and individual components will be stage and discharge moments result-
limited further as follows: ing from forces, ftlb
Diameter (in.) of a circular opening
r Individual components: equal to the total areas of the suc-
tion, interstage, and discharge open-
F* ( 1.3w < 160D ings up to a value of 9 in. in diame-
F, ( .6w < l30D ter. For values beyond this, use D,
F" ( 1.0w < 160D = (18 + equivalent diamerer)/3 in.
. Resultant components: 2. Components of these resultants should not exceed:

Algebraic summation of Fo
Algebraic summation of Fo
l.6w F," < 92 D., M_ < 460 D,
Fy. < 230 D,, My. < 230 D,
Algebraic summation of F- 1.6w F,, < r85 D,. M. < 230 D,
Design Criteria for Allowable Loads, Moments, and Stresses

Design Criteria for Compressors with where F : Resultant force (lb), including pressure
forces where unrestrained e xpansion
Cast lron or Aluminum Nozzles and joints are used at the connection. except
Casings on vertical exhausts
M= Resultant moment, ft-lb
D" : Pipe size of the connection (IPS) up to 8
in. in diameter. For sizes greater than this
Cast lron Compressor Force, Moment, use a D" :(16 + IPS)/3 in.
and Stress Limitations
The combined resultants of the forces and moments of
the inlet, extraction, and exhaust connections, resoived at
At the operating temperature, using the hot modulus, the centerlines of the exhaust connection must not exceed
"E," resultant bending moments are permissible up to a the followine two conditions.
value that would cause a bending stress of S;/4 in a con-
nection having a section modulus equal to tle connecting
1.F.<
(250 D. - MJ
piping for the same size where the connection is 4 in. IPS
or larger. On smaller-size connections a stress of 56/3 is
permitted. (Sr is defined by ANSI Code 831.1 or ANSI where F. : Combined resultant of suction, in-
Code 831.3 (current issue) for the material of construc- terstage and discharge forces, lb
hon.) M. = Combined resultant of suction, in-
The resultant shear force at the face of the flange and terstage, and discharge forces, lb
any individual component shall not exceed 500 lb. The re- D, : Diameter (in.) of a circular opening
sultant forces and individual components are limited fur- eoual to the total areas of the suc-
ther as follows : tion, interstage, and discharge open-
ings up to a vaiue of 9 in. in diame-
ter. For values beyond this use D,
o Individual comDonents:
= (18 + equivalent diameter)/3 in.
F.(1.3w(40D 2. ComDonents of these resultants should not exceed:
Fr(.6w(35D
F"< w(40D F." < < 460 D.
92 D., M,-
. Resultant components:
F.y< < 230 D,
230 D., M.y
F. < 185 D., M- < 230 D,
Algebraic summation of F* ( 1.6w
Algebraic summation of Fo ( 1.0w
Algebraic summation of F," < 1.6w

o Combined resultant:
API Code 661 Design Criteria for
(F*2+F.y2+F-'?)'n<2w Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Use cold spring, but comply to these limitations in both
operating and installed conditions.

The total resultant force and total resultant moment im- Each nozzle in the corroded condition must be capable
posed on the turbine at any connection must not exceed of withstanding the moments and forces defined in Table
the followins: 8-3.
The design of each fixed header, of the fixed header to
F< (s00D" - M) sideframe connection, and of other support members
should be such that no damage will occur due to the simul-
264 Piping Stress Handbook

taneous application of the following design iotal nozzle For the direction of loads see Figure 8-3.
loadings on a single header: The total of all nozzle loads on one multibundle bav
should not exceed three times that allowed for a singli
header.
The maxirrum allowable moments and forces for float-
Moments. ftlb Forces. lb irlg headers are a matter of agrement between the pur-
M- M, IvI, F,FyF" chaser and the vendor.
3,000 4,000 2,000 r,500 3,000 2,500

This recogrrizes that the application of ths moments and


forces will cause movement and that this movement will
tend to reduce the actual lmds.

Tabte &3
Allowable External Forces and iloments tor
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Nozzle
NPS Moments ft-lb
Slze, Forces, lb
Inches ilr lily M: F, F,, F2

lth 50 70 50 100 150 100


2 70 120 70 150 2ffi 150
200 300 2N 300 250 300
400 600 400 500 400 500
6 1,050 1,500 800 600 750 750 Figure 8-3, The direction of the loads defined in Table &
8 1,500 3,000 1,100 850 2,000 1,200 3. Reproduced lrcm Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for
10 2,W0 3,m0 1,250 1,000 2,000 1,500 General Refinery Se/.v,bes, Second Edition, i978, Stan-
t2 2,5W 3,000 1,500 1,250 2,W 2,000 dard 661, Figure L Reprinted courtesy of the American
14 3,000 3,500 1,750 1,500 2,500 2,500 Petroleum Instilute.
Simptified Solutions for Pipe Stress

These tables are developed as a tool for the piping stress can readily be seen that the smaller expansion will deflect
engineer or the piping designer by which he can quickly the longer leg more easily than the larger expansion will
evaluate a proposed layout before he proceeds with his de- the shorter leg.
slgn worK. To develop Tables 9-1 and 9-2, a guided cantilever for-
It is important for the reader to understand that the ta- mula has been used to calculate stresses. If we observe
bles presented herein do not compose a rigorous solution our Example Problem 9-1 for an expansion ofX -92 =
to the pipe stress problem. Computer calculations must be in., the required offset is about 13 ft for a stress of 15,000
made for borderline cases. The tables are approximate psi (See Thble 9-1) and 23 ft for a stress of 5,000 psi (See
values onlv for two-anchor oroblems. Table 9-2). If Point A is attached to a piece of rotating
equipment, you will need to have about 23 ft to make the
system more flexible. If the system is attached to a piece
of nonrotating equipment, a 13-ft offset will be sufficient.
To find the thermal forces Table 9-3 is to be used, which
Example Problem 9-1 shows forces for a unit reflection with various leneths of
offset.
Consider the piping arrangement in Figure 9-1. Note that in identifuing pipe sizes the tables show wall
thickness and moment of inertia as well as O.D. All forces
Size: 8 in. are calculated from the formula:
Schedule: Sch 40
Material: A-53 Grade B F: 6 Ell1728 L3 (guided cantilever)
O.D.: 8.625 in.
Temperature: 600'F where F: Force, lb {:
E O-.ton, t tn.,
Coefficient of thermal expansion: .046 in./ft E= Young's modulus of elasticity, (30 x 106
psi)
The expansion for the 20-ft leg is X :
.92 in., and the I : Moment of inertia of pipe, in.a
expansion for the 10-ft is X = .46 in. By inspection, it L: Length of the shorter leg, ft

I Fys = 434lb
I
F.B = 6,949lb.

Figure 9-1. Diagram for Example Problem 9-1 .


(Text continued on page 291.)

265
256 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-1
Lengths ot Offset Required to Safely Absorb Various Expansions tor Piping Between Two Solld Anchors
(Stress Limit is 15,000 pst)

Pipe O.D. tength (ft) Bequired to Absorb Expansion A (in.)


(in.) ol o.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 o.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
1.3 1.5 2.3 .8 3.6 4. .3 4.6 4.9 5,4
1.9 3.4 3.9 4.4 4.8 5,2 6.2 6.5 6,8
2.3 3.0 4,3 4.8 6.1 5.9 7.2
2,6 4.6 6.5 6.6 ?1 8.9 8.9 9.3
4.5 3.5 4.3 5.2 5.1 5.8 7.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 7S .l 10.5
3.3 6.7 8.2 8.9 tg ,r t0.6 Lt.2 1',t t
6.6 5.2 5.il 7.4 9.0 rs .4 tl.l lt.7 12.2 I2 .8
l'.D 4.2 5.9 8.4 9.4 l0 .3 11.1 lr.:t 12,6 14,9 14 .5
rs .7 6.6 8.1 9,4 10.5 L2.4 l4 .1 14.9 15.6
5.1 8.9 rg .2 IL.4 12,5 IJ.5 l4 .5 16.2 r7 .0 17.8
74.9 5.3 7.6 16 .7 12 .g 13.2 14.2 15 .2 16.1 L7 .g 17.8 l8 .6
16,S 5.7 8.1 9.9 t2.a 14 .l 16.3 18.2
18 .0 5.1 8.5 10.5 t2 ,2 14 .9 15.1 17.3 l9 .3 2S ,2 2L .T
2g.g 6.4 9.1 11.1 12.a l4 .4 15.7 L7 .S t8 .2 26 .3 22,3
24.5 7.9 9.9 t4.l 17 .3 t8.5 27 .r 22 .3 23.4 24.4
30 .s 7.8 l1,l tJ.o IE ? !7,6 l9 .3 2g .8 22 .3 23,6 24.9 26 .7 27 .3
36 .g l4 .9 17.3 2t .7 22 .8 24 .4 25.9 28.6
42,9 9.3 r6.l 18 .5 2g ,8 22.A 26 .4 28.9 29 ,s 39,9
4A.S t4.l u.3 26.4 28 .2 29 .9 33.1 34.5
54.9 tg .5 I4.9 18.3 2L.I 23 .6 28.0 29 .9 JJ.5

Pipe O.D. tength (ft) Required to Absorb Expansion A (in.)


(in.) -r-:3 2.9 2.5 3,0 4.5 5.9 6.6 6.5 7,0
1.3 9.9 9,7 tg ,4 11.0 ll.5 L2, 13 ,2
1.9 u.d 9.9 l0 .8 t3.3 !4 .6 L6 .g 16.5
2.3 8.4 9.7 10.9 11.9 12.9 13.8 14 .6 15 .4 16.9 I7 .6 18.2
ro ,4 12.o 13.4 15.9 17 ,g 78,5 t9 .6 2g .0 29.8 22.5
11.8 13.6 L5.2 I8 .g 26.5 2I .6 22 .6 23 ,6 24.6
L3 .g 15.1 l5 .9 o.5
.l 26 .g 2I.3 23 ,9 25 .g 26 .L 28 ,2
14.3 15 .5 l8 .5 20 .2 2L .9 23 .4 24 .8 27 .4 28 .6 39.9
16.3 l8 .9 21.1 23 .r 25 .0 29 ,9 31 .3 34 .6
IS .1 L8 ,2 2I.0 23 .5 za .6 27 .9 29 .8 3r,5 34.9 38 .S 39 .4
19 ,9 22.9 25.6 28 .l 35,4 34.4 36,3 41.4 43 .s
74.0 2g .8 24 .T 26 .9 29.5 31.9 36.1 JU.I 4S .6 4I.7 43.5 45,1
L6 .O 22.3 28.8 34.1 36 .4 4S ,'l 42 .1 46.5 48.2
l8 .0 23.6 27 .3 30.5 36.1 38,5 45.3 47 .3 49,3 sl.1
26,0 24.9 29.8 32.2 JO.I 4g .7 43.2 45.6 47.8 49 .9 52 ,S 53 .9
24,9 38.6 4r .7 44.6 47 .3 49.9 52 ,3 54.7 s5 .9
3g .g Jt.5 39.4 43 .2 46 .7 49.9 5 8.6 61.t 63.6 55,0
36 .S 38.6 43.2 47 .3 51.1 54.7 58,6 51.1 64.1 67,9
42 .0 36.1 a6.7 51.1 55.2 66 ,O ?a I
48,9 38,5 44.6 49.9 54.7 59,1 53.1 67 .S 70.6 7 4.I 8S ,5
54.5 4r,s 47 .3 a2.9 5A.g 62.6 67 .S 7t.s 7 4,9 a2.6 88.5
Simolified Solutions for Pipe Stress 267

Table 9-2
Lengths of Oftset Required to Safely Absorb Various Expansions tor Piping Connected to Rotating
Equipment (Stress Limit is 5,000 psi)

Pipe O.D. Length (ft) Required to Absorb Expansion A (in')


(in.) -6:i o.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 o.7 0.8 0., 1.0 1.1 1.2
4.9 4.9 6.9 7.5 8.0 8.t 9.0 9,4 9.8
t.9 3.4 4.8 5.9 8.4 76.1 l0 .8 tr .4 11 .9
rg .0 10 .7 1t .3 11,9
3,5 4.6 6,6 8,9 9,3 70,4 11 .4 r4.0 14.7 15 .4 16 .1
7 .4 9,r L6 .5 1r .8 L2.9 74,0 t5 .8
8.2 t0.r 11.7 13.0 14 .3 r5,4 l6 .5 17 .5 r 9.4 29.2
6,6 5.4 9,9 1r.1 12.8 14.3 15 .7 16.9 r8.t 19.2 26.2
8.6 7.3 r0.3 12.6 14 .6 16 ,3 lo I 20 .7 23 .r 24.2 25,3
ro.7 8.r 16.3 L8.2 20 .0 2r.6 24.5
29.5 36,8
r2.7 8.9 12.5 15.4 L7.8 19.9 2r .8 28,1
30 .9
74.s 9.3 t3,2 16.r 18.6 2q .8 24,7 26 .4 28 .g 29.5
33 .l
32.3
L6.0 9,9 19.9 22.3 24.4 34.6
t8,0 I0,5 14.9 18.3 2r ,r 23.6 25 .9 28 .0
37 .6 3 8,5
28 .0 1t.r 22.3 24.9 27 ,3 29.5
24 ,O 12.2 r7.3 27,r 24.4 27 ,3 29.9 32 ,3 34,6 38.6 40.5 42,3
30 .o 13,5 19.3 23.6 27.3 30.5 38.6 47 .A 43.2
36.s L4.9 21.1 25,9 29 .9 33 .5 36 .7 39.6 44,9 47 ,3 49.7 sl .9
42.A 15.1 22.8 28.9 39.6 45 .7 48,5 5I .I 53 .6 56 .0
48.0 L7 .3 24.4 29.9 34.6 38.6 42 .3 48.9 57.3 59 .9
54,6 18.3 25 ,9 31.7 36 ,7 4L.0 44.9 48.5 55 ,g 58.0 60,8 6 3.5
Pipe O.D. Length (ft) Required to Absorb Expansion A (in.)
(in.) i.s 2.O 2.5 3.0 4,9 4.5 5.0 6.q 7.9
1.3 rl .0 15.6 16 .8 18 .0 20.L 21.1 22,9 22.9 23 .8
1.9 13.3 18.8 26 .3 23,g 24.3 26.6 27 .7 28 .8
2.3 14,6 15.9 18 .9 20 ,7 22,4 25 ,4 28 .g 3t ,5
3.5 18.0 20.8 23.3 25,5 27 .6 29.5 33.0 34.6 35,r 39.6
4.5 29.5 23.6 26,4 29.s 31.3 37 ,4 39.2 4t,0 42 .7
26 .L 29.2 32.0 3 4 .6 37.9 4t .4 43 .4 45.3 49 .0
28.6 32,0 49,5 43,5 45.3 41 ,5 49 .7
8.6 24,3 4g.r 43.3 46 .3 49.r 51.7 56 ,7 59.0
ls.7 31.6 36,5 4q.8 44 .'t 48.3 54,8 66 ,5 63.2 65.8
L2.7 34.4 3 9,8 44.5 48.'t 52.6 66.9 68.9
14.0 36,L 4r,7 46 .7 Fl I q( ' 62.6 65.0 72.3 78.r
L6.0 3 8.5 44,6 49 ,9 54.7 59 .r 67 .0 74.L 77 .3 80.5
18.0 4L.O 47.3 52.9 58 .0 62.6 61 ,0 77.0 74.9 78,5 a2.g 88.6
26.9 43.2 49,9 5s.8 61, t 66.0 70.6 74,9 7 8.9 82,8 85,5 96.0 93 .4
24.6 47 .3 54.7 61.r 67 .0 72.3 82 .0 85,5 90.7 94 ,7 98 .6 IO2 .3
30 ,0 52.9 61..1 68.4 74,9 8q.9 86.5 9r.7 I6L,4 10s.9 110 .3 ]f 4.4
36 .0 5a.S 67.9 7 4.9 82 .S 88.6 L00.5 ro5 .9 ItL.r 1r5.0 I2A .a r25.3
42.O 62.6 72.3 89.9 88.6 95.7 L02.3 108.5 114 .4 r2g ,o 125,3 130.5 135.4
48.5 67.0 77 .3 85.5 94 .7 r02.3 L09.4 rt6,g r22 .3 134,0 139 .5 L44.7
54.9 7 r.g 82.O 91.7 109.5 rsg.5 116.0 123.1 L29 .7 r36.1 I42.I L4't,9
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9.3
Force (lb/ln.) ot Expansion tor L-Shaped pipe (No Etbow)

?.375 i0 12.;5 i . sc!.i. 5s PIPE

{IFF- l. J/J J.lt0 4,5S9 5.563 ii,6:5 !.6?5 lS.;Ss l3,ig$


,,t65 !.SS3 g,gs3 0.1t9 g.lr9 0,lg? Lt3{ 9.156
FI t.3ls !,3sc ?.8tt 6.?4t ll.84t ?6,{{t 6?.?6S t22.iAF
i 4!190 t6!94: Ig!586 99t457 t5{!!3? 344!?74 8l?r9fi9
J l,!li 5,5?t l$.849 ?iigg? tf,7r5 tEi,BE1, ?4t,t3E i?f.lgg
5t3 :!rtB 1.573 l!!td7 t9,t8g 4Jtt34 19?,486 199:?t l
5 :6? t!98{ :!3,11 5!789 ?,87! ?!rfi{ 52,4?3 lS!!991
6 i52 ,i2? I.353 3,35t 5!7lz 1?!751 3g!5i6 t9,62?
t 9$ 3t5 853 ?! ltg .3,19i 9,F35 l9! t23 37,169
I 5{ 165 57? lr,ll3 7,418 :!17? lt,gu Z4Jrg
7 45 t8s {9t 993 l,i9l 3,778 8!997 17,{8F
LE J3 136 ftJ 724 l,?3{ :,;5,1 6!3:l l2r?{9
?5 t9i 275 5{1 121 ?,989 {!9?8 9,578
19 ?n 169 4t9 714 11594 J.?96 7,378
l3 15 6? t33 32t 55t I,I5{ 2!985 5,803
!l {t tE? ?64 45t l!fs{ ?!399 {.i{6
rfl 45 s7 4 3AA 816 l!t{t 3t717
E 31 7r i7 3gr 672 r.6tt J.lr3
7 t9 69 147 tst 561 t!t35 2.395
IE 6 ?l 5i t?4 2l? 47i I,tIs ?.i86
5 ts, 43 166 lsg 49: 956 1!859
t, 4t7 99 t5{ 344 g?t t.59{
41532 75 133 7i7 7$8 t,377
JTJiI 68 116 f59 616 l!.1t7
?3 l tl 1{ 5t i'l ?2t 519 lr|4g
?l{:i 3l E9 i99 4r4 ?:!
:5 9 f9 46 i! l7S 426 Bt6
r6 t I l7 4! ;t i57 l7I
2i 1i'E!t 5J i1S 333 64S
:s l6l]3] 5i lr5 29C 5gl
?t !if!lg :l ll3 ;&9 5!5
;t I 5 ll ti 4$ tfz ?4t 47?
li r5t5:4 4l f: rit 428
3r l4r|2 :d 4 :ss 189
ll l4E?S lst 355
34 7i8tl iE l6i S?4
137ti;? 64 153 297
lg I 3 .6 :5 :i 5? l4r :71
t7 I 3 s l{ ?4 54 1?9 25?
: t 7 5 iJ ri :g t:s :r-!
3t r i 5 l2 :i ,iii lll 113
! ? 5 it It 43 19M9
g l, ! 4s 95 lB5

FIRST 3 UNES ARE O.D., WAIL TEICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF NERNA.


Simplitied Solutions for Pipe Stress

Table 9-3
Contlnued

i,l TE 3t $1. scH. :3 PllE

lq,Ei'd l i, dtit iS,S{0 :4. BSS 3il, tCg


7!l il. !5i S,169 6' lis s. i38 $,?lu 8.258
i6:.:iF 1*3.14F 167.it! 374.tlt 1151.5?f ?5S5.196

3 :3, [7{ 53.5;7 i4.i95 tli qiq tI4r:9: 3?5,9S7


i :t,;19 37.6:t 5!!i?l E?,943 164!551 199,396
ii..934 :7.,l]: lB!:94 :9, gg9 11?,95? 169,l9il
li i?,773 !g! $ld 28,771 {{, YJ0 9gt l16 ?g?,l!2
t? I,dSF 15.S75 ?:! lgl 14.6t1. 69, q?6. 135,8:9
1l i.7s8 l:!48i 17, iJg ii 7'jt, 54!i$l 1fl.:7r
i4 i, i7t 9!99t ll! 955 : l. ?9i 4J,71,5 9B! liE
iJ :r017 8. !3S 1,1-4S ! 35!543 i9,79fi
li 4,134 n!i?7 9,339 l4! 6t7 :9.?g$ .65.745
t7 I,{47 5,5ii 7.,;l{ f ,17{ !{!416 34! gil
?!994 4,ifr4 6!3,t6 :t!569 4A.l?5
l9 !!1Ji 3!9t9 5,591 B,lrt lt.4s9 19! ?6t
i?'i,lt
:! l17 3,4?9 4,787 j,47i in oEE
:i I, E?9 :.9&? ,l! 13: 6,459 t?!t53 7',g7B
ii 1. s9S :,:?S 3,5?6 !1-!61 23,798
23 1,39? ?! ?55 I,l{? +rYl0 I,gii ?2,l3I
it I,:?5 1,9S4 lt1ifi 4,I:3 g!677 1?.4i9
.
2t l,+ts4 11756 1,431 i tlt 7,b77 il!?35
!i 953 1,561 i,179 l,4dl 6, B?: 15,Jll
17 E&9 i,l?4 l,!46 i,st4 lStE?l
?2 i1L 1, t5$ 1,744 !.4$5 1?,:t7
:9 694 1r 1?5 1!5?g 4!il9 1t.04i
i?7 1,4i6 l.4lB 4,443 t. t7{
3i 5,:S t:t l!:85 4!g?7 I,Sli
ti 51; 137 L ii? t ilt 3.ii1 g.:18:
-rl 471 r6t 16S 1, !, Er4 l!339 7,4q3i
1T l]t 69s 9I{ I,65? 6!g3i
;: t?5 i4g 493 ?;798 i,rcl
.i
l6 liJ f,Ed ldl 1,ZS: E?t 5 li.t
31 $4 347 i5& ! lrt ?,36S 5,3lS
t8 lr9 rs6 ilg t, gts I,l8i {,rgri
i1 !85 46? 614 l,BgE 7'127 4.5'igi
1s5 4lt 5!S ,i1 l!874 4,?;iS
4i ;,ii' 39S 55$ ;$S I!:41 1,9!i,
4; ?2t 1i& :t7 :81 1,,tlt i, 3!
il-l 145 +sl 737 1.:S9 lrJ57
19? lt: 45S !,4gg 3, 16l:
IBe lEl 4f i6 r5i !316
I ?,955
174 !S: .rtl oi{ 1!l;; 2,1&7'
161 ?$4 lig 37t I, i55 !,9?4

FIP"ST 3 UNES ARE O.D., WAIL T'IIICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERNA,


Piping Stress Handbook

Tbble 9-3
Continued

:,:i5 T! i1. 75 Ii't. 5[H. tLrS pE

ufF- z,zil l.5E' 4.5SS 5.:63 i.it5 i.!I5 lJ.7:$ l:.759


stI r'i.lE9 9.134 S. lt4 f.l4r 0.1r5 0. ir[
Fi s.49$ r.8:s J. t69 8,4!t t4.3?i t5.4t$ 76.S6t 110.41f
I t,55S ?3!7!3 51,597 lgS,7B5 l8i.i6s 461,125
J i,i:! 7,g7i 15!:ifl If,:65 "EI.i46 lj6.itli !9t,S,l: i4t,74l
4 8l: ?,1t5 S,456 t,l.nj ?S,4jI :7,$4t I?S!.i{,1 !$.i47
.q
i16 tt:1fr 3,39: irstl 11,?98 ?9,31? 64.553 7!S16
r: :4t st9 l!9ll 4,863 6!i4l tl.frj7 3r.56i 6t,;ls
7 l5? sst t,?$3 :,559 4,31? tg,;i5 ?3,3{3 4216,+4
l0? 371 SF6 1.714 ?1911 i.:ti r3.i;8 28.:iB
9 il t,5s 5&6 t,rt4 2.557 5,S6S :d,9gl 2fr,86\
tg 5i l9s 4l] Si8 t,lgg tr!99 E,frei l4r$:i
t1 39 l4l 3t9 $59 I, l?? t: t7? 6!916 !9,99t
JS tls ?39 59S E68 ?!l]5 4,6J3 3!465
ll t4 Bi l8s t?9 i83 1,679 1,641 i,658
l? $t l$ 3?n 347 1,344 I.918 5.t31
l5 l5 3i l?2 ?ii$ {44 I, g9l it 3i: JJi 4!
li ll 46 ltl tl4 l$i 1 1,955 3.:i1
9:?
rl lt t9 8{ tlt 395 751 llils ?,177
9 3J il l5c ?5i iJ3 l!J7t :,_!F8
t9 B?865 l?t ?19 538 I, lS7 t, 133
0i{Jt ltg lE7 4$i tlEgl t!t?8
5IS45 t5 16? 198 S{5 1,5;9
:! 5is39 8t t4l l.t6 732' 1,5;-4
23 4lB14 ,1? lll 3S3 i-8 ir?g?
4!439 6J i9U ?97 5;9 i.956
;l::6 36 ?i !16 3if tie
I ll ?t 56 d5 ?ts 43i
17 rltzt 45 i6 lE7 4S? 743
:8 9194S JB ii8 165
i9 ! u rl 36 61 i5t ::e iE\
t i [] Jt 5i ll7 itl 54?
3l 2 s 14 79 :0 t:4 ;i9 491
t: 6 lJ 17 4& $3 ?44 44i
I q tl ?4 ,t? lsl 223 491
: ll 3:;S 94 tS{ li?
4tfi7tr5 86 lE? 34i
g
i6 ic i9 ti2 114
73 t:3 2A1
7E
3 S lt 2,1 57 146 :i7
J iltlf, 6! 135 24 r-

J 6 14 2i 3S r:5 221
4l 3 6 l3 il 54 116 712

FIRST 3 UNES ARE AD., WALL THICKNESS. AND MOMENT OF NERNA.


Simplified Solutions for Pipe Stress

Table 9.3
Contlnued

rt Tlj lf Ill. 5L;1, lJ5 PtrE

0iF- !4. t5S i6.iSfr tS.otg :s.grs :4.t$9 :t.tsc


SET 4.189 S. lSu d,15fi s,:tt t.zi], E.lll
FT t?4.56S ?9t.9{0 417,?ES 6,tl .7r, t315,;4r 3:t6,316

3 t9,-1S5 59!3gg 94, E9l 1I4.S46 !S7rg97,J5?.l:i


t ?i,3it 4l, Tlii 59.6:: 94t1ql lEl. t,l9 ,i38! 149
tF.!i7 ii,4s1 4J!464 i9t041 l]7.S1: 333.991
ll 15, !t7 1?,345 3:,i55 51r87? 16?.?,ll ?5{,93?:
l? r1,719 t7.5t6 :5! 153 35,954 79,191 tglrig?
?!ll5 l3!E4d 19, ?93 31,425 6?!365 i5!.s21
l9 ?!186 lt,981 15.9{S ?5.161 49,933 r?i.7ii
l5 6.885 f!gt? t?,978 ?0,4i7 10,59i ig! 969
l6 4,948 7r4?4 l$,611 16.Eiri 13,431 Sl.5,ll
l7 4, i?5 6,i99 S.Bl7 14,g5l 17,Ess $7!?81
l8 I,475 5,?t{ 7!453 ll.B38 ?3!494 5i, i69
l9 ?!955 4.4J3 6t:37 1!r gn6 t9!?76 4E!694
I!5tJ l.egt 5!,133 B,6tB l7.l?7 41,;{9
2l !,lSB l.?83 4! 691 ?,455 l4! i95 16, t6{
22 I,9S5 ?.856 4. dB? i!494 ll.si8 3l ig7 !
2l 1, &,i6 ?,499 l! 3l: 5,i74 !?61 !7,451
1,46& ?,:$d J,l4,l 4,994 9.911 :4! l6'i
1t211 t!9'1s ?r 7gl {,41? S)769 llrl75
:E i. i53 I,73' ?,{71 I, i?g i,i dL l9.stoi
2i 1,636 545 :! l{E 3,5$8 5,99i t6!i$8
1r
?9 YlJ I,iUi I, iut J, 145 6,:,t: :5, 5,

19 i 1, ?47 1,78? 2! g3l 5;gi8 ll! irt4


83

3! tst l,gil t! 45t ?!3ls 4 !599 I l. ?ti


3? iJLt f?e 1,116 2,1.$7 4r lgl 16,ltl
3l 564 846 l,trt irgil ;,ilj f.itq
5ii 7i4 1! l,i6 1,757 l!4fl6 i,498
t5 473 iF9 l!dl{ t,6!g 3,196 7,19S,
4i4 65? 117 t.4Er ?,9J7 7. ist
7i ,19$ 64i E5S 1!161 2,7fi3 0!594
ii t6? 354 797 l,:5S 2,4i7 6.F87
l9 34! 3 7t3 t,164 t,3lg 5.63t
Il7 4i5 ,i;9 lr$79 !.1,11 i.Il9
41 ?94 44i 6il i ssi
t i 1998 4,846
4l i;1 41t 5s? lj? l.gll _i, Erg
:55 :e? 5,17 8fE 1!7?3 4! lnl
44 ;is J:7 sls 5lg 1:6ga 3! 9?1
::; 3:4 47i ;38 I !594 i-,605
+i ;$g :r: 147 7i!9 1,458 J!411
l?5 t93 419 $65 1,3IS 1.21?
FIRST 3 IJNES ARE QD., MIL THICrjI/ESS, AND MOMENT OF INERTI,A-
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-3
Continued

i,i ic ;t 1i{. siH. ts llFE

0Fi- l4.gtg 16.tdd li,orf :9. ftf 14.6r-t ix.Elg


:!1 9.t5J t.:50 8.286 {. ?if d.:"qf E. ir:
FT :55.:Sg tgt,56d ".4?,1ti 756.430 l3l.i.;4f -1lti.llt

t 4l5.5lS ,!:.1, {:3 E 3,719


:l:! 75d 3l!! 710 45i-,615 i3d! 16l

:
ill.ll? h5!4:3 ?64,s-!3 3o4,79? ,:J4!:!g
77!:li I16,51$ lg$!759 729,724 lt9!469 9;-3, ?ll
r :1, i4l 7s, i5i ilt,tit 1:3! t97 167. igi 65;,3t6
I 36,180 54,8?2 7S,466 liFB,987 i87, ?49 458. 149
:6,594 i?j ts5 5?.tt? ,a1,7?ti lti,f!: l3l,?91
II li,tgg 3Frg?E 4?,9i7 SirrFr 19:,?41 :5d. r3r
1? 15, i9t ?3, trE lJ. 193 45,:99 i9,2 l9l.:B:
IJ 1?, i65 15.l?t :6,s30 35,SA5 .33,:&5 l5:, S?t
iq 9, e?: i4.:65 :0,146 :s,715 49.tit t]t t7 ti
ii 1..589 l l,84l i$, i{9 i3.347 48 tE17 t3. ?6t
l6 6,493 9,i3,1 l;!965 t?,;3r lr,45l i!,541
li 5,41; S,113 i1.$43 16,SJ8 !i,SSS 67! ?8t
4,5iS 6. S:l 9, $tB i3,51t ?1,194 5?,:6?
tt l.s;7 5, B?7 S,34S ! 1,48S 19,9i6 ,tg,,ii4
'in l.l:4 4.t96 i. i:0 9, t,l9 ii ,111 41, t49
i.l :.t71 4, 31: i,li; S,:tg 14, ?95 16, $d.i
:I i, {fa t:, sta l!,Io;-
:, ig! I,:a: 4,78 t i.476 1l, 16l :;,431
i,9!1 :, E9l 1, i;t "i,7::S ?,?ii 14.i6t
t, ?5: 3! 55S :,661 5, g1i 8, ?i? :i.:i:
ii !,:il i,2i 4 3.:t5 4,4Ei 7. i ?.: i9,i.;rij
1,7 r, iJ: i{ fjg :,tsn 4. dtl i, tbi !b!ing
: l,:ii 1,rll ?. iii ) | Ji.r 5,j+: Itrji:
:t l, it:l i, i:9 :,14i l,:ll 5,iis i,r,6?4
tiJS 1.430 :,11? i.:l: :r,Cii l/,lltt
ii st-l i,:,it 1, t;g r.5;5 i. ttt
!t,:!l
iit: i, i:s I,iii ;.+f5 i, iEl iF. li:
..ina ! lii r iE,1 !, i93 3.e13 9,794
.iil :rilli f,l:S j, ir$J Jr +.!D ij,4?U
:5 llc i?i r ?:r l,ujs 3,it5 7,.1i8
ql; lsi r,rii l, r89 7.,1ii 7, r39
1Z' l, t:! I r:5i :,;S5 6,5t4
,iEs ;;8
'rt t, f4: :,{in i\a'11 it.:'C I
:q i4E i;4 ?.34 :,;iu z.iia i, iil.j
4t ;li it,t s!,i l.:il :.l'lt 5,::?
it )uc :u9 iJ if i, :13 l, tva 4,8,i5

FIRST 3 UNES ARE OD., WAI-L MICKNES& AND MOMENT OF INERTU.


Simplified Solutions for pipe Stsesg

TEible 9-3
Contlnued

:.175 T[ i?.i5 It, scli, 4t FiFt

!ir- ;.;75 3.5J9 4.5*t 5.3;3 ,).t:5 oiJ 13. /Ju I-. i:d
E.
3ET 6. ?16 s.:3I $.!5u lgt, ,.32? $.365 B.4ic
S,
F; i.6id 3.dt8 i.2;:i 15. t6t ?!,14t ;t,4"s 16t,73t l*$.:5t
l,: S,669 39,:S6 94r 175 l9;.4:4 J66!4j: 9,N,E7l
:,568 11,640 :7,9S{ S9,496 ItS.57i :t9,6ii 61S, il7
I,i84 4!?ll 11,77: :4,61S 4F!Eg4 7r!i4 :61,61: 4rs,jll
i:5 r,514 6,91? l?,iii I:,45? i5,4f8 llt,?45 ?..i;!74
5 l:1 i,455 3!{Bg 7t;t: $.57: 34?959. 77,Fj5 144,7;?
7 ?f: 916 ?, t96 4,605 8.547 77,4t4 4r.fi{ ?l.lrl
o 135 614 1.471 3,685 i.7lo 14.i48 t:.i61 Sl,FtE
? 4It l!g3t ?, i67 4.dri ls!158 |?,917 4?.Frt
tG $9 5t4 75I l,5it :r?31 ?,551 t$.t4t ;.1.,!;!
tl 5: :39 36i t,t87 ?!!D: :,S?3 !2,I7t ?j,49=
l: 4t lEl 1J6 914 l,,!ti 4!376 9!lE! iElii?
!3 it t4l 3{3 719 l!334 3.437 7.6?1 1.1,:34
l+ I l5 1i5 37i i.$68 :!78: 6,lS; ii.l?i
;; 93 ??3 4i8 S!9 i.;17 4,t61 9.26r
:g i7 77 iS| 136 ?!i I,g{3 1,FuE t.$:-q
t7 64 153 3i! 59,1 I,t37 3.4d9 6.163
l: 54 1!9 ?i! roJ. :,:t5 :.8?t 5,3rI
ld 4E l'if ?3t 4I7 r, il :.441 4.559
zfi I 3? t4 i97 3ge r44 :r.ri3 I! ?$?
?1 34 !l tir ir? 815 l.Sr8 3,ti7
it 7 :i ;l t48 775 7rq l. jil :.t17
:; 6 36 +? ilo ill 6il tJj6 i.Ei{j
!4 5 2t 54 li{ :1: 546 i!!it r,2i2
:i- :d {8 lgi iSS 'lS3 t!$7: t:{irii
;i 4tg4t9' igi 439
1i 416tEat i{? is,l !5t i ciq
:3 3 i4 J,l i7 114 :44 ;si i.4:i
:!' I t3 Il 65 l?s lt$ it; I,16:
llt I 1? :8 iE 199 lag i?g l, IEE
ll 2 it t5 53 95 i.gl i5? t,g:.ii
l: :is:34839 fii stl ;54
il 2 r tl 44 U? :lg id8 3lF
l1 c t't {t ;5 lt! 4?6 :?i
l5 7ls3i ;8 l7t lrl i:Y
lii i 16 14 BI l,il 399 6i5
;: n l] .;l rs 149 ]J I t'L;
r; 0 i{ tl 5l ti8 3t5 :;!
.:1 5 !l ri 4? t7? lqi t2;
: l! t2 4n itg ;s: 4Ee
4i ! c li ll 43 itg :+3 i54

FIRS'T 3 UNES ARE AD., WAIL THICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF .NERNA.


Piping Stress Handbook

Tbble 9-3
Continued

:4 Tl ?4 It{. 5iH. 4t PIFE

CFF. !4.r$r li, fgfr tg.tto :t. t68 :-d.ft6


SET 4,43e 9.388 t.56: 6.591 . rrET
FT 4r9.499 7J1,. ?4S I l]l.4US lit3.;dS 31?1.?76

g g?!3gl 149! ll4 :39,346 146,6:l ii96t 8,!l


I ti t 3li tg4! 597 167.194 143,44j-. {gS,Ei5
li, 44:;3? 76,!44 l??. El, I i7,4;-f, .r5,t,iS3
ll ll,il] i?,:83 9l,5Si i13!3i6 ?6?.7:6
t? :i,E!l 44, t23 ;g!il9 tg2,'!9? is6r!4i
B ?t,364 14,794 55!544 8d! 778 l5l.r13
t4 l6.t*r4 ?7,786 44,47: $i.,it6 lt9!877
t5 t? :?E.i 5t Ebl 36, t57 52!;E4 1g:.593
1{ 16,9?3 lg,614 :9! 79? {J,ll5 87.998
17 lE6
9! 15!519 2{.S38 3r,12? 7t! sJt
18 7r!71 13, f73 ?9,924 tg,4IS 6t! 1t8
19 6,5?3 lt.lt6 i7.7fl ?9,874 51,95S
?g 5,512 9,539 15! i54 !?! 194 44.548
?i 4!E3t 8: ?33 lt,177 19.163 39,49?
:: 4.i9I 7. t,tt I l.4,rO li,667 ;l,.io9
i3 l!i?7 6! ?66 ig,tsg i,l,3s6 79 t79!
?4 3,:36 5, Et3 d,E?7 i?,8iE r3.?S6
t5 ?,863 {! g8g t,gi$ 11.158 ?!!Es9
i6 l!543 4, Jl8 6! 941 ls,997 28,iii
:7 ?,!71 51974 6r?56 9riil6 iA.16S
:6 ?, E3B 3!473 5.:5r 8.rS4 li,2:5
?9 l.8ll I! 1?6 5, Ets ,Tii t4.ill
7

30 1, S57 l. S?4 4!;?t s! 573 !1.199


]l r.:g? !!::9 4.69n 5, t57 1i r!S3
l: 1,363 l! ll? 1.7?4 5,,ilii 1t.876
Jl l,:45 t! 1!: Ir 196 4r i38 l. 7
l,i llllg l!i4g 3,lti 4,515 9r di7
t5 lt54l l!779 ?.St6 {r 13t 8,ilt
;6 959 l!6J4 ?,616 3,fiF4 .7!n:t
.r-7 S8l l,3t: ?,499 3r g6t 7, il6
3B Sl5 1,3ur i.;i1 3,!J4 6!495
:9 754 r, ?B: ?1957 2.917 6. gSE
40 5t9 l,l9l 11967 :!i73 5!565
4l i{9 lr lfb I, t?l t,575 5, 17t
41 ;,i4 |,E?l 1.64i 395 4!gl$?J

4-r 563 959 1,335 !. r3i 4,,18?


44 525 8t5 I. E3I :,083 4I i61
.i5 191 33? l. tI? r.9jg l,9i i
46 4i6 7El I,:5{ g:3 J! 651
I!

47 43i 134 l,175 1,7i9 :1433


FIRST 3 UNFS ARE AD., WAIT TIIICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF NERTU.
Simplified Solutions for Pipe Stress

Table 9-3
Continued

i,.i75 lLi lr.i5 Ii'I, Sgf. 5T'.; tlF:

:iF- :. J;5 3. ;gri {,:ril J,loi 0. nlJ b.61f, 19, /:t ii. /li,
5,ll6 LiSl U. iJ! $,rJB t.l?2 .J,5: t.l?5
TT E.6,ts 7,73fr 15. i,96 19,l{6 i:.4{s 1it.73F l?t,l.:i
: s,i!9 19.196 94.1i5 19i.4;4 36$.435 94l.lll
,J4s ?l,rs4 :8,{?$ 1s8;57i :?9,$55 &rt,ll?
Mnl f.iil |,i72 :4,s79 {E!gtl l1;.i84 :il,6il ,i51.64t
: JJ!' ?!5t,1 i.afi l?!i35 23145: 6it4tE 133,94t !1i,779
i 3?t t!4i5 3,48S TtIl: 13,57? ;4!959 77,515 1l4,ilg
! tut qi6 2,lli 4,665 8!5{7 i1,St4 4c.8t{ 64!93!
i 115 ci4 1!{71 l!985 5,7?6 l,l!i43 3:'7{l 56.831
9Y3 431 !!933 ?,ld7 {!g?l lgll5g 12,967 19,914
tf i9 31{ i55 l!571 :!t3l 7.551 lir743 :t,d9t
rl32 ?J6 ld6 !,lt7 2t2i2 5,673 12,179 :1,861
li 4t lE? ,l3S 914 l'696 4,3it 9,i89 l$'839
13 Jl l4t 3{3 ]lq, 1,334 3,137 716?1 13.144
1t5 ?i5 576 1,968 2!;5I $.ig? lg,5sE
rJ lt 93 lr3 4hB 869 f,?3? {!gtl 9,611
t6 17 77 184 5Si. 715 1,843 4.989 7rld,l
17 14 64 153 l2l 397 1,537 3!4gg 5!9!l
54 1?9 771 5S3 1,295 ?!871 4,999
t9 lg 4& llil ?3S 4?7 ' l' !51 l'4'll 4't4?
:ri I l9 t4 tl7 366 t44 ?.t93 i!637
:1 ? t4 81 i7l 317 815 l!8tg i.142
li ?1 i48 r75 i69 1,37? !,71;
li6 ?$ l? 13S i4i ii?l 1.3ii ?'3??
;l 14 ll4 rl: 54i l!:ll !.1t5
i7{ tE 48 191 !88 4fi3 lrgT? I,g6?
:64 lS 4i t0 167 4If f53 l.o5'r
;t4 16 JS 8t 14f lB1 S"ql .11479
:3J 14 34 7? 154 J44 76J lllln
#J 13 Il &5 iig ,:rt 6s? I, lt]
l] t8 58 lg9 :8f 6:t 1.d79
;l : lt z5 53 93 :53 367 9i7
'':Z 2 ts 13 48 Sl t3t 5ll g8c

lll ? ?1 44 8? ztg 466 8t6


l{i g le 4g i5 lti {?6 t'i$
l5r i '.8 37 tB Li6 J5l bi,
i t6 34 6: l6t l:9 0i4
37 I 6 15 ll 5s !41 331 574
i.! i i i4 :9 53 l3g 383 5i9
5 ll ?7 49 il? l8: 19i
4fl 5 i! !5 46 ilS ii2 EI-l
4t i 5 :l 45 liS 113 4?i
FIRST 3 UNES ANE O.D. . ITAIL TEICKNESS. AND MOMENT OF NERTU.
276 Piping Stress Handbook

Table $3
Contlnued

i,i T0 4l Iii. ;iit, il.) !lP:

!iF- 9t,,6 l$.erlt lS. *6t


l+, :t.tii, 14. tS lt, tO li,r;0$ 4:,ts,
5Ei $.t75 9.375 S.t75 9.:,/-J C.i/: i7, J/3 9,3t7 t,3;5
ii .ii?.7*i sSi. FBo 996. bl, II l3.4iS 194?. ?9t 3S:9,44S 6658.9iS 1t6:1. i*0

s t5.tig l1{,156 li4,I tg ?i6,51{ 3i5: i6! i79,t63


i 5i, t61 3S,116 i 15,;5t i:t, :s4 :;7,5:5 547. tA9 95i,4t?
t, iB.E:9 5ir5:t b,l, it!4 I l5! tsi ;9?.3:3 i9S,96l Et3,6t7
il ??, i;'i 4lt ?tt il. l:9 a7,!42 152r FFg :9i.7$S i:lr 110 931, ?66
l; !i,4il lt,;s3 49r 5!5 r;,I:t 117!Et5 r3f.845 4Sl,4l Li{g. lcs
1i 17,$74 ?6insri 13.:41 5;,7?l 97,679 tSl. Sis 3! ?:9 50:,661
i4 14, isl ?!,3tl 3ti,6 {?,:6t 7J,;31 l{5.;7? t5i,783 493,tl!
l5 It.td5 17,348 24.89$ 14! 36i :9! 947 I l8! 193 its!5?: 3?t.8!6
t! ?,486 i4! ?95 lgi5l4 :g!:17 49!l?5 ?t,3Eg 169,l4l t?S.lil
ll 1,151t ll!91? 17. t92 ll,659 ,ll: lfil gl. i93 i4l;184 i!5: lgl
IB t,65i ltrg4g 14,4 lt!cSS i4,69? it.ll9 118. t36 i8t,7:4
li 5,$61 8!:3i l?.;:6 161 9lt ,49i 5i, 157 Ifi!t:g t$l,lts
29
4,351 i,lt9 19,5t3 :4! 49S :"q.:tt 4tr E,l3 s6,7S3 138! 3g?
71 ,1,193 6,3?t 9. lI73 12,::4 ?r,S47 4;. t;_l 74.899 ll9!47f
l,64i 5,,19t 7.u91 Itt,3?l 19.Ftl l;,46; 65,14i 193.9t8
:l 3! lll 4.il? 6r9t6 9r 5i3 l$,S:? 3t! tg: 57.rll{ tf.916
?!Bg9 4! ?15 6!E78 8,396 i4t6t6 ?8, S5d tle S365rA. ,qfl.

:: i.483 =:t747 5,178 7,413 12,t19 15,558 44r ll3 ?tr91!


It 3j:!t9 l,lli 4,tS1 E,:tt l l,51i ;i. cti l?.4ii5 $;, i:t
i? l.t:3 2, i7= 4!itg :r993 t51771 :F.:66
:rn
l.t6i :,66; :! glS :,:u4 t,: ti tg. t7l ;1,:tB 9r.49r
!? 1.39: ?,rgl 1.1,15 4, i56 S.:?i !!. t56 :5.4t I 45,165
I1433 :,l,it ;!ll: 4,:9if ;,,1t3 !1, i71 :-5.6t9 48.liB
i! i,lr$l i, t6t ?.575 l,;?l 6,1?l li,:?! 71 ]i] :r _iElC 1

l: i, 135 I, is7 :,:64 t, *,lil l:.1?3 -:1 i: i_l I

l3 t, ts6 t.6?9 :,3;8 =4t


1121,1 5,:lS : i, l;S
9Su i !.ltd :.lrb :, t;l 5, ilt 1!,i49 l:!o1t ;S,l-.t
i5 i9r i,3i6 1. t6rd :,;f5 4, il? i,384 16, tiE :5, t4b
'ii
s:] t,155 t. u9l :.4;s 1.333 i.:39 i4,'t7 13, t11
3i 76; I, 136 i,6;? :,:?i i.tt{ ,-.u73 i, dtl !l,913 I
J3 ;sg i, d,i7 I 5ll ! :. !14 i,3g; ,1,27,i i:.611 :t, i64
.ii 653 981 1.4i6 !,9:5 l,1l l !, ??5 It!69t 1S,i5?
tfri 5 1! 3t3 lt, E3!' 17,:ug
4i 3il iStt l,:i9 1 i,:r -r nlt i ?in 16,864 :!! 9:3
.l:
"=:4 iii i, 31 i j, tis :.;t! :. tg,i 9,36t 14. t34
+: 4Sg 73r I, i57 i,4:9 :::,i5 5. il7 8.7:4 it,9i5
-r;4
,i:,t id7 t3r i,:i: :,l;5 1,051 gr i]; i:, tui.
4.. 4:5 ri43 9Zr i, r;3 I. iid .i.173
'!Oar
4,: itY nt,:: JOJ i, irl l,iit :,i?g ;,::6 ll,16;
t?4 3i4 att 1,1li !.i41 i, 34: 6. i*l iJ.6:;
F.RST 3 UNES ARE AD., WAIL TH]CKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERNA.
Simplified Solutions for Pipe Stress 277

Table 9-3
Continued

l.;i5 Tr l:.;5 ii,l. S[:1, 4tS PiFE

:iE- :.375 t.5gs {.596 :. tsj 8, 6;i r.$:5 lt.j.st l:. ilg
.:T d.l3.i ir.l l5 i.:t; s.:58 g. ?Af E, Jlt F. ic3 9.J/J
t. !6F i. i3i6 15.150 !1.14F 7?.ts, 1it.716 ?t9,ild
: I iiq it.:s5 ?4,173 t97.4:4 {i;
Jo!. ll;, ul I
i, i40 1i.tal 59,49i
I i6S.573 :;9,Si3 6?S, I 17
1,ts4 4.91! i 1,7;: !'i,678 45,Slil ?94 ?rl,6l? 'l:4.$47
i t7,
5 :33 :,5i1 s,t?7 l?,,!35 ?3.45; t!4gg 113.945 zi?,,119
Li 3'i I 1,15: l,4SS 7r lll 13.5i? t4. t3B 7i.515 il1.7l5
i 7g? tlg !,lt$ 4! 6s5 9r547 :?ril4 4S,314 S,1.83?
3 i35 614 1,471 i! tus :.i?6 !4' 748 3:!701 5o,SJi
, '?5 4lt fill ?,li;
1r 4,6;1 19,33S 2i,967 i?! i14
6t ll4 isl t.379 t!i3l 7t551 10.741 ?9.'i17
it 3: ?36 5;s 1.187 7,792 5.6?1 17t579 !l,96l
l? 45 1S? 4i6 5'14 i!69i 4.17t !,igt l6,iji?
tl ;: l4l 341 719 1,3i1 3,437 7.6? i 13'?'i'l
l{ :5 il: l/i iln ir968 },i?:i 6,lt: lt,6t4
?l 93 ?:l {{8 Si9 2i;37 4. i'o 1 g,i:l
ts i,7 ;i i94 i86 it6 !.s43 l.trs i. is4
t? l,i 64 i3r 3?l 3i7 i,53i 3!,li8 5,9:3
l"i l: 51 ti! i7I :gl 1. ?t5 !,i;i 1,98t
:t .t6 i i5 tis 4;; 1r ii?l :'111 4'?4i
I i5 t4 tli 33i t44 l: t93 -l'cJ7
:l i4 it 17i 3r; 8tS i,6SS l, I'i;
j 30 7l l4s 2,1i l{t l, i7: :,;:i
6 ?u ,:1 llg :4 t stl t,li6 :.l?:
:4 ?3 i4 ll4 ]]? 544 l,:l i ],ii5
4 ?! 4S !61 le8 4sl :,0ii 1, u6:
ii 4 i.3 11 1i lii +lE t:: i, ri':
:i 4 Id :E Ed llt 3E,l 65i l.i7t
:U 14 14 12 lll ,li4 ?iJ i.l;i
I it ;l 6: lit Jli ..5i l. i?;
77 3 lt iF 5s ii9 :ge oii : ii;i ,

,r! it :: 3l YH ilJ :ir 't i i


2 lE Zi 45 89 i;9 il i :tE
9?t44 'di ilB 46i sls
"1J
Et94t i1 i?i. 1;t i 4'i
; r l8 17 tE 176 lli .5?i
:. iiiJ4 il li: i:9 ci4
:-- I :t 14t :ll 371
i
614:l :3 FE :t5 33i
')i : !3 27 ., :il jvj i1i
I 31?:5 4i i lr iil 455-
i1 5 li i3 1l I lF lil 171

FIRST 3 I,TNES ARE AD., WAIL zIIICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERNA.


Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-3
Continued

:.;;: Tu l;,i: Ili. SlH, ;(i llit

ti|- :.li5 +.:ru :.lsl i.d?5 3.i:5 it.:5i l?.;5t


tEi d. iig ir, iJ i 9. ii3 9,13i t.:t$ 5.3eii .:t.:r_i
t. big l. fts t, Slt! ;6, ilB 4i.49t lt5.7lt ?l r.9:e i6l.3i,i
!. : J 'iGI
:t.;$i i.5, ii; :i?.149 5:7,n]
l.:48 i5,itl l;,f79 7?r718 i:i,Ii.i 497,s53 8l?,itii
{ l, ,l ll 6,;t3 i5,64: lJ,6ii 65,?fi i?:,S64 344!?7! 539.4:t
5 ;ll l.:i5 3,Cri 17,?!E J3,;4f gi.di7 17i,6?i trrl,:d7
6 4it i!.q79 4,6:5 9,9ifl i9,5li :'r,9SZ lt?r;i4 114,_l5r
2d4 l.lsl ?.91i 1,2,.8 t2!19; 3Irlt5 64.36F lEt,itg
t77 i9? 1,955 ,1,?65 g!!38 ti,iFE ,i3.trl E,tiS
9 1?4 55i 1.J73 ?,t34 5!796 15,1{6 3d.r95 51.661
ifi 9S 466 I,gil :t153 4,?lE i!,dl? ;r,tts 3i,6i1
il 68 lf5 t:t l,6tg I.169 g,:74 li,igS t8,r?5
l? 5t 135 ii9 l,?46 :,441 r,37t L?,17i :1,i94
ll 4l 185 456 tSt t,9?0 5! : l$,s49 li,14t
l{ l3 148 155 igs 1.5i7 4,S$ 9.046 l;,iil
l5 27 1?S 2?7 ,i3S l!?:d i.?63 b,54: lt,l59
1r ?! 9t :41 5;6 i.gt$ t,889 i!li5 9,t95
t7 l8 8I ?{4 {t5 Bt8 t,?4i 4,4?4 7.d6b
1o ii I'ii. 36? 723 l: ggt i,786 6.458
l9 1l 59 it6 4 613 i.6t5 I,i19 .c!49t
2n ll 51 1:5 :i9 sli 1!J77 t.i6d 4,799
!1 ls 44 ltr ?33 ,i53 l.lgt :,li{ 4, gi?
I! 6 :3 94 281 J-9b i, Fl4 :,s7J 3.5i7
23 7 ir flz r7i 347 tqs I,Fts l, t9"i
:4 I }i i2 lsi ;d5 197 1,5!7 |!i21
73 6 ?i !4 tJ6 ?i8 1E.r l!4ll :,41s
2i T ti 3i tzi :49 617 1,::6 :. l{i-
11 2l 5i lEt :i4 5i9 i!l?? !, 5
;B 4 is 4t 9S l9? :tl 1,"56 l,il.
:: 4 L1 a9 t7; 45? 965 1.544
), l: t7 td 156 ,t$g EIS 1r 3i5
li J i? 142 l7g t41 l,;154
It 3 i; il i6 l!9 ;lS it4 f, i49
I; l 1l ?E 6it 117 1gi 614 1,648
l4 ls ;E 53 i6; r8t t6t 95s
i5 ; ??l 5" tS i1i ils E7r
:i I t il 1r ts ;li 471
,:di

l7 :
: 43 Ei z'Li 4:6 ?44
]E 2 t8 it 77 7 ,1i: i86
39 : 1 ii 36 7l lu6 37: 633
1,j I .5 ln il 6i i;r :8
I 15 il i66 546

FIRST 3 UNES ARE AD., WAIL T'IIICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF NERNA,


Simplified Solutions for Pipe Stress

Table 9-3
Continued

It lU {i Ll. lli1. /,: -irt

iiF- 14,igt i6,rd6 !3.fi9t is,69$ !4.tos td.tEt .r!.itE 4:,4t1


:;i i.3fg 9.11fl S.5i0 t.s{g t.st$ d.5FX t.tig J.iSt
ar ,i83.75J 711.9{d lr5t.li, Hso,8id 1349.J:!r 3e4:,?60 3iS6.:.t"i i4it5.5rtr'

n ts,4:t i.t8,?14 ?14,ls8 ;f6,40S 5lE,it?


t ot! 1?4597 156..i87
l -'i4, ?9S,1?l 164!:77 ;ld.4S,
is ts,i9l 7s,:44 ti9,783 !51. isi :&5.558 5:3,:t! iri,:ri
li,E6d 5?.!83 8f,423 114! it7 1it,5li ;t4, ill 547.6:5
i: :t,lat lri 63!487
44! t7 F?? iii i7q ini 95! 5??.647 sli, rsr
??.?36 14! ?94 49, tl4 69,075 1!$.87i :39, S67 416, i8t 663,4Et
iB!3i4 17.7gli 39.985 55,Jsi 9d.778 l?1.416 113.5.:d 33t, S:?
:5 i,l,93l ??,:91 3?! id5 44! 965 7E!644 l:5,i!4 ?il, 17t 113,:94
l:!ti3 li.6t4 :6,78J 37!g5g 64.f,31 l?8. ?3' !!3r,i45 i5t qiQ

t7 lt, ?57 l3,ti9 :?,339 :g!89? 34,05? 196, tt6 186, ?87 ?E] ECI

iE g!64i l3!671 l8rgll !6t 92t 45!555 t6.$it 156r95!


l9 7,34i lt,llo 15.99{ ?;! 123 38! 717 7i,373 ?t3,169
2I i llt q 5i{t !1 7t1 tA 11n ii lqq iE rqn i 14,4t4 I Cl iio

;l 5.1{l ?13 Er u,8{6 l6!387 tg!675 56,7t4 1:;,873


:: 4. i3? i,Ltg l$.Iui 14, ?5? ?4,ttg 4t,3t7
t3 3t 142 A!:si 1317 tr.4?3 !t g?6 ! 43,16t 1i1222 llsr 1i6
?'1 1,r45 5.515 7, t36 lt, t78 lt.:10 17! t94 ii,:gi Itir 7il
:"r l.!?: 4tg5g 7, B:! 9,1t7. 16,t96 :3, 5 93.:7I
t5 i,Ei7 4,3tS 6, ?4: 8!634 15,l$t ??, Sgl cl tiq
:!36S J, i7{ 5! 574 7,7t4 13.49? t6!ig4 46,493 /{,tuu
;8 t,:t6 3,471 4!5t8 i! 3 l;,s?7 ?3, t?6 +.t r 0Yl 66,691
l, :!sai l! lli {,49s s: i:! l4!gE8 :i,536 37,5?,'
l. Bt$ :,5:4 4.961 5,6;1 9.r35 19,4:3 ;3! 897 54. l5t
ll l.6tl :,5t9 3, lil 5, 99{ 8,9i4 17! 63t 1'E
t722
i: l,5is ?.I:7 i,319 {,631 e. !s1 it,9:9 -,i4. o l l
ll l e4e? l. t:? 3,d53 4, ?:3 14:6rs
"it6 13,36J
7 ?s;4is 41,.684
i.:g? i!94ji 7. 711 J!E6l 61i37
:5 l, 175 778 :r 559
I! l! 518 6t li4 !:,:5! :1,316
3,t r, gs$ t, ti4 :,151 1 ?q{ q ;q? lt :E9 lt,il7 it frl
37 995 t,595 ?.1&6 :,99A 3,?43 1$,3S9 18, t69 ?8,8$4
IS 918 l!189 t,t99 :.766 4,84r tt i?a 16!645
3t E49 I r:95 1.949 :,59S 4,471 ',312
9,95{ l5:429 ?4,647
ri:J ,.87 1.1?l I,;l{ ?!171 4.149 81287 l4, irt ii.u15
i1 131 l! :96 l.:92 2,792 I,g5i 7,6t1 l3! 279 :l r1t!

{? 6sd fi! l,4el


1, ?,648 l,:84 7!sdq t?,35i il,714
4l 634 ?59 1,339 1, t99 3.ItS 6! 696 ,l Etl 1S.lEl
5tt 695 r. 13 l,79! 5.1ii ri,lii 1g,t{4 li, i!1
15 55i Sl7 t.ts4 r, 165 2, 914 i,i64 19, t41 ti, t4:
.i{ 5lg 7s; l, t?7 1!i59 2.7!g 5!.116 9,463
485 73i l,ts? 1,40i ?!559 5,959 g,dl3 11,98?

FIRST 3 I.]NES ARE AD.. WAIL TIIICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERTU.


Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-3
Continued

r.6?3 T! :.l Ii{. 5lH. 6t PiPE

r'iiF- s.6:: ls. ist !:.75s L4.Nt 16,6S9 tg.E d ri.gsd 2a.686
tEi t.Js6 0.55s t.36: S.591 0.656 9.7:, ,,Sl: S.?iS
85.i3t ilt. t5r 4fr8.429 55!.?t' 932,3:S 15i1,i;9 ??56.749 4{3:.it.J
7
31?,34; !l7,tt9
144.4:r t4,l.t7t $51! i?5 915.lBl
71.t1; 176,S!: 3;3,i63 46u,573 i7 6,t4i
0 _,i?.i?J tt?.]l4 193,104 2 !t6i 449,6?? 7l0,4it
: i6! t19 t4,368 1il. t95 2S3! 1{4 459.9t5 685. t57
liI,763
g 13,S51 43,1!l 8!.46S 114.398 l8t,&8{ 3t8, 154 45t, Ei 946.579
I l:,iis :9.:86 :7,?16 gg! 345 l33r ??l :16!{l$ 3r?.4i6 664!S
!. t4l 27,874 4l!716 5i!572 97,119 l57, ii5 :i5.$; 184,647
!l i.945 16! 388 31, i38 44,9i5 7?! 9.6 118,539 176,617 36{.1t1
!2 5rl4t 12,7i1 t{,1J8 ll! l!6 56, tS3 ?t.305 $&!f49 tgg,467
4.ts? 19.s49 lE,t65 ?t,i6g 44!:95 7t,814 106,999 ??t,595
IJ I,:69 4.046 15,:'il ?1.345 35,3t3 57, {i8 35.,r79 176,g2l
15 z.,7ic 6,54? l?.159 17! 355 ?8,7i i' 16.74t 6?,611 143,599
i6 t.:57 5.39t lS! 193 14,3tt 23!7!t tS,319 57,39? I l8! t?!
l7 1,8tst 4,494 8,4tfi 1t!91? 19,759 3!.114 47,8,18 9E!64r
1E 1,585 l!78E 7.15i lt, S43 16,653 i7r tsl 1S.lSE il.f$l
i,343 3.:19 6.gEl 9t 339 14.1:9 t3,Sfi 34.?i3 ld.65t
,:4 1.153 :,7nF 3, ?14 7!lil llt liig 19,7:2 ?t.585 6trigl
?t ??8 ?!;84 4r5t4 6,l:5 i9,187 l7! t36 !5!3d4 52!31;
i.2 s68 ?,flt 3,?t7 5,5' ?! 121 I4, Sli 22,977 15,:15l
?3 7rf l, 5 l,lig 4!gl4 7,r87 l?,16t- i9 lil i?,S35r

669 1,5?l i,'iti 4,317 ;, ii?5 il.{ll 17!it5 ::.S5S


:i: 1,4i3 !,069 ;1749 i,il5 !s,69s 19,845 ll t17 !
;! 5:6 1.?5! :,1;j j,3ii 5,i2i a"i1j 13,1t: :i.3i4
?1 47't tt ii! 2.1i9 :,9;6 4!t34 g.5i! lt.94l 31,6:i
:8 4?l i,ifi!' i,lrg :, 6ttg 4,4?4 7! 1i,,- lS!;f9 :t,9;B
:? ai9 163 l.1ii l,,lrl 3,?r: 6,469 9,639 ti,r12
,.:fi 34t Bl8 I,545 !, 15t 1.597 5,844 8!797 l?,fiS
3l ll9 711 l!4t1d !,96,i t, ?6i 5.196 7,991 i6,:69
3? 792 i74 l.l;J I,;87 ;. t64 .1,815 1|174 l,l.7tS
tl !37 6i4 I, i6t l.6l$ 2,i97 4,190 nr3ll 13,456
:t5 56: 1, 561 1,4!d !.4;1 4,t14 3,981 l!,ili
ir6 5lg r7l 1.3i6 ?. ?,t3 3,685 5,4S3 il,lEl
;; ItB qts ar4 i.:55 : rit: l,lf:
! 5,i:9 10,18t
-r7 i5r 436 EII l, r5r t, !17 3,1i3 4,i41 ?,5:B
3B 163 4i2 iig t, $i7 l,;76 7i8i|! {. fi4 E!c3:
It -q6 17? igl
I Fs7 I,ii7 :.sbt 3! ?il S.17t
49 i44 :45 137 fls 1.517 i,,165 ;,67i ;,5;3
.,: l t3i l?6 gs5 s5s I,4r9 :.?S9 l!4ll 1,i12
FIPAT 3 UNES ARE O.D.. WAIL MICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERTA.
Simplified Solutions for Pip Strss

Table $3
Contlnued

l.it5 T! l?,73 Ii{. stH. uS PIFE

'i 5til 4.55t 3.593 i.6ti 8.S:5 tfi.7="6 1:'?3S


tiF- :,37:
5ET 9.:18 s.3ds d.337 ii.3il e.43t 6,8fii 6.it; i.6E7
at E. r6t _r. s9g S.orS :d.67t 49,49S lfii.i i8 144.8,i9 475.1.{S
I l,ljl sf.?{7 t;5, il; t69, r4l 327,272
I 3! 349 15.6t4 3tid78 7?,?43 156.:14 4S7.85i i41!6!l
i 1 ,411 6,33S l:,t{i 3l!6{4 !i!l$i l7?rSi4 l?8.5i8 7;3,?g:
: aii l.:45 g!EEt l?,t16 33!74; a8'697 iS4,036 395,?!9
5 419 I,S78 {!615 9!?$8 19r5i7 39.t3? i18,t77 ?!?,1:g
t.tS3 ?,?ll b'278 ll,?9i 3?!165 14,it|i 144!?84
s 17; 7r7 1,955 4!:t5 8,:38 ?l!5s8 4?.414 9t.66E
I t?4 55! 1,173 ?rt54 5!79& 15r106 14,9s6 67,88t
l9 9F {s6 l.tgl i.l5J 4!?r.g ll,tll i5,3t5 4114?6
ll 6a J0f, 75i i,6tg 3, t69 8,:74 1?,16? 37, 183
l? 5? :J5 :;9 1,?4& ?r4{l n!371 14.76S ?8,$4S
13 {l ts5 456 9St 1!9?S i,gi2 11.69t ?!:5;$
14 i3 llB I6i 7f,5 l!51; 4!0ll 9!:91 1s'g3i
Li 71 i:{ t97 639 l,?5F 5!?63 ?!53; l4,Si4
in t! 9? 1j14 5:6 l.$:t 1!659 6,11i ll!;83
i7 ll s3 :84 439 S5S ?,:41 5, 191 t9,871
lb l! '?,1 l 7t 169 7It I,gSE 4,373 !.'186
it ll It t,tD tl{ 6l:' l.d6t l,7lE 7,?l:
i9 lI 3t lr5 ri? 5:7 t.3i; 3,1s8 6,196
4t ld8 131 4i5 1.189 2ti'u4 i!144
::8 tE 94 ?A2 3!! lttl4 i.3t5 4,6{g
21: 7 13 s? ll7 34i 991 ?,t96 4,9&g
?1 7 z1 i2 15i 3t5 7l? 1,345 3.58t
:56 26 6t lls 17fi 7i3 1! 61? 3,167
?3 'J7 l:3 74s h27 l!451 :,S16
71 3 3l lF9 !!4 559 1;:t6 ?,514
:84 IE 4n tgi 197 ifiz I,i6? :,;5,1
li il 8E li..j 45? I 940 I' f?t
;tl !5 17 sd l3t 4ts ' 913 1,!ll
31 3 14 34 7: l4r 378 Ssi 1!66[
:ll lI ll ir i:9 ll& t'il 1.Il$
3ll lt 2t &6 ir7 iEh 7Li |,377
J4? ig 15 35 I'i :uB 849 1!:5-q
):J I tl, YiJ lil 5t5 I, i34
:il t :i 4i :3i :47 i, tsi
11 7 s28 4: 'ts
A3 iL7 564 li7
:e2 7lB I
:.q 1!3
1tF 2 717 36 ;i iii 4li si4
4fl 5 16 :4 io 17? 3!? iii
6 ti 3l bl l'i 3;0 ilg
FIRST 3 UNES ARE O.D.,IULL TTIICKNESE, AND MOMENT OF INERTU.
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-3
Continued

1q ic ?4 Iii, :c!. !B iIFE

EFi- 11.90S t60 lS.6ril


1,9. :s.{{g :4. gs!
!Ei 9.759 S,S43 L9-i7 !. iili l. i:e
i-T 697,31t 115d. ?9S 1833.46t ?771.61S :67t.839

3 1i9.ii5 ?35!t4t 173,0:i


'i t!, ?il 165.::l :6t, ?84 tt6, !t6 gl0,4i:
71,5t6 l:6,44i t9$,9S6 :88.71F 5t0,tli
il 51,ifl 90.494 143.491 : l,l, 9l: {43, sgs
1? 4l,4lJ tt,TrtJ l lS.5:4 167, I S.il.9gi
tl 3?,tgg 54! 924 86.939 l ,4ll 169.9ii
!4 :$, $l! 43,5t5 6t,6fl lr5, 5 r15,ll I
l5 !l !It4 35, $St 5i.:S? 85.544 175, S:6
l6 17,479 l9!4f6 46,6i8 ;g!496 !44,141
l7 l4t57l ?4,316 38!t74 58t 764 l!6.15=
lc n! ?76 ?t!6i3 3?t 748 49,504 lfl.t66.
1? tg,43E t7. t6' :7.t45 4?! 99? 56,137
8,t49 t5!S:6 ?i,8?3 36.tgl ;3,8::
?i 7 t73l l3,fi6 :9,6!3 ll, 175 il,796
22 6, ii4 rJl! 17.9J6 ?;, i14 55.,tS!
:3 5.ESi 9tlqg 15,6t7 !-:! 7:9 49,559
:.1i9 s,713 t3.sls ?r,sg5 4?.73A
?5 4,591 7!;99 12,2?i tE!,t77 37. Elt
?6 4,S7i 6,953 tS.!64 1ot 4?6 Jl. ill:
7i l,617 6,llt 9! 793 14,,158 36, d16
]B l,:61 5!4i7 F,7FS l3t t:I :6, 91,{
:9 ?! 936 4,9t9 i, E3t
:. s"? 4,4il 7,17 4 1S.613 :t,88:
lt 2,4i3- 4!S4l S,li l t, itl l9.El!
l? :.165 3.6i$ 5, S?B , el1 15,636
il 1,iE2 3,:5? 5!:t4 s, t34 16.,14f
34 t!g?; 3!d,i5 4.85t i.t4i !5.!]3t
if, 1,67C ?.SS? 4!4:4 6,7J4 t]! 7Et
lif 1,5i5 :.38? ,1. $93 6! lss l?t ii3
a7 1,4!l ?,37S 3t1ifr :r 7fg i l, i64
]B !r rTJ .j,'tcr 5.?i? ig,i|i
It t,287 r,Srt t,::o {,t67 9.969
tiv l,ll9 l.8Br i.954 4,511 9.? l

l,s3t t, i4g :! 771 4,139 g!3i:i


9b6 !!i!& !.5i8 l! 997 7,1i 4

+l 939 1,515 1,402 3,631 ,411 1

t4 !,i0 1,414 ?.:4: l.lst i! 936


45 7St 1,3:t :,596 Ir 1ig 6!494
,ln 736 l!:37 lttS? i! 966 6117g
41 699 l. t6u 1,94t 1 lrtl q ,igl

FIRST 3 UNES ARE O.D., WAIL THICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERTA.


Simplified Solutions for Pipe Stress

Table 9-3
Contlnued

:.3;5 rS 1?,i5 li,l, slil. Bts PIFE

IFF- t.375 :.59t ,r.sEs 5.i61 6,&:5 8,$r5 i6.7S9 i:,;:d


iEl t. ?lg F.389 8.33? 9.375 9,43? g.stt g.:S0 t.3sd
:t t,8rF 3. EtS ?.619 ?s.67t ,ig.4tg 1S5,;llt rll.:59 16l':4i
; ll,tsl :s,?0i 1i9,ll7 ;6!!i4? 5?7,::?
1.34i 15,0?{ 3i,t?s i9,149 l:6,?14 4t7!856 8lt.716?
4 l,4ll i.3lr li,i4: li!i44 63,?SI i7t.f64 314.971 5tB.45S
5 i?3 3,?4i 8,tfi9 l:,!?6 3l'74I 88!597 176,6;t 301,?8t
6 ,119 1,S78 4!&35 l!968 19.5?; 5i!182 it?r?14 1t{.:56
7 3i{ l.iBl ?,9t9 6,!7i l?!ig7 3i!lt5 64!JrE id9'79t
t i77 79? l!955 4,?{5 8,239 ?1.5S8 43,1?l l3!i56
t t:{ 55$ t!37J ?,954 3!7lA 13,ld6 39,?s6 5iii61
LU tg 496 1,8c1 :!153 4,:18 llrFlz 2ztg18 $.661
69 3t5 i5! 1,618 3' 161 8,174 16,58S !8'295
l? 5?. ?35 579 1!?46 t,,141 6.3i3 l2t77i 11,794
l3 4t Ig5 45S 9lt 1,9?6 l!91? 19!649 17t14?
l1 13 l{8 J63 ?85 1,537 4.gll 8!646 13,72:
:s 27 tln ?97 618 l!t5t 3,:&3 t.542 1!,1:9
72 q9 :44 li6 1!g3i :,58? lrllt t.lts
1l l8 83 2$4 438 8t8 ?,:41 4.41{ ir6i6
l9 16 76 1;2 3i9 i73 1!8Eg J!79! 6'{i8
It lI 5? 146 3i4 6i5 1,6i3 3r?19 i,491
iii fl 51 l:5 ;69 5?? 1,3?7 ltltr 4.;0u
:l ig 44 ls8 ?33 455 l.l8t itSg{ 41967
:1 s 3r ,4 767 3l$ 1.s34 1,613 3,537
:3 7 ll a2 177 34i 9S5 1,815 3!S95
:4 7 it 71 156 lt5 717 1,5?7 2,i24
:5 ri ?6 64 lJE 27* ;t5 l'4ll l!{ifl
t6 i 13 it 1f3 2$ it7 l!!55 :, i4l
i..1 5 ?l 51 169 ?14 559 1,1:: t,9il
:8 4 l8 46 t8 19? 35: !,St6 i!716
?? 4 t7 4l 88 lis 452 955 1,144
3 15 J7 *t lsa 40t Slg l'195
it 3 l{ 34 7r t4l 175 741 1ri64
:? j: i2 3l si l:f lJ6 t7{ 1! 149
:l I 1l :8 6E tl7 3s6 614 lrg4s
: 10 15 s5 Li7 ?SS 562 ti8
33 r I t3 5S 95 ::7 515 u7t
:6 2 I :t 4i ,fl :J6 471 E7
.11 ? i 7fr 43 g3 2t7 436 114
ls 7 i 1S It i7 281 4t? 686
J' 2 7 t7 36 71 ii6 3i2 6i5
44 I 6 16 34 5g 112 145 383-
4t 1 6 15 Jl gt 169 3rg t46
FIRST 3 LTNES ARE O.D. , WAIL TTIICKNESS, AND MOMEITT OF NETN'1.
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-3
Contlnued

?,3;5 T0 B.i!5 IR, Sti{. i:is FIFt

rFF. ?. i;5 J,sSt 4.".J9fl 5,:63 6.6?5 !.61I


3iT 9.436 S.itS0 9.b74 ,.73t 0.S64 9 giS
9T i,ili: 5.ttg i5.iEg lJ.6Jt i6.3t0 i6t.9git
2 t7 ,i7 4 78,921 199! 556 4Jt.95l gt3,;t6
J ]. UiY ?l 1!q 5S.9gg l?1,7b1 ?35.9F r:1,911
4 ?. it4 9,7tl :4.S7i 34,7{4 1t7! t63 ?S3, ii4;
i | liql 4! 994 t2.t36 iB,i?9 5i,?77 l:{! ts7
o ii? I! gts t.J71 l6r ??g 3l, ?89 78,I l8
; t9s l, g?o 4,642 lg!ill :9,145 49.194
i :67 i I0 Jr 199 6,843 11,495 32,95i
t lE7 95i ?! 184 4, tr6 9!478 :3,146
lt lt7 6?4 1.5?? J,5d4 6, t 16,871
ll 103 46t 1! 196 ?t 6li 5! 191 17,{17
t? t0 t6l 9!l ?, i?B J.9t9 !t i65
li 6: ?t4 174 | qqE
3.1{5 7,6gi
!4 5d ?2i :8S 1! ?li ?,518 d.l{t
l5 ,tg i85 471 lrd38 2,847 5.106
l0 iJ l5? ittY Etl t,687 4, tit
i7 !g l?i $4 713 l!416 3!{34
ii ?3 Ln? 173 6fi 1, 1.35 :! 893
19 ?g .,1 ?t: 5t I |,'tgi ?r,i6g
:!,t 17 t8 r11 43S F64 ?,!89
?t rq i7 tIz 378 ;46 t,8?;
:: tl 59 l5u l:t r49 1.:85
?3 ll f,l I3I :EE 5{8 I,3S7
;4 ti 45 I l! :51 c6!i ! :11
La 'l !t lEi :i4 44: 1, gE8
:6 l?? l!3 tiit
?77 1.i2 El i7s i:l H:f
L6 ts it tEt ils ii?
?li :0 65 :41 :t3 iit
:r' : !3 59 iti t1h 6ll
:t !l iis 232 566
t:4 IY 4t l'i itl 3:5
i1 4 t7 it Y,l !9! 4,19
4i It !7! 42'
iti !5 i/' 5l lbl 3?4
i3 14 ;5 l.V i6i
li3 t? Jl 59 i35 33J
li? li :t i4 1:6 trEE
]?T ti :7 5t ii6 ?84
itl iJ lt :3 lfit 261
,ti : I ?3 5i Lli' :,i3

FIRST 3 UNES ARE OD., WAIL T'HICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERNA.


Simplified Solutions for Pipe Stress

Table $3
Contlnued

d.6i5 Tl ?4 iH. sCH. lEg PIFE

,itt- s.6:5 i,J. i5S i2,75S 14.u6g 16,99t 13',Jrio 2g'fr88 :4'oti
:!T g,5 S.1r8 S.443 r.937 l.g3t 1.156 l.:81 1.5:l
:; iit.3?s :86.139 16l.65g S?4.41{ lJ64.,l3t ?179'6SS l3l5'ttS e:1.i?..

+ 157.467 46i,7t9 914 t 144


tgl. tt3 ?38,441 4S8,i4? 6g7r63g
,5 58.559 1:;,9BS ?7,J!854 397.5S7 659!99?
1 16!t45 86,896 179'569 ?59!375 41{,36t t$l.955
I :4!693 58, 4 114.2i8 l!7!73? 277,513 445!{5S rzi.+lr -:
I 17,tJ6 4t,E!5 St! ?54 ll?:gg4 t94,?i4 3ll!455 473!6Bt 9it.Sl7
tfr t?,63s :t.8s5 5S,5t5 gi,g7f r42.1?8 r?7. S5l 343rJl5 i13.7tB
ll 9,495 ?!.393 43,956 64!322 196,?93 l7t,5B7 259,44S 5lg.??;
l? 7!It1 i7,?4S Il!E5t 4?.699 93t ?59 lll!195 ll ?. aJs 413!t51
l3 5!75? 13.166 ?4.619 39,SBl 64! S9t 103,146 l5?! 175 3:4! 969
l{ 4!656 ig! 8&? :1!lil il!?97 5lt7i6 BI!iq4 t?5,S41 169.lgl
l5 1,745 8,83t 17,335 ?5,446 4?,1l? h7 t274 1g?,315 ztr,47t
J,585 7,?7,1 14,:E4 :g! 946 i4.699 55,,11: s4.rt5 174.?18
t7 ?!3?t 6,967 11,9dS 17.,lso ?8.939 4i! !14 7g,2g| 145, i7l
?,157 :,111 !g! jil2 l{!?:5 :1,17t 38,51? 5?! 6 l ,l5g
i9 I, B4l 4,145 S,:3f 1!,::l zg,72t 33,19; 3S.3{r 1$4,956
!,:it t!7?6 7.3iI lt!i35 !7t766 ?St I8l 4J. 164 g!t ?15

1.3i3 ;. a i,:li I,lt3 t5,347 !4,51? 37,Zli i71467


i: IttgT ;,799 3!494 8,0i5 13t348 ?1,l?3 5l,4lS n7! tlg
:3 1,639 ?,43fi 4!!i9 ir S5l lt!69! lg!661 ?8,iBl :8,i69
:,1 914 :, rs6 4,?t: 6,?12 is!281 16.{?4 :{.t79 il,,r:9
?, Edr l.lsg 3! i44 5!4?6 9,dr6 14,5 ?:,1SS 4!r e7g
!6 it? i,69i 3,3:9 4,SS6 a,da7 t?,!lg l9!64; 40. 6t8
27 64? I,514 2,?77 {:363 7r:?l 11.515 17,144. 3s, ?6i
?s 5?6 1,35t ?.s6: 3r !!? $,4i5 16,343 13,;3i 3?!:13
7i 3ts l!::? t,ltt 3,3?1 5rE?g t! 319 !i! l:? iq!164
45S 1.164 z,lhi l! !8! 5, t64 8.469 12,73? :6.41,i
:1 4?4 1! 6!if i,9ri4 ?,lu; 4,ii | 7!6!l ll,igl :i! t5g
380 919 lt 795 2,ill {.:3t 6.1:9 Ig,33X:' ;1r;dl
3i ;i? st9 !!i!a ?,l9t 3.953 6! 319 9,&S9 l9,i6f
:4 ;;? 7iB I,,t89 ?! lg5 1,616 iri'ii f, iu6 l8! i59
it5 095 i,365 :,,i93 1,315 :t:96 8,t54 i6,6,io
I$ lii iri i,::4 1tS41 It {;16 ,i, Ai6 i,4tt 1:,;t7
:,i9 584 1,155 l,6ti ?.896 4,1g: 6!El? 14, ttF
:i :;f 341 1.,,6u l!5$5 ;,i9s 4.1:r 6,t9-r !l,tt7
3i :13 :8? 986 lr44g i,;t6 3,9!t 5.8?l l:,il:
191 ,i6, tl4 i 3,1? t 2!77t 1,518 5! 196 llr l:]
il 1fl3 4t? 849 tli,li !, s6: J,:94 5,019 li! l:6
FIFST 3 UNES INN O.D., WAIL THICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERNA.
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-g
Continued

4.i i0 l:.i5 I{. sti1, lit FIPE

UiF- +.:|tP -.J,:oi n.61f, 8.6?5 lt.75S r2,7?fr


SET d,436 g.5gg E,5,J? t.71S r.B4l l.SrS
F1 i 1. di, ?5.71s 4t.6lt !4r.:lt l?4.:it 641.6$S
2 l:1, s4t 115! t4g a4t! 9tl
; 14,99? ?9!?7! 191,3!9 5,1:,lBt
I lg! igl I s9,746 ?is, i36 5?i.7ll
-,11.
ga

9J 7ig
?t 443 4i!J4?
r lli,lll ??f. tEg 3t4, i?s
h 5!g?4 t!,4t9 23t 9?5 67,77{ 156,t59 3i?,445
1 i! 54t 7!9t3 15.SS6 4?,S8t 9S.465 l?4, Eit
a ?.371 5,t35 l0.tt3 ig! 59? 65, ?$4 lt$,547
I l, &$i 1ttt77 7,989 ?fi!081 46,3?? 91rgE7
t,?15 :,6S6 5.16S 14,639 il,7;3 6,5,541'
It 3 t,014 3rg8l t0! 999 ?5,375 59,118
l? ;0J 1.551 t!t9t c.47? 19.545 lB,rdl
i3 rr J.JL 6,66J 15,3?3 3S.4?3
441 9ii 1! gg3 5,115 l?.1t8 :4, t59
l5 t6g ii4 l!531 4!338 l$!997 19,8i,i
l,: 2?7 654 1, ?6? 1,374 8.t45 16.JiA
17 247 546 I rg5: It ?8t 6!87{ ll,6Fi
ts ?gE 46t SSi 2.:10 7!1 i1,461
51

it 171 i9l ?33 ?, ii4 4!9?4 9! 745


2g l5r 135 l;!i I,EJd 4r7ZZ 8!l:5
?l l3l ts9 . 55s i,:Br 1,647 7,;i?
:? I t4 :5? 4t5 11175 3.17: 6, i7;
:3 lsg 2?s 471 1, ?S3 2,17& 5,494
EB t?4 i74 1.f59 ?! 443 1.435
t5 r8 17? 331 937 3! 16! 4, ?79
;b il i53 294
?; 6? 136 ?S3 i44 t!71d 3,196
!$ 55 172 n5 661 1.53? I,945
:t IS r tg ?1? 6SS f! 355 I! i,li
45 99 l9t 54? l!:31 :1476
]l 4t srt 173 491 1,134 ?,244
3? 17 s? l3g 447 1,031 I,E4B
tl 34 75 l{4 487 94S l!96g
31 6S t31 37: S5? i.;91
i5 ?i 63 l?1 141 789 1,55t
li ?6 57 ill il1 j74 i!43r
31 i,i 53 !92 7AS 6i7 1,l2j;
ti t: 49 l{ t67 &!5 l!?18
;9 1fi 4i F7 217 ;,)t 1,1:i
4t 11 1t ilt ?2i 5:g I,944
4l iu lY /f, ?l? 4t, ,ifr
FIRST 3 UNES ARE AD,, WAIL THICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF NERru.
Simplified Solutions for Pipe Stress

Table 9-3
Contlnued

I,t 10 !4 il{. scll, 1i0 PIFE

cFt- l4.E9t ri.g00 lE'tlgg ig'g$n :4.d0,


iEI l.gt3 l.tlg l.3lt 1.-5Eg i.sl!
9ir.5:r' l:55.419 249S.irgt 3;5{.13S 78?1'53S

'J lsr.11: Il$,441 568,!34 7,5t,;g!


l]?,819 !22,i32 :36!tsl 539,43S
,i 96,s:5 16?,S?? :oS! ?lB lil,g58 gl5,t57
It 7:,746 l?l 710 195t3{5
r
?93.gsl 6ii.l65
t2 56,933 93!761 159,589 :?6.36i 4il !61?
i3 4{![7] 73,]{7 tl8!4{? t77t996 379t987
t.l J5!?96 59,i{6 94.83? l{?!514 ?i7,933
15 28,6t9 48,967 77,19? lt3!8A9 ?4t.49d
l6 ?3!619 3Yr33& 63!539 95,473 ltg.9g9
t7 l9,7rg l2!978 5?,965 79!597 155!S9g.
lo 6t?
16! 27,182 44t6i9 6i,p54 l3?! 756
t9 l4,tt7 ?1,$ll 37,9J8 57,914 I lB! 839
76 t?,1f5 !g!::3 J?,5?7 48,8S? lSl!88?
1 19,455 17.495 ?s,69S 4?!2?6 83.01S
22 9!i9l 15t ?1$ ?4.418 3&.7?6 76.546
:3 7!958 13,3t7 ?1,187 3?! 141 66! 999
7.6t4 ll.7?t ls.si{ :8.r8 5t,?6s
!5 6, t97 ltt 169 16,654 2:,0:8
5?. t64
i$ :,5t9 i!?iB 14,sd5 ??!:30 4!!37J
?i 4, 9 8.:lt L3|7Zt t9,Ee8 4l.,lS9r
ig 4,111 7,lgl trl,g:4 i7r 4 17,l:9
:? l, ?79 ht 643 19,6d9 16.S34 33.419
3,596 rrB t.6Jg t4r 4f,4 38,187
JI 3!:id 5,,139 Et 735 13, !I7 2l! 359
l? 2.t55 4,145 7! i4t ll.9i4 :4.F74
?1 ?,6i4 4.Jg' 7,:41 19!98? ?l! 6Bd
2!4$3 4,1?? i! o2l iri1fi ;s.737
T5 ?,?55 3,7?9 6! fl$g i,l?l 19.019
I$ ?, sis 3,471 5!577 8,lF? 17!47$
37 I r9l: 3,lt? 3.1i7 7,72i 16.Sll
33 l!7i5 ?!?33 4, i{? 7r 117 !{.854
i? l!63? ?!731 4r 1fl7 6.59? 13.74t
4g l!5ll 1,53? '1.066 ri,I lS l:!755
{t 1.465 ?!351 3!7?6 3. r74 l l, E:6
t,3f7 ?! lB7 l,5l? 5,378 l l, ttl
l!2tg ?,gJu :,;73 4!919 1f,. ?5t
l, t]t l. tt? ]! i53 4,591 ?.568
45 l!g6J ttiTg I, ai6 4,391 u,944
t95 l, ot5 ?r 671 4, gls s.i74
47 133 I,561 l! 5d& 3,7 67 7! 850
FIRST 3 LINES ARE O.D., WAII TIIICriI{ESS, AND MOMENT OF NERNA.
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-3
Continued

E,iir5 T0 :i iii. sCH. t4t FIPE

iiFF- S,6?5 iS. r'55 l:.75d l4,ei6 lA. it09 iiit r-f,!tF6 :1,iFE
l S,
5EI d.El: L.t1g l. ltS t, ?5s t,438 1.375 l.tiF :.tif
ci 193.i:t 167.dtt ?9t.:SS ld?7. rig l?!9. 14, ?,llB. Stg 4?15.i:S E!::. ti$g

: , fi6t
4 :38! 198 598.64?
ltg! lil tr6,565 :Sl, i9? g5,r, Btt
! 74t l13 r77,373 t3l,84l 4rs, i7s 049. t?5
7 46,6e4 111, igg it?! 75t 31t 9t3 53{.7!6
r l5gt6:?
Jl.t75 74r8JE i4t,5?7 :98.984 155. i?4 5{iB.:lB 857,6;:i
9 :t!965 5?.5i6 tFi,lf? 146,776 ?51,59i 356,95?
ls li.gl3 igr313 7:,97{ 11t7,[its 18J.41I i66, ?.lS 439, l:i StS,4lS
ll t!,9J1 ?a!795 54! 8?6 8rr 391 !17, it9 195,595 3:t.9!3 67i, flD
li ?.367 ??.17! 4:,!3S 9:l 196,l4l
6l! t5s,5s9 ?54, i:5 it9,9:s
!3 7.?S8 l7!419 J3,ltt 48,793 83!,18t 11fl.44? tt?r976 408,93t
ti 5,836 i3.9$t 26.594 tg,994 i6t94l 94,95r r6r,gi? t?7.,1l9
l: 4,744 11,35? 3l 6?? r il,7t4 54,344 17,r8? 130, I l? i66, !S4
i6 l.9st f, i54 ti,31,5 zi,lt3 4{r7lg 63,330 19i, ?09 t1t,i45
17 l, ?59 7! 799 14, S5; !l!7;r 3i,t3? ri.965 89.381 tB7,97A
?,746 i,569 t?r5lJ ts, i4i iI,449 4,{.6tt 75.?C6 l5,i, dsi
1.9
?,135 i.5s6 10,639 15, sss ?6.71s 37, ?38 64,d:? 1ig,9E7
td l, s-g! 4,799 9, t?t iJ.t73 ?t,9?6 ,5!7 :4,ECl I l!.3S5
!1 1,7?9 41177 i tEEg ! 1,554 S05 ?9. s?8
19. t7.4i i 97, citJ
;i r,:94 ttl98 6. E53 lit,i4t 17,:?5 :4,418 11,:4S !4..:,ii
:3 1! llE 3,149 5,ItS 8.7t4 15.i71 :i,lBi 36, t9: 73, e4:
l, l5g ?\i7 | 5, iit ,i{E 13! t6a tB, s;4
i ll,;ii 64,iri
lt i, fii5 714";7 4.67d 0,94! ll.7;c int iii4 :e! iE4 :7.:is
:i 91r ?,l"qs .i, t:: i, Sgg lf,4l5 14, !rt5 l,l, ts4 31,lli
:7 s14 l, t4? 3, is? 5.436 tr ilg 11,:!, :;,:10 15,0,15
!u 7:i I,;4: 3.;:4 ,i.!i4 E,155 1i, r31 :;,br,t 4it. ?:7
i9 i57 l,:i! :,99? ji.la7 7,5:d li. tit l 18,i,i5 36, a3S
59J t.4!? 2. r=83 i,96t 6. i93 9,518 1i,i64 ;t.!?:
lt 51.3 I,:Si :,i5t 3, it: e,l5r 8,7i5
:i l$l i, li9 'j,:?i l! ts5 ;.59i 7. t41 li.4Jl :7r1i5
44s l, i66 :, d3l 21977 5! l9{ 7,741 l?!:t9 :5, tgg
4St 9?i 1, a57 7.72L 4, itsi i,5;1 1r 1;Z ii Eio
l5 l7i 3t4 L,,19? :,'i96 4,!i8 6! 669 lA )A.1 1l tlaa
t4l !:l 1,:d4 ?,:91 l, t:] 1,1i1 t, il; 1t,;:;
r; lli 7i6 i,441 ?: ll? :,.s: t 5,1]7 0 tti l? 1?;
:d i?: i?r t. s 1,9"id J,:41 4,;4? ; ;;r ii :;:
-:9 :;i i4t l, ?35 l, s.4,1 t.59: 4,r-r? l!.1{C
ii ::t i99 t, l4g 1,6?? t,E6b 4.65i I
6, gr 14. fii
4l ?37 556 l.r5? r:5:l !,661 3, i76 s,l7l 13, fl5
FIRST 3 LNES ARE OD., WAIL THICKNESS. AND MOMENT OF INERTA.
Simplilied Solutions for Pipe Stress

Table 9-3
Continued

r.;i5 i0 1:.;5 I}{ Stii. l5,i FIFE

!i-F- i.3;5 l.5rs 4.5t0 3, ti: 6.s;: 8. d:5 i0. i:F ii. t5t
5ai t.l4i t.4:8 9.5;1 F. ElE g. E d.9tl6 r. ti;1.;i!
FT l.l5i 5.F3ii l:. i;i -l.l,sl, 5S.97i li5. USB 39t,t6fl ii1.l:!i

; lg, l;i i-i, !l? l7?,;!-t lYt, i5i ii7,llt


4,,iBi 19.441 3i,:fi i 15.349 :!7,t?d
i l, s9: !, tt: ll.6id 43, ti$ 95,995 :i9. ?t9 649,91:
t i6t 4,199 I l,!159 :5, r?: 4t, 114 i39,:39 l::,75,! 6:r,9:g
n 561 :,11S g,4cD 11, St ?8.449 eg,sio lt:,:67 576,7i9
l :5i t.5lg 4. s38 9! 119 17:?!E t6,3i9 lii 16? :i7:l:: !

B !16 lrEl5 :.igt o, ii9 i1,99S Il,;5t sl,:t5 ii8.9!E


I lg6 171 i,e?i ,1.:ts s,4ii 23,i94 3i,i57 i!l!Ji5
ti i?1 5:5 r,l8? I, l:a 6.143 17. ?88 41,:9: S1,.rS7
II ti 3t4 1.039 ::359 4,515 l?,9i3 31, ?51 5l,l3:
l! lfi l$4 sfg I, EiB 3,355 ts, sgs ?4,i?l F6! ;17,

1l 5i t39 619 t!424 :r7i6 7r86: lf. t32 17t ril6


44 i9l 5t4 1, r4t ?,?-19 r, ?97 15.1:c :9,633
is i6 !;5i 4tX i27 i, Elg :, t:9 i?!3t4 14, i99
ii 1.:6 lfg :ll 7i4 1,5tt 4.:i9 It,155 rt,t65
i1 !5 107 ?St 6i7 I, ?59 3,3i7 8, {6s 16! i6:
IS !1 9E ::t :3i 1, g5l ?,5$i 7, l: !1,951 I

i? ii ii li:! 456 3ti :,51! 6r ig{ l, i5; !

15 i6 itl i9l .1$i ?! Lit 5, i!? 18, i;1


!l ll 57 14! -ll9 6il l,ti6 {.4ti t! i3b
ll 19 iit it4 37,1 l,6lJ iilb ,1,i,{; /' !

1l l! 4.1 i i,+ lii -Jtl i,,ilt 1.4 19 i,6ES


i1 I ld lei} i:i 444 l,;is -1,!ii9 s.eui
U14rf tg,i -.1't! I, rf6 !, eii 5,:ig
:i ti9 1;8 :58 7dr i. :!/ {! J:Y
6 :/ !9 Lr9 ll: 57E :, rr: ,i, ii,i
:! 6t4ri i4? ld5 is7 i.!95 1,:',t7
!1 7ll 7l t:s i:i i8, i,7t: .:';js
:i'j lli ::9 54$ 1,541 ;,':114
t1 4td4b irl5 :!;i 589 !.:16 :,.;:l
{!i1: l: i6i 9:; l,:69 :, i33
l: 1 15 13 5i i/t 4Et lJ 1:? ;' i6,t
l,l i13:5 st l-q
j 14ri i,t58 1, t7t
:i?:: 4Ui ''if l,iY)
:i I 1i l* i,r i;i .)iE 3t: i! /tJ
it7 I l1 ii ii t:l l5l ii;.l r r c..o

:t : !t3 i5 3i I ll J.l_J r:! -,'ilJ


i: ar;l ti ! Ll{ lYl /'Ji :,:ti
;9 ti |ii !5t i,:;:'
4i :irt 4: ur ::l it4 i, iEl

FIPST 3 LINES ARE O.D., WALL THICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF INERTIA.


Piping Stress Handbook

Table 9-3
Continued

14 ;! :4 iil. 5ifi. :oi PttE

14.i{$ i6. trt! 18.0i0 ?B,AiF :4.{rs


:--'
1.4s$ L5!3 f.igl 1.968 :,343
I i lS.61d 1St3.5tt 3 9.?ot 4:Ss.?it t435.4tF
s ::i! 1g: ls5,i4l 6t4t4tl iSlt Si3
i 15?!i57 ?10.56r. 4ll,::u $-i5.lst
!;j 6,31? 197,?4I tr 579 477.6:6 9S4r?S?
i9t
97, tt?
l4gl :t6,l1E l5E,S48 it9.999
t: 6i.ill I14, !{6 13frt4F t76.4t4 5r?,9!i
t: 5:,944 8r.771 143. 136 fl7.19? 4{9,311
i.i 4?.J9t 7t, dti ll4!i43 l74,rii5? J59,9+3
lil 14!404 5g! 441 93t i$i 14l,519 ?91. sl4
l6 ?3,t95 48,155 76,S$? l!$! 6t9 ?49,16{
l: ?1,s?3 {S,l4i 64,S1, 97 t?l] :FS,476
i! 19,945 JS,B 5J. t49 81.997 1S8.ESs
It i6,93S ?g! 757 1:.95,4 n9.6:i lt3.59S
14,541i :4.655 ;?,lt: 59. if3 !:lt1l7
:t t?::6t 21,295 33! 9$S 51,574 196,:3i
lsr 9?4 ts,5:4 :t.5,1,1 44, c5$ t;,5$9
:; tr 569 16, ?i I :5;Eti jYt iit Ag,13/
s.414 14! ?{9 :?, t56 14,555 11.148
:l 7.444 !!,Si4 rt, 133 Ji. i6! 6J, tt,i6
6. El8 ll.::t 17.598 17 1ia Ea ,i ?i
i.? |r:9i5 ls, t?l 13,981 :4,:br 5t, t44
:g i,?t9 9, rs5 14,:t, l! | 7-q8 41,86S
?1 4:7i9 B,$gi l:,gia 594
l9! 4S,333
4,3F1 7, t65 l l, isi li,att lb,47V
ll 3. ?J4 6.6?i td,56s 16,S31 t3,'J5i
:: l,"E3d i, sl9 I bii, . Siii lI, FiS
14,
3,737 3,45t 8! 754 11,:91 27,46 t"
:4 :,159 5!SlE 8,884 t?, i51 ?5. t6i
?!7!3 4.6it$ 1,i37 I t. i4s :i.9t:
:.4t1 4, ??8 0.741 t6,:17 ;lt1ll
?:tt6 i, a94 6,:1, t,4i! Itt 445
3.i 2,t28 l. 5 3,713 E!764 ti,95s
:9 f.i6l 3,325 5,303 s,d5? l6,6t4
4r,i ItEiT 3tt8l ,i!?13 i,4$l li, i9F
4l 1,6Bf ?,9$i 4,564 6! 9IS 14! tql
4l 1,179 !.$!? 4! 216 ii! 'i47 ll.:?4
1,463 :,481 l,957 6, dn7 t:,389
i, ii5 :!lli 3. t9l 5, siri ,:62
I !;;i ?, lti 3.45i :r?4t td! Et9
i,1t5 l, i?s ;, ?J! ,i,9fli lf,l1t
41 i; lid I, tg0 J, d3, 4,tfro 9,487
FIRST 3 UNES ARE O.D., WAIL TI/ICKNESS, AND MOMENT OF ]NERTA.
Simplified Solutions lor Pipe Stress 291

For the example shown in Figure 9-1, it will take 7,552 Example Problem 9'2
lb for a l-in. expansion for a 10-ft offset for Ax '9214 ex'
oansion the force F- = 6,949 lb' For a 20-ft offset the
What size piping loop will be required for a 300-ft
iorce will tr-g44lb for a l-in. expansion. for Ay 46 in' straight pipeline under the following conditions:
the force Fv : 434 Ib. TbmDerature: 400"F
O.D.: 12,750
The nomograph in Figure 9-2 is used to size piping Schedule: Sch 140
loops, depending on the size of the pipe and the thermal Materials: A-53 Grade B C.S.
exoansion between anchors. This nomograph is conserva-
tivi for a refined design' An exact calculation by com- Use the nomograph in Figure 9-2, and join points A' B,
puter should be required. and C. This will ihow a need of a 70-ft loop (L = 70 ft).

11 B

l-t A
;f
-]JL
100
L = 2A+B
J&
o
-c
o
o
<)
-T Tc)
o -o:i
!x
o 9+
E
;-
<=*
o-
o -o 0)
.9 ^J
o-
(d oo
'-
o-
zo 1000 IJJ

Flgure 9-2. Stress nomograph'


10
Properties of Pipe

The following are the definitions of the tefms used in ds : Fifth power ofd, in.5
the table. A" = DrlL2: outside pipe surface, ftrlft (ength)
Ai : dtr/12 : inside pipe surface, ff/ft Qength)
A. : @2 - &)n 14 : metal area, in.2
& : d'z rl4 : flow area, in.2
W : 3.4A. = weight of pipe, lb/ft
Definitions W* : 0.433 Ar : weight of water in pipe, lb/ft
Rg : (UA)', : (V + &1*4 : radius of gyration.
m.
D = Outside diameter of pipe, in. I : A.Rl : 0.0491 (Da - 6+; : moment of iner-
Sch : Pipe schedule, nondimensional tia, in.a
t : tl6ll thickness, in. Z : 2llD : 0.0982 (D4 - d4yD = section modu-
d : lnside diameter of pipe. in. lus : in.3

Table 10-1
Properties ot Pipe

D Sch T o d" Ao A1 Am Af l.l Ww Rg I z

losi .049 .30? .105 .080 ,1qa .0?4 .186 .032 .m09 .00{t
V8 40 sT 40s .068 .269 .00141 tna .022 -u:tr .245 .025 .I215 .0ol I .00s2
D'.40S 80 xs 80s .095 .215 .000{6 .108 .u50 .092 .036 .314 .l l{6 .mt2 .0060

tosi .uoo .410 .01159 .107 .09? .132 .330 .05? .1694 .0028 .01@
Y4 40 sT {0si .088 .364 .00639 .093 .t25 ,104 .42,5 .045 .1628 .qxB .0123
D -.540 80 )<!t 80si .u9 .302 .@251 .l4l .I5:I $n .154? .oqB .0140

3/s 40 sr4osi
losl .uoat
.09t
,54!i
.i193
.04{xt8
.q2st2
.14:l
.129
.124
.lDrl
.a
.l9l
.48
.568
.r0l
.083
.2169
,2090
.0059 .01?r
.0073 .0216
D -.675 s{, xs osi .423. .01354 l1', .tu . t40 .?39 .06t .l9sl .0086 .02s5

l0s .oet .674 .13909 .ni .l?8 .r97 .J:lrt .5-fl ,154 .269 .0143 .034t
40 sT 40s .I09 :09310 .no .163 .2.fi .304 .85t .261 n!tt .o.t{n
Y2 80 xs 80s .546 .04852 .l 3m .?'34 1.088 .t0l .250 .020I .0478
D -.840 160 . r87 .46{; nttoq -no trt .384 .l7r 1.304 .074 .244 .052?
)o( .2,94 .?s2 .00102 .ao .uoo .504 .050 .t2, .2t9 .02$ .ofi

292
Properties of Pipe 293

Table 10-1
) Continued

e l) Sch t d d" Ao Ai Am Af Rg I z

5.: .uqt .g?a .dtgl -ztt .201 .664 .683 .288 .349 .0245 .046'l
losi .08:l .884 .5398 t1l .252 .6t4 .3 ltto',
40 sT 40s .l t3 .824 .3?99 .216 .$lt t let .81 .34 .0706
3/t 80 xsi 8Gs .154 .742 .2249 t'f1 . t94 ,,134 .49 -lttl .321 .0448 .08!13
.t8rl .or5 .1401 .358 t.t4 .312 .0495 .094it
.na t11 .16l .5?0 .296 t.93? .va .304 .052? .t0(N
D - 1.050 160 .614 .08?3
x:< .308 .434 .0154 ./tta, .ll3 .l4s 2.441 .064 .234 .05?9 .1I04

55 .UEO !.16:l 2^337 .344 .attu .i,4at l.lct .86't .478 .4,(} .0500 .076{)
l0s 1.09? 1.58!) .344 .247 .413 .94!i 1.404 ,409 .UIJI t't(l
40 sT 4os .lgl 1.049 Lno .344 .n5 .{94 .864 .374 .4m .08?4
I 80 :c3 8{Et .l?9 .95t
e7,
.803 .94 .N .639 7tq 2.1t2 att
tx,
.{o? .1056
lt?t
. t606
.219 .519 .344 .230 .?54 .m4 2.56{ .39s .1?St1
D - 1.315 160 .250 .8I5 -Jbu ,344 tta .836 2.844 .t?sz .lgq!
x:E .3$t .oY5 .0?t .344 .15? 1.0?6 .N, ttt .JOl .l4os .2t37

55 -uo!) 1.530 8.384 !t .401 I.gB r.Io8 .564 ,1253


tffi ,l$) L4A 434 .378 l.qB 1.805 .550 .1934
{o sT 40s t{o 1.380 5.UUit 434 .36t .668 1.498 2.273 .648 .540 .194{t .2346
n. ry4 80 xli 8{xi
.

.19l LnB 3.409 434 .334 .881 t.2gt t oo? .s24 .24' -?s14
D- l.6A) t60 2g 1.160 2.100 4 .304 l.l0? l.ost 3.?6s .458 .506 .3421
xx .382 -5t.( 434 t.sl4 .630 .273 .472 .3412 .4lll
5St -uoit t.770 497 .4tr1 2.451 L.ZIJ l.uo9 .649 .t58 .loo
u- l0s .109 1.682 13.46 497 .440 .olJ 2-m t naa .962 .634 .2&
40 sT 40!i .145 1.610 10.82 497 .421 .?99 aqlti 2.7t4 .882 .623 .310
rY2 80 xs 80s .200 1.s00 ?.59 497 1.068 | 1et 3.632 .otrt eol
D - 1.900 160 .?3r 1.33? 4.27 49? -Jaru l.$l l.404 4.866 .@8 .581 .{{x} -cuat
:o( .400 1.100 t.6l 497 2.a 1.885 .99) 6.409 .549 .568

55 .uoal 2.2+3 sll'ql .6n .588 .4t2 3.958 1.605 I.?t4 .8U
l0s .109 46.59
.t', 'f.,
.6?2 .rl5 3.654 2.638 1.582 .w2 .499 .42A
40 sT 40s .154 2.6r .54I 1.0?4 3.356 3.6St l.4Et .ooo
.16-t 2.041 35.42 .6U, .534 t.158 3-m 3.938 l.4l? .?83 .?10 .516
3.ra ./ro
2 80 xs 80s
.188
.zta
2.000
I O.lO
3?.00
27.41
.622
.6n
.s24
.508
t.288
I.4TI 2.9S1
4.381
5.ta Lna
1.360
.868
.654

l-ttr5 4.17 .6?,, .491 1.669 2.761 5.6'14 I |OA .804


D - 2.3J5
.3r2 t.750 t6.4t .6n .458 2-0zs 2.{0s 6.884 1.041 .738 1.102 .928
t60 .343 t.o!:t 13.74 .6U ,442 2.190 ?^240 ?.44S .74 1.I63 .YIY
xx .436 l.sql .64 .3gt 2.856 l.Tl4 9.q'0 .loE .?qt ! ,ttt 1.104
03 1

t1l .0gt 2.?09 t4s.9 .t1, .709 5.lo 2.475 2.49 .98{l .{95
.to
I
.tm 2.635 ./at .690 1.039 5.45 3.531 2.361 .9t5 .988 .ot!t
40 sT 4{Xl .zxt 2.45I) 91.8 .753 .6{ti l.?04 4.79 5.?94 ?-o73 .9{? l.oal
71i 2Y2 2,441 1.812 4.68 2.q26 .9 l.6t I l.l2l
8o xs 8trt 238 o/.o .753 .608 z.?s4 4.24 7.682 l.&1{t .92r 1.925 r.J!tJ
D - 2.8?5 tou .3?5 2.t2l {3.3 .?a -350 2.945 10.01 1.536 .894 l.qt/
xx .552 l.rn .464 4.O8 2.46 r3.?0 1.06? .844 2.872 1.9s8

55 .Giil 3.334 41t.9 .916 aqt 8.r 3.(B e1a 1.208 t.3m .7$
t0s .t?a 3.260 364.2 .9i8 -tt\t Ln4 8.35 4.!l:l 3.61 l.gn t.04t
.lzs 3.250 362,6 .916 .tt:tl t.325 &c) 4.51 iqo t.l9{ l.8so
3 .148 3.2'0'4
,l,l? a
,9t6 .&t9 1.558 6-t 6 5.30 3.49 1.186 2.t94
1.080

D -3.50O .1811 3,124 .Ylb .818 1.Y50 /.oo o-o:t 3.32 t a6t l.D.to
40 sT 40si .216 3.068 271.A .803 2.24 ?.58 3.20 l.l6f 3.018 t.724
294 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 10-1
Continued

D Sch t d o Ao A1 Am Af |.l Rq I z
(continuod) .241 3.018 250 2.462 3.10 t.lJat 3.29 I lar
.254 t oot 244 1A.' 2.5S0 8.81 3.04 l.t5l 3.{3 1.962
t ot, .9t6 Z.5IJ A?I 9.91 2.90 l.l40 1?q
80 xs 80s 2.900 20s attl
3 .5lo
.J59 3.016
3.129
6.60
6.49
10.2s
10.64
2.86
2.81
3.90
4.01 2.?A4
.406 2-68i l4{t .916 3.950 EA' 2.46 4.81 2.74a
D -3.500
160 .8 2.624 t24 4.2L3 5.41 14.33 2.34 1.094 5.04
.o{.t 2.300 64 ota Fily, 5.466 4.ls t8r8 l.8o 1.047 0.Ylt 3.42S
55 .083 3.834 88 1.04? 1.004 t.021 3.47 5.00 .979
tosi .tn taz 1.047 .984 1.4&l 4.8t t.372 2.78 1.3?8
. t28 3.?44 .980 u.0t ,e, 1.461
.134 3.732 1.047 AT' 1.628 10.94 a crl 1.368 3.04 r.sa
. t48 3.?04 69? 1.04? .970 t ?ot 10.78 6.09 4.67 it.,at 1,664
- rtt6 3.624 oa r.047 .9,19 2.Al r0.31 1.349 4.10 2.050
3Y2 40 sT 40si 3.548 562 1.04? .929 2.680 oqo 4.79 2.394
D 3.8 480 t.04? ,900 aaa ota 4.02 t.3!9 q?t
-4.000 xs ,lta z.atat
80 80s 3.364 431 1.047 .881 .t.ol6 8.89 tz.sl .r.6t ata 3.Ul
.344 e ala t.04? 3.9st 9E 13. 1.298 o.Db 3.33t
.469 269 1.04? .802 5.2C|:} t.Jo 17.69 3.19 t ,ro 4.tn
tcl 1.047 E 7tl 5.84 tt aE 1.210 4,925
55 .083 4.334 1.178 l.lt15 t t 4t 14.?s 3.9t 6.39 l.coz 2.81 t.2{8
losi 4.zffi l4d! 1.I78 L65l 14.24 6.1? 1.549 J.JO 1.262
-ta 4.244 t371 1.178 t.1l l t. tJo 14.15 5.98 6.13 1.546 4.ZL 1.869
.134 1358 I.t?8 1.108 t-456 14.0? 6.09 1.544 i.949
.t42 4.2t6 1332 I.178 1.104 1.944 6.04 t.542 4.@ 2.054
l.l?8 2.247 7.64 1.534
.roE 4.t24 1193 l.tIIt 1.080 tqE IJ.JO 8.66 s.93 2-64
-r )5 4.090 1144 l.l?8 I r1?t ,11 1.520 41Cr 2.84
40 sT 40s 4.026 1058 t.178 1.054
.t l', tt 7.r ta! 7c| ', t1
1.510
4 .250 4.000 i024 I t7q 1.047 3.34 12.s7 5.44 1.505 o.Jo
l.l?8 1.036 3.60 t2.24 1.498 8.08
D - 4.500 .281 94? t. t?8 1.031 3.74 t2,t8 1.495 q i,t
3.?0
3.900 1.1?8 ,l oa tt o4
902 t.021 13.46 5.1? 1.489 8.?8
alt l.l?s t,l oa a tt
.r.t, 1.015 4.10 I1.80 l.{8:i 9.05 4.02
80 xs 80s 87.O 1.178 1.002 4.41 I1.50 14.99 4.98 1.4? 4.27
3.?50 742 I t7q ott 4.86 I1.04 16.52 4.78 1.464 10.42
t20 3-624 I t7e .949 5.59 'tn 1l 19.00 4.4t 1.4.t4 9.ld
.500 3.500 I l?a .916 OA' 21.36 1.425
t@ 3.8 480 I l?q .900 9.28 4.O2 1.416 t't t,
xx .574 3.152 1.178 8. r0 7.80 27.54 \t.Jtt 1.3?4 o.,t9
tno 5,34S 4363 1.455 1.399 1.88 u.43 o tt t.928
t0s .t34 4t62 1.4s6 l.38ri 2.?S a.o2 1.920 8. 3.03
$ sT 40s 5.0{7 1.456 r.321 4.30 20.01 t4-62 8.66 l5.l? 5.45
14, 4.859 270a t.456 t.272 18.54 8.03 1.84? 7 tf,
5 80 xs 80s 4.813 ZJtaI 1.456 1.250 18.19 ?.4.74 7.88 1.839 m.58
.438 4.688 1.456 l.n7 7.04 17.26 23.95 1.819 8.38
D:5.563 t20 .500 4.563 1.456 l.l9{ 7.9S 27.04 ?.06 l.?99 25.74
l@ 4.313 t492 1.456 I l2q 9.70 t4.61 32.9? 30.c3 10.80
xx .?50 4.063 ll0? 1.4s6 1.064 11.34 12.97 JO-JJ :n.64
Properties of Pipe 295

Table 10-1
Continued

q
D S ch t d d" Ao Ai Am l,J Ww Rq I 7

.109 6.407 10.80 1.734 t.6?7 2.304 I l4


lqs .134 10.38 1.734 1.664 31.? 9.29 2.295 14.40 4.35
9.82 I.734 1.646 3.$ 13.44 5.40

.180 r.?34 1.640 12.39 2.?AO 18.94


.188 6.249 l. qlo 3.80 13.28 19.?l
.219 1.620 4.41 30.1 14.99 n.64 6.83
1.734 1.604 29.5 v.o2 2.86
t0
5 4{, sT 4osi .2.&
6.071
8.2t
1.734
r.?34
1.589
t.588 J.5at 4.9 t8.gtl
c.a 2.246
2.248 ?a.l
4.42
8.50
?.@ 2'I.l 25.O1 tl ?,1

80 xs 80si .2 9.lol I qna


8.40 28.58 lt 2cl 2.195 .5 n.a
.500 5.O25 24.9 3?,.7! 10.76 45.4 l,r tt

.s62 5.501 5.04 t.?34 t.440 10.70 36.40 10.29 49.6 14.98
,t 7a t..J.to 4t.30 2.104
.?18 11.81
:o( .864 4.897 2.82 L?.42 15.64 18.8 ce t? 8.16 2.060 oo.J

.109 8.407 42.O 2.201 9.91 21.O4 6.13


lnq .148 40.l 2.?'58 2,180 3.94 54.5 13.40 3.00 35.4 8.2t
.158 J5.O 4.2A 54.2 14.25 23.44 8.74
2.?Sa 4.39 54.0 14.9t 23.40 2.99 9.lo
8.249 38.2 2.160 4.9S 53.4 16.9{ 44.4 t0.29
2.t52 18.26 a.z u.05
q 1q7 36.8 2.143 t9.66 22.94 5l.l ll aa
8.149 2.133 2t.32 55.2 12.80
20 35.4 2.?58 2.ttI cl a 2237 22.45 r3,39
.tTt 34.2 2.248 1a^ 63.4 14.69
40 sT 40tt 32.4 2.089 8.40 50.0 2I.68 2.94 t6.81
8 .344 7.93? 1t< 2.O78 49.5 30.43 2t.42 ,oa
D-8.625 .352 ', otl al , 2.28 49.3 1t ! 78.4 te to
7.875 2.258 2-062 8.7 2.92 82.9 ta tt
60 .406 7.813 2.045 10.48 47.9 20.8 2ql 88.8 20.58
.469 t. oor 2.2,58 t2.02 46.4 40.9 20. t 2.89 100.3 23.25
80 xs 80s 1.996 45.? 43.4 105.7 24.52
lm .s93 7.439 n.8 2,EA 1.944 14.95 $.s 18.8 lzt.4 2sI4
21.8 2.A t.$r l5.l I 53.4 !8.5
l7
2.84
120 .718 to t 1.882 40.6 60.6 a 140.6 32.60
140 7.001 lo.o 1.833 to oa JO.J ot.tt J!.qt

xx 15.4 1.800 21.30


la a
162.0
o.t'lJ 2.?.8 l.?84 2t.97 38.48

.134 10.482 tn 2.81 2.74 86.3


ace
15.2 3?.4 ll.?2
lGs 10.420 2.Al 2.73 5.{9 18.? 14.30
- lEo 10.374 2.81 8.2t 84.S \t.lJ 87.0 16.t9
10.344 118 ta! 84.0 n.9 36.4 l?.41
tto 10.310 lrtl 7.24 24.7 100.9 18.78
10 .250 10.250 I l,l 84.5 3.7t l13.?
.u9 10.192 ll0 125.9
D = 10.750 10.136 l0? 2.81 10.07 80.7 34.2 34.9 J.b9
.348 10.0s4 2.81 It 1t 79.4 34.4 3.68 I54-0 4.6
() sT 40s 10,020 l0t z.Ez I l.9l ?8.9 lAt 160.8
296 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 10-1
Continued

n Sch ? o Ao A'I Am Af t,J tlJw Rg I 7

(continurd) ..JYC 9.960 98.0 2.81 L6r 12.85 ?t.9 (3.? 3.66 172-5 3?- I
60 xs 80s .5@ 9.?!t0 88.1 z.At ?.55 16.t0 54.? 32.3 3.63 2t2.0 3!'.4
.sll 9.68? 85.3 2.Al 2.54 l?.06 ?3.? 58.0 3t.9 3.62 u.4 41.5
80 .59:t 9.564 80.0 2.81 2.50 18.92 tt.a 64.3 3l.t 3.60 244.9 {t.5
to l0o .?18 9.314 ,91 2.4 4'8 68.1 29.5 J.50 ?.8.2 sit2
.?50 9.250 ol.l 2.81 2.42 23.56 tt.2 80. t 29.1 3.stt 296.3 55.1
D - 10.750 lb .8,(l 9.064 61.2 z,8l 2.37 6.U 64.s 89.2 n.9 3.52 *4.3 @.3
q ?q/t
140 t.0@ 9I.J 2.81 2.4 30.63 60.l l0{.1 .0 3.4? 36-t.9 68.4
t.0@ 8.625 2.8t 2-26 32.3!t 58.4 109.9 25.3 3.4It 384.0 ?I.4
t.t2s 8,500 44.4 2.81 ?-a 3,l.Oa 56.? lt5.? 24.6 3.{il 399.4 ?4.3

55 .156 12.{nt 298 3.34 3.25 6.17 12t,5 2t.o 52.6 4.45 1?9'4 t9.2
t0s .td) 12.390 82 3.34 3.24 ?.ll 120.6 24.2 s2.2 4,44 140.5 a.o
.203 t?^344 u7 3.34 3.el 8.(x! 1t9.7 27.2 5r.8 4.44 15t.5 z4.l
.2t9 12.312 2A3 3.34 3-n 8.62 ITY.I 29.3 51.6 4.{3 r@.3 26.6
.N p.n4 2;19 3.34 3.2t 9.36 118.3 31.8 5t.2 4.4 183.2 28.7
n .?.fi t2.N u6 3.34 3.Zl 9.82 It?.9 3it.4 51.0 4.42 19t.9 qr.l
.n9 t2.t92 269 3.3{ 3.19 I0.93 I t6.? s7.2 s0.6 4.4t 212.7 gt.4
3{n r2.150 zo:t 3.34 3.t8 ll.nl ll0.Y 39.9 50.2 4.40 ut.s 35.?
30 .!80 12.090 258 3.34 3.I? 12.88 n4.8 43.8 -19.? 4.3!) 248.5 39.0
.344 t2.062 it5!l 3.34 3.16 13.4t I14.3 4It.6 4S).5 4.39 258 40.5
u3.l
t2 44
ST 40st .t' ID
.406
12.000
I t.938
249
242
3.34
3.34
3.14
3.13
t4.58
15.?4 ttl o
49.6
53.5
49.0
48.5
4.38
4.3?
n9
300
{3.8
47.1
D-12-7fi .418 I1.844 88 3.34 3.I I 16.94 ll0.? 5t.6 47.9 4.36 3At 50.4
xst 80s .500 I l.?50 n4 3,34 3.08 19.2{ 108.4 65.4 4?.0 4.3it 3$2 56.?
60 .s62 I1.648 2t2 3.34 3.04 2L.52 106.2 73.2 46.0 {.31 401 62.8
.@5 I t.500 ml 3.34 3.01 23.8t 103.9 80.9 45.0 4.8 9 68.8
8{t .EIOI I t.s16 l9t 3.34 2.98 ?.6.& 101.6 88.5 44.0 4.2t 4?5 ?4.5
t00 .8{3 I1.064 loo 3.34 2.90 31.5!l 96.1 10t.2 41.6 4.2 562 88.1
.crs ll.@0 l6l 3.34 2.8{l 32.64 95.0 ul.0 4l.t 4.2t sl9 90.8
IN 1.0o0 10.?50 l{4 3.34 2.81 36.91 90.8 t2s.5 39.3 4.17 642 tm.?
l.o I.IZJ 10.s00 r8 3.34 2J5 4l.ott oo.o r39.? .tt.o 4.13 ?01 lno o
1.2t9 I0.313 u? 3.34 2.20 44.t4 eet t5o.t 36.2 4.10 242 116.4
160 t.3t2 t0.126 106 3.34 taa 47.14 80.5 t60.3 34.9 4.0? ?81 tn.8
.188 13.624 469 3.62 t Et 8.16 l4It.8 tz.7 qt. r 4.8{t 195 27.A
.ui t3.560 459 J.0l 3.5s 9.s2 144.4 g2-4 6'2.5 4.gI 26 32.3
.25 t3.524 452 aFl 3.54 10,29 143.6 35.0 62,2 4-gI 24 34.8
l0 .250 13.5{n 448 3.6"f 3.53 10.80 l4il.1 JO..a 62.0 4.86 2S5 36.s
n .312 13.3?5 4A 3.6? 3.50 t3.44 l4(,.s 4tt.? 60.8 4.84 otJ 45.0
30 ST 4A:, 3.47 IO.UJ t3?.9 EOt
l4 .3?S

.406
13.2s0
13.188
408
aI60 3.6? 3.45 17.34 136.6
54.6
59.0 59.1
4.82
4.81
3nl
40t
5:t.3
5t.3
40 .43{t l3.l2s 389 3.67 3.{4 t8.66 63.4 58.6 4.80 48 61.4
D - 14.000
.4dt r3.062 380 3.67 3.42 19.94 134.0 67.8 58.0 4.79 4S7 65.3
xst .500 13.0@ 3?1 3.6? 3.40 2t-zt 132.? 72.1 JI.J 4.78 484 69.1
60 to2 t2.814 345 3.6? i"< 24.9A t29.0 84.9 c5-6 4.74 562 80.3
.525 t2.?50 3:l? 3.67 3.34 26.26 tn.7 89.3 55.3 4.?3 589 84.1
Properties of Pipe 297

Table 10-1
Continued

q
I
D Sch t d o Ao Al Am hI Rq I z
I
i .tt
(contiaucd) .ooo 12.688 a 126.4 93.5 54.8 614 8t.7
I
.r rf 12,,.7 t06.1 c.t I 4.69 oit/ 98.2
80 .?50 12.500
I
., 1.' lr5-5 t30.8 50.0
I00 t2.r?s 262 38.4? 4.63 atz5 117.9

l4 120
140
1.093
1.250
u.814
I1.500 .t.ot
a^o
3.0r
4d32
s0.0?
109.6
t03.9
150.7 47.5
4{i.0
4.58
4.53 lo27
930 t32.8
t46.8
D- 14.000 1.344 2.96 $.44 t@.5 181.6 ,5 4.50 1082 154.6

160 1.406 I1.188 Itc 2.93 cat.*t 98.3 189.1 42-6 {.48 t59.6

,I88 t5.624 ott 4.19 4.09 9.34 tot t 31.8 a2n .to"5
.28 I5.524 902 4. t9 4.06 I t.?s r89.3 40.1 82.0 JOO 45.8
!0 .2fi 15.500 895 4.t9 4.06 too. t 42.1 ol-r 384 48.0

.Bl 15.438 4.19 4.04 t*r, 47.2 8l.l 4.5(| 53.6


.312 4.19 4.02 ts.40 52.{ 80.4 5.5:l 474 59.3
842 4.19 4.01 I6.92 184.1 ct.5 1d'l 5.5{ qto 64.8
.3,14

30 ST la tt 4.19 18.41 t82-7 ?9.1 J.$t


lq qo
.406 l5.loo 808 4.19 3.98 l8l -2 78.4 5.52 ou5
.8 15.124 4.19 2t.4I 72.8 tt.6 5.50 549 8l.I
4.8 l1e a
l6 4() xsi
.469
.500
E.t i
15.062
15.000
14.938 744
4.19
4.19
4.19
3.94
toe
,l ot
24.35 114
t?5.3
'l
lt.o
82.4
x, 'l
7r.2 5.{9
5.48
5.4? ',.,',
91.5

D- 16.0@
2qq
14.688 684 4.I9 31.62 t69.4 IUI.J ?3.4 5.$ llo.D
14.625 boc 4.19 t 68.0 1t2.4 72.7 s.42 12t.4
.750 t4.500 64t 4.19 3.80 35.S0 s.40 t047
,t ?4
80 .8 14.3r4 601 4.I9 40.14 160.9 lJo.c I157 144.6
l@ t.$r 13.938 4.19 48.48 t52.6 16,{.8 66. t 5.29 lJoat I?0.5
tm t.218 t3.56{ 459 4.19 co.00 144.5 62.6 5.23 1550 194.5

I40 t.4il8 t3.124 38!) 4. t9 3.44 135.3 ttt l?5t ?.m.1


l.5m 13.000 rtll 4.19 3.40 oat..l' 23,2.3 9.lt 1815
t60 l.sg! t2.at4 345 4.19 129.0 24{t.l 5.t2 1894 236.7

l0 .2W l?.500 l64l 4.5{t 13.94 240.5 104.1 6.28 549 61.0
?n It itq 1584 4.55 17.36 59.0 1t2.7 6.2ts
ST t7.?.fi 4.52 tn, , 70.6 t01.2
.8 t472 4.71 4.48 u.t7 w.3 82.2 99.? atr 103.6
xs .5@ t?.000 t420 4.?l 4.4Ii n.49 ut-o oac 98.3 6.I9 luc\t lt?.0
40 .562 16.876 1369 4.42 30.?9 l0{.? 96.9 6.tz t 17t 130.2
.594 t6.813 1344 4.?l 4.aa 32.46 n2.0 110.4 L1J L 136.8
16.750 IJI'' 4.39 34.t2 m.4 u6.0 9!i.4 o-r5 t289 143.3
t8 .719 16.562 1247 4.34 38.98 2!5.5 132,5 6.12 1458 t6a0
D- 18.00O
60 .?50 16.500 1?23 4.?l 4,32 40.6l 213.8 138.2 92.6 6.10 l5l5 168,3
.812 ,i.29 43.8? 2t0.6 149.2 91.2 6.08 1624 180.5
80 t090 4.n m4.2 lm.8 8r'.4 6.0{ IE}4 2G3.8
100 t5.066 950 4.lr 193.3 208.O 83.? s.gt 2180 ?|22,
120 15.250 3,99 I t,l'r 142.7 244.2 70 1
5.90 2498 8I-A
t40 I {.876 3.89 80.65 ?74.3 5.84 2750 $!!.5
1.688 14.625 3.&t 86.{8 Itt6-u 294.0 5.80 2908 323.1
tou t.?8t t4.438 azl 3.?8 90.?3 tdt.? 308.5 3020 als.6
298 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 10-1
Continued

D Sch t ) o Ao Ai Af lt
Am !'Jw R9 I z
t0 .250 l9.s@ 2.82 5.24 5.11 298.6 52.7 12s.3 6.98 tat ?qt
.3t2 t9.3?5 2.73 5.24 5.0? !9.36 294.8 o.t.6 LZt.O 6.96 938 35.tt
20 sT .sls r9.250 2.64 3.24 5.04 ta t, 291.0 ?8.6 126.0 6.94 ll14 lu.4
.4its t9.124 2.56 5.24 (nt 26.9 ?at.z 91.5 124.4 6.92 1289 128.9
30 xs .5tI, 19.000 2.48 5.24 4.9? 30.6 283.5 t04.I tu.8 6.90 l4{i7 l4{i.?
.552 !e a?t 2.N 5.24 4.94 34.3 t29.8 It6.8 6.88 1624 l5a4
40 .593 18.814 2.36 3.4 4.93 36.2 n8.0 tu.g 120.4 6.88 t?04 t?0.4
.62s I8.?50 5.24 4.91 38.0 t?a I ltoa
20 6{' .8tz 18.376 2.to 5.24 4.8t 48.9 ?,43.2
129.3
t65.4 ll{.8 o.l9
t787
ucl 8.7
l?8.7
.EIO 18.250 2.02 5.24 4.?8 52. 261.6 l''a a ttt 6.71 2&9 240.9
18. tSIt 1.99 5.24 4.?6 54,3 259.8 I84.8 IIZ.J" o.lo 2483 24a.3
D - 20.000 80 1.03t l?.938 r.86 5.24 4.70 61.4 252.7 208.9 109.4 6.72 tTn ztt.2
1.2s0 l?.5@ 1.64 5.24 4.58 J!t.o 244.5 250.3 104.1 6.64 32s! 325.1
r00 1.28t 17.8 l.6t 5.24 4.'r ?5.3 238.8 256.1 lct.4 6.63 &[6 Ett.6
t6 1.500 17.000 1.42 5.Zt 4.4{t 87.2 n.0 2,8,4 98.3 aa9.| it!9.5
140 l.?50 16.500 t.u 5.24 4.9 I00.3 2t3.8 341.1 92.8 6.48 4217 42t.7
1.844 lo.Jl!t t.t6 5.24 4.n t0s.2 209.0 Jilt.5 90.5 5.4tt 4379 {3:1.9
l60 1.968 16.04 1.07 5.?A 4.21 I rl.5 2,02.7 3?9.I atl.at 6.4I {586 4S8.8

22 l0
st
.?g 2t.s@
2t.?so
4.59
4.3it
o.to 5.dl
t.oo
l?.r
25.5
363 58.1
do.b 153.6
?.69
l -Dil
t0l0
1490
9t.8
l3!i.4
D-2Co0 :<!t .500 21.0m 4.08 c.,t0 33.8 34ti 114.8 l5{r.0 ?.@ I OCtl
171t.5

l0 .?.& 23.500 7.r7 6.8 o-15 18.? 434 63.4 l8?.8 8.4{) t3t6 r09.6
.312 23.376 o.Yat 6.28 alt 8.2 4N ?8.9 185.8 at.Jat toiat 135.8
20 sT .irri' 4.?,fi 6.?9 8.24 6.09 27.8 4?S 94.6 l&!.8 d.,t:l l9{l 161.9
.8 a.ps 6.2A 32.4 42'o ll0.t 181.9 o.$t 2249 lgr.4
xs .o{r, 23.000 6.44 8.?A 6.02 36.9 415 129.5 l TCt q 8.31 2550 212.5
30 .DOZ 22.876 8.2A 5.99 41.4 4ll 140.7 l?8.0 8.29 ?a40 237.O
4.750
24 40
.625
.6Al 4.626
6.09
5.93
6.28
6.4 5.92
{ti.9
50.3
{06
442
156.0
l7l I
i76.0 8.27 3140
3420
.750 n.w o.l r 6.4 5.89 54.8 398 186.3 t72.2 a.?.2 or lu
28S
309
D:2{,000 @ .968 22.064 5.23 6.28 5.78 70.0 3A 238.1 loat.o 8.ls 46S3 388
l.oall 21.938 5.08 6.4 5.74 3?8 ?l,2.9 lo.t.l 8.ts 4920 4t0
80 t.2r8 21.564 4.66 6.24 J.O:l a7.2 !50:| 296.4 106.t 8.07 4?3
t0o t.531 20.938 4.02 6.28 5.48 t08.1 344 36"?.4 t49.1 6852 5n
tm I.812 20.376 3.5r 6.28 C.JJ 126.3 326 429.4 t4t.z 7.gI 7&4 65:l
140 2.0t2 r9.8?6 3.10 6.23 5.20 t42.1 310 483.2 134.3 ?.?9 8630 ?t9
2.188 19.52s 2.91 6.28 s.t4 149.9 302 509.? t31.0 J. tc 9010 ?5t
160 ?-3+3 r9.3t4 2.69 6.8 9-UO 159.4 293 542.0 7.70 9455 rtttt

26 sa
xl;
.JI5
.500
8.zfi
25.0q)
10.26 o-61
5.81
o-ot
6.54
30.2 501
49t
102.5
136.2
216.8
tlt E
9.06
9.02
2479 t9l
D - 26.000 250

t0 ,312 29.3?6 21.9 l -64, 7.69 at8 98.9 293.5 t0.50 3210 2t4
ST 2t.4 ?.85 l.Eto 34.9 6?2 lt8.? 291.0 10.48 ,lta.,
30 .438 2.9.t25 21.0 '1.62 40.6 ooo 138.0 ?.88.4 l0.4It 44
20 xll .500 29.000
tQ a.ra
20.5 ?.8!r 7.59 46.3 661 t5l-o 286_0 10.4r 50il{l 336
D-30.000 20. t 7qa 52.0 qtit l?6.8 10.41
30 8.zfi !o a 7.53 649 195.1 28t,1 10.3!t 6230 4ls
34 ST
xs
-J/5
.s00
3:t.zso
33.000
40.5
39. t
a aal
8.90
8.?0
8.64
39.6
5Z-O
868 134.7
178.9
3?6.0
370.3
11.89
I l.ato
oo95 1to
D - 34.00O {34

36 ST
xs
.r.rE
.5m
35.2s0
3:i.000
54.4
52.5
9.44
9.44
42.O
c5-o
Ylo
962
142-7
189.6
4U.6
{16.6
12.60
12.55
ob5Y
61t'0
D - 36.0@ 488

42 ST
xli
II'E
.500
41.250
41.000
119.4
115.9
I
I1.0
t.0 10.80
10.13
49.0 IJ.to
1320
I66.?
?1.6
5?8.?
57t.7
t4.72 1052t
14.67 t4{xt?
50
D -
42.000 668
L1
Weight and Dimensions o{
Pipe and ComPonents

c lhbight of iwulntion of the PiPe


Weight of PiPe and ComPonents
I = Insulation density, 1b/ft3
qnd compo-
T : Irsulation thiclness, in.
When determining the weight of the pipe D= Outside diameter of PiPe' in.
nents, several factois must be taken into consideration:
Weight of insulation : .0218 IT (D+f; = 67n

o Weipht of pipe : lJse the values for properties for carbon Values for insulati.on densitY:
steej pipe as a standard. These values can be found in
Chapiei tO. The relative weight factors for other mate- Calcium silicate ll lb/ft3
rials are: 85% magnesium 10 to 11 1b/ft3
Thermobestos 11.53 lb/ft3
Aluminum = 0'35 KAIJO r9-2rlbltr
Brass : l.l2 Diatomaceous earth = 2rrbltr
Cast ircn : 0'91 High temperature ?AIbItr
Copper = l,l4 Super-X ?5tbltr
Fefrtic stainless steel : 0'95 Foly-Urethane 2.3rbltr
16 lb/ft3
Austenitic stainless steel = 1.@ Amosite asbestos
Foamglas 9 rb/ff
{arbon !
91b/ft3
Wrbught 0.98 Cellular glass
Depleted uanium
, ,r) Mineral wool 8lb/ff
Tables 11-1 Orough 11-10 give the weiglt of insulation
and various pipe componens by size.
The following pages are tables and figures showing
t standard dimensions of flanges, fittings' valves, anct ptpe
Wigtrt of water in pipe: See the proper.ties of pipe in
Chapter 10. bends.

299
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 11-l
Weight of Insulation
(lb/linear ft)
Plpe
Slze Thickness of Insulation
21h" 3112"
I .72 1.94 2.',|6 3.70
1.5 .84 1.35 2.52 3.47 4.52
2 1.01 | .71 2.53 3.48 4.42 5.59
3 1.25 2.08 3.01 4.O',l 5.24 6.65
4 t.62 2.5s J.Ol 4.66 6.07 .48
7 9.10
6 2.tl 3.28 4.5'7 6.09 7 .60 9.82 11.5
8 4.13 5.64 7.8s 9.48 11.5 13.8 16.0
10 5.20 7 .07 8.93 11.0 t3.2 15.5 18. I
t2 6.04 8. l3 10.5 12.7 15. I .4
1'7 20.4
t4 6.r6 8.38 10.7 l 15.8
13. 18.5 2t.3
16 6.90 9.33 12.0 14.6 t7 .5 20.5 23.6
l8 10.4 13.3 16.3 19.3 22.6 25.9
20 8.45 11.6 14.6 l7 .7 21.1 24.6 28.1
24 10.0 t3.4 r7 .0 21.0 24.8 28.7 32.9
26 10.4 14.1 18.0 2r.9 26.0 30.2 34.6
28 11.2 15. I 19.2 23.4 27 .8 32.2 36.9 41.6 51.4
30 I 1.9 16.1 20.5 25.0 29.5 JZ+. J 39.r 44.1 54.4
J2 12.7 t7 .l 21.7 26.5 31.3 36.3 41.1 46.6 57 .5
13.4 18.2 23.0 28.O JJ. I 38.3 43.'7 49.1 60.5
36 t4.2 19.2 29.s 34.8 40.3 45.9 51.7 bJ-)
42 16.5 22.2 28.0 34.0 40.1 46.4 52.2 59.2 72.6
* me tublc is based on calcium silicate at t tb/ff
I and nust be adjutt"d 1o, olnt
^ot"riol".
rn" tort" iiuaiionaig *d-o*rin. ."ighr.

Table 11-2 Table 11-3


Weight of Flanged Gate Valves weight ot wetd End cate valves
(tb) (tb)
Size Rating Size Ratlng
(inJ 150# 300# 400# 600# 900# 1500# 2500# (in.) 150# 300# 400# 600# 900#
I JI 35 I 20 25
1.5 45 68 9l 136 1.5 29 55 70
80
2 55 75 115 256 245 60
125
3 95 t4s 194 314 460 380 120
80
155 260
190
410
4 140 215 270 330 430 610 4 120 170 220 270 350 520
6 240 420 530 720 900 1,410 6 210 360 460 &0 750 1,250
8 /100 700 940 1,220 |,560 2,600 8 340 590 830 1,080 1,300 1,910
t0 630 1,050 1,530 1,880 2,350 l0
t2 830 1,490 2,0w
550 9r0 r,250 1,610 1,970
2,630 35W 12 730 1,220 1,800 2,240 3,2N
t4 1,150 2,170 2,410 3,2W 4,680 14 990 |,960 2,210
1,580 2,800 3,500
3,000 4,350
16
l8 1,910 3,720
4,230 6,500 16 1,460 2,550 3,100 4,030 6,000
20 2,350 4,90
7,2W 18 |,730 33N 3,76s 6,760
24
9,800 20 2,200 4,350 8,950
3,900 7 ,380 I 1,800 24 3,350 6,700 10,500
CourEsy of Crane Co. Courtesy of Crane Co.
. Weight and Dimensions of Pipe and Gomponents 301

Table 11-4 Table I l'5


weight of wdd End Check (Swing) l/alves
Welgtrt of Flanged Check (Swing) valves
(tb) (lb)
Ratlng
Size Ratlng Size
400# 600# 900# 1500# 2500#
(ln.) 150# 3OO# 4OO# 600# 900# 1500# 2500#
.t
23462 70 160 1< 47 55 130

3 65 120 140 180 280 350 80 100 155 zto


4 100 180 2W 260 3401,360 630 4 100 130 190 210 240 390
6 2N 330 395 530 640 6 160 zffi 310 420 500 780
8 390 620 680 900 1,180 2'100 8 360 510 580 740 890 1,320
l0 510 9m 9N 1,440 2'170 10 760 820 880
t2 775 r,2n 1,250 |,970 t2 1,015 1,150 r,200
t4 1,200 1,650 t4
16 1,450 2,050 t6
18 2,420 18
20
20
a^ 24

Ctaw Counesy of Crane Co.


Courtesy of Co.

Table 1 1-6 Table 11'7


tlreight of weld End Globe \ralves
vrteight of Flanged Globe \hlves
(lb) (tb)

Slze Ratlng slze Ratlng


150# 300# 400# 600# 900# 1500# 2500# (in.) 150# 3OO# 4OO# 600# 900# 1500# 2500#
79 90 115 2t5 215 234757897
2
80 139 160 191 46 4fi 3 75 115 130 L6 170 185
J
t40 214 233 318 490 65 + 120 179 206 272 2N 285
4
6 250 396 476 782 920 1,890 6 220 332 401 656 630 680
8 a0 a8 820 1,2:U. 8 363 530 900 1,100 1'1'+0 l'370
l0 598 686 10 535 1,056 r,730 2,400
t2 824 12 794 1,160 2,7N 3,024
14 L4 3,850 4,lm0
16 l6
18 18
20 20
24 24

Courtesy of Cratv C'a.


Councst oI craie co.
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 11-B Table 11-10


Wbight of Flanged Angle \hlves Wbights ot Flanges (tnctuding Botts)
0b)
Ratng
150# 300# 400# 600# 900# 2WN 6 10 13 13 31 31 48
238 2SO 6 9 11 tl 32 32 48
130 160 230 2 BLD 5 10 12 12 31 31 49
4 110 2N 235 280 370 3 WN 11 19 27 27 38 61 113
6 zl0 370 385 675 1,000 3SO 9 17 19 19 36 60 gg
8 360 634 685 985 3 BLD 10 20 24 24 38 61 105
10 552 1,130 1,950 4WN t7 29 4t 48 g 90 r77
12 r,720 3,100 4SO 15 26 32 43 6 90 158
14 2,350 4 BLD 19 31 39 47 67 90 164
lo 6 WN 27 48 67 96 130 202 451
18 6 SO 22 45 54 95 r28 2U 396
20 6 BLD 29 56 71 101 133 197 418
8 WN 42 76 104 137 222 334 692
8 SO 33 67 82 135 207 3t9 60i
Counes! of Crune Co. 8 BLD 48 90 115 159 232 363 gg
l0 wN 60 110 152 225 316 546 1,291
10 so 51 100 117 213 293 528 1.148
r0 BLD 78 146 t8l 267 338 5gg t.245
Table 11-9 f2 wN 88 163 212 272 434 843 1.919
Weight of Weld End Angte Valves 12 SO 72 140 1& 261 388 820 1,611
(tb) t2 BLD 118 209 26t 341 475 928 1,775
Rating
14 WN 11,3 217 277 406 642 1,241
(inJ r50# 300# 400# 600# 900# 15oo# 2soo# 14 SO 96 195 235 318 4@ 1,016
14 BLD r42 267 354 437 s74
2 70 r30 16 WN 108 288 351 577 785 1,597
3 8l r70 16 SO t85 262 310 42 559 1,297
4 155 490 16 BLD 160 349 455 @3 719
o 330 18 wN 140 355 430 652 1.074 2.069
8 530 l8 so 229 33t 380 s73 797 t,694
10 880 18 BLD 196 440 572 762 1,030
t2 20 wN 43r 535 8lt 1.344 2.614
t4 20 so 181 378 468 733 972 2,114
16 20 BLD 298 545 7tt 976 r,287
18 24 WN 295 632 777 1,157 2,450 4,153
20 24 SO 245 577 676 1,056 1,823 3,378
24 24 BLD 446 Ur 1.355 2.442
Courtesy ol Crane Co. Courte\) of Crane Co.
Weight and Dimensions of Pipe and Components 303

Steel Butt-Welding Fittings (in.)


F-c.--- Courtesy of Crane Co. T-/:
F--A---l
,."n a/r-
f-/..'- 1 S.cndad, Exrrc st'ots. S.rrcduL 160,
t ilt
ill"
i
--r-'llf
lll

T U- b .--ul
t( '(-
n ad Doubl. Exrro Strcns FitrinE.
trov. tr|. ro,n. outdd. din.ttiott.
tiiJ
t!ng t.dlu.
9oo
1
9Oo
L__-r-'
Lonr Rodl'rr
Arnerican Standard: These fittings R.du.lns T..
l._E-*Ei
R.ducinr Crott
llbow conform, in sizes and types included Dincnrion "T" it rhown in tobl. beloe;
Stroighl or Iong Tang.6t therein, to lhe American Standard, r.f.r lo lors. loblc for dilnnrion "E".
on on. lnd B r 6.q- r qi8; see page 2gr.

aA
T/f 4
.N
-A/ >
Thickness: Stendard Fittings r z-inch
and smaller ate made for use with
Standard pipe (heaviest weight on 8,
ro, and r zjinch sizes);sizes r4-inch and
LJJRodlu.
9Oo Shorr 45o lons Rodlut
larger are made for use with O.D. pipe
fu-inch thick,
:tbov, "1.-J
Elbow Exrra Strong Fittings rz-inch and
smaller are made for use wilh Exlra
Strong pipe; larger sizes are made for
use with O.D. pipe \/2-inch Lhick.
1 | | tl Schedule r60 Fittings are r''"'le for use
F\ i /i with Schedule r6o pipe.
-t-:-L I
Double Extra Strong Fittjngs are made
5l..l9hl Cror! for use with Double Extra Slrong pipe

/--*\-T r-l-T
/ ,--\ \J Ill t*tl ml
e]c"P
tg":J-t
l*G--!
Shorl Rodlur
R.turn a.nd
_n Ll
t-M+l
Stub End
url 9oo Typ.
Shap!d Nlppl.!

20xlE'

M R.lnfor.lns
w.ldlnr 5!ddl.
/
/ini\l
l+,
,,--\
\#l
l.-H- +l
\
long Rodlur
R.lurn B.nd
k [_-\
l!--/-l
k- s
tl

---r
[\
tL____J)
k- s -_-'l

Extr
Size B D F H J M N P a S Stror

Yz rYL 6/s lr6/ts 44 80


s/t r'/e 7/ra lr/a' 2Y1 lr Yra lrr/re 2 4t) 80
I 1Yz I '/e 1rh, lr/z 2 3 lVs L-/r6 2 4 I 4r/s 40 80
lr, 17/g lr/t I r1h. trk 2r/z 33/t 2r/ta 2?/t 2r/z lr/*. 43/t 4n 80

lYz lr/z 3r/r tta 2ra, trh 3 4th L'/16 J'/1 27/s 4 rYE 1Yt zYz 40 80
tt/s 1rh 4 3tAs 4t/rs 33/t 5 IYE 51 6/re 3 40 80
4r/r zYz
2Vz 33/t t'/2 l3/t 1r/z 7r/z 31 6/re 53/ro tYE 6 lYg 67/ra 3r/z 40 80
4r/z 5ta x 3Ve 2 6 9 4a/t 6Yt 6 lr/a t -/16 3r/z 4 80

3r/z t'/a 31h 6t/t 2r/. 33/t zrh 5Vz 6 lr/t 8r/rs 40 80
6 t'/2 2Yz 4Y8 zrh 8 6r/t \r/a 63/rs tsh 8e/ro 40 80
t'/z 9 3Yt 47/E 10 73/t l0t/ta I -/L6 8 t?/s 93/s 40 80
9 6 l0s/a 3.4 5'/t rt 18 95/te 12r/ e 81/z t 1r/z 113/t 40 80
t
i
E 8 133/t 16 l2E/rs 165/re 10n/s 8 2 t43/a 6 40 80
l0 15 l0 t7 6U 8r/2 30 153/e zoYs tx|/a 10 2rh t77/s 7 40
t2 1t t2 20rh t '/2 10 6 24 18% 248h l5 10 23/t 201/. 8
2l 8./t ll. 6r/z 28 28 t6ta 3r/t 22YB 13 l0
16 24 l0 12. 7 48 tath 3r/z 24r/6 L4 JO 40
t8 18 llr/t t3rh. 6 s4 26yE
20 30 20 12r/2 15' 9 40 60 30 40 x3 30r/a 20 20 t0
36 24 toth 4E 36 48 17r/t 34r/E 20 20
304 Piping Stress Handbook

Forged Steel Flanges (in.)


Courtesy of Crane Co.

150 ond 3oO-Pound

Slip-On W6lding Flqn!. 5lip-On !Y.ldi.s Fldns!


150 ond 30O-Pound 400. 600, 9O0, ond l5o0-Pound

Class Pipe
D
Bolts
Siie E H
Vz 3Vz 1/ts l3/s 2YE r/- '/a l7/e 0.84 '/e
3/t 31/8 lrr/ra 13/t
Yz Y2 2r/ra 1.05 "/a
I 4Y. e/rs 2 3Yg Yz tL/-^ 23/re 1.32 rr/re
lr/t 45/^ 3A 2y2 3t/c 4 r/ |3/.- 1.66 txt -
1r/z I Vre 2TB
Scr6v.d Flon9. 37/8 ^/2 % 21/re 1.90 %
400, 600, 9O0, 1500, ond 2500-Pou.e 2 6 3A 35/e 4r/. -/a I 2Y2 2.38 1
2W 7 % 4Yg 5lz 5/s lyg Tta 2.88 lY8
7r/t rtl" 5 6 l3Aa 23/t 3.50 13/,,
3Y2 8Vz I B/ts 5r/z 7 8 5/z rY1 2r3/rs 4.00 ru
150 9 6sAs 7Yz E 5/e t-/lB 3 4.50 t -/16
Pound l0 r,/rs / -/16 8r/z x/t 17/rs 3Y2
E lTAc
T1 I ar/z 9Vt 8 3r/z 6.63 te/,"
E l3Y2 lyE los/a ll3/t E '/1 t3/t 8.63 l3/t
C.oh.l.p Flong. 10 l6 l3/rs 123/t l4Yt f6 1rs/re to-75 lr5/rt
150 ond 3oo-Pound 17, 19 lr/r t7 % xl/rs 4Y2 2t/re
l4 21 13/, t6rL 18./t I 2r/r, 14.00 3Y"
l6 x3r/z l7/re l8Y2 2lY4 l6 1 2Y2 16.00 37/re
18 le/ra 2T 223/t l6 lYa 2rYre 5r/2 r E.00 lr3/rt
20 27Yz lrr/ra 20 lYe 27/8 5rr/te 20.00 4r/ra
24 11h 27r/^ xqr/, 20 lr/t 3U, 6 24.O0

Cron.lop Fl.nso
u 33/e l3/e Ls/e Y2 7/s 2r/ra 0.84
'rr 45/e '/a lrr/ra 3r/t 5/s 1 2r/e 1.05 I
4OO, 600, 900, | 500, o.d 250o-Poqnd rr/ra
I 4YB 2 3W '/a lr/rs 27Aa lrAa
lrh 2,r/t 37/e 4 rllc r.66
lr/z 6YA t3/-- 27/8 4rh 3/t l3/ra 2rt/ta 1.90 l3As
)
2 6th % 3./a E s/e ts/rel 2.38 l5/rs
2U 7V2 I 4Y8 s% 8 3/t 3 2.88 lY2
3 8Ut lYs 6./e 8 ,i\i,"l 3Ve 3.50 lrr/r,
3Y2 9 l3/rs 5Y2 7V E "/a r3a 33/rs 4.00
300 4 l0 lr/t 63/ts 7TE 8 '/1 lTg 33/s 4.50 Lfa
Pound l1 l3/s 75Ae 9Y1 8 '/l 2 37/g
6 t2r/, t4c 8r/z 105/n t2 3/" 2rAa 37/a 6.63
8 l5/a lo3/e TE 27/te 43/s 8.63 77As
W!ldlng N.Gk Flans. l0 17Y2 l7/a 12t/t 1sY1 16 I x'/s 45/e 10.75 33/t
150 ond 3O0-Pound t2 20Yz 2 t7t/t lr/s 27h 5Y8 12.75 4
t4 2Vt 16r/, 20r/a 20 lVa 3 55/e 14.00
l6 25W xY1 lEYz 22W 20 lY. 3Y4 53/t r6.00 4t/r
l8 2E 23/e 21 24t/e x4 lr/e 3W 6r/t 1E.00 t'/a
20 30rh 2Yz 27 24 lYa 33/t 6t/a 20.00 5V2
36 23/r, 27tA 24 lr/" 6./a 24.00 6
l0 l3/e 6sAs 77/a 8 % 2 3Y2 4.50 2
5 ll tr/z t -/16 9ra E % z\g zrh
12r/z 1s/* 8!z to6/^ t2 7h 2r/t 4t/," 6.63 2V,
400 E l1/B lo'/a t2 I 2rrAe E.63 rr/rs
Pound l0 17r/z xYE l2t/e l5Y1 IYB 27/B 47/B r0.75 4
l, loYz 2Yt t73/a l6 lY4 3YB 53/e 12.75 4V.
l4 2s/p. r6Yt 20r/t 20 lr/t 3sle 57/a 14.00
16 25Yz 2r/z tgt/z 21Yz 20 l3/s 3rr/rs 6 16.00
18 2a 25/c 21 2434 t./E 31h 6Y2 18.00 53/s
W.ldins No<k Flanrc x0 3or/z 2r/t 27 24 lr/z 6E/a 20.00 5t/t
40O, 600, 9O0, 1500, ond 2soo-Pound 36 3 77r/^ 24 t3a 4r/, 67/* 24.00
Weight and Dimensions of Pipe and Components 305

Forged Steel Flanges (in.) Continued.


Courtesy of Crane Co.
Pipe Bolts
Class Size
B c D
Dia.
G H

t./a 7h 2Yra 0.84 I/s


lz 3x/e 116 l3/e Y2
-/1 41/s '/a lr Yre 3r/t '/e I xr/t 1.05 1

I 47h rt/ts 2 3r/z '/a 1r/rs 21/ra lr/ra


rY1 5r/t r3/," 2r/2 31h. rYa L5/e 1.66 tv"
lYz 6Yg 7/e x7/8 4Y2 '/L l|/t 23/t 1.90 rv
2 6Y2 I 5 8 -/B 11/ta 27h 7.38 lTAa
z\z 7r/z IYB 4YE 8 t/t l5/e 3Y8 2.88 ls/e
3 81/^ lYt 6s/e, 8 3A lr3/rc 3r/^ 3.50 lr3/r'
lo3/t lr/z 63/ra 8r/z 8 1/B 2r/B 4.50 zY8
600
13 l3/e t -/16 loYz 8 I Lr/^ --) L"/e
Pound
6 l4 lr/p. gYz rrv 11 I 1,5/^ 45/e 6.63
E l6t/z lo5/s t33A t2 lYg J 5Y1 8.63 3
10 20 2r/, 123/a t7 l6 lr/t 33/s 6 10.75 43/a
t2 2r/e 19Y1 20 lY4 6Yg 4s/s
l4 233/L X3/t 16r/a X03/a z0 l3/t 3rr/ts 6Vz 14.00
27 3 l8Y2 233/e 20 lr/z 43Ae 7 16.00 5r/z
18 29Yt 3r/a 2.53/t 20 l5/e 46/a 7\/a 18.00 6
20 3Yz 28r/z L'/A 7Yz 20.00 6Yz
24 27r/t l7/a $t/z E 24.00
3 9Yz lY2 5 t '/2 8 7/B 2Y8 3.50 2Ys
llY2 t3/t 63/ra 9r/t 8 lYa 2e/t 4Yz 4.50 23/e
133/t 2 75/ra ll 8 lra 3Yg 3Y6
15 23Ae 8rh 11,y, t2 rVa 33/e 5r/z 6.63
900
Pound E t8t/z 2Y2 1o7s l5t/2 12 l3/e 63/e 8.63 4Yz
l0 2lYz 73/t lx"/o l8Y2 l6 l3/e 4V 7Yt 10.75
24 3YB 20 l3/e 4V8 77/a 12.7 5 5s/s
t4 25r/^ 33/t t6rh 22 20 11/z 83/a 14.00 6Va
l6 X73/t 3r/z lSYz 2Ar/q 20 r'/a t'/a 81/z r6.00 6Y2
18 x7 20 l7/s 6 9 18.00 / '/2
20 133/t 4Ya 29U 20 2 6V 93/t 20.00 8r/t
24 4l 5r/z 27Vt 35r/z xo ZYz E llr/z 24.00 t0v
r/z 4t/t % l3/s 3Y4 "/a lY1 23/e 0.84 lYl
'/1 9r/e I lrr/rs 3Y2 -/A l3/e 23/a 1.05 lx/s
I 57/g lr/s 2 7/E lt/e 27/B l5/a
lY1 6r/r, rVR 2r/z 43/z 4 1/" F/a 27/e 1.66
lYz 7 lr/n x7/e 47/s I lr/a 3V 1.90 13/t
2 8r/z lYz 35/e 6r/, E % 2V 2.38 2Yt
1500 2W 96/e l5/s 4YB 7r/z d I 21/z 4Y8 2.88 IYz
Pound 3 t0rh l7/e E E rYa 27h. 4s/a 3.50
lxr/t zYB 63Aa 9Y2 8 rv 3e/ts 47/e 4.50 3e/re
143/t 27/B TsAs llYz E lr/z 4Y8 6Ys 4YB
6 t5y, 3r/^ 8r/, 12r/2 tz l3/a 4rr/ts 63/t 6.63 4rrA,
8 19 35/a t05/B rsYz l6/t 5'/a 83/s 8.63 55/a
l0 4r/t 123/t l9 l7/8 6V 10 t0.75 7
tx 26Yz 47h 22\/2 16 2 lrYB t2.75 8%
l4 29r/2 5r/t l6r/t l6 '),r/^ tt3/a 14.00 9r/"
Yz 5Y4 lB/ra l3/e 3Y2 ta r'/t6 27/8 0.84 lsAe
t/a sw Ita lrr/te 33/t 3/a lLYra 3Ys 1.05 1r%o
I 6V 13/e 2 4r/a % 1I/s 3r/z t.32 tlA
lr, 7r/ lV2 2r/z 5Va I 2rAa 3t/^ 1.66 2rAa
lYz 8 ls/t 27/s 534 4 lYs 23/s 43/e 1.90
2 ev 2 33/e 63/t E I 23/e 2.3E 2./t
2500 2Y2 lor/z zYl 4r/s 734 8 IYB 3Y8 5'/e 2.88 3Y8
Pound 3 tt 9 E lVt 35/e 6r/e
t4 3 63/ra lo3/t 8 lVz 4V 7Yz 4.50 4Yl
5 l6Yz 35/e t -/t5 123/t t 5VE 9 5th
6 l9 41A 8Yz l4r/, E 2 6 tosa 6.63
8 2lt/t 5 lo5/s 17 r/t t2 2 l1Y2 8.63
10 26y. 6rh 123/t 2trh 2r/z 9 l6Yz 1o.75 9
t2 30 7Yt t5 243/e 2.4 t0 l8r/t 12.75 l0
Piping Stress Handbook

Cast Steel Wedge Gate Valves


150- to 1500-Pound Dimensions
Courtesy of Crane Co.

E-T E-T
l-E$r--l
,-t I FEh I

|tI
JIL D
ltf
JIK D
I

fltt ory" I Ylf i*


./-i\ | /- i\ I
I
_5=a
r- I
I
T--T--T
-=] I

-1 I
T- -t- -l- fi=-l='il1
f---r-l
F-A----l
r-i--l
l-c----l
Bun-W.lding

Dimensions, in Incher
Size of Size of
Cless Valve B c D E Class Valve B c D E

6r/t Er/z Lt'/l 8 \rYz llYz l8r/+ 6


zrh t'/2 grh 16Yz 8 2rh l3 l3 22r/t 9
734 8 llVt 201/. 9 t4 l4 253/a 10
3r/z 8Y2 9 3r/z l5 32 14
4 8 9 t2 25.4 l0 4 t7 t7 3lr/z 14
5 10 l5 30% 20 20 363/t 16
6 l0Y2 157/e JnYa t4 6 22 423/t 20
1S0-Pound 8 tlr/z t6r/z 4 l6 600-Pound 8 26 52Y1 24
10 13 18 52Yz IE l0 3l 31 62V 27
t2 14 193/t ffir/z l8 t2 70
l4 7or/t 27 14 77r/t 30
l6 24 79s/t l6 39 39 833/t 30
18 26 E9 27 l8 43 933/t 36
20 l8 28 97Y1 30 20 47 t04r/z
z0 32 ll23/t 30 126
trh 7r/z 163/t 8 15 27r/t t2
7 7 8Y2 8Yz IE 8 4 18 1E 3tr/2 t4
2r/z 8 9th 9Y2 l9 8 22 363/t l6
3 9 llYE llr/z 23r/t 9 6 24 423/t 20
11 t2 t2 28r/t l0 900-Pound E 29 52\h 24
5 15 15 33r/z t7 l0 62V1 27
Ls% t57/e 38r/z 14 t2 3E 38 73r/z 30
300-Pound 8 l6Yz r6Yz 47 l6 4oY2 40Y2 77r/t 30
l0 IE IE 56Y2 20 16 44r/z 44r/z a5t/t
t9./t l9t/t 64Y1 20 I 10 l0 8
t4 30 30 7s% lr/t ll 11 l6t/z 8
l6 33 8l 1t./- t2 11 10 9
IE 36 36 9lr/z 30 2 l4r/2 l4r/z 22YB l0
20 39 39 993/t 36 L'/2 16r/z l6Y2 263/E 12
1500-Pound Itrh l8Y2 l4
45 45 t2oy2 36 3
'A
l6 16 303/a 11 4 2lY2 ttr/z 16
18 1E 14 5 26Yz 26rh 3t3/t 20
6 19r/z t9r/z 40r/t 16 6 273/a 27%
t 23r/z 73Yz 5or/z 20 8 323/t 323/t i'5
400-Pound 26Y2 26r/z 593/t
10
30 30 67./t 74
l4 32Y2 32r/z 74t/. 27
l6 J5'/2
Weight and Dimensions of Pipe and Components

Cast Steel Globe and Angle Valves


Courtesy of Crane Co.

Claes Size Globe Valves Angle Valves All


alves
Flaneed or
Flanged Butt-Welding Screwed Butt-Wldingt
HH K HH K JJ HIK
2 8 t33/t I 133/t E l3x/t l2Y2 E

z\z 8V2 l4Y2 $Yz t4t/2 4t/t 8


9Yz 16r/2 91h t6r/z 4t/t 9
10r/z lTYt 9
150
Pou r rrlh t9t/t 53/a 173/e 10
11Y2 t93/a
7 2ot/e 10
5 l4 14 23
11
6 l6 x4Y2 l6 24r/z 8 7.134
19rh 26 l9t/z 26 93/t X3r/z 16
8
loYz Sr/a 173/e 9
2 t0r/2 173/t 173/t
2U rrrh t9 ttth t9 53/a 19 10

+J 12Y2 xoYz 121/2 2oY2 6Y4 xo\2 10


3r/z l3t/r. 22r/z 65/s 22r/z tx
300
Pound 14 243/t 14 243/. 7 24t/t t4
5 t53/t 26rh 7Ye x6v l6
6 t7r/2 293/. t7r/z 293/t 834 293/e IE
E 22 36U L2 36y2 l1 36lz x4
l6 25Y1 16 x1t/r 8 xSYa l4
400 18 28Y2 It 28Y2 9 28Y2 1E
Pound 191/z 3lr/t 191/z 3lV1 93/a 31r/n 20
E 23r/z 3ara 23r/z 38r/a ll3/a 38t/t x7

2 llY2 l9 1lY2 t9 10
zYz l3 21r/e 2lr/t 6Yz 2tr/1
l4 x3Yz t4 23Yz 7 23rh t2
600 3Y2 7Y2 l4
Pound r8
t7 27r/2 z7r/z 8Yz 27rh
20 303/t 20 303/e l0 303/a x0
b 22 22 II 24

3 l5 24 7Y2 24
900 IE 29r/2 9 791/z 20
18 29Y2
Pound t2 37 3/a
6 37t/a 373/t
2 l4lrz 25V8 l4Y2 l4
t500 t6t/z IE
Pound 2r/2 r6yz 28r/s 28r/a
3 18r/z 33Y2 l8t/2 331/2
308 Piping Stress Handbook

Cast Steel Swing Check Valves


Courtesy of Crane Co.
Weighlr cnd Dimension:
Js I P
F+ Prea- Size Pounds, Each Dimeneions, in Inches
T'---'-'T Class Butt- Screwed Flanged or
Valves Valves Weldinp Butt-Welding
t--N ,r.l
Valves
Inches FD&SF N P M P

2 u 8 5 8 !
2V2 40 50 30 $rh slz $rh 1rh
50 9rh 5 9r/t 6
3rh 94 roYz 6Yz
96 100 100 rlYz ltr/z
M r50 5 140 120 13 8
Pound 5 200 160 9
E 390 360 lgYz t0r/t
l0 510 24th l2YE
12 27Yz 133/a
1200 on
1450 39
2 40 9rh 63/t torh 6t/t
zYz 70 80 60 lo3/t E llr/z E
100 120 80 ll3/t EYl l2Yz

300
4 180 130 l4 g3/t
250 240 153/t t03/t
Pound 6 330 260 lTVz t\3/"
8 620 510 2l t4
l0 920 760 24t/z l5
12 1290 1015 2a I
200 190 16 l0
270 IE t2
400 6 310 19r/z
Pound 8 6E0 580 13Yz l4Yz
l0 900 820 26r/z t$r/t
t2S0 I150 30
lr/t 38 32 6V
1Y2 40 9Yz 63/t
2 70 llY2
2r/z 70 l3 $r/t
140 100 14 I
600
4 260 170 17 tor/r
Pound 20 123/.
400 300
6 530 420
E 900 740 tir/t
l0 1440 880 31 t8t/t
t2 1970 1200 2lr/z
J 180 15 Ith
900 340 240 l8 ll
Pound 6 640 500 t33/t
t I lE0 890 29 t6r/,
trh ll0 EO t2 EY1
2 160 130 t4rh 93/t
2r/z 245 t70 l6V2 t0r/z
t 500 3 2E0 210 l8Vz ttut
Pound 630 390 Ltr/z l3r/t
950 480 26r/2 rsv
6 1360 780 273/t t51/t
8 2100 1320
Weight and Dimensions ot Pipe and Compononts 309

Miter Welding

Siz. 30" 45" 6o' R c E

't-7 5-1t4 3.3t4 2.114


3/4 +v2 3/4 t8 2-5la
15t16 2-1t2 3. v2 6-7 lA 5 3 r/8
5ta 15/r 6 1-5l16 6
5/16 I t3/a 3-314 5.1t4 10-3/ 16 1-7/16 4.r r/t6
6 7la r-3/8 r- r
1-0 I 1- 1-9/ 16 9-15/16 6-5/t6
I 1-1/8 I,13/r 6 2-1t2 1-13/16 5

3rl8 2.t14 3/16


8- r r- 4-t5l16 1,G7t16 7 15t16
10 1.1t16 2.114
l-6 2.5rc 1-7t16 1G9/16 1- 8,3/16 t - 2-15lt6 911/16
12 r 11/16 2.5la 3-11/16
11la 2.7 lA +1n6 1-9 2-1lA 8-1t/16 r-05/16 1- 11,1/8 r - 5-3/8 11.5/8

t6 2.11A 35/16 +5la 2-O 35/16 s 15/r6 1 ,2.1116 2 2-1t2 1-7 7/a 1, t-14
18 2.7 t16 r3l4 3-3t4 11,Vt6 1- 3-r3/16 2 5.7la I - 10.3/8 1 21ta

20 2.11t16 +1ta 5-3t4 2- 6 +1lA I- 0-7116 r - 5'9/r 6 2-9-1/A 2 0.1t4 1- 45tA

22 2-15lr6 +9/r 6 63/8 2-9 4.5t16 r - r-11/16 1- 7 5/16 3 - 0-7116 2 3-5t16 1 - 6,3/16
3-3/16 5 6-r5/16 3-O 5 1 - 2-15/16 r-91/16 3 - 3-13/16 2 5-13t16 1-1.13116
26 !t/2 5,3/8 1.1/2 5,3/8 1- +1tA '|
- to.tla 3-7.1 6 2 8-5/16 1 - I,S/16

tr3/r6 8-1/16 3-6 5-13/16 1 - 5-318 2- o-S/A 3 - 10-7lr6 2 - 10-13/16 1- 11.3/t6


30 4 63/r6 &5/8 3-9 6-3/16 2- 2.31a 4,1-5/8 3 - 1-114 2- O-1ta
32 4-5116 6sta 9-1t4 40 6-5/8 1- 7.7t4 2- 4-1/A 4-5
34 +9/r6 71116 9- | 3/16 4-3 1-v16 1- 9-1/a 2-5714 4 - 8-3/8 3 6-114 2 - 4-1/a

i6 4 13^6 1-7 | 16 103/8 4-6 1.7 | 16 1- 10-3/8 2 7-5tA 4 - 11,5/8 3 a-3t4 2 - 5-1ta

3a t1l16 7-7 lA 1l 4-9 7.1ft I- 11,5/8 2 - 9-3ft 5-3 3 - 11.1/4 2- 7-1t2


.t0 5.3/8 I t -9/',t6 5-0 8 5/r6 2 GT/A 2- 11-1tA 5 - 6-5/16 4- 1-11/16 2 - 9.r/16
8-lt/16 2,2.1t4 3-O.7lA 5 - 9-9/16 4 - 4.3116 2 - tor3/16
t2 5-An 8,11/16 r- 0-t/8 4 - r I,5/8 3 - 3-314
6,7/16 9,15/ l6 1- r7ta 6-0 915/16 3- 6-3/16
7 - 5-1t2 3 - 8'3/4
1.1/4 1r -3/16 r ,3-9/16 6-9 113/16 2 - 9-S/16 3- 11-7/A 5 -7.11A
'|
- o-1/16 7-6 1 - 0-7/16 3- 1-1t4 4- 4.314 a, 3.7t16 6 - 2,9/16 4- 1-11/16
"q 3 5-3114 I - 1t-3/8 4,11.94
1) 5/8 1 - 2.r5/16 r - 8-13/16 9-O 1 - 2-15t16 8-3/4

Source: Tclas Pipe Bending Co., btc., Houston' Texas'


310 Piping Stress Handbook

Miter Welding Dimensions

H K M N s T
1t2 13/r6 3.5/16 3.1n6 2-1116 1-7 /16 3/a 7ta &5la 29/16 t -13/ 16 11/16
1-5/8 +Aa 4.1116 3-3/16 r.l5/ r 6 t-3116 4.13/ l6 3-114 23t8 1-.1/2
1t8 2-1/16 6 9/16 69/ l6 4-13/16 3-rlr6 1ll16 1- r 3/16 7.3/16 4-15/16 3 9/r6 2.3/1C
l- l/8 33/r 6 8,13/t 6 8.11/',r6 6-7lr6 4 3/16 7la 23tA 9-5/A 6-1/2 43/4 3
1.7116 ll lG15/16 8-1/16 5 3/16 l1l16 3 I -O 8-1/16 515/16 3.13/16
I 11/16 +13/ t6 1- 1-3/16 9.58 6 t/4 1-114 3 9/16 - 2-1t16
1 9.1rl16 q.iirrc 7 3t16
t7 la 5.5/8 1- 3-3/8 l-3 1t-114 7-1/2 t.3/8 4,3/16 1 - 4.13t16 11.1t8 8 3/8 s.slu
2-1/a 6.7 /16 r- 5-9/16 t-51/8 1-O7lA 8-5/8 t.s/16 4-3t4 '| 7-114
- r - 0-r1/16 I9/',t6 6.7/ 16
2.7 /16 1.1/4 1 7-314 1 - 7.5/16 '| 2-1t16 9-9/16 l.r3lr6 5-3/8 1 I5/8 1 - 2 3t4 10-3/4 7,rta
211/t6 81/r6 - 9.1t16 - 4-ll16 r0 1rlr6 2 515/16 2- 0-1/16 r 1-15/r6 t.'ts,1c
2.15/16 8, t 3/16 2 - G3/16 r - t1-9/16 r - 5lr/16 11-13/16 2-3t16 6-3/t6 2 - 2-7t16 1- 5.112 1,11t4 q 914
3-3/16 $5/8 2 - 2.3t4 1 - 7.5t16 1 - Gr5/16 2.3/a 7-3/t6 2 - 4.13/16 1 ,7.1t16 \- 2:9t16 , e:9/16
10.7 t16 2 +9t16 2 3 7tA 1 A-7 la 1 - t-7 /8 2.9t16 7.3/4 2 - 7.1t4 | 8,5/8 1 - 3.112 lo 3,/8
3.3/4 11-114 2- 6.3t4 1 - 1C1t2 2.13n6 8.3/8 2 S-a/a I 10,5/16 t
1:1/l6
4 1 0-1/16 2 - a.1la 2 - O.1/8 1 - +1/A 3 8-15/16 3 - Or/16 1- 11-1t8 1 - 5.1t4 11.7tB
+5/16 1-O.7la 2 - 11.1|a 2 - rG5/r6 2 - 1, t1t16 3,3/16 I9/16 3 - 2-1116 2 - 1-112 1 - 7.1/a 1 0.3/4
+gfi6 1 - 1.11/16 3 - 0-7116 2- 3-5/16 3-3/8 1G r/8 3 - 4-7/a 1 8,5/16 1- 1.9/1C
413/16 1-2-7/16 3 3,9/t6 3 29/16 2 - +15t16 3-9/16 1G3/4 3- 7 1t4 2 - 4-5/A 1 9- 12 1-23!a
5.r/16 1 - 3.114 3 - 4- 1tlt 6 2 - 6.9/16 1 - 8-7/16 3-3t4 I t-5116 I - 10.11/r6 1 - 3.3/1
5 3/8 1- 4-1116 3 7.15/t 6 3 6-7tA 2- 4.1/a r - 9-3/8 4 11- 15/16 4, G1/16 2 7.71A 1- 11-l ta r - 3.7/6
5.51A 1 - 4.7t4 3 - 1(}t/8 3-9 2 - S-3t4 1- 1O1/? 4 3/16 1 -O.112 4 2.1/2 2 - g-7 t16 2- 1-11t6 1 1111. a_

6.7116 '|
- 7.5t16 4- +t1t16 4- 3.1t16 3 - 2-9t16 2- 1-111t6 4.3/4 4- 9,11/16 2 - 4-5ta l-71l',8
7.1t4 1 - 9-1r/16 4- t1-5/16 4-9.7lA 3- 73ta 2- 4-7 tA 5-3/8 1 - 4-1/8 5 - 4-7la 3-7 2 A 1t4 1-9.1/2
8-1/r6 2 - O.1lA 5-5-7tA 5 4,3/8 4 0-1t4 2- 8-1/8 6.15/16 1 - 5-718 6 - 0-1/8 3 - 11-5/8 2 - 11.3t4 I - I1.7,t
6-7 6-51/4 4-10 3 - 2.3t4 7.3/16 1 -9.1/2 7 -2-1/2 4 - 9-3/8 3-1 2, 45ie

Source: Texas PW Bending Co., Inc., Houston, Tlxas


Weight and Dimensions of Pipe and Components 311

Lngth of Pipe in Bends


Courtesy of Crane Co.

f*.9\
Radius
of
Pip
| <fS,,,) id
Bends
t- ILLT_\ e3
-'l
90" Bends | 180' Bends 270' Bnds 540' Bends

ro nnathe length of prpe in d bend having ' Find


Ersmolcr length of pipe in 90'bend of 5'9'radius.
Lenetli of prpA r; o0" bend of 5 radius = o+ra'
a radius not qiven above. add together the Lengrh of prpc rn 90'beno of a' ,adius = W
Iength of pipe in bends whose combined
radii equal the required radius. Then, lngth of pipe in 90" bend of 5' 9' radius = 109rl'
312 Piping Stress Handbook

Calculation ot Pipe Bends


Courtesy of Crane Co.

4i' tso

Eromple No. 8-Given A, B, C, D, R

E : D -A _B tH : lllc
F :YE'+ E K:tanlH x R
L:A-K
9o : zc P: B _K
sin
N:F*2K
Exornple No. I l--ivcn R ond 45o Angler
3.414 x T = T ans.ent
B: 2.828 x
^R
R Length oipipe in bend :
0.828 x R 9.425 x R +27
t+A--E
, l.-s1 z, -

Eromple No. 9-Given A, B, C' D, R

E:D_A-B
F:2N_C M :llK'-n,
e :11o"+ r' {:sinzN Erornple No. l2-Given A,
zH lP :90" * ZH - tN C:A-2R P:2D
R

$: tan
to:r4tP n _tl,op,, r--, E:D-n
C/2R:
lH:90'+ lG
sin tG
K:14c S:tanlOxR F :2E lK = 180'-2 tG

Exomple No. lO-Givan A, B, C, D, R


Exomple No. l3-Given A, B, R
E=D-A-B tH:tltc C:%B EiF = sin lG tJ[:tG-tL
e -tVl-lT"
" K=rantHxR D=R+C H =%F lN = r80'+2lM
v =A-K E = A -2R x = 1ln-' n' t?==s2o; + trI
ltJ \. _ R .K
':-"- -
= = stn otf F =l/D'+E' K/H : sin lL
Weight and Dimensions of Pipe and Components 313

Galculation of PiPe Bends


Courtesy of Crane Co.

Exomole No. 4-Givsn A, B, C' R


Exomple No. l--Given A, B, C, R
D:B-C LU:sinzF H:tanlG Xft
D:B-C zr
= stn E:V a'+ D' tG:y2tF P:C -H
F
aA lS: tP * tG
F =ll
I
E, tK : 9O" - tS
tL : t4 tS_
Ii = Sln Zu M = rar] lL xt(
H: llr;- n'
N:H+M
--l O:B_C-M

xonple No. S-Given A, R


(1

B =2R -A c :y (2R)"
- B' lp: sin tD

fxomple No.
N 2--Given A, B, C, R

D: B -C
E:A -R 7:sinlP
:lo, + o'
t8:zP+tG
F lK:9O' lS 6-Given A,
lL : 1/2 lS-
fxomole No. B
E lH:90" - tF
F=s:nz\l M=tanlLY,R C:thB D
N:H+M _M D: t4A E --'-- A, + R1
H : lr'- n' O :B -C G =%E
-' 4A
| _ rtl
E:IC'+ U

Exomole No. 3---Given A, B, C, R Exomple No. Z-Given A, B, C, D, R

D:B -C tG:%tF E =D
-A-B G/H:sinlK IIlL=sintN
E:la'+a H:tanlGxR F:R-C t':lzH to :90' - tK , t\
G:n+F 7p =/2 tO
A

E --'-' P :C -H H=lE+ G" rI:V L'-R' S:tan IPXR


12
Allowable Pipe Span trlormulas and Tables

Pipe-Span Stress Limits ^M 5 WL'


-Z 42
In order to have a workable set ofpipe-span tables or to
find an allowable span that will require a minimum of
manual calculations, the limit for dead load stresses is set
at S1/2. This eliminates the need for checkins the sum of
'=!@
the longitudinal pressure stresses plus dead load stress.
(Sr,: allowable stress at maximum temperature. ASA
Code 831.1 and 831.3.)
The formula used to determine the maximum soans in
the tables (Thbles 12-l through l2-9) is a mean berween a
uniformly loaded beam simply supported at both ends and
a uniformly loaded beam with both ends fixed. This mean
formula most nearly depicts the conditions actually exist-
ing in a refinery. (See Figure 12-1.) Pipe-Span Deflection Limits
By inspection, if the two moment diagrams in Figure
12-1 are superimposed, the point of the maximum bend- Maximum allowable pipe deflection between supports
ing moment will still be at mid-span. must not exceed 1 in. or ll2 the nominal pipe diameter.
whichever is the smaller. This is the basic piping practice:
Mean= M:vz(Y.y-) however,.it is subject to compliance with the customer,s
specfrcanon.
The formula used to determine the deflections in Thbles
A safety factor of 1.25 is required because of the dis- 12-1 through 12-9 is a mean between a uniformly loaded
crepancy between theoretical assumption ald the actual beam simply supported at both ends and a uniforn r
field situation. loaded beam with both ends fixed. (See Figure l2-2.)
In order to maintain homogeneous units, "Lt' must be in
in. and "W" must be in lbs/in. , however, for ease of han-
M:wL'xl
124
5 WL2
48
dling we wish to have "L" in ft and "W" in lb/ft, whicL
we must now convert to inch units. The preceding equa-
tion becomes:
In order to maintain homogeneous units, "L" must be in
lb/in.; however, for ease of handling we wish to have "L"
in feet and 'W" in lb/ft, which we musr now converr to . wL4 l3.5WL4
inch units. Thus the preceding equation becomes: I28EI EI

M =-
5WI
-
2
60 wL, 5 WL2 ^ 13.5WL4
48 48 EI
(Text continued on Dase 3:0

314
a

Allowable Pipe Span Formulas and Tables 315

simply Supported Fixed Ends

Load frrnT
1_,-N
I
Shear
t t
z-l-- 2-l
-
uoment uJf
Simply Supporled Fixed Ends

., WL ., WL
V =-
2
"- 2

,., -
rvrl -
WL,

"'-=Y ;;

Figure 12-1. Diagram showing how stress limits are determinedby figuring the
mean between a uniformly loaded beam supported at both ends and a uniformly
loaded beam with both ends {ixed.

r, Simply Supported Fixed Ends


5WL4 WL4
384E1 384E1

Mean: =
A1 +A2 3WL4 WL4
384E1 128E1

by figuring
Figure 12-2, Diagram showing how deflection limits are determined
the mean between a unitormly loaded beam supported al both ends and a uni-
formlv loaded beam with both ends fixed.
316 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 12-1
Piping Spans Based on the Following carbon steel Materials: seamless A53 Gr.
A, A106 Gr. A, Apt
5L Gr. A; Wetded A53 cr. B, Apt 5L Gr. B, A155 C55 Ctass 2

>200.F wilh Water, No Insulation 201'F-600.F wilh Commodity


(L = 7,650 psi) (f. = 6,175 psi)
= Wetghi ot Waler, Minimum Insutation

Maximum

' Exceeds maximum dettecrion.


Courtesy of Po$,er Piping Company.

Tabte 12-2
Piping Spans Based on the Following Stainless Steel Pipe Materials: Seamless A312
Tp316, Ag12
TP317, 4430 FP316H, A376 TP317

>200"F with Warer, No Insutarion 201'F-600oF with Commodity


(L = 9,375 psi) (L = 8,550 psi)
= Weight ot Water, Minimum tnsularion

Pipe Maximum Maximum Recommended


Size SCH. Span Span

' Exceds maxiftum deflection,


Co nesy of Power Piping Conpany.
Allowable Pipe Span Formulas and Tables 317

Table 12-3
TP304L' A312
Piping spans Based on the Following stainless steel Pipe Materials: seamless A213
TP3o4L, A376 TP304, A430 FP304H

201.F-600.F with commodity = weight ol water, Minihum Insulation


>2OO'F with Waler, No Insulation
(1, = 7,550 psi) (r3 = 5'800 ps4
Maximum Becommended

' Exceeds ma)(imum dellection.


Courtesy of Power Piping ConPanY.

Table 12-4
piping Spans Based on the Following Stainless Steel Pipe Materials: Seamless A213 TP304L' A312
TP3O4L

201.F-600.F wirh commodity = weigh! ol water, Minimum Insulallon


>2Oo"F with W.ler, No Insulaiion
(1, = 7,650 Psi) {L = a,500 Psi)

Maximum Becommended Maximum Recommended


Span Span

' Exceeds maximum delleclion.


Courtesy of Power PiPing Compan
318 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 12-5
Piping Spans Based on the Following Nickel pipe Material: Seamless 8161 Annealed

>200'F with Water, No Insulation 201dF-450cF wlth Codmodity


(L = 4,ooo psi)
= Weight of Waier, Mtnlmum Insutation
[. = 1,000 psl)
Maximum Recommended Maximum

Courtesy of Po,,er Piping Company.

Table 12-6
Piping spans Based on the Following Aluminum pipe Material: seamless B24l Gr.3oo3 H112

>200'F wlth Wbter, No Insutation 201'F-400.F wilh Commodity


(1. = 4,000 psi) (r. = 1,7s0 psl)
= Wetght ot Warer, Mtnimuh tnsstation

Maximum Recommended Maximum Recommended

Cowteq of Power Piping Compaat


Allowable Pipe Span Formulas and Tables 319

Table 12-7
PipingspansBasedontheFo||owingA|uminumPip"M"tg'iM
201.F-4O0dF with Commoclily = Weight ol Waier, Minimum lnsutalion
>2oooF with water, No Insulation
(1. = 3,000 Psi) d- 2.ooo Dsi)
=
Maximum Recommended
Pipe Maximum
SPan
Size scH, Span Span

' Exceds maximum dellction.


CourresJ of Power PiPing Comqany

Table 12-8
8235
Piping spans Based on the Following Aluminum Pipe Materials: seamless B21O' 9'234' and
Gr. 6061 T4, 8241 Gr. 3003 H18

>200'F with Waler, No Insulatlon 201.F-6OO.F with Commodity = welght o, water, Minimum Insulation
(1. = 4,500 psi) (t! 9s0 psi)
=
Maximum Recommenaled Maximum Becommended

' Exceeds maxlmum dellectlon.


CouneE of Power Piping ComPant
320 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 12-9
Piping spans Based on the Following Red Brass pipe Materiar:
seamress B43
>200"F wilh Waler, No Insulatton tot u:o'o:offn
(l = 1,500 psi) = weisht ot warer' Minimum Insuration
il.
Maximum
""""oditv
Fecommended

Courkq of Power Piping Conpany.

where SB : Longitudinal bending stress, psi Piping Wind Loads


: Maximum deflection, in.
W: Weight of pipe, including commodity and
insulation if any, lb/ft Wind Loads
L = Length of span, ft
E : Hot modulus of elasticity of pipe, psi
I : Moment of inertia of pipe, in.t
Tables 12-10 through 12-12 can be used to calculate
Z : Section modulus of pipe, in.3
wind loads.
f : Unit stress = Sr/2, psi. 56 per ASA Code
The wind pressure (P) in lb/ff on a flat surface normal
831.3
to the direction the wind for any given velocity (V) in
miles/hr is given quite accurately by the formuli

__
To solve for an allowable pipe span with a known
llectlon, use the foliowing lormula:
de_ P : 0.004v,

Table 12-11 gives the pressure per square foot on a flat


surface normal to the direction of the wind for different
. 4i EIA velocities as calculated by the preceding formula.
The design wind pressure at the location of a given
Y 13.5W pipeline should be applied ro the projected area ofthiout-
I
l

Allowable Pipe Span Formulas and Tables I

side of the pipe (or insulation) to determine a uniformly The design wind pressure depends on the location of the
distributed load as follows: vessel or stack. The U.S.A. Standard Building Code Re-
quirements for Minimum Design Loads, in Buildings and
(P) (c") (D) Other Structures, A58.1-1972, and the Uniform Building
w_ Code include a table showirg wind pressure at various
t44 heights, and a map where these values apply.

where P: Design wind pressure, 1b/ft2


C": Shape factor (See T};ble 12-12) More tables have been developed according to wind ve-
D: Outside diameter of pipe (or insulation)' locity in miles/hr, wind pressure lb/ft2, wilh reference to a
in. pipe outside diameter. These tables are very usefirl for
W: Wind load 0b/in) pounds per linear foot of computer data input to model uniform wind load on pip-
plpe ins.

Table 12-10 Table 12-12


Ofticial Designations of Winds Shape Factors
Shape
General Use Factor
Calm Less than 1

Light wind Ito / Cylinder Towers, stacks, drums, tanks, 0.6


Gentle wind 8to12 exchangers, prping, etc.
Moderate wind 13 to 18 Octagon Piers for towers and drums 0.80
Fresh wind 19 to 24 Sphere Tbnks 0.60
zf, to J6 Flat Open signs 1.60
Strong wind
Gale 39 ts 54 Solid signs 1.40
Whole gale 55 to 75 Closed buildings, framing, and 1.30
Hurricane Above 75 com. parts
Frames, open-type structure 1.60 Open plan
* Beoufon Wind kole, U.S. Weather Burca-.
0.80 Sec. plan
0.00 other
Plan

Table 12-11
Pressure per Sq Ft on a Flat Surface Normal to the
Direction of the Wlnd
Velocity Pressule Corespondlng
(miles/hr) (lbflrl To
10 0.4 Gende wind
20 1.6 Fresh wind
30 3.6 Strong wind
40 6.4 Gale
)U 10.0 Gale
60 t4.4 Whole gale
80 25.6 Hurricane
100 40.0 Violent hurricanes
322 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 12- l3
Wind Load (lb/in.)

t5 20 30 35 40 45 50
rb/tt2 55

7! 80 85 9l to0 105 lt2 117


lil il es,/ti R

2.375 .r4 .19 .24 .29 .39 .49


.2t ,29 .35 .43 .51 .58 .55 .80
4.0 0 .25 .31 .41 .50 .58 .71 .83 .9t
4.500 .37 .,t5 .56 .65 .75 .84 .93
. rl5 .69 .81 .92 1.04 1 t5 L.27
5.525 .4r .55 .68 .42 .96 1.10 1.23 1,38 1.51
8.625 .89 r.0? 1.25 I.44 I.61 I.9l
r0.750 .67 .89 l.tl 1.34 1.56 2.01 2.39 1.46
12.7 50 ,79 t.06 1.32 2,r2 t.38 2,92
I4 .47 r -15 1.45 1.75 2.04 2.3 3 2.61 2.9r
1.00 r.33 1.66 2.00 2.3 3 2.67 2,99
l8 t.r2 1.4 9 1.87 2.62 3.00 3.35 4 -1,2
20 t.25 2.08 2,50 2,9I 3.34 a,16 4.58
22 r,37 1.83 2.75 3.20 4. rt 4.58 5.0r1
24 1.50 1.99 2.49 3.00 3.45 4.00 4.48 4.99 5.45
t,62 2.70 3.25 1.79 4,34 4.85 5.45 5.9S
2a r.7 5 2.13 2.9t 3.50 4.0 8 4.61 6.41
30 r.87 2.49 3 .12 4.75 4.31 s.01 5.51 5.8?
2.00 2.56 3.32 4.00 4.66 5.3 4 5.9 8 6.65 7.33
34 2.t2 2,83 3.53 4.25 4.95 6.35 7 -08 7 .7A

35 2.25 2,99 3.7 4 5.21 5.0I 6.?3 7,49 8,24


'1.50
38 2.17 3.r6 3.95 4.75 6 -34 7.10 7.91 8.?0
40 2.50 3.33 4.16 5.00 5.83 6.68 7,48 8.3 3 9.15
12 2.62 3.49 {.35 5.25 7 .01 7.85 8.?4 9.62
44 2,75 3.56 4 ,57 6.4I 7.34 8.22 9.r5 10.0I
46 2.al 3.83 t ,74 5,75 6.70 7.68 8.60 9.58 10.s3
48 3.0 0 3.99 4.99 6.0 0 6.99 8.01 s.97 9.99 l0 .99
50 3.r2 4 .16 5.20 6.25 7 .29 8,35 9.35 10.41 I1.45
4.33 5.40 8.68 9.t2 10.83 rl.9I
5{ 3.37 4.49 s.6t 6.75 7 .87 9.01 10.09 1t.24 \2.X7
55 3,50 4.66 5.82 ?.00 8. r5 9.3 5 10.47 1r.66 !2.42
58 3,52 4.83 1.25 4.45 9.58 10.84 12.08 13.28
60 3,75 4 .99 6.24 7.50 4.14 10.02 Ll.22 t2.49 1.3 .7 4
3.87 5.16 6 .44 7.75 9.03 10.35 tr.59 12.9t 14.20
54 4.00 5.33 6.5 5 .008 10.68 1r.95 14.66
56 4.12 5.49 5. g5 8.25 1I.02 12,34 13.74 15.12
Table 12'13
Uniform Wind Loads (lb/ln.)

.54 .79 .84 .89 .94 .98


.59
.9{ 1.02 1.09 l.16 r.23 1.3I r./15

4.00 1.00 1.08 r..25 1.33 r. !11 r.50 1.66

/t.500 l.l2 1.2r 1.3r 1.40 1.49 1.78 r.87


t,? 9 2.20 2.34 2.14 2.62 2.76
5
"525
2.15 2.33 2.69 2,47 3.05 3.41 3,59
8.625
2.58 2.91 3.80 4.03 t.25 t.17
r0.750
3.45 3.99 1.21 l.5r 4.78 5.02

t.08 1.37 .4.56 {.95 5.54


I4 3.50
4.00 1.33 1.65 5.00 5.33 5.00

18 /t.50 4.8? 5.99

5.00 5.41 5.83 6.25 ?.08 ?.91


20
5.50 5.95 6.41 6 .87 7.79 8,25 8.?0
22
6.00 5.49 7 .OO ?.50 8.49 9.00 9.49
21
?.54 8.56 9.20 9.7 5 10.29 10.83
25 6.50
7.00 7.58 8.15 9.91 10.50 r1.08
2S

30 ?.50 9.99 10.5 2 rt .8?


32 8.00 r0.00 r0.56 11.33 12.00

8,50 9.20 r0.62 11.33 12.03 13.45 r4.16


34
9.00 9.7 4 10.50 11.99 L2.7 4 L1.24 15.0 0
36
r0.29 II.OE r1.87 13.45 14.25 15.04 15.83

40 10.0 10.83 12,50 13.3 1{.1 rt.00


L2.23 13.12 13.99 14.87 17.50
a2
II.O 13.75 t{.66 16.5 17.4I
ta
12.45 r3.tl 14.37 15.28 r8.20 19.16
45

r2.0 14.00 15.00 16,99 r 8.00 18.99 20,00


!t5
12.5 13.54 14.58 17.?0 18.? 5 19.79 20.83

13,0 t{.08 16.25 17.33 t8.al r9.50 20.58

5a L4.62 15.75 16.87 17.99 19.12 20.25 2!.37 22.50

14.0 17.50 18.56 r9.82 21.00 23.22

15.70 16.9t 18.12 2L.75 2a.!.6

\5.24 r 8,75 19.99 2L.21 22,50 23 .7 4 25.00


50
15.78 19.37 20.55 23.25 24.53 25.83

t5,0 17.33 20.00 24.00 25.66


54
!7 .A7 20.52 23.27 24.75 25.L2 27.50
13
Pipe Support Selection and Design

Pipe Supports tions are critical (very expensive). They have been use<i
frequently in hold-down applications.
t Leaf sprtngs have no known applications in the petro-
Because piping is aflected by thermal expansion. sup- chemical industry.
ports in a piping system move thermally in different direc-
tions. Weight is supported by two kinds of supports-rigid
and flexible.

c Rigid supports are supports in a piping system which Variable Spring SuPPorts
stay fixed. They generally move thermally in two direc-
tions-horizontally and laterally, but not vertically. The
The word "variable" in this description refers to the
weight at this point is usually supported by shoe sup-
fact that the load-carrying capacity of the spring varies
ports, bracket supports, dummy legs, or a rigid hanger.
considerably as the spring is compressed or extended
There are hundreds of ways these supports can be de-
from a fixed reference point. In other words, as the pipe
signed and every company seems to have its own way.
moves up, the spring is extended and the load that it exerts
(See Figure 13- 1.)
is decreased. The opposite effect is experienced when the
pipe moves down. In either case, the force exerted must
c Flexible supports move in all three directions. Weight is
not vary when extended or compressed by more than 25 %
supported in this application by use of spring supports. (maximum) from the calculated load.
Manufacturers offer a large variety of variable-load
spring hangers with standard and nonstandard scales. (See
Figure 13-2.) The scale is attached to the spring support
frame and indicates the vendor's recommendation for
Spring Supports range of load. Normally, a safety scale is provided above
and below the scale. Beyond these points the unit either
The types of springs offered for industrial support ap- loses all load carrying capacity or it reaches its fully com-
plications can be segregated into three classifications: pressed position, therefore prohibiting frrther displace-
ment. In every case, an attempt should be made to select a
o CoiI spings are the springs most commonly used in the spring so that the calculated load falls in the center of the
petrochemical industry for supporting loads. They are spring-scale range. The maximum deflection, which will
used almost exclusively in the construction of pre-engi- compute to be not more than a 25% variability, can be
neered and calibrated variable- and constant-support found by dividing the full range of the spring scale, in
spring hangers. They are also used in less expensrve inches, by a factor of 2.5. Where the equipment loading is
forms in the construction of hold downs, field supports, sensitive or critical, larger-range scales may be beneficial
and vibration dampeners. in reducing the variability percentage.
c Disc spings (BeIlviIIe springs) are seldom used in the Typical applications are shown in the next pages along
construction of variable- or constant-support spring with an explanation on how to size and how to determine
hansers, but are available if desired when space limita- the type of spring to be used. Dimensions for variable
{Texl conlinued on Page 327

324
Pipe Support Selection and Design 325
I g E
HI
E
Ie
o.l
x
FI
l+
lP ll.l
u_!J tl
trTli
\ F.l I ill
||t / -.ll
I ol
_l
tlsstA o
o-
o-
f
$ 6
o
l
o
;
(9
"'l tl o
1
.9
lt
J J ;l
r.
e
!4
.,|
t
o RI fl
.{l
",1
E .i c)l
\tf\ET
, "
'S+ t6 t a
326 Piping Stress Handbook

Type A Typr A Typo B

!t T= How lo D.Lrnio. Type: The type of variable sorine


hanger to be used depends upon the physical ihari
acteristic-s_ reqlired by the suspension problem; i,e.,

m
I
fi amount,9f head room, whether pipe is to be supported
above the spring or below the spring, etc. Consldera-
tion _should be given to the seven standard types of-
fered (see line cuts of types ,,A', througlr',,6"r,
,t Special variable spring hangers can be fabricated for
T .d\ unusual conditions.
i|fr
l|\ V How io Dctcrminc Sire: Conplete sizing infornation is
given above the hanger selection chart
This information is applicable to sizing hangers of
all series.
It will be noted on the hanger selection charts that
Typc C Typr D the total spring deflection in the casing leaves a
leserve above and below the recommended working
load mnge.

Trovol Stop:

lrrtr-l
PICCEI
lrnev:L
i LrIrTl
f sroP
PtEqg

Typr F Typc F
Wirh Roller
L--,1
rH

The functional design of the pre-compressed variable


spring hanger pereits the incorpo.ation of a two-piece
travel stop that locks the hanger spring against up-
ward or downward movement for temporary conditions
Type E Typr G of underload or overload, The complete travel stop,
the up litnit stop only for cold set purposes or the down
limit stop only which rnay be ernployed during erection,
hydrostatic test or chenical cleanout will be fumished
only when specified. The travel stop is painted red
and is installed at the fsctory with a red ..cautio!,'
tag attached calling attention that the device rnust be
removed before the pipe line is put in service.

Figu.e 13-2. variable supports. (courtesy support rechnology and piping Technology products, Inc_)
Pipe Support Selection and Design 327

springs are generally the same for all the malufacturers. Standard Hangets
That is why loading tables and dimensions that can be
used for application in supporting piping have been in- Load-travel data, physical design features, and dimen-
cluded. sions are shown on the following pages, for convenience
in selecting the proper type and size hangers for any spe-
cific requirement. Since the load-supporting capacity of a
Constant Spring SuPPorts given size is inversely proportional to the travel function,
excessive overfavel when specified may require a larger
The word "constant" in this description implies that the and more costly hanger size than actually needed.
spring will exert the same lifting effort as the pipe moves
up and down. Actually, the spring rate in most cases rs
minimized by transferring the load through a series of lev- Sway Brace Support
ers so that the elongation or compression of the spring is
negligible. This type of support is also a spring, but is not used to
Constant-support spring hangers are considerably more take care of the weight effect. It is recommended for con-
expensive than variables and are therefore used sparingly. trolling vibration, absorbing shock loading, guiding or re-
They are used in conjunction with large deflections where straining thermal expansion, and bracing a pipe line
variability becomes a problem, large loads where erren against sway. Figure 13-8 shows different sway braces
small variabilities are a problem, and at strain-sensitive and tables for loading and sizes.
equipment. (See Figure 13-3.)
Manufacturers offer a wide variety of load ranges, de-
flection ranges, and frames for their constant-support
springs. Loading tables given in Thbles 13-1 through 13-5 Insulated Pipe Supports and Anchors
and in Figures 13-3 through 13-6, generally are the same for Cryogenic Service
for all the manufacturers, but dimensions are different and
should be obtained from each manufacturer. (See Figure
13-7 for typical arangements of constant supports.)' Gryogenic Pipe Supports and Hangers
Travel Stops The design of supports for piping used in cryogenic
service diffbrs from those designs used for standard pip-
All hangers have built-in stops to limit the travel at the ing. In this application the support is designed to avoid
top and bottom to a small percentage beyond the specified metal-to-metal contact of the support with the pipe. Such
range. In addition, temporary stop pins are provided at the contact would create a heat sink whereby heat would be
initial travel position for the purpose of hydrostatic testing transferred from the ambient environmental conditions
and to facilitate erection. All stops are of rugged construc- to the cold pipe through the metai support. To avoid this
tion to withstand appreciable overloads. metal-to-metal contact, a support is manufactured from
It should be remembered, however, that hangers will rigid polyurethane foam. Polyurethane offers both the in-
function only when temporary stops are removed and the sulating properties necessary to maintain the cryogenic
hangers load-rods are adjusted properly to enable the temperature, and also the high strength necessary to sup-
hanger to operate within the specified range oftravel. An port the pipe. Figure 13-9 illustrates a typical cryogenic
arrow traveling on a scale readily indicates the travel posi- support. The insulated support is normally furnished
tion at all times. with the foam, vapor barrier, protection shield, and a
galvanized cradle. These components are all adhered to-
Load Ad justment gether into a unit that is easily installed. The saddle as
ihown in this figure may be removed and replaced with
All hangers are equipped with a load-adjusting nut that other types of supports such as a pipe clamp for use with
permits up to a 10Vo increase or a 10% decrease in load- rigid and spring hangers, or with graphite teflon slide
carrying capacity. However, since all hangers are care- Dlates.
fully tested ald preset in the factory to specified loads, it The design of the polyurethane support includes the
is recommended that no field load adjusfinent be made un- following considerations:
til it is accurately determined that a change is necessary. . Required insulation property (K-factor).
Otherwise, the proper distribution of pipe stresses in the o Thickness ofthe insulation on the remainder ofthe pip-
(Text conlinued ofl page 3,15.)
system may be disturbed.
324 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 13-1
Load Table for Variable Spring Supports for Selection ot Hanger Size

Lood Toblc in Poundrr lor Sclection of llonger site

3 1

I
6 2

hir
21/. I il'

sp.in, S.dl. - lb, p.r i.,

Courtes! of Support Technolog, Products, Inc., and Piping Technolog)t Products, Inc.
Pipe Support Selection and Design 329
Figure 2680
TYPE-A TY PE -8. TYPE-C

Typc A rpringc are furnirhed with r threedcrl Type B and C opringe are furnished with one ot
buchirg in the toP Platc, providing for a rimplc rod two luge ae ehown, welded to tlre toP cap of epring'
attachment for the upper connection.
ugt h.i9hl snrF d6vl3 loedod
naiad rd R.H. tu9 cadn0 crdng thrlrd ol pln9 opn- ihlck- lenglh
PFO nelS x
ha|t9al load 6rn alza thd holc lengtn dlan d.plrr ptn l.ngth |n9
!12a tb tb lgth 3l2a c 6 lt x R s T mtn

0o 7 V2
tht 1Y2 101/rs 1Ua 7h 10,/rs 131/ro
't1h 1013/re 1l/a lk Va 115 6 131316
1o 00
't
v, 5
20 124 c V2 8s/,e 4 1lz lUr 7/a

3'o 166 v2 5 5s/rs ,lr 1V2 1013/rs 11/4 1/a 115/,0 1313/,e
th 1V2 115/rs 1U4 t/s V4 14s/ro
4o 14 5 Ss/r s
7/e 125h 1sYa
29C l5 ash 1V2 121/^ 11/a V4

6o 399 5 813/rs 6% tt 11/2 12 1Ua 121/B 15


7g 532 27 Vr gqa 6% tt 11/2 13% 1Ua 1st/g
14rh
16%
80 713 29 1O1/. !,t 11/2 137/s U1 167/a

8% '| 11/2 14V2 11/4 1U4 17Y2


9o 950 Ya 6 1Ol/s
10o 1235 62 3/t 6 12Vs 8% 1 1V2 1Sla 1U4 11/^ 16la 18Ya

1lo 1615 t/. 1\h 9154e 8% ''| 2 147/a 1Ya 15% 177e

ask 15%s 11/2 1rb ,2 1515he 187ll.^


120 2134 61 1 11/1 1oe/r o
13o 2850 79 1Vs 7 th 13Ys ash 187/rs 1V2 1/2 1815/rs 2171rc
146 3aoo a4 11h 7 1 13U1 85/6 187ls 11/2 181s/rs

15o 5130 100 lU! 7 1V2 1sqa 8% 't% 2011ha 2 % 2131le 23111le
qa
16o 7125 124 1V2 I 1Ya 161/rs 8% 19t 2315h6 2Y2 2471rc
26rri,e
261s/ro
2#l'a
170 q5fl0 154 14t a 18V^ as's 3 263lta 2V2 C^

I 12Ve 2Vt 2811rc 3 27/s Ya 28sh6 31r46


18o 12645 301 2 181/a
19o 1680s 3,18 2U1 I 2% n 12Ya 2Y. 41/2 313i ro
35rrAa
3
4
31h
33h
le 311'/re 3431rc
363/,c 3811/,4
200 22325 456 21/, t0 27/a 23tr 129a 4Y2

21o 29688 528 2!e 10 3Ys 265/r s 12qa 2U, 41/2 3813/rs 3% 1 395/15 4113/r o
45r1/16 37/a 463/rs 48rr/16
19591 684 11 32% 1zEa 3 1

Figure 13, Spring supports. (Courtesy Support Technology Products, Inc. and Piping Technology Products, Inc')
330 Piping Stress Handbook

Figure 2680
TYPE-D TYPT-T TY PE-F

E- --,
J
c=_:
.-- rl

Type D spring permits adjustment from the top, by lurning lhe nuls on the hanger rod against a piece ot
tubing. The tubing is securely welded to the spring cap. Type D spring is set above the supporting steet_
Type E permits rod adjustment from either above or below the spring.
Type F spring assembly is designed to suppofi piping lrom below, direclly lrom the tloor
Adjustment is made by inserting a bar into holes in the load column. and turning the load column as a jack
screw The base plate is welded to the case and has lour holes for fastening.

type F
thlck-
T
csBlng cr3lng lenglh fr6n9.
!hipplng h.ighl
Lnglh l.ngth ranglh L nrngo nan9. nrng.
a K .l M bolta fian96
0o 6r1/,0 4 9'3/,6 3Vs 7|h 7 AY.
10 1011/ro 9r^6 7Vz 7 AY. t{ Y. 3i3 6
20 8s/,a 4 3Ys 1211h6 7\k 7 eY. tt
3o 5s/16 107h6 8is/,s 10'5/,6 7Y2 a% Y. U.
5s/,6 11/a 11r/i6 1251o 9s/16 7r. AY. 5U.
50 8% 1j/a 13 101/a 121/a 71h AY. Y. Y.
60 % 813/,6 6% 11/2 3 107l* 1211$ 1orh Y. +t
9Ya 6s/s 1Y2 123/a 3 141/a 137/,0 107 Y. +t 6V16
80 5/s 1O1/a 67a -lY2
131/a 3 1431a 111/e 13//s I I 101 Y.
90 101h 8s 131k 3 155h 12'h6 13v4 1(F/16 16}t U2 8U.
100 'l2Ys 8% 1t/a 151h 3 16th 131r/i6 15rr/rs 13Y. 10' 3 161{ Y. a%
tto 7h 9'si,^ 8% 2 12151,^ 3 '| 1V, 13Y2 131/. 1Ak aU.
120 1 10,/15 8% 21h 13'/16 3 15r3/,6 121/B 14Ya 13U. 1@/16 r6,a Y. Y2 AY.
130 I37s 8% 2Y2 16Ya 3 18% 14rr/16 16!r^ 5 13U. 10'/!6 161, % v, AY.
140 131/4 8 2Y) 3 183/a 13U. lG6 16'4 aU.
150 13y4 8% 3 169r 3 197a 15r^6 171116 13Y. 1@1. 16V2 \, A1/.
160 16th6 a% 31/2 19'/i6 3 179! 19% 13Y. 1@/'6 16h Y. Y2 AY.
170 1qa 181/6 85/s 4 21VE 3 25% 197/,n 2t,t,e 131/. 1G/r6 16Y2 ,2 AY.
18o
190
2 1AY6 12Ya 21Vs 3 25r1/,5 191^6 21\lt6 17Y. 15% tt 12\t
21A 201h 124b 5 23% 3 2gqe 2151'6 17U. 15,1/. % 7l 12y2
200 21/2 235h 123/a 5e/,s 265h 3 3231,a 159t
17U. -2 12V2
21o 21/a 123/4 61/t 295/,6 3 35e/i 6 295116 l7U. 15Y. 2 Y. td 't2h
220 3 32 127e 17U. 1g/. tt 12\t

Figure 13-3. Continued.


Pipe Support Selection and Design 3il l
i80 Figure 2680

ROO SrZ A', --


l

L
z

N\
-c

Type G trapeze type spring assemb,y is formed by welding lwo standard spring assemblies to the ends of
a pair ot channels. Type G assembly is especially adaptable tor use where headroom is limited, lo avoid
interference, or lo accommodate unusually heavy loads.
The assembly can be furnished wiih center to center dimensions, as specified by purchaser. When order-
ing Type G, divlde the total pipe load in half to select the proper spring size. Ihe travel range of the springs
remain unchanged-

r
.alod rod caslng caslng min thread
F hanger load (appror) lenglh dlamater cngegornonr channtla
!tza tb each, lb P z
0o 138 28 V2 6rr/re 4 Ya ,b 1V2
1o 200 29 1/z 4 Ya 1Y2 V2
20 256 30 Y2 8s/'" 4 1/a 5h 1V2
3o v2 5e/ro Ya 2
40 446 38 Y2 7151rc 3/a
%
5o 598 39 V2 a5h Ya lt Ya
6o 798 sh 813/15 6s/a 1 2
70 1064 63 5k 6% 1 2 th
8o 1426 1b 10v4 6% 1 2 7/o

9o 1900 123 la 107/a 8E4 1U. 3 t/a


10o 2470 137 Ua 'lzYs 87a 11/re 1Ya 3 7/e

110 3230 125 1/g 91s/rs 11/a 11/4 3


12o 4276 't37 1 10,/re at6 1 1Y2 1
130 5700 175 1Ya 131/s 11/2
140 7600 183 1Va 13Y4 8% 1lz
150 '| 0260 224 1U4 13/a 8% 11/g
160 14250 270 11/z 161/re gVa 231rc 2Va 2
170 19000 326 13/a lAYs Bsh 271rc 21/e
18o 25290 630 2 18Y. 12Ya 2131rc 2% 4
190 33610 2U4 20 12Ea 3r^6 2sh 4
200 44650 933 2V, 2316 12/a 3s/rs 27/a 3e/'a
21o 1137 2651rc 12!a 3rr/ro 3Vs 4
22o 79142 1436 3 32% 1zCa 31t 4

Figure 13-3, Continued.


332 Piping Stress Handbook
Figure 980
TY PE-B TYPE-C
--
-I-

RiS
rElh r rll

stzE'A'

Type A springs are furnished with a threaded bushing in the top plate, providing for a sjmple rod attach-
ment for the uDoer connection.
Type B and C springs are unfurnished with one or two iugs as shown, welded to the top cap of spring.
These types are designed for use where headroom is limited, as these springs can be attached direc y to
building steel by a pair of angles, eye rod or a single plate.
\l

rypr A, C
r.ltht (rppror) lb, {ch

Llgll tP.
B ||,! lhlct a,c
Aa,c hg
o,Ec H R a I La.c D,E
oo 12rl 1 th l1 ,^ is3 6 14Y. 16U. 'tl 'tl t9
lo 149t I th 1Y. ,h U. 161/,3 2111$ 18u/r6 23\'l 15'V,l 171.1 13 t3 20 39
20 ].t 1srh 4 th lu. rh U. 2.t$ 2Vlft 255^. 197/l t5 15 43
30 t4 th tY. 15.. 2O.l$ 2*h. r stt l7+f m 19 33 5t
40 15Y. th 1Y. h 22tl$ 16?h 1At/. 23 2 37 57
5O r6lt 5r/rr llt 1U. ,^ 18'/,r ?35 . 211he 26r/'e 1AU. 20L 25 21 39 6l
6o lt ld'/rr 6tr lh 1U. Y. l8% 23.h 21 26rt 't81r 20"' 38 37 67
70 tt 18tl 651 lh 1k Y. *f 25tr ?31h 2a% m'l16 46 45 69 't(B
80 +t i9. 6tt th 1Y. 21V. 261n 73th 2A?h 2-lU. 23Y. 58 49 72 127
9o ?0'h. 81i 't
lt 1U. 1Y. 2lt.h. 26i'hl 241'h. 29irl! 21Y. AV. 87 u 126 '187
100 L 2Al 851 llt 1V. 'lY. ,h 2qh. a,t$ 27'h. 24'h. 263h1 t(X 9a 140 2.1
1lo ,A r8U. a9i lr 2 1Y. ri 2ovr yr a\ 28tt l9i3/rr 211't 124 189
120 I lgrt 811 1Y. th 1tl 21'lr. 2631rr 2411hl 29rr/'l 211h. 23tlt 94 134 213
't3 0 ltt 2411 8tl 1}| th h A.h. 315/r6 30r!nr 3511,r 263ha 28'lr 134 t29 171 285
t40 ltl 24h 8tl 1lt 3 '| tl 26rVl 3r,rn. 3131r 36t/r3 26ttt 2A'hl t43 t37 174 3o:l
150 1U. 25Y. 6l th 2 tt 8% 39Y. 8Y. 8Y. ?f''ltr 2Ahl r58 149 147 342
160 llt 4h 81r 131 2h 2rr L 3|14 38lt 381r ,1t 311rr 33pir 204 t8a 27 1|:|4
170 'lx v 8St 2h *t U. 37tr 42y r 1aV. SiVr 3Flr 25S n3 273 544
18,o 2 3(|lt lx 2tt a 2h t{ 37.ht 12'l|. 34th. 3rA! 482 147 520 936
190 2Y. 37U. 12Y. 2L 4h s 3lt $ 46'r/,r 4$i. 54. ! 38'/r 570 594 I l7t
no 2U 41U. 1g aw 1 3tr $!rnr 57'tt 629nr 772 693 n7 1573
21o 2* l'h 1?g. th 1 3tt 57,t 61lt 66% 4Sl^ 196
220 3 0r lg. H 5 1 1 En. 7111L 75'h. &)r/r 62
51l,t
64
9r0
210
015
t1t0
842
1154 2506

Figure 13-4, Spring supports. (Courtesy Support Technology Products, Inc. and Piping Technology Products, Inc.)
Pipe Support Selection and Design 333

Figure 980

***-ffj T-ffi-r
___l_

I FC-t
xllE
I

llrll
Ll-l-L---i
TYPE-D TY PE-I TYPE-F T YPE -G

0o 19% 1Y. 7V2 7 8Y. Yr 1.900 th


'lo 21lt 1U. 7'h 7 AY. 1.9m ti 'ty'
20 2.Y. 1Y. 5h 7Vr 7 AYa tl 1.9m li 1th
30 2OY. 1U. 7V2 8Y. Y. 2.875 5U.
10 22 vh a% 2.475 5Y. Y. 2
50 23v. 1Y. 5\t 71h AY. 2.475 5Y. Ua

80 23\'tr th 5\t I 1oth lt 3.50 Y. I


70 25Y. th 107h lt 3.50 53/r. I 2
80 1\' 8 1Ot/. Y. ,l 3.50 V.
90 1Y. 5h 13U 16V, 4.50 9Vt h 1Y.
100 29h 13rl 16v. V. 4.50 8U. 1Y.
O 25Y. 13U. '16Y7 4.50 8u. v. 1U.
120 27Y. 2Y. stt 13% 10e/,. 16v, h 4.50 aU. h th {
130 32Y. 2h 13' 16v. 4.50 9U. h th 4
140 2h 13U. l0'/t 16v2 4.50 AV. lVa
150 13u. 16Y. 4.50 a% h 2h 1
t60 3S' 3Yr 13% l0'/,. 16v, Ua 4.50 AY. 2\l {
'| 70 13h 5v, 13U 16v, 4.50 8Vt 2Vr
160 17Y. l5Y. Y. qt 5 563 12v.
190 48tl 5ra 17U. 15Y. 5.563 12v. al a
200 35'1. sV,r 5!t 17U. lsya 5.563 12v, 2'h 1
210 m+t 6Y. 51{ 17v. l5V. 22 U. 5.563 l2v. 3}t a
220 6n llUa r 5?r 2 * It 5.56:] 12/t 3ti 1

Figure 13-4. Continued.


334 Piping Stress Handbook
Figure 820
TYPE-A
III'
TYPE-B TYPE-C
r-l-t
ROD S|ZE "A" - --_<,1

__JH

I B

__t

ROD SIZE "A"

Type A springs are lurnished wilh a threaded bushing in the top plate, providing lor a simple rod attach-
menl for the uooer connection.
Type B and C springs qre unlurnished with one or two lugs as shown, welded to the top cap of spring. S
These types are designed for use where headroom is limited, as these springs can be attached directly lo
building steel by a pair of angles, eye rod or a single plate.

r.rqhl {lp9ror) rb, ..ch

B h.bhr
lug
A.A,C in9
c f \E,C o,E
00 4 10 25
8j/re
s'g/i6 85/,6 6r3i r 6 10 25
20 1O'/,6 7 6 ' 27

30 8'/rs 9'/r6 61/2 7 s I 17 29


5', 6J^G 10j/,0 61h ro I t8 31
50 9r/,6 tl t0 19 32
6o 6% 8 gvz lOYa 8 17 t8 45
70 7th BV2 10 11% 8V. 8% m 19 51
80 8% 8tk 21 m 53
8Y. 1OV.

9o 45 12 68 't6
r00 91/,6 105/ro 13r16 52 a 117
1to 12tlt gv, 91/? 45 41 101
120 2 97/r6 1215h6 9'1 4a 43 08 112
130 3 15?/ro 103^5 59 71 134
15ir/,s 1011$ 62 55 8l 139
r5o 3 2 2 127/. 16% 171 71 65 86 172
16() 3 131 14y1 18Y. 20 12rs/,r 88 T7 $ m2
? 3 2O1t$ 2111 133i,6 91 112 zla
180 2 3 16 23 24!. 13$/i6 196 210 488
r90 3 26'/,0 256 218 245 539
200 16
1913i,e 2lllt6 2651'a 29eltt 32() zi2 314
210 1T 2O5116 288/re 30r^6 18 19 3o9 318 &7
220 3 5 26\ t\5 33'3/ro 35r/re 22r. 23v. 460 40r it13 1006

Figure 13-5. Spring supports. (Courtesy Support Technology Products, Inc. and Piping Technology Products, Inc.)
Pipe Support Selection and Design 335

Figure 820 ROD & NUT NOT


FURNISI]ED
LENGTH TO SUIT
CUSTOMER

TYPE.t) TYPE-E
r-r--
ROD SIZE
--
. LOAO FLANGE NOT FUFNISHED

\\\
INDICATOF

00 7 AYa 1.9m 3i3/,e 1

10 7 ala YB 1 900 3r3^6 I


20 7v, 7 1.9m
30 7Ya 9Yt 2.475 5%
40 8% 2.875 5% I
50 AYa 2 475 5Va 1

50 9 8 1Ot/r % 3.50 1 2
70 I I 1oth 3.50 65/,6 I 2
80 9 I 1O7/. h 3.50 1 2

90 13Y. 16v2 4.50 41.,a 2


100 13% 16V, 4.50 8Va 1Y. 2
110 2 13% 161/, 4.50 S1/. 1V. 2
120 13V. 16V. 4.5!o 8% 1V, 1V.
130 13% 16V, v, 4.50 8V. 3
140 13U. 16Y2 4.fi a% 1Y2 3
150 3 16Y2 450 aV. 21h 1

160 13% 't6Vz 4.50 8% v, 2v. 2


170 13V. 16v2 4.50 8th 214 2

180 l5Y. 22 12V2 2% v,


190 5 17U 15Y. 22 5.563 121h 2rt
200 15V. 22 5 563 121h 27/.

210 25 17Y. 157. 22 12V, 3th 1

2.O 17Y. t 5Y. 22 5.563 12V. 3%

Figure 1&5. Continued.


336 Piping Stress Handbook

2Il2"8H THO,
SERVICE: Recommended for light loads where verti-
Cal movement does not exceed 1% inches.
APPROVALS: Compties with Federal Soecification
WW-H-171D (Type a9) and Manufacturers Standardi-
zation Society SP-69 (Type 4B).
INSTALLATION: Designed tor attachment to its sup-
porting member by screwing a rod into the top cap of
the hanger the full depth of the caD. 4'FN. TIiD

LIGHT DUTY SPRING HANGER


Corbon Steel Spring Coil ond Coge

The Light Duiy Spring Honger is used for the support of rniscelloneous lield
run piping systems subiect to slight (up to l,/4") verticol displocement. lt is
designed for incorporotion in rod hongers with o lood coupling provided for spring
Iooding. lhe unit does not hove o lood scole ond trovel indicotor. Amount of
spring looding con be opproximoied by reloting "8" dimension with spring deflec-
fron role.
Selection of correcl spring size is normolly done by opproximoie methods
toking into occount weight o{ pipe, covering, contents ond mojor fittings.
Ordering: Order by port number ond spring size nurnber,

DIMENSION5 IN INCHES
Sl1in e a Spr in o w sighr
c D E
Def ledion Lood Defle oio n Lbs.
No. per 100
% 6/, 2 52 26 160
6'/. l'/1 66 238
l) 7)/. 5 87 287
3',/, 1,/, 266 152 350
6t/, 6'/^ 2 ,4 00 200 680
6 t1 81" I0'/s V/" 600 210 982

Figure 1$6. Spring supports. (Courtesy Support Technology Products, Inc. and Piping Technology Products, Inc.)
Pipe Support Selection and Design

f I
L.
T
+ T
----'l

.[w7-.,
-es.;-

Figure 13-7. Typical arrangements oi constant supports. (Courtesy of Elcen Metal Products Company.)
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 13-2
Load Table for Constant Spring Supports
(lb for total fuavel in in.)
hango. load in oounda for lolal truvel in lnche3
3lzo
Pipe Support Selection and Design

Table 13-3
Load Table for Constant Spring Supports
(lb tor total travel in in.)
losds in Dound3 lor lotal trevel in inchas
340 Piping Stress Handbook

Table 13-4
Load Table for Constant Spring Supports
(lb for total travel in in.)

mn0aa load In pound! lor total lraval In Inchca


trzc
a aV. I 61h 7 7V2 I aY. I th 10 10v, l1 'fl 1{ t2
19225 17049 t 53AO 13982 i2816 1l431 10986 10253 9613 9047 8544 8094 7drc 73?3 6990
65 201m 17866 16080 !4618 13400 12370 I1486 10720 10050 9459 8SKl3 8463 8040 7657 7308 6991 tt /u,
22064 19615 17654 16049 14711 13580 12610 1 1769 r 1094 10385 9808 9291 a8c7 8406 aa4 7675

1926 474 14790 13733 12417 r2016 r 1310 10681 '10119 9613 9r 54 8738 &359 8o1l
24@3 21362 17 16021
z]111 20s0 18909 17333 16m0 14a57 13866 13@O 12234 11555 10947 10400 9904 9454 9043
6a 26000
2098 1UA 1mo7 15792 1473a 13818 1300s 1282 11635 11054 1627 1004 !t611 921 I
27635 24564 2210a
16725 15609 14634 13n3 13m8 12323 11707 11149 10042 10179 0756
70 29268 26015 23414 21246 19511 18011
14542 13733 13010 12360 11nO 11235 10747 103(n
7l 30$0 274ffi 24720 2A73 20599 19016 17657 164a0 15450
32835 29186 26268 23880 21889 2@O7 18763 17512 16418 1ge 14593 r3825 13134 12508 11939 1$m 100rts

34764 30s04 27414 25286 231f7 21396 19468 18542 1/384 1636Q 15452 14639 13907 13244 12641 12f2 11588

74 36700 p&2 29360 26691 2446'6 25a5 m972 19573 18350 17271 16311 15452 14680 13940 13344 t2764 12?63

75 3/.49 31040 28214 aaTa 2172 20@3 19400 r8259 17244 16336 15520 14780 14r08 r3495 r2gt3
38800
19248 18r 78 172.1 18380 15580 14471 14,25 'r3d,3
76 40900 363ss 32720 23746 27266 25170 ?3372 21813 20450
2&3 l,lSilt
n 43000 34272 344@ 31273 28666 26462 24572 215m 20236 19111 18105 17?@ 16380 15635 1a955
i
15ll
7a 45335 &297 36268 3297 r {22 27899 25906 24174 22864 213ii5 20149 198 18134 17269 1484 15788

47ef8 42371 3a134 34668 317/9 2K]35 27Ag 25422 ?3B4 2432 21185 a)070 1967 18t58 17332 r65fg t5Et
& 50(100 40000 36364 33332 gT70 23572 2666 25m0 23530 m22 21052 20@0 r9046 18r80 I ZJSO

81 52500 46666 42m0 38182 35mO 3299 30000 27g,9 26250 24707 233:13 2105 21(!0 '| 98 19049 18:lO r75aro

a5m0 48888 44@0 40000 3666 5 3447 3t429 29333 27gO 2s883 24444 23157 mo 20951 20000 r9129 r{xtg
8il 57500 5111 1 46000 41819 3a332 353a6 32858 30666 24750 270f0 25555 24210 2300 21903 209)7 20@0
49200 44728 409S8 37g47 35144 32799 30750 ng2 27333 25494 21500 n427 22361 21390 20500
52400 47!7 4i1665 40309 37 429 3492 32750 30@4 29111 27574 am 24950 23816 22741 21B2
5G64 46165 426t6 39572 3@32 34625 32589 30777 2915| 27t@ 26079 25179 24085 230P
06 55400
32444 30736 2C200 .278o7 265, 253S 2/BiP
87 584m 53091 44665 44921 41715 38032 385m 34354
s8 61400 i5819 51165 47?32 858 409]2 38375 36119 3t1l r 32315 s700 99236 2796 26894 25562

AE 550m 600m 54990 fi771 47144 43999 4125n 3425 36666 3478 33otx) 31426 29997 286S4

61331 56617 52572 4965 4600 43295 46aA 3g/36 3800 35045 33451 319S 3o$5
90
62m2 57573 53732 5G75 47413 44777 424m 10300 38378 36633 35011 5S8C
91 67164
63@ I 58799 55125 51884 49O0 &20 44100 4ts5 40087 38345 5749
9. 73500 6784 8
s 80830 74617 6S287 4t665 80625 57060 53848 51051
56788
4500
53000
46187
50472
4467
48177
42t71
4G4
10416
44135
94 87500 81540 75716 70665 66250 6235s 58848
78930 73665 6q)53 66@2 61344 58156 52615 fi222 4@r0 4@.0
96 a2145 71a75 67649 63888 60525 57500 9757 52m8 50000 47315

97 &5360 74688 70296 66388 628q| 59750 56$0 54313 5't 953 49700

875m 82665 77500 7?943 68888 65261 620@ 5943 56358 53909 51666
85998 80625 75884 71666 64500 61423 58G31 56003 5374t
875& 8i]750 78826 74444 70524 67000 63804 m96 ws1
86875 81767 v21 73156 6S500 66185 43176 cx30 Stgla
875m 84708 8@@ 75787 720m 64566 65444 62604
87500 83610 79210 75250 71661 68402 65430 64708
47221 82629 785m 74756 71351 68250 6ta1,l
67500 86050 81750 n851 743t 1 71c62 dJ122
i06 87500 850@ 80946 77265 739 70831
87500 84469 80628 v125 73914
107
875m 83992 80342 770m
a7446 s3646 m183

110
875m 86050 830
Pipe Support Selection and Design 341

Table 13-5
Load Table for Constant Spting Supports
(lb for total travel in in.)

nangJ load In pound3 ior lotll tievol In inchc


aLa
no. l2V. 13v2 14 14Ya 't5 1SV2 16 15Y2 17 llth t8 1AV2 le 19h m
64 6152 5915 5696 5492 5303 5126 4961 4a06
65 6432 6184 57 42 5544 5359 518 7 5025
66 7062 67$ 6538 6304 6087 5884 5694 5617
67 7@0 7394 7120 6966 6629 6408 620 r m0a
6a 8320 sm 7m3 7428 7172 6933 6709 65@
a 8843 8503 8188 7895 7623 7365) 7131 6909
m 9005 8671 8361 8073 7804 7552 7317
71 9888 9507 9155 8428 8523 8239 7973 n25
72 10507 10103 9724 cts 9057 8755 4473 82G
73 11126 10697 10301 9932 9590 9270 8971 8692
74 11714 1 t292 r0873 10484 10123 9786 9470 9175
12416 1r ct8 11496 11084 10703 10346 10012 9700
76 1$88 12544 12118 11584 11282 10906 10554 10225
77 !3760 13230 12740 1224 11861 1 1466 11096 10750
78 14507 1399 13432 12951 12505 12088 11698 |l34
79 15254 r4666 t 4123 13618 13149 12710 12300 11917
&) 16000 1534 14814 fi24 13792 12902 125.O
81 16m0 r6153 15555 14S8 14482 14m0 1354 7 13125
8it 't7o0 '16922 16295 15712 15171 1465s 14r92 13750
83 18400 17602 17(B6 16427 15861 15332 14lX)7 14375
u 19680 18522 142.1 1756S 16364 16398 15859 r5375
20960 20153 19406 1A712 18068 17465 16902 16375
86 22160 213o7 m517 19783 19102 18465 17869 173r3
87 23:t60 ?2461 21628 20855 20't36 19465 18A37 18250
88 24560 23614 2739 21C26 21171 20465 't9805 19188
89 26400 25384 24413 23569 2757 219e8 21288 20625
m 29440 23o7 2725a 26283 25377 24331 23740 23000
g1 3?210 31@0 29&50 a7a2 27791 26864 25998 25188
g2 35280 as22 32665 31496 301r I 29397 28449 27563
s 3aan0 37g)E 35944 34639 33446 32330 31247 3)313
91 12!00 40788 39257 37853 $549 3530 34t90 33125
321 19 31175 3@45 29442 2fl647 27494 27179 26500
95 28332 27625
442@ 42494 40g24 39460 381m 36830 35642 34531 33482 32498 31570 30691 29863 29078
4amo 44ZiO 42590 41067 39652 38330 3703 35938 34445 43822 32856 31941 31080 30262 29486 ?750
47800 ,r5960 44257 42873 41204 39829 39545 37344 35209 35r 45 3r'141 3l}191 32295 31448 30640 ?3875
98 4SOO 47690 45023 4428[ 42755 41329 4m00 38750 37572 36468 35/27 34441 33511 32631 31794 310m
99 51600 49613 47n5 46066 44479 429S6 41609 40313 39087 37939 36855 3584t0 3/,862 3:}946 33076 32250
tm $6m 51536 49627 47451 46203 44662 43221 41A75 406m 39r09 38284 37219 36214 35a62 34358 335m
tol 55800 53459 51479 49637 47927 46329 44434 43434 42117 40880 39712 34607 37565 36578 35640 34750
102 57600 56382 5330 5142 4S51 47995 4&47 450m 4S32 42350 41141 39996 38916 37894 36922 38000
1(x, 802m 5788e 55738 53744 51892 50r 62 44544 47031 456(P 44262 429S 41801 40673 39604 3858 37625
104 62800 60382 58 r45 54r 34 52324 50640 49063 47571 $174 44455 43607 42429 41315 &255 39250
105 65400 62882 m552 58346 56375 54495 5e737 51094 49541 4085 46712 45412 44196 025 11921 40875
106 68000 65382 62960 60707 58616 56661 54834 53125 51510 5mm 48569 47214 45943 44736 4358 42500
107 700m 6228 657m 63350 5116 59127 572m 55438 53752 52r 73 506a3 49273 47942 46683 454 85 44350
t0a 7"3920 7to14 68441 65992 63719 61594 59607 57750 55994 54350 52797 51328 49942 6i]0 47343 a6200
109 70960 74m0 71255 68706 6530 u127 62059 60125 58297 5459 53439 5200 5030 49331 48rm
1t0 80000 76920 74070 71120 64960 6660 64510 62500 60600 58820 57140 55550 54050 52630 51280 5m00
342 Piping Stress Handbook

Figure 550 VIBRATION COIIIROl Sire Ronge: For pipe sizes 2 through 24 inch.
AND SWAY BRACT Service: Recommended for conttolling vibration; ab-
sorbing shock loadings; guidittg or restraining the
movement of pipe resulting from thermal expansioni
bracing a pipe line against sway.
Instollotion: Shipped ready foi installation

Adiustment The sway brace should be in the neutral


position when the system is Hot and operating, a:
which time the tension test collar should be hani
The FIG 550 vibrotion conlrol ond swoy tight, If it is not, the sway brace should be ad-
broce presents o neol, conpoci oppeqronce justed to the neutral position by use of the loai
coupling. The screws in the tension test colla:
need not be loosened, since they serve o[ly to se-
cure it to the load coupling.
Feotures:
rVibration is opposed with an ilstantaneous coun-
ter foice bringing the pipe back to normal position.
rA single energr-absorbing pre-loaded spring pro-
vides two way action.
o One spring saves space and simplifies design.
o Spting has 3-inch travel in either direction.
Cut.owoy section shows simplicity r Accurate neutral adjustment assured.
of exclusive .single spring design
oEnclosed spring excludes ditt and gives a clear.
compact aPpeaaance.
Speci{icotions: Fulfills the requirements of the ASi
Code for Pressure Piping as to fabrication details
and materials.

Deflection of single spring occurs


when thrust exceeds pre.compress ion

Tension couses dellection of sin.


glo spring in opposite direction

Figure 13-8, Vibration control and sway braces. (Courtesy Support Technology and Piping Technology Produc:-.
Inc.)

Fi
Pipe Support Selection and Design 343

Siue Selection: The vibration control and sway btace lmportont: Rod lengths should be cut and final tension
gives full deflection forces from 200 to 1800 pounds adjustments made for the hot or operating position of
and hasinitial precomptessed spring forces from 50 to the pipe. If, with the pipe in its hot position, the
450 pounds to dampen vibrations, oppose pipe sway tension test collar can not be turned by hand or if it
and absorb shock forces. tums very freely, loosen the jam nut adjacent to the
rod coupling and rotate the coupling until the coliar
The exact amount of energy needed to control piping can just be turned by hand. Retighten the jam nut.
should be in proportion to the 6ass, amplitude of
movement, and nature of disturbing forces acting on When correct tension adjustments are completed, the
the pipe. When it is possible to calculate the exact btace exerts no force on the pipe in its operating
restraining force required, the size of the vibration position. Undei shut-down conditions, the brace
control and sway brace capable of providing this force allows the pipe to assume its cold position. It exerts
should be selected. a nominal cold strain force equal to the pre.load force
plus the amount of travel from the hot to cold position,
To simplify the selection of size, engineets have de- times the spring scale of the particular size of the
signed the vibration control and sway brace in three vjbratron control nd sway brace.
sizes that are readily related to nominal pipe size. For
pipe sizes 3%-inch and smaller, the small size is
recommended; for 4 to 8-ioch, the medium size; and
for 10-inch and larger, the large srze.
Instollotion: The vibration control and sway brace is
shipped ready for installation. The rod coupling rotates
with slight resistance and the tension test collar can
be rotated by hand while holding the rod coupling vibrqtion control crnd sway brrrce
statiorla!y,

END
El'lD
PLATE SPR]NG PLATE PLATE -. SPRING PLATE
,-ROD COUPLTNG
rN STD. JAIV NUTT
SIO JAM NIJT,'

E
E
L

FtG 550 FtG 555


loads . weights o dimensions (inches)
FtG.550
preload
rod plpe
spring weight size, 3ize, trke-
(approx) oul
to ID each. lb E

1 21o 31/, 50 200 22 '11/z 1 135/o 13/B 177/s 6Ys 1 87/a 11/a

2 4to I 150 600 1 2 1 41/z 14TB 15/B 185/s


,1
95/a
3 10 to 16 450 1800 36 1 2 1
3/a 41,' 173/4 15/s 22 1 13 11/a
18 to 24 900 3600 11/a 2 11/2
'|
Y2 17 21/a 63/q lYz 111i2
13 r3i, o
5 1350 5400 79 1Yz 11/2 141.h 21/a 23r3/ro 63/a 112 1

6 1800 7200 95 212 'lrz 11/z 6tb 2011 2lt 63/a 112 15

FrG. 555
pipe rod
spfing weight size,
ror pipe (3ppror, M,
size tb each, lb E

l 2lo 31/2 50 200 23 3/a 11/? 1 20 24Va 77/a I 93i r6 11/a


2 4lo 8 150 600 26 1 2 1 41i2 2O3/a 25 77/a 1 91si, e 1l/a
3 10 to 16 450 1800 38 1 2 1
3/a 241/s 283/B 7?/3 1 135/,s
4 18 to 24 900 3600 11/a 2 '| Y2 1Y2 65/e 2451.o 6s/rs 295/B g'/a 11,, 12
5 1350 5400 a2 1v2 2vz 11/2 6s/s 2513/, o 6'g/,s 31Ya 91/a 11., 13lz
6 1800 7200 98 1t'2 21/2 1\',2 65/s 2713 rc 6'g/,s 33Ls 9Ya 1)ta 15Yz

A As specified by customer.

Figure 13-8. Continued.


344 Piping Stress Handbook

FIG 550 A FIG 555 A


**il:"1iu *ll * dimension i! 2It 0 in or les! recornmended when W dimension is 2 lt 0 in, o! lo38,

FIG 55OB FIG 555 B


recommended when W dimnson is 2 Il I in. or rnot recommnded when W dimeBion is 2 lt I in. or more

--
r. _ PIPE olAp

noDLnol plpa
drs
2
2%
rwoy broce
!l:e
tl!alqace
corior oI plpa
lo olltlld6 stud
ol ptD6 cloEp
s%
s%
t
3
I sr\e
3% 8Xe
4 6%
5 7
2
6 8,,16
I sX"
l0 r0%
t2 rr%
3
l4 t2tlft
r3,\"
l8 I4tXc
20 rs%
24 r7%
Dimenaions lor ssgemblies lor lsrger pip sizes dvdilobl on opplicalion.
Spsrogroph "How lo sir6 qsBemblios" obove.

Figu.e 13-8, Continued.


-a- Pipe Support Selection and Design 345

ing system. The thickness of the polyurethane support Molded rigid polyurethane foam supports may also be
should match that of the line pipe. used to support other types of piping systems where the
. Support load, medium being transferred in the pipe is to be maintained
o Environmental conditions-The exposed cradle may at a high temperature and protected from a cold environ-
require special coatings or galvanizing. ment. This type of application is typical of a pipeline
From these design conditions, a suitable foam density pumping oil at a design temperature of 180'F through a
is selected for the supports. Thbles 13-6 through 13-11 in- cold environment at approximately -50"F. The insulat-
clude some typical properties of molded rigid polyure- ing properties of the polyurethane foam are necessary to
thane foam used to fabricate supports. keep oil in a low viscous state for pumping over long dis-
Examining these tables, it is apparent that as the foam tances. The supports for this type of application are de-
density at ambient temperature is increased, both the signed in the same manner as those for cryogenic appli-
thermal conductivity factor and the compressive strength cations.
also increase. At cryogenic temperatures, however,
higher density rigid polyurethane foam has approxi-
mately the same thermal conductivity factor as lower
density foam. This results from the fluorocarbon within
the foam cells becorning a liquid at the cryogenic tem-
lnsulated Anchors
perature, thus creating a partial vacuum. Thus the nor-
mal support design procedure involves first determining For special designs where it is necessary to anchor the
the required K factor to insulate the piping based upon piping system, it is also necessary to avoid the metal-to-
the thickness of the matching pipe insulation. Secondly, metal contact for the conditions already stated. Anchors
\ the foam density needed to produce the required K factor are fabricated for this application by foaming between an
is selected. Lastly, the length of the support needed to actual piece ofthe line pipe and an outerjacket. See Fig-
support the pipe is determined using the selected density. ure 13- 10.

P0WERFoAM/P0WEBSLIDE Beference Guide

POLYUBETNANE FOAM
sEcTloN "B.s'

AOLTEO PLATE TO STR1JCTUBE

l-g- *..o.o
"*r.
ro
"t"r"tu".

Al ligure numbers ir lhis section


are ava lable
in any POWEFFOAM thickness, sin91e, double
or lriple layefing lo conform to the line

Figure 13-9. POWERFOAM/POWERSLIDE" reference guides. (Courtesy of Power Piping Company.)


346 Piping Stress Handbook

POWERF0AM lnsulated Pipe Anchor


Stainless, copper and
alumanum pipe can be made
into PowERFoAM anchors.

ULTRA HIGH DENSITY


POWERFOAM

STEEL PIPE

EXACT DUPLICATE
OF LINE PIPE TO BE
WELDEO TO LINE PIPE

ON/CONTRACTION

Figure 13-10. POWERFOAM" insulated pipe anchor. (Courtesy of Power Piping Company.)
Pipe Support Selection and Design 347

Table 13-6
POWERFOAM- Thermal Properties
Apparent Thermal
Power Input amount
Temperalurein Cenligraale TemDeralure in Fahrenheil ol Energy Powr Conduclivity
Powerloam Den3ilier
Loss To Malntain
oella "T"/2 ll. l. ''K" Faclor
Hol Face cold Face Blu/Hr. Blu. ln. Hr. Fl.2 "F
lb./cu.ll. Kq./cu. m, Hol Face Cold Face
+43 5 -15 1 110 3 -3I6.7 103.2 264 88.7 0 0213 o 141
10 160.0 1S3 7
10 160.0 +42.9 162I -60 0 109 2 -261 2 760 232 792 0.0219 0.r52
+41.6 193.4 -75 9 106 I -316.1 104 6 24.9 986 0.0241 0167
14 224.O
+42.4 159 6 -58 4 109 -255.3 25.2 860 o.0244 0169
14 224.O 1

+44.3 193.4 -746 111 7 ,316.1 102.2 357 121 7 0.0297 0.206
20 320.0
138.7 157 6 -59 4 101 7 251 7 750 31 8 108 6 0 0321 o.223
20 320.0
Cou esy of Power PipW ConpanJ.

Table 13-7
POWERFOAM* Physical Properties

Engineering
Oata
Slrenglh
Compressive
At Yield with a
Srrenglh Ske.glh Safety Faclor
Or 5:1
Densilies
PSI PSI PSI PSI
Kq. PSI
234 17 2.8 19500 1371 106.8
t0 160 0 -256 160 60 152 5900 2676 2625 I191 534 38
1483 81.6 5.74
160.0 -318 194.5 60 152 4500 2441 2550 1157 408 29 231 1.9 22104
10
59 333 23 3.1 27200 1912 166.6 11.71
224.0 -256 160 60 152 9200 4173 3575 1667 833
11.71
9200 4173 2800 1270 833 59 254 3.2 27004 1898 166.6
224.O -318 194.5 6.0 152
93 380 27 32 40000 2812 264.4 1.59
20 320.0 -256 r60 6.0 152 r 4600 6522 4204 1905 1322
,318 3900 1630 115 354 25 4.8 34900 2453 326.0 22.92
20 320 0 194 5 6.0 152 18000 8165 1315

Courtesy of Power Piping Conpan!.


ar Yrerd
"o*',l'-?;ly ST?31'.':Tf;",:"':$f3$'j1".'#ij::l'.'h

Table 13-8
POWERFOAM" Temperature Range

Minlmum (cryogenic) seflice Data is all based on tests performed on POWERFOAIiI


lrsrimum (Hol) Servace
Den3illes Temperelure Temperalure made with our tormula and molding techniques.
lb./cu. Kg./cu. m. 'c Independent testing laboratory corroborating iesl data
10 160 0 +275 135 425 -245 available upon request.
14 224 0 +275 r35 -425 ,254
20 320 0 ,275 135 -425 -254

Courtesy of Power Piping Compant

SUPPORT CONTACT SUSTAINABLE LOAD FORMULA:


60" 30" each side of
- /n'D'L I lc\ Sustainaute Loao
vertical center line.
\ 6 l\ t =
C = Compressive strength with safety lactor
O = Ouier diameter in inches
L = Length in inches
Piping Stress Handbook

Table 13-9
Engineering Data

IEIGHI OF PIPE, WATEi


r'rl|sutaTtol{ {PEe Footl

1J2
22

2.052

i5
192.01
I
5

'u
402.n

f
.375 t
"r^"",1 t7912
PIPE 39.59
I
23 '.62 1323.,15

257.&A

751"O r3233 9

i
"Are nol regular p pe sz6

*"SUSTAINABLE
LOADS OF INSULATED PIPE SUPPORTS
2 fb./cu. tl. 32 Kg./cu. n.
COMPaESSIVE STRENGTH = 5.8 pst (.40774 Ks./Cm.t W|TH 5:1 SAFETY FACTOR -
FOAM BY
AMBIENT TEMP

'rrBased on ioam .c,mpresston (with a S:1 salery tacroi, tengrh ot slpports and pipe sizes.
Courtes! of Power Pipin| Company.
-it

Pipe Support Selection and Design

Table 13-10
Engineering Data

*-SUSTAINABLE LOADS OF INSULATED PIPE SUPPORTS


4 lb./cu. tt.
- & Kg./cu. d.
13 PSI ( 9139 KS /Cm, WITH 5:1 SAFETY FACTOR
COMPAESSIVE STRENGTH =
AMBIENT TEMP,

*rBased on loam compression (with a 5l saietv laclor) length ol supporb and pipe srzes

6 lb./cu. fi. 96 Kg./cu. m'


-
COMPBESSIVE STRENGTH ='I6 PSI (1.1248 KS./CM.4 WITH 5:1 SAFETY FACTOB (NON-MOLDEO FOAM AY
OTHEFS AMBIENT TEMP

"'Based on road compression (wnh a 5:1 salely lacior). length oi supports and pipe s[es

Courtesy of Power Piping Conpany.


Piping Stress Handbook

Table 13-1 1
Engineering Data

-*SUSTAINABLE LOADS
OF INSULATED PIPE SUPPORTS
t tbJcu. fi. - 128 Kg./cu. m.
COiIPRESSIVE STRENGIII = ZI PSt (1.5466 Kg./Cm.,) WITHi:1 SAFETY FACTOR lt{ON-MoLDEo FoAM ay
OTHERS AMBIEXT TEMP.

ot supporrs and pipe si:es.

fi'8as.d on foam densirios (wnh a 5r salety lacto4, iength ot supporls and pip sizos.
""Comprossive strength ol POWERFOAM onty.

Counesy of Power Piping Conpan!.


J

t4
Fundamentals of ExPansion Joints

Thermal movements in pipelines and ducting result Nomenclature and SYmbols


from variations in temperature of the flowing medium or
from variations in ambient temperature where piping is
exposed to weather. If not compensated for in system de- Standard nomenclature used in discussing expansion
joints and the symbols used in applications drawings are
sign, these movements may cause high stresses, possibly
resulting in failure of the piping or connected equipment. presented in Figure 14-2.
Compensation for thermal movement in a piping system
. can be achieved by three basic methods:

1. Designing a flexible piping system that utilizes Types of Expansion Joints


changes of direction to absorb movement.
2. Using pipe loops or bends to absorb the movement.
3. Using expansion devices, such as expansion joints, The type of expansion joint used depends on the qpe of
swivel joints, ball joints, ard flexible hose. movement to which it will be subiected.

There are two general categories of expansion joints-


- the slip type and packless (or bellows) type. The packless, Single Expansion Joint
corrugated metal expansion joint is most frequently used
in modern piping applications. It does not require mainte- This is the simplest type of expansion joint . As its name
nance, and its hherent flexibility to absorb thermal move- implies, it is constructed with one bellows and is used
ments in several planes permits greater freedom in piping mostly to absorb axial movements. A single joint can also
design. The slip joint, a pair of telescoping sleeves made be used to absorb angular ald lateral movements, as well
pressure tight by a packing gland, can absorb a greater as a combination of these three basic movements.
amount of axial movement than a comparable bellows- Figure 14-3 typifies good practice in the use of a single
type joint. However, it requires periodic maintenance and expansion joint to absorb axial movement. Note that the
is restricted to axial movement only. expansion joint is placed between two main anchors (MA)
and that it is located near one of the anchors. Q'{otice also
that the first alignment guide (GD is placed close to the
joint. The second guide (G2) is close to the frst, and in-
termediate alignment guides (G) are provided along the
Types of Joint Movements balance of the line.

Expansion joints installed in piping systems are subject


to thee types of movement-axial movement, angular ro-
Double Expansion Joint
tation, and lateral deflection. These movements can occur
individually or in combinations. The four examples in This consists of two single joints joined by a common
Figure l4-1 show how single and universal expansion connector that is anchored to a rigid part of the structure
ioints absorb these movements. by means of an anchor support base. Double expansion

351
Piping Stress Handbook

r*F
I
I

AESORPTION OF AXTAL MOVEMEIiT


(SINGLE JOTNT)

ABSORPTION OF ANGULAR ROTATION


(SINGLE.'OINT)

--I -t-'
1+
- -li
rl L EGEND

ABSORPTION OF LATERAL DEFLECTION - X: COMPRESSION


+X: EXTENSION
AND AXIAL MOVEMENT 9: ANGLE OF ROTATTON
(UNIVERSAL.JOINT) Y: L ATERAL DEFLEcTIoN

Figure 14-1. Expansion joint movements. (Courtesy of Badger Expansion Joint Company.)

joints are supplied with or without an anchor support base mits the universal expansion joint to absorb any combina-
depending on the customer's preference. See Figure 14-4. tion of three basic movements-axial, lateral. and
A double joint is used when the axial movement to be angular-where these movements are too sreat to be han-
absorbed is too large to be handled by a single joint. The dled by a single joint.
intermediate anchor on the center nipple divides this Universal joints usually have tie rods with stops that
movement so that each bellows of the double joint is usu- distribute the movement between the bellows and siabilize
ally located in the center of a pipe run: so both ends are the corrunon connector. The joints find increasing use in
subjected to the same movements and have the same num- steam and hot-water distribution systems because there
ber of corrusations. are impressive cost savings for the large amounts of
movement they can absorb with a minimum of guiding
and anchoring.
Universal Expansion Joint Figure 14-5 illustrates a universal expansion joint used
to absorb lateral deflection in a single plan Z bend. Both
This consists of two bellows joined by a common con- anchors are intermediate anchors because the pressure
nector which is not anchored to the structure. This per- loading is absorbed by the tie rods. Only directional guid-
Fundamentals of ExDansion Joints 353

T MAIN ANcHoR
Xf--f -ffi- sTNGLE E*PANSToN JorNT

Ft
T . DTREcnoNAL
DMA DOUBLE EXPANSION JOINT
l2\-------------1 MA|N ANcHoR WITH INTERI\4EDIATE ANCHOR
mmr
F__x--? IA
INTERMEDIATE
ANCHOR
PRESSURE BALANCEO

T I
EXPANSION JOINT

t \DIRECTIONAL INTERMEDIATE
m7f
- 'ANcHoR wtrH GUTDE
DIA
SINGLE EXPANSION JOINT
l---- PrPE ALTGNMENT GUTDE
WITH TIE RODS

rr---r l

'" lfi:11
tEt
mmm UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT
sroE vrEw END VIEW WITH OVERALL TIE RODS
PLANAR PIPE ALIGNMENT GUIOE

ra*/L
sPRrNc suPPoRr
't t ) UNIVRSAL EXPANSION IOINT
c-------E-------
WITH SHORT TIE RODS

+ P,PE REDU.ER

GUSSET UNIVERSAL PRESSURE EALANCED


EXPANSION JOINT

l--'-4 HTNGED EXPANSToN rorNr


-Ff

GIIvIBAL EXPANSION JOINT

Figure 1'l-2. Expansion loint symbols. (Courtosy ol Badger Expansion Joint Company.)
Piping Stress Handbook

di '1il-
l|l

Figure 14-3. Single expansion joint. (Courtesy of Badger Expansion Joint Company.)

Figure 14-4. Double expansion joint. (Courtesy ot Badger Expansion Joint Company.)

f-
I

MOVEMENT HOT
-LATERAL

Figure 14-5. Universal expansion joint. (Courtesy Figure 14-6. Pressure balance expansion joint.
of Badger Expansion Joint Company.) (Courtesy of Badger Expansion Joint Company.)
ing, if any, is required because the compressive load on process equipment. The compressive forces of the two
the pipe consiss onJy of the force necessary to deflect the bellows are additive, but these are usually negligible in
expansion joint. comparison with the pressure forces. This type ofjoint is
Where dimensionally feasible, the expansion joint used where a pipeline changes direction. It absorbs axial
should be designed to fill the entire offset les so th;t its or a combination of axial and lateral movements.
expansion is absorbed within the tie rods as ixial move-
ment.
_ Figure 14-6 shows a tlpical application of a pressure-
balanced expansion joint for combined axial movement
and lateral deflection. The anchor on the piping run and
that on the turbine are intermediate anchors, and onlv di-
Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint rectional guiding is required. By proper design. the guide
directly above the turbine can be made to absorb the axial
This is a combination of single joints that oppose each movement forces of the expansion joint without transmit-
other in the same way the internal pressure loads oppose ting these to the turbine. The only force imposed on the
the other. This prevents excessive loading due to presiure turbine is that which is required to deflect the expansion
thrust from being transmitted to pipe anchors, turbines, or ioint laterallv.
Fundamentals of Expansion Joints

Hinged Expansion Joint Hor ----------.1


rA(:
This is a single expansionjoint designed to permit angu-
lar rotation in one plane only by use of a pair of pins
through hinge plates attached to the expansion joint ends.
Hinged jo-ints are used in sets of two or three to absorb
pipe movement in one or more directions in a single plane
piping system. Each individual joint in the system is re-
stricted to pure angular rotation by its hinges. However,
each pair of hinged joints, separated by a section of pip-
ing, will act together to absorb lateral deflection in much
the same manner as a universal expansionjoint in a single-
plane HEJ: Hings Expansion Joint
- application. PG: Planar Guide
Expaniion joint hinges are designed to transmit the fu1l
pressure thrust of the expansion joint and, in addition'
may be designed to support the weight of piping and
equipment, and absorb thermal loads, wind loads, and
other external forces. A hinged system permits large
movements to be absorbed with the minimal anchor
forces.
Figure 14-7 illustrates a two-hinge expansion joint sys-
tem. In this application the expansion joints absorb only
the differential vertical growth between the vessel and
pipe riser. Any horizontal movement due to piping elpq-
iion, vibration, wind loads, etc. will be absorbed by bend- Figure 14-7. Hinged expansion joint. (Courtesy of
ing of the vertical pipe leg. A planar guide may be in- Badger Expansion Joint ComPanY.)
stalled near the top of the vessel to protect the hinged
joints from wind loads at right angles to the plane of the
piping.

Gimbal Expansion Joint


This is a single expaqsion joint designed to permit angu-
lar rotation in any plane by the use of two pairs of hinges
affixed to a cornmon floating gimbal ring' Unlike the
hinged joint which can absorb angular rotation in a single
plane ofun the gimbal joint can absorb angular rotation in
any plane. The ability of the gimbal expansion joint to at-
sorb angular rotation in any plane is most often applied by
using two gimbal joints which act together to absorb
movement. Gimbals, like hinges, are designed to transmit
the pressure thrust and are used in pairs, or in conjunction
with a hinged joint.
Figure 14-8 illustrates a gimbal-joint application. Be-
cause pressure loading is absorbed by the gimbal struc-
ture, only intermediate anchors are required. Planar
zuides are provided to restrict the movement of each pip-
ing leg. Ai in a hinged-joint installation, the location of
pipe suppo.t. is simplified by the load-carrying ability of Figure 14-8. Gimbal expansion joint. (Courtesy
the simbal. Badger Expansion Joint Company.)
Piping Stress Handbook

Anchors, Guides and Supports Cold Springing of Expansion Joints

Pipe Anchors "Cold springing" means prestraining the elements of a


piping system at the time of installation so that thermal
The.function of pipe anchors is to divide a pipeline into stresses occun'ing when the piping is hot are appreciably
individual expanding sections. Since thermaj movement reduced. The purposes of cold-springing expaniion joints
cannot be restrained, it is the function of pipe anchors to may be considerably different, although the mechanics are
limit and control the movement that expansion joints, lo_ basically the same. Cold springing is generally applied to
cated in the line between the anchors, must abiorb. expansionjoints absorbing only lateral deflection or angu-
In some applications, major pieces of connected equip_ lar rotation.
ment such as turbines, pumps, compressors. and reaciors, Cold springing should not be confused with ..orecom-
lI desrgned to wlthstand the forces acting upon them. can pressing" or "presetting" an expansion joint. Tire laner
function as anchors. Additional pipe ichors are com_ terms apply to adjusting an expansion joint in an axial di-
monly located at valves, at changeJ in pipe direction, at rection to allow for specified amounts of axial compres-
blind ends of pipe and, at major branchionnections. ix_ sion or extension without physical interference between
pansion devices must be installed in each of the pipe sec_ the corrugations or overextending the corrugations,
tions to provide flexibility. yhich mighl damage them. If deshed, cold springing can
be done at the factory before shipment to facilitate instal-
lation.
Pipe Guides The endurance or cyclic life of an expansion joint is de-
pendent on the maximum mnge of stress to which the bel-
A pipe guide is a sleeve or frame fastened to a risid lows is subjected, the numerical maximum stress value
structure that permits the pipeline to move onJy along-its being a far less significant factor. Cold springing an ex-
pansion joint to reduce the maximum numerical stress
9wn lxls: The guide is needed to prevent the pipeline would not result in any great improvement in cyclic life.
from buckling due to the pressure thiust or ftelbiiity of
the expansion joint-or both. There are, however, a number of other reasons for cold-
springing exparsion joints as foliows:
.. A
planar pipe guide is a pipe guide modified to permit
limited movement in one direction other than loneitudi_
nal. It is used in "L" or "2" piping configurations (see
figurg J+j) where rhe expansion idints ar6 subiected to
lateral deflection or angular rotatton.
Pipe guides should be located and spaced carefullv in a Force Reduction
piping system. (See Figure l4-9.)
.
A pipe support carries the dead weight ofthe insulation, Ila wide range of applications, the force required to
piping. and its contents. Pipe supports are not pipe guides. deflect an expansion joint is significant. Where the expan-
supports do not lim.it the free movement of piping or con_ sion joint is used to relieve the loading on sensitive equip-
tribute to guiding it in any way. The recommendations for ment, where anchor structures are limited to extremely
pipe anchors and guides given in this chapter represent the small loads, and in other similar cases, cold-springing the
mlrxmum requrements tor controlling pipelines contain_ expansion joint at installation can cut the maximum de-
ing expansiotr joints. However, standard piping practice flection force in half. In some cases, a 100% cold spring
usually requires additional pipe supports b;twe;n guides. will reduce deflection forces to a minimum at extremely
high operating temperatures.

Forces and Moments


Stability
To calculate the loads on piping, supports, and equip- Figure l4-1 shows the movements ofbellows due to an-
ment, the forces and moments to move an expansion joint gular rotation and/or lateral deflection. In both cases, one
must be known. The expansion joint manufacturer will side of the bellows is extended and the other compressed.
provide axial, lateral, and angular spring rates. so the bellows may become distorted when subjected to
Fundamentals of ExPansion Joints 357

MAXll,4UM RECOMMENDED SPACING FOR TNTERMEDIATE PIPE GUIDES


AXIAL MOVEMENT ONLY (VALUES BASED ON STANDARD WEIGHT CAREON STEEL PIPE )
400
400
350
350
300
300
250

200 200
r80 t80
r60 t60
r40 r40
r20

6 roo

=a^
feo
r..r 70
e
lao
(9 --
k--
6
>40
CE

F
z-30

toL
400 250
MAXIMUM PRESSURE-PSIG

NOTE: I.ADOIIIONAL PIPE SUPPORTS ARE USUAILY iEOUIREO ATWEI'I GIIIDES II{
ACCORDANCE WITH STANOARO PRACTIC.
2 ARROWS REFR TO EXAMPLE GIVE^I IN TEXI

Figure 14-9. Spacing for guides with expansion joint. (courtesy of Badger Expansion Joint company.)

internal pressure. Reducing either the internal pressure or Component Clearances


the displacement of the corrugations will improve the sta-
bility of the expansion joint. By cold springing the expan-
sion joint 50% at installation, the maximum displacement Where an expansion joint is furnished with internal
per corrugation is cut in half and the exparsion joint is far sleeves, external covers, or tie devices spanning the be1-
more stable. For this reason, where expansion joints are lows, these components must have enough clearance to
subjected to large lateral deflections, or where operating accornrnodate the lateral deflection or angular rotation of
pressures are high, it is good practice to install the joint in the joint. The required clearance can be reduced to a mini-
a 50% cold-sprung condition. mum if the joint is cold sprung 50%. By this means, hter-
358 Piping Stress Handbook

nal sleeves of maximum diameter can be furnished, the transmitted through the flange bolts to the mating
overall diameter of an expansion joint incorporating ex- ange and then to the connecting pipe.
ternal covers or tie devices minimized, and the desien of
external structures simplffi ed. In some instances cold springing is recommended to
keep tie rods closer to the bellows. thereby minimizing
moments. When ordering, advise if joints are to be insul
Use of Internal Sleeves in Expansion lated. If so, speci$ the insulation thickness, because this
Joints will affect the hardware desien.
. Consideration must also be-given to the crushing of pip-
ing. Attachments must be designed to distribute -the l-oid
. I?"r:lJ sleeves should be specified in expansion joints
ln me Iollowlnq cases: as much as possible. In some cases it becomes necessary
to increase the thickness of the pipe wall and/or the
l. When smooth flow and/or minimum friction losses lengths of the pipe nipples in orderlo distribute the load.
are desired. Proper design of attachments is extremely important.
2. Where flow velocities are hish. parJicularly for critical applications with high piessures
3. Where there is a danger of pitting or erosion. and temperatures. In such cases, hardware-cai cost as
4. In high-temperature applications. much as or mrcre than the expansion joints. For greater
5. When copper bellows are used and the application is
systgm rgliab_ilrry, it is important that emphasis be put on
for high-pressure drip, super-heated steam, hot wa- engineerirg design rather than price. Upon receipt of per_
ter^or condensate, or where there is any possibility unent apptlcatron data. spcial requirements can be deter_
of flashins. mlneo,

Internal sleeves should not be used where tars or other


highly viscous fluids are nowing. il;;;;;t-";;;;
'jplcking up," "coking," or "caking" and result in joint
Calculation of Forces and Loads
failure..If purging will prwent these conditions, sleeves The forces or loads to be calculated for tie rods, hinges
should be used in conjunction with purging comections. and attachments are:

1. Pressure thrust.
Tie Rods, Hinges, and Similar 2. Force to extend or compress the expansion joint due
Accessories to thermal growth within its tied lensth.
.'- Weight of joint.
In a piping system with expansion joints, it is often im- 4. Unsupported weight of prptng and insulation be-
practical to provide main anchors to absorb pressure tween a pair of bellows.
thrusts. In these cases. tie rods. hinges, or gimbals may 5. Weight of fluid carried in the joint and unsupported
solve the problem as long as their attachments are de- piping. In large joints, consideration should be eiven
signed to transmit the forces imposed by pressure in the to the weight o[ water used in hydro testing.
expansion joint. 6. Wind loading effects, if present.

In addition, effects of temperature and flow conditions


must be accounted for.
Method of Attachment
Tie rods, hinges, and gimbals are attached in two basic
ways:
Cycle Life Expectancy
1. By a structure whose function is to transmit the
loads to the pipe or equipment. This concentrated The cycle life expectancy of an expansion joint is af-
loading may introduce high localized stresses into -
fected by various factors in physical Construction. These
the prping in addition to the stresses due to internal are:
pressufe.
2. By direct attachment to flanges, which then carry 1. Operating pressure.
the loads on the rods or hinges in addition to their 2. Operating temperature.
normal flange load. In this method the total load is 3. Bellows material.
Fundamentals of Expansion Joints 359

4. The movement per corrugation. prevented by covering the bellows and using an antispat-
5. The thickness of the bellows. ter compound when welding.
6. The center-to-center distance of the corrugations. External conditions should also be considered. External
7. Depth and shape of the corrugation. corrosion can result from fumes or sprays that may con-
tact the bellows or in tunnel and manhole installations
Any change in these factors will result in a change in where water is allowed to collect. Direct application of in-
the life of the expansion joht. sulation to the expansion-joint bellows and direct burial in
The life expectancy is defined as the total number of the ground are not recommended. Many corrosion prob-
complete cycles that can be expected from the expansion lems encountered in the field can be reduced, if not com-
joint based on data tabulated from tests performed at room pletely eliminated. Where corrosion problems are com-
temperature under simulated operating conditions. A cy- plex, consult a qualified corrosion engineer.
cle is one complete movement from the full-open to the
fi.rll-closed to the full-open position. It should be noted,
however, that laboratory tests rarely if ever duplicate ac-
tual service conditions. Cycle life is only one factor in the
design of an expansion joint and may be tle least impor- Erosion
tant. Many life cycle tests have been conducted and ex-
pansion joints can be manufactured to meet any specifica-
tion. However, experience has shown that few This is the mechanical wearing away of the metal sur-
applications have a real need for high cycle-life design, faces in a joint. It usually results from the irnpact of solid
which adds unnecessary costs to the expansion joint. particles entrained in the flowing medium. Where there is
a possibility of severe erosion, such as in lines carrying
abrasive media, heavy liners should be used to protect the
bellows of the expansion joint.

Corrosion

Corrosion can significantly reduce the service life of an


expansion joint. The design and operating characteristics
Calculating Thermal Expansion
of expansion joints are such that they may be exposed to
corrosive attack under conditions that do not affect piping Metallic, packless expansion joints are normally de-
and fittings of similar materials. signed to move in axial compression only, and unless oth-
Types of corrosion most frequendy experienced in ex- erwise specified, the minimum and installation tempra-
pansion-joint applications are as follows: tures are assumed to be 60'F.
Here is how to determine the amount of thermal expan-
1. Stress-corrosion (a cracking of the material as the sion in a piping system:
result of a combination of stress and corrosive envi-
ronment).
2. Intergranular-corrosion, characterized by a prefer-
ential attack along the grain boundaries in metals. Example
3. Pitting, which is a localized attack on metals.
4. General corrosion or the gradual eating away of the
Assume a 10-in. steam line fabricated from carbon steel
metals in a system.
5. Impingement and corrosion erosion, associated with is carrying superheated steam at 300 psig and the distance
the impact of a liquid or gas medium on the surface between pipeanchors is 1,10 ft-O in. The minimum ambi
of the material under attack. ent temperature is 70"F and the maximum operating tem-
perature is 460'F.
6. Elevated temperature oxidation, most comrnonly en-
countered in hot ak and exhaust lines.
Sorution
The corrosion resistance of stainless steel depends on
the formation of a thin, unbroken, chromic oxide surface, From Chapter 2, Table 2-1, we find that the expansion
which will form slowly in the atmosphere on clean stain- of carbon steel pipe at 460'F is 3.25 in. per l0O ft, and at
less steel. Particles of steel from welding spatter should be 70'F the expansion per 100 ft is 0 in.
Piping Stress Handbook

Total expansion:
(r4O ft) (3.2s in.) - 0 in. Example
100
: 4.55 in. Assume that the installation temperature will be 70"F.
The required precompression is then calculated as fol-
Therefore, we find that we should select an exDansion lows:
joint that will absorb ar least 4.55 in. of axial
slon. "o*o."._
P_
6(70.F - 0.F) _ 0.913 in.
(460"F - 0.F)
Note: If the amount of precompression is very small (Va
in. per corrugation or less), it may be neglected. When
precompression is required, remember to deduct the
Precompression amount of this precompression from the normal overall
length dimensions.

If the minimum operating temperature is lower than the


qggput d installation temperature, the expansion joint
will be subjected to both enension and compression-dur_
ing^operation. Because most expansion jointjare designed
to runcuon rn compression only. any expansion joint used Application
rn
lyclr an apphcatlon must be precompressed (prior to in_
stallatton) to prevent extension of the expansion joint be-
yond its original. overall length.
Pipe Anchors
If advised of the minimum. maximum, and installation
temperalures when the order is placed. the expansionjoint The first step is to determine the tentative locations of
wlll be tactory precompressed and may be installed as re_ pipe anchors. By proper location, any piping system can
ceived. be reduced to a number of individual eipanding pipe sec-
In the case of expansion joints specified for low-temper- tions having relatively simple configurations. The number
ature service only, the installation and maximum temoera- and location of pipe anchors will depend upon piping con-
tures are normally the same. so thejoints function eniirely figuration, amount of thermal expansion, the proximiry of
in extension. Where such service conditions are clearly structural members suitable for-use as anchors, and-the
specified, the expansion joint will always be factory pre- location ofpipe fittings, connected equipment, and branch
compressed, ready for installation. connections.
Where it is not possible to anticipate the installation . Start out with the assumption that single expansion
joints in straight axial compression will provide the sim-
temlerature, the expansion joint may be precompressed
in the field. The amount of precompression is determined plest and most economical layout. Wherever possible, the
as follows: distance between anchors and amount ofexpansion should
be kept uniform so rhat the expansion joinis used will be
interchangeable. Ib minimize the number of exDansion
joints adjust the distance between alchors so thai exoan-
sion joints having a maximum number of corrugations in
-4(Tz-Tr)
(Ts - Tr) each bellows (consistent with stabilitv) can be ised.

D- Total amount of precompression, in. Galculation of Forces Acting on Main


Total rated axial movement of the expan- Pipe Anchors
sion joint, in.
Minimum temperature A main pipe anchor must be designed to withstand the
Installation temperature determined by ac- forces and moments imposed upon it by each of the pipe
tual temperatue reading of adjacent pip- sections to which it is attached. In the case of the installa-
ing. Do not use the ambient atmospheric tion illustrated in Figure 14-10, the force acting on the
temperature for this purpose. main anchor consists of the full line thrust due to pressure ,
Maximum temDerature -the
the force required to deflect the expansion joint, rated
Fundamentals of Exoansion Joints

'1
0z

I Figure 14-10, Diagram illustrating the forces that act upon the main anchor.

Figure 14-11. Diagram illustrating the forces that act upon the main anchor in applications involving straight pipe
selections and in applications involving anchors at pipe bends and elbows.

movement, and the frictional force due to the pipe align- where :
F,nn Force on main ancho! lb
ment guides. Formulas for calculating anchor forces in F, : Static thrust due to internal pres-
various applications follow. sure' lb
The steps for calculating the main anchor forces for ap- F. : Force (ftom data sheet) required to
plications involving straight pipe sections (see the center extend or compress the expansion
anchor in Figure 14-ll) are: joint, lb
Fg : Frictional force due to pipe align-
1. Calculate the firll line thrust: ment guides. Note: This can be ob-
tained from the manufacturer of the
F":AP guides.

where F, : Static thrust due to internal pressure,


lb
A: Effective pressure thrust area (in.2)
To determine the net load on the anchor, it is neces-
sary to add vectorially the forces imposed upon it by
taken from data shet
P: Maximum pressure (p6i) based on
each of the three pipe sections to which it is at-
tached.
the most severe conditions whether
I design, operational or test

2. Assuming that the weight of the pipeline and its con- To calculate the main anchor forces for applications in-
tents are carried by supports. To calculate the total volving straight pipe sections containing expansion joints
t force imposed on the main anchor (F) by any one ofdifferent diameters (see center anchor in Figure 14-12),
pipe section use the following equation: use the following equation:

F':F"+F.+F" 4:(Ar-&)P
Piping Stress Handbook

Figure 14-12. Diagram illustrating the torces that act upon the main anchor in applications involving straight pipe
selections containing expansion joints of ditferent diameters.

where A1 : Effective area, corresponding to the the centrifugal thrust (Fo) due to flow, must be consid-
mean diameter of the corrugations of the ered. Fo may be calculated as follows:
expansion joint in the larger pipe section,
m.' 2ADV2 0
,q.2 : Effective area, corresponding to the -
rp:
mean diameter of the expansion joint in
the smaller pipe section, in.2 : Internal
P : Maximum pressure (psi), based on the
where A-sln- area of pipe, ff
most severe conditions, whether design,
D : DensiU of fluid, lb/ft3
operational, or test.
: Velocity of flow, ft/sec
e : Acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 fllsec2
Here again, it is necessary to consider the differences in o : Angle of pipe bend
the forces required to extend or compress the expansion
joints and the differences in the frictional forces due to
pipe alignment guides and supports. Thus, the total force Calculation of Intermediate Pipe Anchor
on the center anchor will be: Forces
F,":F"+F-r+Fgr-Fgz An intermediate pipe anchor must be designed to with-
stand the force and moments imposed upon it by each of
where F.1 = Force (from data sheet) required to ex- the pipe sections attached to it. However, an intermediate
tend or compress the expaniion joint in anchor does not have to be designed to withstand the full
the larger pipe section, lb line pressure thrust, because this force is always absorbed
F- : Force (from data sheet) required to ex- by main anchors or by devices on the expansion joint.
tend or compress the expansion joint in such as limit rods, tie rods, gimbals, or hinges.
the small pipe section, lb Assuming that the weight of the pipeline and its con-
Fr1 : Frictional force (from guide manufac- tents is caffied by supports, the following calculation will
turer) due to pipe alignment guides in the determine the forces acting on an intermediate pipe an-
larger pipe section, lb chor in a pipe section containing expansion joints (see Fig-
Fez : Frictional force (from guide manufac- ure 14-13):
turer) due to pipe alignment guides in the
smaller pipe section, lb Fre : F.r * Fr1 * Fn2 * Fgz

To calculation the main anchor forces for applications where F^1 = The force (ftom the data sheet) required
involving anchors at pipe bends and elbows (see Figure to extend or compress expansion joinr
14-10) the following calculation must be used. EIl shown in Figure 14-13.
In the case of an anchor located at a pipe bend or elbow, Frr : The total force due to friction of all the
it is necessary to consider the forces imposed by the pipe pipe alignment guides installed on the
sections on both sides of the anchor. Thus, assuming that pipe section to the right of the intermedi-
each section contains an expansion joint, the line thrust ate anchor in Figure 14-13.
due to pressure (F" : AP) and the forces F- and F", ex- Fno : The force required to extend or compress
plained previously, become biaxial components and-must expansion joint EI2 shown in Figure 14-
be added vectorially. In addition, the effect at the elbow of tJ-
--
Fundamentals of Expansion Joints 363

Figure 14-13. Diagram illustrating theJorcesthat act upon an intermediate pipe anchor in a pipe section containing
expansion joints.

Fgz = The total force due to friction of all tlte used only in applications involving lateral deflection or
pipe alignment guides installed on the angular rotation resulting from L- or Z-shaped pipe con-
pipe section to the left of the intermediate figurations .
anchor in Figure l4-13. Proper alignment is very important in the installation of
all expansion joints. Expansion joints will not function
Nore: The frictional force due to pipe alignment guides properly unless the pipeline in which they are installed is
can be obtained from the manufacturer of the guides. securely anchored and guided.

If the pipe is the same diameter on both sides of the in-


termediate anchor, and if the guides on both pipe sections Spacing of Pipe Guides
are similar in number and design to F,,z and Fgr, respec-
tively, but opposite in sign, F1a will be equal to zero. Where an expansion joint is located close to an anchor,
However, it is possible that the pipeline may heat up grad- the first pipe guide should be located no more than four
ually from one end, thereby causing one of the pipe sgc- pipe diameters ftom the moving end. The second should
tions to expand before the other. It is therefore considered be located no more than fourteen pipe diameters from the
good practice to design the htermediate anchor to resist first. The recommended spacing for intermediate guides
the forces exerted by one of the two pipe sections (i.e., along the balance of the pipeline can be determined from
F1a : F*1 *Fgr). Figure 14-9. For any known pressure and pipe size, the
guide spacing can be determined by locating the pressure
on the scale at the bottom of Figue 14-9. Follow the pres-
sure line vertically until it intersects the diagonal line for
Pipe Guides and Guiding pipe size. From this intersection, follow across horizon-
tally to the guide spacing column (left to right) and read
the recommended spacing. For example, the recom-
A pipe alignment guide is a sleeve or frame fastened to mended intermediate guide spacing for a 6-in. pipeline
some rigid structure that permits the pipeline to move containing an expansion joint under a pressure of 125 psig
freely along its own axis and limits it to this type of mo- is 43 feet. The first guide should be no more than 24 in.
tion. A roller support, U bolt, or pipe hanger, which orily from the expansion joint, and the second pipe guide 84 in.
supports the weight ofthe pipe, cannot be substituted for a from the first.
pipe guide.
Pipe guides are required to prevent buckling ofthe pipe-
line. Buckling is caused by compressive loading on the
pipe due to the internal pressure thrust and the flexibility
of the expansion joint which causes the pipe to act like a Location of Expansion Joints
column with end loading.
In axial movement applications, avoid using a single
pipe-alignment guide because such a guide may act as a Wherever possible, an exparsion joint should be lo-
fulcrum, which might impose lateral deflection or angular cated irnmediately adjacent to a pipe anchor. If it is not
rotation on the expansion joint due to movement of the possible to locate the expansion joint near a pipe anchol
piping in a dhection other than axial. pipe guides should be used on both sides of the expansion
Planar pipe guides are modified to permit limited move- joint ir accordance with the instructions given in the pre-
ment and/or bending of the piping in one plane. These are cedhg paragraphs under "Spacing of Pipe Guides."
Piping Stress Handbook

Figure 14-10 shows the preferred practice in the use of Fixed Flanges (Type SF)
a single expansion joint (EI) to absorb axial pipeline ex-
pansion. Note the use of one expansion joint between two
main anchors (MA) , the nearness of the expansion joint to The flanges are welded directly to the bellows material
an anchor, the closeness of the fimt alignment guide (G1),
without the use of intermediate pipe nipples. In this con-
the spacing between the fint alignment guide and the sec- struction the flanges are in direct contact with the flowins
ond alignment guide (Gr), and the spacing of intermediate medium.
guides (G) along the balance of the line.
Expansion joints should not be located immediately
downstream from turbulence-pnrducing devices (such as
Fixed Flanges (Type F)
butterfly valves). plug valveJ, and su-dden increases in
pipe size, mitered elbows, etc. If it is impossible to locate The flanges are welded to pipe nipples, thereby provid-
the expansion joint an adequate distanceiway from tubu- ing greater overall length. In this construction bbth the
lence producers. the joint slould be equipped with a pipe nipple,s and flanges are in direct contact with the
heavy sleeve. Figures 14-14 and 14-15 show the informa- flowing medium.
tion required for standard and special expansion joints
specification sheets.
Combination Ends

Expansion joints can be supplied with one weld end and


one flanged end to meet installation requirements.
End Connections

The type of end connections selected depends upon the


operating conditions and the customer's re.guirements. See Covers
Figure l4-16 for illustrations. The following is a briefde-
scription of the various g?es available.
Covers protect expansion joints from mechanical dam-
age and serve as a base for insulation.
Van Stoned Flanges (Type V)

The flanges are slipped over the ends ofthe bellows and
the bellows material is flared out or "Van Stoned" over
the faces of the flanges. The \r'an Stones are roughly
Sleeves
equivalent to the raised faces on standard forged steel
flanges. The flanges are loose and free to rotate, thus per- Sleeves minimize pressure drop and also streamline the
mitting easy alignment with the mating pipeline flanges. flow of gas or fluid through an expansion joint, thereby
This construction is generally used in applications in- reducing friction losses and turbulence. They are recom-
volving product purity or corrosion, because the only ma- mended for all expansion joints, except in applications
terial in contact with the flowing medium is the corrosion- where high-viscosity fluids such as tar are involved.
resistant bellows matefial. Sleeves are required whenever the velocity of flow ex-
ceeds the following values:

Welding Ends (Type W)

The ends of the expansion joint are supplied with pipe


suitably beveled for welding to connecting equipment or Nominal Medium Velocity
piping. Standard joints are supplied with carbon steel Pipe Size in Pipe of trlow
weld ends. See individual data sheets for grade and type. 3 to 6 in. Steam 1,000 ft/min/in. dia
Other thicknesses, lengths, and grades of carbon steel ) 6 in. Steam 6,000 ff:/min
weld ends are available on order. Where alloy pipe is 3 to 6 in. Air 250 ft/min/in. dia
used, it may be advantageous to use weld ends that are (other gases)
shorter and thinner than carbon steel standards. Consult > 6 in. Air 1,500 fl:/min
the factory for recommendations when alloy pipe is used. (other gases)
Fundamentals ol Exoansion Joints 365

For additional data use the sheet for supplemental information for special expansion joints.

Customer
Project Inquiry/Job No.

1. Item No.
2. Quantrty
3. Size
4. Flowing Medium+
5. Flow Velocity
6. Int. Design Pressure, psig
7. Int. Text Pressure, psig
8. Maximum Temperature, "F
9. Minimum Temperature, oF
10. Installation Temperature, oF
11. Axial compression, in.
12. Axial extension, in.
13. Lateral deflection, in.
14. Angular rotation, deg.
15. Pipe specification
16. Weld end specification
17. Flange specification
18. Type or catalog number
19. Internal sleeves
20. External covers
21. Anchor base
22. Limit rods

Use manufacturer's standard unless otherwise specified by purchaser.

23. Bellows material


24. Equalizing ring material
25. Total corrugations
26. Lenglh limitation

If flowing medium is corrosive, erosive, or viscous explain in detail.

Figure 14-14. Standard expansion joint specification sheet.


366 Piping Stress Handbook

Customer
Project hquiry/Job No.

1. Item No.
2. External design pressure, psig
3. External test pressure, psig
4. Pipe purge, instr. connection
5. Vibration amplitude
6. Vibration frequency

Special Flange Design

7. Material
8. Facing
9. O.D.
10. I.D.
ll. Thiclness
12. B.C. diameter
13. No. holes
14. Size holes
15. Hole orientation

Design Restrictions

16. Length
17. Maximum O.D.
18. Minimum I.D.
19. Axial force
2O. LatercJ force (Shear)
21. End moment
22. Cychc design life
23. ASME Code partial
Data forms required
24. Applicable codes and
specifications

Figure 14-15. Supplemental information for special expansion joints, to be used with the standard expansion
ioint
specitication sheet.
Fundamentals of Expansion Joints

Figure 14-16. End connections.


15
Glossarv .,/

Aging-The term originally applied to the process or Austenite-A solid solution in which gamma iron is the
sometimes to the effects of allowing a metal to re- solvent, having a face-centered cubic crystal struc-
main at ordinary temperatures. H;at treatment ar ture.
temperatures above room temperature for the pur- Austenitic steel-Steel, which due to its comoosition
pose of accelerating changes of the type that might has a stable structure at normal lroom) timpera-
take place during aging at ordinary temperature is tures; as for example: the 18-8 types. It is not hard-
called artificial aging. The changes taking place ened by thermal treatrnent.
during artificial aging are due to the precipitation Bend test-A test commonly used to determine relativ!
treatment. Aging is an approach to the attaitment of ductility of a sample by bending it over a given ra-
equilibrium from an unstable condition induced by a dius and through a given angle.
prior operation. The fundamental reaction involved BilIet-A semi-finished rolled ingot of rectangular or
is generally one of precipitation, sometimes submi- nearly rectangular cross section.
croscopic. The method employed to bring about ag- Brass-A copper-base alloy in which zinc is the princi-
ing consists of exposure to a favorable temperature pal added element.
subsequent to (1) a relatively rapid cooling from Brazing-Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys
some elevated temperature (quench aging) or (2) a with melting points above 800"F but below the melr-
limited degree of cold work (strain aging). ing point of the metals being joined.
Alclad-The common name for a type of clad-wrought Brinell hardness-A hardness number determined br
aluminum product with coatings of high purity alu- applying a known load to the surface of the mareriil
minum; or an aluminum alloy different from the to be tested through a hardened steel ball of known
core alloy in composition. diameter. Note: Not suitable for measurins the hard-
Alloy-A metallic substance consisting of two or more ness of strip and sheet because of insulfic-ient thick.
elements, of which at least one is metal, and in ness.
which all elements are miscible in the molten state Brittleness-A tendency to fracture without appreciable
and do not separate when solid. deformation.
Alloying elements-Chemical elements constitutins an Carbon steel-Steel in which carbon provides the prop-
alloy. In steel. usually rhe elements added to mo?ify erties without substantial amounts of other alloyins
the properties of the steel. elements.
Annealing-A heating and controlled operation to im- Carburizing-Diffusing carbon into the surface of iron-
part specific desirable properties generally con- base alloys by heating in the presence of carbona-
cerned with subsequent fabrication of the alloy, such ceous materials.
as softness and ductility. When annealing follows Case hardening-Carburizing, nitriding, or cyanidinr
cold working for the purposes of stress removal, it is and subsequent hardening by suitable heat trear-
called stress annealing. ment, if necessary, all or part ofthe surface portion:
Arc welding-Welding accomplished by using an elec- of a section of iron-base alloy.
tric arc formed between a metallic or carbon elec- Casting-Fouring molten metal into a mold or a meta.
trode and the metal being welded, between two sep- object so produced.
arate electrodes, or between two separate pieces Cementite-An iron-carbon compound with the chem;-
being welded (also called fusion welding). cal formula Fe3C often called iron carbide.

368
--
Glossary 349

Charpy test-A pendulum-q pe impact tesr in which a metals in contact with or coupled with one aa'drc:
notched specimen, supported ar both ends as a sim- or of a metal containing microscopic areas di-isr::-
ple beam, is broken by the impact of the falling pen- lar in composition or structure. The dissimilar er:-
dulum. The energy absorbed in breaking the speci- ments form short-circuited electrodes. The corr.--
men, as determined by the deireased rise of the sive medium is the electrolyte, and an electrlc
pendulum, is a measure of the impacr strength of the current is induced. which results in the disolution of
metal. the electrode that has the more anodic solution po-
Chemical analysis-Separating an allor. into its compo- tential, while the other is unattacked.
nent elements and identi! in-e them. In quantitative Elongation-The amount of permanent extension in the
analysis, the proportion of each element is deter- tensile test, usualll' expressed as a percentage of the
mined. original gage lengrh. (e.g. , 25 percent in 2 inches).
Chromium-A hard crystalline metal used as an alloy- It may also refer to the amount of extension at any
ing element to give resistalce to heat. corrosion, and stage in any process which continuously elongates a
wear and increase strength and hardenability. body, as in rolling.
Cold working-Permanent deformadon of a metal be- Endurance limit-A limir of stress below which metal
low its recrystallization temperature. Also defined will withstand stress without fracture; a specified
as plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature large number of applications of such stress.
low enough to ensure strain hardening. Mechanical Eutectoid steel-A carbon steel containine 0.80% car-
properties, such as tensile strength, hardness, and bon that becomes a solid solution ar anitemoerature
ductility, are also altered. in the austenite temperarure range between i ,333.F
Compressive strength-The ability to withstand com- and 2,500"F.
pressrve stresses.
, Compressive stress-Stress caused by a compressive Fatigue-The tendency of a metal to fracture under con-
load or in fibers compressed by a bending. ditions of repeated cyclic stressing below the ulti-
Cooling stresses-Stresses caused by uneven contrac- mate tensile strength but above the yield strength.
tion, external restraint, or localized plastic deforma- Ferrite-A solid solution in which alphas iron is the sol-
tion during cooling. vent and having a body-cenrered iubic crystal struc-
Corrosion-Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack ture.
on a metal by atmosphere, moisture, or other ele- Ferritic steel-Steel which, due to its composition, is
ments. not hardenable by heat trearmenr. Such stainless
Corrosion embrittlement-Embrittlement in certain al- types as 405, 430, and 448 are essentially ferritic
- loys caused by exposure to a corrosive environment. steels.
Free machining-The property of steel imparted by ad-
Corrosion fatigue-Combined action of corrosion and
fatigue in which local corroded areas act as stress ditions of sulphur, selenium, or phosphorus which
concentrators, causing failure at the point of stress promote chip breakage and permit increased ma-
concentration and exposing new metal surfaces to chining speeds. Additions of sulphur or selenium
corrosion. The failure is progressive and rapid. also help to decrease friction between the chips and
Creep-Plastic flow of metal, usually occurring at high the tool face.
temperatures, subject to stress appreciably less than Galling-The damaging ofone or both rnetallic surfaces
its yield strength. It progresses through first, sec- by removal of particles from localized areas during
ond, and third stages to fracture or results in stress sliding friction.
relaxation. Galvanic corrosion-Corrosive action occurrins when
Cyaniding-A process of case hardening a ferrous alloy two dissimilar metals are in contact and arJioined
by heating in a molten cyanide salt bath, thus caus- by a solution capable of conducting an electric cur-
ing the alloy to absorb carbon and nitrogen simul- rent, a condition which causes a flow of electric cur-
taneously. Cyaniding is usually followed by quench- rent and corrosion of the more anodic of the f$.o
ing to produce a hard case. metals. (Also see Electrochemical Conosion.)
Ductility-That property of metal which allows the Gas welding-Welding in which heat is supplied b1' a
metal to be permanently deformed before final rup- manually or automatically controlled torch flame of
ture. oxyacetylene or oxyhydrogen (also called fusion
Elastic limit (limit of elasticity)-Maximum stress to welding).
which a metal can be subjected without permanent Grains-Individual crystals in metal.
deformation at the point of stress. Hardenability-In a ferrous alloy, the propern that de-
Electrochemical corrosion-Localized corrosion that termines the depth and distribution of hardness il-
results from exposure of an assembly of dissimilar duced by heat treating and quenching.
37O Piping Stress HandbooK

Hardness-Resistance to indentation by standard balls. manganese or austenitic stainless steels and nonfer-
diamonds, etc.. under standard loais. Also, the de- rous alloys, which are nonmagnetic.
gree of cold working. Martensite-An unstable constituent in quenched steel,
Heading-An upsetting process used to form rivet, the hardest of the transformation products of aus-
screw, and bolt heads in making these products from tenite.
wire or rod. Martensitic steel-Steel which, due to its composition,
Heat treatable-Refers to an alloy that may be hardened has martensite as its chief constituent after cooling.
by heat treatment. The hardenable stainless types are all martensite
Heat treatment-A combination of heating and cooling stels.
operations timed and applied to metal or alloy to Mechanical proprties-Those pfoperties that reveal
produce desired properties. the reaction, elastic or plastic, ofa material to an ap-
Homogenizing-A process of heat treatment at high plied stress or that involves the relationship between
temperature to eliminate or decrease chemical seg- stress and strain; for example, Young's modulus,
regation by diffusion. Attainment of austenite that tensile strength, fatigue limit. These properties have
has a uniform distribution of carbon. often been designated as physical properties, but the
Hooke's Law-Stress is proportional to strain in the term mechanical properties is technically more ac-
elastic region. curate and therefore preferred.
Hot forming-Working operations performed on metals Modulus of rigidity-The ratio of the unit shear stress
heated to temperatures above room temperature. to the unit angular strain in the elastic range.
Hot working-Hot forming above the recrystallization Nitriding-A process of surface hardening in which a
rcmperature. ferrous alloy is heated in an atmosphere of cracked
Hydrogen embrittlement-A brittleness sometimes ammonia gas or other suitable nitrogenous material
engendered by contact with plating and pickling so-
thus allowing nitrogen to diffuse into the surfaca
lution acid due to absorption of hydrogen by the metal. Nitriding is conducted at temperatures below
metal. The embrittlement is more evident in hard-
the critical temperature range and produces surface
ened parts, and can be removed by aging or heating
hardening of the metal without quenching.
the steel for a prescribed period.
Hypereutectoid steels-Steels containing from 0.80% Normalizing-A process in which steel is heated to a
to above 2.0% carbon. suitable temperature above the transformation range
Hypoeutectoid steels-Carbon steels containing less and is subsequently cooled in still air at room tei-
than 0.80% carbon. perature. This operation is used for grain refining or
Impact test-A test designed to determine the energy to develop specified mechanical properties.
absorbed in fracturing a test bar at high velocity. Notch sensitivity-The reduction caused in nominal
The usual impact test specimen is a standard size strength, impact or static, by the presence of a stress
square bar with a V or keyhole type notch. (See concentration, usually expressed as the ratio of the
Charpy test and Izod test.) notched to the unnotched strength.
Intergranular corrosion-Corrosion that tends to local- Permeability-Magnetic permeability is the ratio of the
ize at grain boundaries, usually under conditions of magnetic induction to the intensity of the magnetiz-
prolonged stress and certain environments, and in ing field.
association with poor heat reating or welding prac- Physical properties-Those properties familiarly dis-
tice that has caused the precipitation of a more easily cussed in physics, exclusive of those described un-
attacked constituent at these boundaries. der Mechanical Properties; for example, density,
Izod test-A pendulum-type of notched-bar impact test electrical conductivity; coefficient for thermal ex-
in which the specimen is supported at one end as a pansion. The term has often been used to describe
cantilever beam and the energy required to break off mechanical properties, but such usage is not recom-
the free end is used as a measure of impact strength. mended.
Machinability-The rate and ease with which a metal Pickling-Immersion in dilute acid or other suitable me-
can be machined. dia for the removal of oxide scale from hot-rolled or
Magnetic particle testing-This method of inspection otherwise sealed surfaces.
consists in suitably magnetizing the material and ap- Plasticity-The ability of a metal to be deformed exten-
plying a prepared magnetic powder which adheres sively without rupture.
along lines of flux leakage. On properly magnetized Plating-Deposition of a thin film of a metal or alloy on
material, flux leakage develops along surface non- a different base metal from a solution containins
uniformities. This method is not applicable to high ions of the plating metal.
G

Glossary 37'l

Poisson's ratio-Ratio expressing the relation of strain Shear-Plastic deformation in which parallel planes of
normal to the applied load as a proportion of direct metal crystals slide so as to retain their parallel rela-
strain within the elastic limit. Also relates moduli of tionship. Also called angular elastic strain.
elasticity ard rigidity. Shear stress-Stress acting on a shear plane.
hecipitation hardening-Hardening of metallic alloys, Solution treating-A condition of complete solubility
by aging, which results from the precipitation of a resulting in a single phase for compositions of two
constituent from a supersaturated solid solution, or more alloying elements at temperatures lower
usually nonferrous alloys. Also termed as harden- than the solids. Solid solutions may be limited in ex-
ing. (See ,{grng.) tent with respect to range of alloy composition or
Process annealing-An annealing operation carried out can be continuous, extending throughout an alloy se-
at a constant temperature just below the critical ries.
transformation temperature (also referred to as sub- Specific gravity-A numerical value representing rhe
critical annealing) . weight of a given substance compared with the
Proof stress-In a test, stress that will cause a specified weight of an equal volume of water.
permanent set in a material, usually 17o or less. Spot welding-A resistance-welding process in which
Proportional limit-The highest stress at which the ma- the fusion is limited to a small circular or oval area.
terial still follows Hooke's Law, similar to elastic Stabilization-Prevention of the formation of carbides
limit. at the grain boundaries of austenitic stainless steels.
Quenching-A process of rapid cooling from an ele- Dimensional control of nonferrous castines.
vated temperature. Strain-Deformation expressed in units pe-r unit of
Radiography-The use of X-rays or gamma radiation to length produced by strain.
detect internal structural defects in metal objects. Strain aging-Load per unit of area.
. Reduction of area-In a tensile test, the difference be- Stress concentrator or stress raiser-Any notch,
tween the original cross-sectional area and that of scratch, sharp change of contour, slot groove, hole,
the smallest area ofthe point ofrupture. It is usually defect, or other discontinuity in an engineering ma-
stated as a percentage of the original area. Also terial that has the effect of concentratins the stresses
called contraction of area, it is not applicable to the applied to the material or generated in-it by heating
mechanical testing of sheet and strip. It is also a or cooling.
measure of cold work. Stress corrosion-Corrosive action induced and accel-
Refractory metals-Metals such as tungsten, colum- erated by the presence of stresses.
bium, tantalum, and molybdenum, which have rela- Stress rupture-A test to destruction at elevated tem-
- tively high melting temperatures. perature, by which it is possible to determine the
Residual stress-Stresses locked in a metal after the stress that causes failure at a given temperature and
completion of nonuniform heating or cooling, work- with the lapse of a given period of time.
ing, etc. due to expansion, contraction, phase
changes, and other phenomena. Temper-A condition produced in a metal or alloy by
Resistance welding-A welding process in which the mechanical or thermal treatment and havins chanc-
work pieces are heated by the passage of an electric teristic structure and mechanical propertiei.
current through the contact area, combined with Temper brittleness-Brittleness that results when cer-
pressure causing joining by fusion. tain steels are held within or slowly cooled throug! a
Rockwell hardness test-This test consists of forcins a certain range of temperature below the transforma-
cone shaped diamond or hardened steel ball int6 a tion range. The brittleness is revealed by a notched-
metal specimen to determine the degree of penetra- bar impact test at room temperature or lower tem-
tion and. hence. the hardness. peratufes.
Rupture stress-The true stress given by dividing the Tempering-The process of reheating quench hardened
load at the moment of incipient fracture by the area or normalized steel lo a temperature belo*. t}le rars-
supporting that load. formation range and then coolhg at an) rare de-
Salt spray tesl-An accelerated corrosion test in which sired. This operation is frequently called sress re-
the metal specimens are exposed to a fine mist of lieving. "Drawing" is synonymous xith temperhg.
salt water solution. but the latter is the preferred usage.
Scaling-Surface oxidation caused by heating in an ox- Tensile strength-The maximum load il pou_n& ger
idizing atmosphere. square inch, based on the origiml cro=.-^.e.-tibn.
Seam welding-Resistance welding that consists of a se- which may be developed in rensile resrilg. isee a.L:o
ries of overlapping spots forming a continuous weld . Uhimate Strength.)
372 Piping Stress Handbook

Thermal stresses-Stresses in metal, resulting from Welding-A process of joining metals whereby partial
nonuniform temperature distribution. melting of the parent metals occurs except in the
Through-hardening-Thermal description of alloys case of pressure welding when heating is only suffi-
that harden completely, so the center of a hardened cient to cause recrystallization across the interface.
section exhibits hardness similar to the surface.
Torsion-Strain created in an object by a twisting action Yield point-The load per unit or original cross section
or the stresses created by such an action. at which a marked increase in deformation occurs
Toughnesl-Ability to absorb considerable energy be- without increase in load. In stainless and heat-resist-
fore fracture, usually represented by the area under ing steels, this occurs only in the martensitic and
a stress-strain curve and therefore involvins both ferritic chromium types. In the austenitic stainless
ductility and strength. and heat-resisting steels, the yield point is the stress
[Jltimate strength-The maximum strength or stress be- corresponding to some definite and arbitrary total
fore complete failure or fracture occurs. deformation, permanent deformation, or slope of
Vacuum melting-A process by which alloys are melted the load deformation curve; this is more properly
rn a near pertect vacuum to prevent contamination termed the yield strength.
by atmospheric elements.
Vickers hardness test-An indentation hardness test uti- Yield strength-Stress corresponding to some fixed
lizing a diamond pyrarnid and useful over the entire permanent deformation such as 0.1 or 0.2% offset
range of common metals. from the modulus slooe.
aa

Index

Air-cooled heat ex changerc, 263-264 Disffibution Piping), 11, 13, 15, Coil springs, 324
Allowable expansion stress range, 2, 251 Cold springing, 2-3, 356-358
8-9, 11, 13 ANSI/ASME Code 831.9 (Building Combination ends, 364
Allowable external forces and Services Piping), 15 Compliance codes, 3- l6
moments (tables), 264 ANSI/ASME Code 831.10 Components of pipe, 299-313
Allowable internal pressure stress, (Cryogenic Piping), 16 clearances,357
1l ANSI/ASME Code B31.11 (Slurry Compressors, 262-263
Allowable loads, 257 -264 Piping), 16 Connections
Allowable longitudinal stress, 9 ANSI/ASME Code for Pressure branch, 114, 253-254
Allowable momenlq 257 -264 Piping, 177 end,364
Allowable pipe deflection, 314 API Code 610, (steel pump force, purging, 358
Alowable pipe span, 314 moment, and stress limitations), vertical exhaust, 260-261
Allowable resultant forces and 257 -258 Cons^TLlt sprjng supports. 327,
moments (table), 258 API Code 661 (design criteria for
Allowable shear stress, 11 air-cooled heat exchangers), load table, 338-341
Allowable span, 314 263-2& Corrosion,359
Allowable stress(es), 8-11, 257 -264 ASME Boiler Code, 177 Covers, of expansion joints, 364
range (tables), 38-111 Creep, 2, 177
Allowable working pressure, 177, Barlow formula, 177 Cryogenic hargers, 327 , 345, 349
- 250-251 Baseplate support, 258-259 Cryogenic Piping Code
Anchor(s), 122, 345, 356, 360-363 Bellows, 356 (ANSr/ASME 831.10), 16
forces and moments, 3 Bellville (disc) springs, 324 Cycle life expectancy, 2, 358-359
intermediate, 362-363 Bending, 123 Cylindrical vessels, 122- 176
main, 360-362 maximum, 314
Angle valves stress, 1, 260 Deflection, 324, 329
cast steel, 307 Bends, 120, 3ll-323, 350 lirnits of, 314-315
flanged,302 Boiler external piping, ,14 Design criteria
ANSI/ASME Code 816.9, 120 Bracket supports, 324 air-cooled heat exchansers.
ANSI/ASME Code B31.1 (Power Branch connections , ll4, 253-255 263-264
Piping), 3-6, 14, 257 , 260 Branch reinforcement, 252-256 compressors, 262-263
allowable stress range (tables), Buckling, 356, 363 pipe suPports, 324-350
38-'72 Building Services Piping Code pumps,257-259
ANSI/ASME Code 831.2 (Fuel Gas (ANSr/ASME 831.9), 15 turbine drivers, 260-262
Piping), 14 Butt-welded fittings, 303 Design factor F, 13
ANSI/ASME Code 831.3 (Chemical Direct longitudinal sness. I
Plant and ktroleum Refinery Caking,358 Direct shear stress, 2
Piping), 6-7, 14, 25'l -260 Centrifugal steel compressor, 262 Disc (Bellville) springs. 3?4
allowable stress range (tables), Chemical Plant and Petroleum Discharge nozzles. 257 -259
73-111 Refinery Piping Code (ANSI Distortion energy (von Missl
ANSI/ASME Code 831.4 (Liquid 831 .3) , 6-7 , 14 , 257 -258 theory, 2
Petroleum Transportation Piping allowable stress range (tables), DOT Code B31.8. ll.
13. 15. 51
Systems), , 9, 11, 14-15
7 73-111 Double expansion joim- 15l-351
ANSI/ASME Code 831.5 Circumferential bendhg, 123 Dummy legs, 324
(Refrigeration Piping), 15 Circumferential stress, 2
ANSI/ASME (DOT) 831.8 Code Coefficients of thermal expansion Elbows, 112, 118-lll
(Gas Transmission and (tables),2-32 Electric generadng pla s. l-t

373
374 Piping Stress Handbook

End connections, 364 i factor (table), 120 loops, 351


Ends, 121, 364 Industrial plants, 14 materials, properties (tables), 33
Erosion,359 Insulated anchors, 345 properties (table), 292 -298
Expansion devices, 351 Insulated pipe supports, 348-350 spans,314-320
Expansion forces, (tables), 278-290 Insulation of pipe, 299-300 rypes of, 325-329
Expansion joints, 351-367 Intermediate pipe anchor, 362-363 stress, l-2, 5-7
anchors,356 Internal sleeve, 358 compliance codes, 3-16
application, 360-363 simplified solutions (tables),
cold springing, 356 Joint movements, 351 265-291
corrosion, 359
cycle life expectancy, 358-359 k factor (table), 120, 327
't2
specified rninimum yield strength,

end connections, 364-367 supports. See a/so Supports.


erosion,359 Load adjustment, 327 tor cryogenic service, 329, 345
forces and moments, 356 Loading, sustained external, 3 design and selection, 324-350
guides, 356, 363-364 Loads,257-2&, 326,357 flexible, 324, 356
precompression, 360 Leaf springs, 324 insulated, 348-350
thermal expansion calculations, Liquid ktroleum Transportation nsid, 324
359-360 Piping Systems Code Piping
types,351-355 (ANSUASME 831.4), 7-1r restrained, 11
Expansions,
- offset lensths reouired Longitudinal joint factor t, 13 three-dimension, 2
(tables), 266-267' Longitudinal stress, 1-3, 5,7,9, tl, two-anchor, 3
Expansion stresses, 2-3, 6, 13 13 unrestrained,9
range, 8-9, 11 Piping codes, 3-16
External mechanical forces, 258 Machining, 112 Piping wind loads, 320-323
External pressure, 5 Main pipe anchors, 360-362 (tzble),324-325
Maximum allowed wall thickness, 6 Planar piDe euide. 356. 363
Maximum allowable resultant forces POWER,FOAMTM, 345-347
Factors, k, h, i (table), 120 and moments, 258 Fower Piping Code (ANSI/ASME -
Flanged elbows, 118 Maximum bending, 314 831.1), 3-6, 14, 257 , 260
Flanged valves, weight of (tables) Maximum def lection, 324 Precompression, 356, 360
angle,302 Maximum radius, 112 Pressure
check (swing), 301 Maximum shear (Tresca) theory, 2 external, 5
gate,300 Mechanical forces, 258-259 working, 176, 250-251
globe,30l Minimum radius, 112 Pressure-balance expansion, 354
Flanges Minimum thickness, 177 Pressure design, 5
fixed, 364 Miter(s) Pressure stress, 6-7, 11
forged steel, 303-305 bends, 120 rutios, 177 , 250-256
weight (tabl), 302 elbows, 120-121 (tables), 178-249
Flexibility, 122 spactng, 112, 120-121 Prestressing,3
Flexibility factors, 1 12 welding,308-309 Pumps, 256-258
flanged elbows, 118- 119 "Modified lame" formula, 177 Purging connections, 358
miter elbows, 120-121 Modulus of elasticity (table), 33,257
Flexible piping, 351 Moments. See Forces and moments
Flexible support, 324
Force reduction, 356 Nominal wall thickness, 11, 111, Radial flexibility, 122
Forces and moments,3, 122, 177 Radial stress, 2
257,26/.,356,358 Nozzles, 122-123 Refrigeration Piping Code
Fuel Gas Piping Code (ANSI/ASME flexibilities, 122- 176 (ANSr/ASME 831.5), 15
83r.2), 14 loadings (table), 257 Reinforcement area, 253, 255
snction, 257 -259 Reinforcement zone, 255
Required area for branch
Gas Transmission and Distribution Occasional longitudinal stress, 6 connections,253
Piping Code (ANSI/ASME Offset lengths required (tables), Required yield strength, 350-351
(DOT) 831.8), 11- 15, 2s1 266-267 Restrained piping, 1l
Gimbals, 355, 358 Oil piping, 14 Resultant applied forces and
Globe valves, 307 moments, 258
Guides, 356, 363 Pedestal support, 258-259 Resultant bending stress, 6-7
Pipe(s) Resultant shear force, 259
Hangers, 324, 327, 345, 349 anchors, 356, 360-363 Right angle nozzles, 253
Heat exchangers, 263-264 bends,311-323,351 Rigid ends, 122
Heating plants, 14 components, 299 -313, 357 Rigid hanger, 324
h factor (table), 120 deflection, 314 Rigid support, 324
Hinged expansion joint, 355, 358 guides,356,363 Rotational nozzle flexibilities
Hot \pater piping, 14 insulation, 299-300 (tzbles), 122-176
{d

---r
Index {Is
Saturated sream. properties of Support load, 345
(tables). 3-l-36 - Sustained longitudinal stress. 5 rtical exhaust connecrion. 160_16 l
Ve.

Self sprineins. l )usralned-pIus_thermal expansion vrbratron control, 342_ J4.t


Von Mises (distortion energr r l.betrr-
Shaft displaciment . 258-259 stress, 6
Shape factors. 321 Sway brace support, 327. 342 2-'
Shoe suppon. 3!-1 Swing check v-aives, 30g-
Shear striss- l
Single expansion ioint, 351
Sleeve.356.358,364
Temperature derating factor
terms, standard. 3_4
f, l.] Wall thickness pressure stress, 7. 251
Slurry Piping Code (ANSt/ASME Thermaf expansion, 2-3, wall thlckness
831.11). t6
5-6. 324, maxrmum allowable. 6
359-360
Spans, allouable, 313. See also ptpe nominal, l l, l12,
_.coefficienrs of (tabtes), 2_32
177
sPans. r nerma movements, 351 required, 177
Specified rninimum yield stren eth Three-dimension pipine. 2 Weather,35l
(SMYS.,, 9, ll Three-weld-miter elbo;s. 12 I Wedge gate valves. 306
Spring rate of nozzles, 122 tte roos, JJ6 Weld elbows, l12
spnng suppons, 324_341 Torsional stress, 2 Weld-end valves (tables)
Stabiliry,356 Travel stops, 327 angle,302
Standard hangers, 327 Tresca (miximum shear) theory, 2 check (swing), 301
standard terms, 3_4 rwo-anchor Ptplng systems, 3 gate,300
Stress(es). .te aho piDe stress. turbines,260-267 globe,301
allowable. 8-l l. 38--l I t, 257_264 Thrbulence-producing device, 364 Welding ends, 363
deadload, 314 Weld joint factor E, l0
intensificarion factors, l. I12. Wind loads, 320-321
I L4-121 Uni{orm Building Code, J2l (table),322-323
limits,314-315 unrtorm wind loads, 323 Wind pressure, 320
pressure/stress r atios, lj 7 _256 U.S.A. Standard Buildins Code Working stress, 172
prtmary, 2 R^equirements for Deiign Loads.
range, 2
shear, ll Universal expansion joint, 352_J54
Structuraj supports, 325 unrestratned ptplng, g y values (tables), 177_250
suctron nozzles, 257_259 y : Q Garlowy, 178-195, 250
Supports. 324-325, 327, 342. 356. y= U.4 (modified lame).
Slee a/so Pip(s) supports. 196_214,250
baseplare. 258-259 -' Van Stoned flanges. 3&
y = 0.5 (average diameter).
Variable spring iupports, 324_327
pedasral, 258-259 2t4_231, t50
load tabte, 328
y : 0.7 (creep), 232_250