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July 2014 Vol 58

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Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides

Rig Veda


Electoral Reforms through the Years SPECIAL ARTICLE

S Y Qureshi...............................................................................................5 Organ Donation In India: Arduous Road Between
Electoral Reforms: Altruism and Action
A Peep in the Past and Look Ahead Subhadra Menon.....................................................................................36
Jagdeep Chhokar . ..................................................................................10 Electoral Reform and the Deepening
Some Policy Issues in Indian Agriculture of Democracy in India
S Mahendra Dev.....................................................................................15 Subrata K Mitra .....................................................................................41

J&K Window . ................................................................................46

Hyper Plurality of Candidates and Indian
Electoral Reforms: Is There a Trade-Off between Agricultural
Kaushik Bhattacharya.............................................................................20 Development, Adaptation and Mitigation?
The Electoral Participation of Women Ashwini K Swain....................................................................................48
Lakshmi Iyer...........................................................................................24 Manufacturing in India: Future Scenarios
UID Project: Does Evidence Matter? Soumitra Biswas, M Thamarai Selvan, Suresh Babu Muttana
Jancy A, Gautam Goswami.....................................................................53
Reetika Khera..........................................................................................30
Best practices Suggested Heading Modification auto-engine with mileage . ..............59
Boat clinics: the only hope floating for Assams river island
community.............................................................................................34 do you know?...............................................................................60

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YOJANA July 2014 1


2 YOJANA July 2014


People Deserve...

t is a well-worn clich that People get the leaders they deserve. It perhaps hides and
distorts as much as it reveals the real processes at work in a democracy. After all the closely
intermeshed network of agencies and institutions through which democracy is actualised
may appear like an enigmatic labyrinth with too many closed doors. The electoral process, in
a way, if we may paraphrase Foucault, makes windows where there were once walls. While
other institutions of democracy may be difficult to penetrate and change for the common
people, the key to its pinnacle in the form of electoral process remains in the hands of masses.
Herein lies the importance of the electoral process for democracy. Digging through the ruins of

many a failed democracies and exploring the success of many others, it becomes obvious that
the nitty-gritty of the electoral process could write the epitaph of democracy or infuse it with
energy and vitality.
Just like currency in the economy, a political system is as valuable as people think it to be.
Thus, trust of the people or legitimacy is the foundation on which any democratic system works. Participation of people in the
electoral process is a crucial element of the legitimacy enjoyed by a political system. World is replete with examples where
lack of participation of people in the electoral process has robbed the elected government of legitimacy and led to serious
political crises in those countries. However, India has been an example of success in this aspect of democracy whether it
be the implementation of the universal adult suffrage or bringing down the age of voting or a thriving participation in the
institutions of local governance at Panchayat level. The recent round of general elections to the Lok Sabha has once again
proved the strength of Indian democracy with the highest ever voting percentage since independence.
However, there are other elements of the electoral process which imbue meaning and value to the concept of democracy.
Beyond the outer shell of democracy, defined by the electoral participation of people, there is an inner core which needs
constant nurturing. It is self evident that democracy can flourish only in an environment of openness, transparency, voluntary
participation, freedom of ideas and personal liberty exercised without fear or inducement. The burden of ensuring such a
system lies on the shoulders of the electoral process a country adopts. Apart from this, a strong democracy also requires
the existence of robust institutions capable of safeguarding the fundamental values of democracy without getting sucked
into the flux and flow of politics as it unfolds on the ground. Judiciary, Media and bureaucracy are among these institutions
which invigorate and protect democracy not merely in its form but in terms of its real content also. It would be wrong to
look at democracy simply as a given body of institutions and structures. It is actually a dynamic process which requires
constant infusion of new ideas and activities to reflect the aspirations of people. Democracy, as it were, is forever an
unfinished project.
Electoral reforms, in the wider context of the need for the deepening of democracy, thus acquires a central position in this
project. The reality remains that Indian democracy has a long way to go before it rids itself of the demons of deviancy. This
has been articulated quite forcefully on public forums by our political leaders which is a source of hope. It underscores the
urgent need to engage with the dark alleys of corruption, money power and crime that could poison the tree of democracy.
No matter what, the country will have to dig dipper into its moral reserve to administer the right medicine, even if bitter, for
this malaise. Only by confronting the fatal weaknesses of our valued political system headlong can we hope to evolve and
protect the deep self of democracy that touches the lives of the weakest in society and works as the transformative elixir.
Lets have no doubt- People deserve this! q

YOJANA July 2014 3


4 YOJANA July 2014


Electoral Reforms through the years

S Y Qureshi

lections in India their positive interpretation of the law.

over the years have The first landmark judgment came
gone from strength to in 1952 itself (NP Ponnuswamy vs
strength largely through Returning Officer, Nammakkal) in
a series of electoral which the Supreme court ruled that the
reforms. Yet, there are bar in the Constitution [Article 329(b)]
still some areas of concern that need against questioning elections except
to be addressed. through election petitions, till the
election process was completed. This
Election law has undergone
was further elaborated by the Apex
numerous amendments to meet the
Court in 1978 in Mohinder Singh Gill
requirements of new challenges
...peoples faith in the and changing situations. The path-
vs Chief Election Commissioner and
breaking changes were the lowering others, when it held that the bar against
political system has of age for enrolment as elector from limitative challenges to electoral steps
taken by the Commission and its
been going down. If 21 to 18 in 1989, open ballot voting
at elections to the Rajya Sabha and officers was a blanket ban.
the declining faith voting through proxy for voters In 1995, in the case of Common
belonging to armed forces and para- Cause vs Union of India and others,
of the people in military forces in 2003. Provisions the Court directed that the political
for enrolment of overseas Indian parties had to file their income tax
democracy is to be citizens in the electoral roll was made returns. In 2003, the Supreme Court,
in the most recent amendment in
addressed seriously, 2011. Empowering the Commission
in another landmark judgment, ruled
that the electors have the right to
the government must to use electronic voting machines,
conferring disciplinary jurisdiction
know their candidates. They have
to file affidavits about their criminal
act urgently before on the Commission over the officers antecedents, assets, liabilities and
including police appointed for conduct educational qualifications.
situation gets out of of elections have strengthened the EC.
Printed electoral rolls have now been Election Commissions Innovative
control. Writing on substituted by computerised photo Steps
electoral rolls. The electors photo
the wall is clear. We identity card (EPIC) is by now a Many reforms have come from the
Election Commission itself.
only need to resume cherished possession of all citizens.
Judicial Support The Model code of Conduct,
our blinkers initiated by political parties, was
The Courts have also strengthened codified by the Commission, and
the hands of the Commission through put to strict implementation from

The author is a former Chief Election Commissioner of India. He is credited with the introduction of a number of innovative electoral
reforms in the Election Commission towards expenditure control and voter education. He has been recently appointed on the Board of
Advisors of International IDEA (Institute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance) Stockholm.

YOJANA July 2014 5

the 1990s. The election law did not Election Observers as a very effective sent a proposal to the government in
make any provisions for registration tool for monitoring the process of 1998 for debarring a person facing
and recognition of political parties elections, the deployment of central charges for serious offences from
and allotment of symbols to them. But, police forces, videography and posting contesting election. Many political
the Commission took the initiative of micro observers at sensitive polling parties opposed this on the ground that
before the first general elections in stations. false criminal cases may be filed by
1951-52 itself to recognise political their opponent. The ruling parties may
parties and to allot symbols. Later, Emerging Concerns
use this ploy to deny them electoral
the Commission issued the Election There are several areas where victory through this devious way.
Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) the people at large, civil society This concern is legitimate. However,
Order, 1968, as the consolidated set of organisations, NGOs, social activists EC had offered three safeguards: (1)
instructions. In the late Seventies, the and political parties, are still feeling Not all criminal cases will lead to
Election Commission started to explore concerned. the bar. Only heinous offences like,
the possibilities of polling through murder, dacoity, rape, kidnapping or
voting machines and all elections to Broadly, there are three sets of moral turpitude, (2) the case should
Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies reforms proposed: (a) ones which have been registered at least six
are now being conducted using voting will reinforce the independence of the months before the elections, and (3)
machines from 2000 onwards. Election Commission, (b) those which the court should have framed the
will help to cleanse politics, and (c) charges. Keeping the person away
those which will make working of the
The appointment to this very political parties more transparent.
from contesting would be a reasonable
restriction in larger public interest.
important office should be based (a) Reinforcing independence of The opponents of the proposal argued
on wider consultation with an Election Commission of India: that jurisprudence followed in the
electoral college. However, it should Chief Election Commissioner country is that a person is deemed to
apply only at the entry level when and the Election Commissioners are be innocent until proved guilty.
a new Election Commissioner is appointed by the President, as per the Government and Parliament are
selected. The elevation to the advice of the Cabinet.
dragging their feet on such an
position of CEC must strictly be by The fact that the government important measure to cleanse
seniority, as in case of the Chief appoints the Chief Election
our electoral system and remove
Justice of the Supreme Court. It Commissioner and Election
Commissioners could in itself be a the blot on our august Houses of
will be useful to make the outgoing reason to suspect the neutrality of Parliament and State Legislatures.
Chief Election Commissioner as one the incumbent. The appointment to This reform will take away the
of the Members of the Collegium this very important office should be
sting out of the attack of activists
for the appointment of a new based on wider consultation with an
on politicians in general that paints
electoral college. .However, it should
commissioner. apply only at the entry level when all of them black.
Towards the end of the 1990s, the a new Election Commissioner is
Commission computerised the electoral selected. The elevation to the position I have a counter point that about
rolls of all constituencies. For further of CEC must strictly be by seniority, two-thirds of the people lodged in jails
improving fidelity of electoral rolls, as in case of the Chief Justice of the are under-trials, and not convicted,
the Commission started the institution Supreme Court. It will be useful to and are, therefore, innocent. Yet they
of Booth Level Officer (BLO) for each make the outgoing Chief Election are locked up in jails, denied of their
polling station in the country. Commissioner as one of the Members fundamental rights of liberty, freedom
of the Collegium for the appointment of movement, freedom of occupation
For closer participation by the of a new commissioner. While CEC and right to dignity. If fundamental
political parties in this exercise, every cannot be removed except through rights of an undertrial could be
recognised party can appoint a BLA impeachment, it is necessary to suspended, what is the fuss about
(Booth Level Agent) as a check on provide similar protection to the other temporarily suspending the right to
BLOs neutrality. Election Commissioners as well. contest election, which, incidentally,
In 1993, to prevent bogus voting, the b) Cleansing Politics: is only a statutory right.
Commission introduced electoral photo It is really disappointing that
identity card for all the electors. Criminalisation of Politics
Government and Parliament are
From the 1990s again, the Concerned about criminalisation dragging their feet on such an
Commission has used the central of politics, the Election Commission important measure to cleanse our

6 YOJANA July 2014

electoral system and remove the blot Inner Party Democracy Right to Recall:
on our august Houses of Parliament
and State Legislatures. This reform One of the pre-conditions for Right to recall is another electoral
will take away the sting out of the registration as political party is a reform demanded by activists like
commitment to democratic process in Anna Hazare. In essence, Right to
attack of activists on politicians in
its decision-making, and democratic Recall is a mechanism for voters to
general that paints all of them black.
elections to various offices and unseat an elected MP or MLA by
(c) Enhancing Transparency of Political committees of the Party at prescribed following the recall process. But this
Parties periodic intervals. is fraught with the strong possibility
that defeated candidates will resort to
Issue of Registration and The Election Commission,
the tool immediately after they lose
De-registration of Political Parties however, does not oversee their
internal electoral process. the election. In such a scenario, the
Political parties are registered
Transparency in the Accounts of ...compulsion and democracy do not
with the Election Commission
under statutory provisions in the Political Parties go together. The Commission is,
Representation of the People Act, 1951. The present law fixes a ceiling on therefore, of the considered view
One of the statutory requirements for the election expenses of individual that enhanced voters participation
a valid application for registration candidates but not of political parties. can be achieved through voter
as a political party under Section Further, there is no regulation of the
manner of raising and spending
education, as amply demonstrated
29A is that the constitution of the
Party should contain an undertaking funds, nor are their accounts in public in the elections held in 22 states
of allegiance to the Constitution of domain for scrutiny by the people since 2010, besides the general
India and the principles of socialism, at large. To bring transparency, the election of 2014, crossing even 80%
Commission has proposed that the
secularism and democracy, and to
accounts of political parties should be in some cases. These steps led to
uphold the unity, sovereignty and
integrity of India. audited by the Chartered Accountants the highest ever turnout in sixty
from a list specified by the Election year electoral history.
One of the statutory requirements Commission
elected representative would not even
for a valid application for Furthermore, these audited get the time to settle down.
registration as a political party accounts should be put in public
Compulsory voting
under Section 29A is that the
Another electoral reform often
constitution of the Party should Right to Reject
mooted is compulsory voting in
contain an undertaking of There have been proposals of response to chronic voter apathy,
allegiance to the Constitution late from social activists, seeking the especially in urban areas. My
right to the electors to reject all the consistent view has been that
of India and the principles candidates when they find none of compulsion and democracy do not
of socialism, secularism and them worthy through the provision of go together. The Commission is,
democracy, and to uphold the unity, NOTA (none of the above). In 2013, therefore, of the considered view that
SC granted this provision but not to
sovereignty and integrity of India. create the right to reject.
enhanced voters participation can be
achieved through voter education, as
None of the Above (NOTA) amply demonstrated in the elections
Although the political parties,
The way the right to reject is to be held in 22 states since 2010, besides
at the time of registration,
operationalised is through providing the general election of 2014, crossing
bind themselves to follow the
a button on the EVM with None of even 80 per cent in some cases. These
constitutional provisions and the
the Above (NOTA) option. steps led to the highest ever turnout
principles of democracy, etc., there in sixty year electoral history. My
are no legal provisions enabling the It is important to note that NOTA consistent view that motivation and
Commission to take punitive action is not an endorsement of the right to facilitation rather than compulsion
against them or to withdraw the reject. Even if 99 voters opt for NOTA, should be the way to address the
registration in case of violation of and only one voter for a candidate, for issue, has been clearly vindicated.
such understanding. EC the candidate is the winner. The 99
voters are just blank, or invalid votes! Relevance of FPTP System
The Commission had recommended
an amendment to the law, empowering The proposal of the Election Commission Another emerging concern flowing
the Commission to regulate the for NOTA option was to ensure secrecy from a low turnout is the candidates
de-registration of political parties. of neutral or non voting. getting declared elected with just 10

YOJANA July 2014 7

per cent to 20 per cent of the total demand is becoming louder after the rendering the provisions virtually
votes in their favour. This leads to general election of 2014 when a party ineffective.
the questioning the relevance of the like the BSP ended up without a single
representative despite over 20 per cent Under Section 171-G, publishing
prevalent FPTP system.
vote share. This does seem to create false statement in connection with
Elections to the Lok Sabha and an anomalous situation. election with intent to affect the result
legislative Assemblies, the lower of an election, is punishable with fine
houses of legislature, are held from The PR System has several only.
single member territorial parliamentary variants. One such variant is single
transferable vote, as followed in Section 171H provides that
and assembly constituencies, through
elections to the Rajya Sabha and State incurring or authorizing expenditure
direct election. The First-Past-the Post
Legislative Councils. for promoting the election prospects
(FPTP) system is followed in these
of a candidate is an offence. However,
elections. Elections to Rajya Sabha
Misuse of Religion for Electoral punishment for an offence under
and Legislative Councils are under the
Gain this Section is a meager fine of
system of proportional representation
Rs.500/-. This amount may have been
through single transferrable vote. In A Bill was introduced in the a deterrent sixty years ago, but now is
the FPTP system followed in India, Lok Sabha in 1994 [R.P. (second laughable.
voters vote for one candidate from amendment) Bill, 1994], whereby an
among those contesting election in amendment was proposed providing These punishments were provided
their constituency. The candidate for provision to question before as far back as in 1920. Considering
polling the highest number of votes a High Court, acts of misuse of the gravity of the offences under the
among contesting candidates is religion by political parties. The Bill aforesaid sections in the context of free
declared elected. Per centage of votes lapsed on the dissolution of the Lok and fair elections, the punishments
of the winning candidate is irrelevant. Sabha in 1996. The Commission under all the four sections need to be
Winner may or may not get absolute has proposed that the provision in enhanced and made cognizable, if they
majority of votes. If two or more that Bill should be considered again are to serve the intended objects.
candidates poll the same number of as religious fanaticism is a serious
votes, the winner is decided by draw threat to fair elections and needs There should be a ban on
of lots among such candidates. to be handled with tough hands. advertisements on achievements of
Hate speech arousing communal the government during its last six
The following are the advantages months. Essential advertisements/
tensions also need to be dealt with
of FPTP system : dissemination of information on
l It is easy to understand for useful announcements like health
electors. Paid News related schemes, drought and flood
measures, etc. could be exempted
l Counting is simple. The scourge of paid news is a from the ban.
l Winner is known immediately. recent phenomenon. The Commission
l Voters can elect representative of has proposed amendment in the During the last four decades, there
their choice. Representation of People Act, 1951, have been as many as seven national
to provide that publishing and abetting level committees and commissions
l There is an identified representative
the publishing of `paid news for who have given a number of
for each constituency, accountable suggestions on electoral reforms to
furthering the prospect of election
to his electorate. cleanse the political system, not to
of any candidate or for prejudicially
l All candidates get to know affecting his prospect be made an speak of the Election Commissions
their relative support in the electoral offence under chapter-III own recommendations and repeated
constituency. of Part-VII of Representation of reminders. All the aforesaid reforms
l The system has given, by and large, People Act, 1951 with punishment have been pending with the government
stable governments at the Centre of a minimum of two years for ten to twenty years. Meanwhile,
and in the states. imprisonment. peoples faith in the political system
has been going down. If the declining
P ro p o r t i o n a l R e p re s e n t a t i o n Punishment for Electoral Offences faith of the people in democracy
System to be Enhanced is to be addressed seriously, the
The opponents of the First- Undue influence and bribery at government must act urgently before
Past-The-Post (FPTP) system advocate elections are electoral offences under situation gets out of control. Writing
the introduction of Proportional Sections 171B and 171C, respectively, on the wall is clear. We only need to
Representation System, though they of the IPC. These offences are, resume our blinkers.  q
have not spelt out any details. The however, non-cognizable offences, (E-mail: syquraishi@gmail.com)

8 YOJANA July 2014


968 Indian Polity
A353 The Constitution of India



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968 A353
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A655 General Mental Ability and Reasoning (Verbal & Non-Verbal)
A676 Test of Reasoning and Numerical Ability
960 Objective English



Objective English

A1079 A1086 A655 A1088 960

Code: Code: Code: Code: Code:

For Main Examination

Code: 062 Code: 795 Code: 506 Code: 1343 Code: 2154

For More information Call : +91 89585 00222 info@psagra.in www.psagra.in

YOJANA July 2014 9

past, present & future

Electoral Reforms:
A Peep in the Past and Look Ahead
Jagdeep Chhokar

eaving now Does the above sound familiar,

our laurels alone, it contemporary? If it does, then you
becomes imperative would be right and wrong, both. Right,
to take stock of the because this is how things are even
present state of affairs today. And wrong, because it was
which causes concern written more than a quarter of a century
and anxiety because ago, in May of 1990 in what has come to
of the existence of the looming danger be known as the Goswami Committee
threatening to cut at the very roots of Report, officially called the Committee
free and fair elections. on Electoral Reforms. It went on to say,
All these four decades, especially after
The role of money and muscle
1967, the demand for electoral reforms
powers at elections deflecting seriously has been mounting up.
the well accepted democratic values
and ethos and corrupting the process; Following the demand of electoral
...money power and rapid criminalization of politics greatly reforms over four decades, the then
encouraging evils of booth capturing, Prime Minister, V.P. Singh called an all-
muscle power go together rigging, violence etc.; misuse of party meeting on January 09, 1990, as a
to vitiate the electoral official machinery, i.e. official media result of which a committee was set up
and ministerial; increasing menace of under the chairmanship of Shri Dinesh
process and it is their participation of non-serious candidates; Goswami, the then Law Minister, with
combined effect which form the core of our electoral problems. some illustrious members, such as front
Urgent corrective measures are the ranking politicians Shri L.K. Advani, Shri
is sullying the purity of need of the hour lest the system itself Somnath Chatterjee, Shri Era Sezhiyan,
electoral contests and should collapse. and distinguished bureaucrats such as
former Governor Shri L.P. Singh, and
affecting free and fair Electoral reforms are correctly
Former Chief Election Commissioner
understood to be a continuous process.
elections. Meaningful Shri S.L. Shakdher. The Goswami
But attempts so far made in this
Committee made 107 recommendations.
electoral reforms in area did not touch even the fringe
I do not have an exact count of how
of the problem. They appeared to be
many of the 107 recommendations have
other spheres of electoral abortive. Some of the recent measures
been implemented, and to what extent,
like reduction of voting age and anti-
activity are also urgently defection law are no doubt laudable and
but it is clear that a very large proportion
of these have not been implemented,
needed the basic principles underlying those
or even considered seriously or
measures should be appreciated. But
considered at all.
there are other vital and important areas
in election field completely neglected The next important event in this
and left high and dry. regard, though not strictly directly
The author was a professor of Management and Organisational Behaviour at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. He is
one of the founding members of the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR). He has written extensively on the topic of electoral
reforms and worked for improving democracy and governance in the country.

10 YOJANA July 2014

referring to electoral reforms, was in The Indrajit Gupta Committee theConstitution, headed by Justice M.N.
1993. This is what is popularly known report is about the most often quoted Venkatachaliah, former Chief Justice of
as the Vohra Committee Report. It was report on electoral reforms and it is India, set up by the government on
prepared by Shri N.N. Vohra, then Home always quoted to support state funding February 23, 2000, again with a very
Secretary to the Government of India, of elections. However it is worth distinguished membership, including
who is now the Governor of Jammu noting the opening paragraph of the Justice R.S. Sarkaria, former Judge,
and Kashmir. This committee actually Conclusion of the report which says, Supreme Court of India, Shri P.A.
consisted of five very senior officials Before concluding, the Committee Sangma, former Speaker, Lok Sabha,
of the government but the report was cannot help expressing its considered Shri Soli J. Sorabjee, Attorney General
prepared by Shri N.N. Vohra himself. view that its recommendations being for India, Shri K. Parasaran, Senior
The committee was set up to take limited in nature and confined to only Advocate and former Attorney General
stock of all available information about one of the aspects of the electoral for India, Shri C.R. Irani, Chief Editor
the activities of crime Syndicates/Mafia reforms may bring about only some and Managing Director,The Statesman,
organizations which had developed cosmetic changes in the electoral Dr. Abid Hussain, former Ambassador
links with and were being protected by sphere. What is needed, however, is an of India in the USA.
Government functionaries and political immediate overhauling of the electoral
process whereby elections are freed The NCRWC, as it came to be
personalities. called, submitted its report on March
from evil influence of all vitiating
31, 2002. The report had a separate
The major contribution of the factors, particularly, criminalization
chapter (Chapter 4) which it chose
of politics. It goes without saying that
report, in the context of electoral money power and muscle power go to title as Electoral Processes and
reforms, is the coining of, or at together to vitiate the electoral process Political Parties, and made 38
recommendations. Sadly, nothing
least popularizing, the phrase and it is their combined effect which is
significant has been done to implement
sullying the purity of electoral contests
criminalization of politics and and affecting free and fair elections. any of the recommendations.
politicization of crime. It was the Meaningful electoral reforms in other
...the Law Commission was
first time that the effect of crime, spheres of electoral activity are also
urgently needed requested to take a comprehensive
organized and unorganized, on
look at the entire electoral system
the electoral process was officially The next, and in my opinion the
most important, document on electoral in the country and suggest what
recognized, though not made public. reforms till date is the 170th report reforms were needed to make
of the Law Commission of India
As far as is known, the report has submitted to the then Law Minister, the electoral system in tune with
not been made public but, given the Ram Jethmalani, in May 1999. This the needs of the society. The
open society that we are, it is freely
available on the Internet, and its
report, titled Reform of the Electoral Commission did exactly that in a
Laws was prepared by the 15th Law
contents have not been denied. The Commission chaired by Justice B.P.
very comprehensive manner and
major contribution of the report, in Jeevan Reddy, a retired judge of the studied all components of the
the context of electoral reforms, is the
coining of, or at least popularizing, the
Supreme Court of India. Given that entire electoral system before
piecemeal attempts had not yielded
phrase criminalization of politics and anything worthwhile, as we have
making their recommendations
politicization of crime. It was the first seen, and given the complexity of our with detailed rationale and
time that the effect of crime, organized electoral system, the Law Commission justification.
and unorganized, on the electoral was requested to take a comprehensive
process was officially recognized, look at the entire electoral system in
though not made public. the country and suggest what reforms The Election Commission of India
were needed to make the electoral has been making recommendations to
The next formal attempt at electoral the Government of India from time
system in tune with the needs of
reforms was in 1998 in the form of what to time about various reforms in the
the society. The Commission did
has come to be popularly known as the electoral system that the Election
exactly that in a very comprehensive
Indrajit Gupta Committee Report. manner and studied all components Commission cannot make within
This committee, officially called of the entire electoral system before its own authority, some of which
the Committee on State Funding of making their recommendations with require making some changes in the
Elections was set up in 1998, again detailed rationale and justification. Conduct of Election Rules 1961, the
with a very distinguished membership Nothing much has been done by Representation of People Act, 1951,
including eminent leaders such as way of implementation of the and other similar rules and legislations.
Shri Indrajit Gupta, Shri Somnath recommendations. While the government has made some
Chatterjee, Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prof. of these changes from time to time
Vijay Kumar Malhotra, Shri Digvijay This was followed by the National but any major worthwhile changes
Singh. Commission to Review the Working of have been consistently ignored. The

YOJANA July 2014 11

Election Commission compiled 22 of The latest episode in this continuing made but the political parties have not
these ignored recommendations and saga was the letter that the then, and implemented the decision. Attempts
the then Chief Election Commissioner outgoing, Chief Election Commissioner, have been made to amend the RTI Act
wrote to the Prime Minister giving Dr. S.Y. Quraishi, wrote to the Prime to nullify the order but even that has
details of these recommendations on Minister on April 13, 2012, before not succeeded so far and stalemate
July 05, 2004, and published these on demitting office on June 10, 2012. Dr. continues.
July 30, 2004 to put these in the public Quraishi was personally involved in
The next development was a
domain. There has been no specific extensive and repeated discussions
judgment by the Supreme Court in
reaction from the government to these with the then Law Minister, Veerappa
Moily. Some excerpts from the letter, what has come to be known as the Lily
recommendations. Thomas and Lok Prahari judgment
given below exemplify the frustration
Then came the report of the Second of those trying to improve the electoral in which the court decided that if a
Administrative Reforms Commission system in the country: The year 2013 was very significant
in 2008 which also contained some
significant observations on the Hence allow me Sir, to place as far as electoral reforms are
electoral system, and made some before you the Commissions deep concerned. There were a lot of
disappointment over the fact that a
serious recommendations for electoral
necessary legislation in this regard is developments, seemingly positive,
reforms. Sadly, those recommendations
have also not found favour of the
yet to be materialised emanating from the judiciary and
government for implementation. However, the quality of our quasi-judicial institutions. It started
elections often gets questioned on on June 03, 2013 when the Central
...the quality of our elections often account of certain weaknesses in Information Commission declared
gets questioned on account of our electoral process. Commissions
six national parties to be public
certain weaknesses in our electoral reform proposals have always aimed
at addressing this predicament. authorities under the Right to
process. Commissions reform Though certain minor reforms have Information (RTI) Act and directed
proposals have always aimed been adopted by Government and them to appoint public information
at addressing this predicament. Parliament, the substantial ones have
been actually left out officers within six weeks of the
Though certain minor reforms have
been adopted by Government and I would like to bring to your kind
notice that some proposals which
Parliament, the substantial ones are of technical nature and require
sitting MP or MLA is convicted of
have been actually left out only amendment of Rules within the
imprisonment of two years or more in a
criminal case even by a lower court, his/
competence of the Ministry of Law her membership will stand terminated
Finally, on December 09, 2010, and Justice, have also been pending immediately notwithstanding him/
the then Law Minister, M. Veerappa for a long time. her filing an appeal in any higher
Moily, and the then Chief Election The above is a peep in the history court. The court did this on July 10,
C o m m i s s i o n e r, S . Y. Q u r a i s h i , of electoral reforms in the country for 2013 by declaring Section 8(4) of the
announced in a joint press conference the last 47 years, since 1967. Let us Representation of People (RP) Act
that seven regional and one national now turn to where we are, what has as unconstitutional. Attempts were
consultation will be conducted to happened, and what needs to, and can made to nullify this order by issuing
evolve a national consensus on electoral be, done. an Ordinance to amend the RP Act
reforms, and that will be followed by but these attempts did not succeed and
a comprehensive new legislation on Current Situation the decision stands. Three members
electoral reforms. The seven regional of Parliament have been unseated as
The year 2013 was very a result.
consultations were indeed conducted in significant as far as electoral reforms
2011, in association with the ECI, the are concerned. There were a lot of The next critical judgment also
last one being held in Guwahati on June developments, seemingly positive, came from the Supreme Court on
05, 2011. These were to be followed emanating from the judiciary and September 13, 2013, when, in a Public
by a national consultation for which quasi-judicial institutions. It started Interest Litigation (PIL) by a civil
time was never found. There were also on June 03, 2013 when the Central society organization called Resurgence
reports that a draft bill on electoral Information Commission declared six India, the court declared that if a
reforms had been prepared and had national parties to be public authorities candidate leaves any column blank in
been discussed by the Law Minister under the Right to Information (RTI) the affidavit, which they have to submit
with the Prime Minister on more than Act and directed them to appoint as a necessary part of their nomination
one occasion. Then the Law Ministers public information officers within paper, the Returning Officer can reject
kept changing and now the government six weeks of the decision. It has been the nomination paper. It was as a result
has changed. over one year since the decision was of this judgment that some prominent

12 YOJANA July 2014

politicians ended up declaring some Another landmark judgment that pending criminal cases against
information in their affidavits in the followed on May 05, 2014 in what is any of the newly elected members of
2014 Lok Sabha election, for which now known as the Ashok Chavan Paid the Lok Sabha be decided within one
the columns had been left blank in News case. Madhavrao Kinhalkar, who year, so that those found not guilty and
the affidavits submitted in earlier lost to Ashok Chavan in the Bhokar acquitted are relieved of the stigma
elections. assembly constituency in Nanded and that he would ensure that those
(Maharashtra) in the 2009 Maharashtra who are found guilty and convicted
Another significant judgment came State Assembly elections complained are removed from the Lok Sabha, so
on September 27, 2013, when the to the ECI that Ashok Chavan had that the country can be justified of a
Supreme Court in a PIL filed by the under declared his election expenses Lok Sabha free of any member with a
Peoples Union of Civil Liberties as he has not included the amount he pending criminal case.
(PUCL) directed the Election spent on paid supplements in the
Commission of India (ECI) that a Lokmat newspaper. The ECI probed The results of the Lok Sabha
button for None Of The Above the complaint and issued a show cause election did not bring reassuring
(NOTA) be introduced in the electronic notice to Ashok Chavan for declaring news. The 2014 Lok Sabha has 186
voting machines (EVMs) so that a voter his election void under Section 10A members who have declared in their
who does not wish to vote for any of of the RP Act. Chavan appealed sworn affidavits that criminal cases
the candidates contesting the election, the High Court and not succeeding are pending against them. This is
...in a Public Interest Litigation there, to the Supreme Court claiming When the political parties will
(PIL) by a civil society organization that Section 10A of the RP Act gave realize that a large number
the ECI powers only to receive the
called Resurgence India, the court election expenditure statement and not of people are expressing their
declared that if a candidate leaves to scrutinize the statement of election disapproval with the candidates
any column blank in the affidavit, expenditure. The Supreme Court did being put up by them, gradually
not agree with Chavans contention
which they have to submit as a and upheld the power of the ECI to there will be a systemic change and
necessary part of their nomination scrutinize the statement and to unseat the political parties will be forced
paper, the Returning Officer can the elected person if the statement was to accept the will of the people and
found to be incorrect. Action by the
reject the nomination paper. ECI is now on. field candidates who are known for
their integrity
can exercise her/his choice without the The future
confidentiality of her/his vote being disconcerting as the similar numbers
violated. The court explained the As will be clear from the above, for the 2004 and 2009 Lok Sabhas were
rationale behind their decision in very civil society has been trying to do 125 and 162 respectively. One year of
clear terms. what it can, often seeking judicial the new Lok Sabha will be over on June
recourse when nothing else seems to 03, 2015. If on June 04, 2015, there is
Such an option gives the voter the work. Even then, the Executive and no one sitting in the Lok Sabha who
right to express his disapproval with the the Legislature, in effect the entire has any criminal case pending against
kind of candidates that are being put political establishment, has been him/her, the new Prime Minister would
up by the political parties. When the stonewalling all efforts to bring about have fulfilled his campaign promise
political parties will realize that a large any improvements in the electoral and made the country proud.
number of people are expressing their system.
disapproval with the candidates being Endnotes
put up by them, gradually there will It is not that the entire political
be a systemic change and the political establishment is perverse. What is more The affidavits were introduced in 2002-
parties will be forced to accept the likely is that there is something like fear 03 as a result of PILs by the Association
will of the people and field candidates of the unknown or familiarity with the for Democratic Reforms in the Delhi
who are known for their integrity status quo that is making them resist High Court and the Supreme Court. The
(Para 55). any changes. judgments can be seen at http://adrindia.
The Supreme Court continued its A new political dispensation is in judgement_2nd_May_2002.pdf and http://
efforts to improve the electoral system power at the central government. The adrindia.org/sites/default/files/Supreme_
into the year 2014. On March 10, 2014, vibrant campaign for the Lok Sabha Courts_judgement_13th_March_2003.
it gave its judgment in a PIL filed by the election in April-May 2014 saw many pdf. This was another case where the
Public Interest Foundation directing all statements about electoral reforms Executive and the Legislature tried
lower courts to decide criminal cases being made. The issue of criminality of their best to undo an initiative of civil society
against sitting MPs and MLAs within politics attracted a lot of attention. The for electoral reforms that the Judiciary had
one year and asking the concerned current Prime Minister said more than upheld but finally the Judiciary prevailed.
High Courts to monitor the progress once during the campaign that he will  q
in these cases. request the Supreme Court to ensure

YOJANA July 2014 13


14 YOJANA July 2014


Some Policy Issues in Indian Agriculture

S Mahendra Dev

he performance market reforms and diversification.

of Agriculture in Institutions have to be developed
India is important as in all these aspects. There are also
the sector not only emerging issues like climate change
contributes to overall and agriculture-nutrition linkages.
growth of the economy
but also provides employment and We concentrate on four policy
food security to majority of the issues. These are: (a) Food management
population in the country. The 11th for reduction in food inflation; (b)
and 12th Five Year Plans also indicate Agriculture marketing reforms; (c)
climate change; (d) agriculture-
A big push is needed that agricultural development is an
nutrition linkages
important component of inclusive
for reforms in supply side growth approach. How to Reduce Food Inflation?
for agriculture. Similarly
There are three goals of agricultural Food inflation is nearly 10 per
demand factors also development. These are: (a) achieve 4 cent now based on consumer price
have to be addressed. per cent growth in agriculture and raise index (CPI). There is an urgent
Given the short run and incomes by increasing productivity need to reduce food inflation with
(land, labor), diversification to high various policies. The rice and wheat
structural long term value agriculture and rural non-farm by stocks with the government are much
problems in agriculture, maintaining food security; (b) sharing higher than the optimum buffer stock.
the government should give growth (equity) by focusing on small Because of this, cereal prices are
and marginal farmers, lagging regions, still high in the open market. There
large push to core issues to women etc.; (c) third is to maintain is a need to offload cereals from the
make cultivation viable and sustainability of agriculture by buffer stock in the open market in
profitable. There is a need focusing on environmental concerns. order to reduce cereal prices. There
has been a significant increase in MSP
to concentrate on delivery What are the policies needed to
between 200405 and 201314. Keep
systems also. Indias large achieve the above goals? There are
basically seven factors which need on increasing MSP is not the solution.
numbers of farmers can attention in the short and medium Yields have to be increased to reduce
benefit if there are right terms. These are: (a) price policy; cost of production so that MSP does
not have to be raised too much. Apart
(b) subisidies and investments;
policies and effective (c) land issues; (d) irrigation and from cereals, the recent episode of
implementation water management (e) research and food inflation was witnessed mainly
extension; (f) credit; (g) domestic due to rising price of perishable

The author is the Vice Chancellor, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai. Prior to this he was Chairman
of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices. He has a large number of publications in national and international journals in
the areas of agricultural development, poverty and public policy, food security, employment guarantee schemes etc. He has recently
published a book 'Inclusive Growth in India: Agriculture, Poverty, and Human Development.' (OUP). He has also been consultant and
adviser to a number of high level governmet bodies and UN agencies.

YOJANA July 2014 15

high value commodities, i.e., fruits, sometimes farmers receive Rs.1 per kg for technology transfer in agriculture
vegetables, egg, fish, meat and milk. of tomatoes while consumers pay Rs.40 and natural resource management
Therefore, for taming of food inflation per kg in cities. There are a number of among small holders and resource
supply of non-cereals have to be distortions in agricultural marketing dependent communities.
enhanced. Livestock occupies 25 in India. Particularly, the need for
per cent of total value of agricultural reforms in APMC (Agricultural There is a need for climate-
output. This sector also needs focus Produce Marketing Committees) is smart agriculture which contributes
for reduction in food inflation. well known. There is need to reduce in: (i) promoting sustainable
intermediaries and make necessary increase in agricultural productivity
Another policy needed relates reform in APMC Model Act to keep by incorporating climate change
to storage problems and high post fruits and vegetables out of it. These perspective (including drought),
harvest losses. Improved post-harvest reforms were found to be taking place (ii) building adaptive capacity and
handling and processing is essential to in bits and pieces in various states resilience to production portfolio to
reduce the prices. Efficient marketing and their pace and uniformity has climatic risks without compromising
with less market margins and wastage been slow and uneven. Incentives for food security, and (iii) minimizing
specifically for fruits and vegetables, states to ensure APMC reforms for green-house gas emissions and
and dairy will require better transport direct buying from farmers have to be maximizing carbon sequestration by
facilities and cold storages. Presently explored. Apni Mandi in Punjab, Rytu improved management practices
these are lacking in a big way. Bazars in Andhra Pradesh, dairy co- (Joshi and Aggarwal, 2014, p.1). Joshi
Food processing sector needs huge operatives are some of the successful and Aggarwal suggest four measures
investments in logistics for supporting cases in marketing. There is need for for climate-smart agriculture. These
the value chain from farm to plate. regulation to avoid speculation. are: (a) Climate-smart technologies; (b)
Capacity building of key stakeholders
Improved post-harvest handling Impact of Climate Change (c) ICT based weather advisory (d)
and processing is essential Climate change is a major challenge
Weather Index Insurance. Efforts need
to be made to transform each village
to reduce the prices. Efficient for agriculture, food security and rural a climate-smart to synergize these
marketing with less market livelihoods for millions of people interventions.
margins and wastage specifically including the poor in India. Adverse
Rural communities, particularly
impact will be more on small holding
for fruits and vegetables, and farmers. Climate change is expected those living in already fragile
dairy will require better transport to have adverse impact on the living environments, face an immediate
facilities and cold storages conditions of farmers, fishers and and ever-growing risk of increased
forest-dependent people who are
already vulnerable and food insecure.
crop failure, loss of livestock, and
Opening of exports and imports
can moderate food prices. Tariffs can Rural communities, particularly those reduced availability of marine,
be reduced so that higher imports of living in already fragile environments, aquaculture and forest products.
food items such as pulses, oilseeds, face an immediate and ever-growing In order to have climate change
fruits and vegetables, meat etc. can be risk of increased crop failure, loss of sensitive and pro-poor policies,
facilitated. Thus, trade is an important livestock, and reduced availability
instrument for reducing food prices. of marine, aquaculture and forest
there is a need to focus on small
products. In order to have climate farmers. Agriculture adaptation
One of the reasons for the gap in change sensitive and pro-poor policies, and mitigation could provide
supply and demand of agricultural
commodities is lack of information.
there is a need to focus on small benefits for small farmers
farmers. Agriculture adaptation and
One has to identify critical areas mitigation could provide benefits for
of shortage and surplus and the Agriculture-Nutrition Linkages
small farmers. The coping strategies
information will help in shifting would be useful to have long term In India, the linkage between
commodities from surplus to deficit adaptation strategies. There is a agriculture and nutrition is less
areas. significant potential for small farmers explored area as compared to other
Not Production but Agriculture to sequester soil carbon if appropriate subjects. Agriculture growth in India
Marketing is the Problem policy reforms are implemented. has been much less than those of
The importance of collective action industry and services. But, there is
There is a huge gap between the in climate change adaptation and potential for higher agricultural growth
price received by farmers and prices mitigation is recognized. Research and and this can reduce malnutrition. As
paid by the consumer particularly for practice have shown that collective mentioned by Gillespie and Kadiyala
fruits and vegetables. For example, action institutions are very important (2011) agricultural initiatives alone

16 YOJANA July 2014

cannot solve the nutrition crisis in crops? In terms of production, small to empower women in agriculture is
India but they can play much bigger and marginal farmers have a larger essential for accelerating reduction
role toward that end than they have share in the production of high-value in under nutrition in India (p.2).
done thus far(p.1). The linkages crops. They contribute about 70 percent Agriculture is becoming increasingly
between agriculture and nutrition are: to the total production of vegetables and feminized as men migrate to the rural
(1) Equitable growth in agriculture 55 percent to fruits, as compared with nonfarm sector.
including diversification; (2) food prices their share of only 44 percent of total
and diversification; and (3) women in land area (Birthal et al 2011). It may be Despite their importance, women
agriculture1. In the end we also discuss noted that overall diversification is still are continually denied their property
the need for convergence of different low although share of small farmers rights and access to other productive
departments, policies, implementation is higher than other farmers. There is resources. Policies that protect womens
for reducing malnutrition as it requires still scope for lot of diversification for rights in land, enhance infrastructure
multi-sectoral approach. small farmers. support to women farmers, and give
them legal advice on existing laws will
Equitable Growth in Agriculture Small-scale farmers will remain facilitate the recognition of womens
an important part of Indian agriculture role as farmers and enable them to
One of the reasons for the disconnect for years to come. It is known that access credit, inputs, and marketing
between agriculture and nutrition is these farmers find it difficult to access outlets. Urgent correction is needed in
inequalities in agriculture. Agriculture input, credit, extension, and marketing the existing profound gender bias in
development is part of any inclusive opportunities for their output. The institutions for information, extension,
growth strategy in India because the National Commission for Enterprises credit, inputs, and marketing; such
majority of the population depends in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS institutional processes also need to
on agriculture for its livelihood. 2009) suggested special programs take into account womens mobility,
However, inequalities in agriculture for small and marginal farmers. domestic responsibilities, and social
can weaken agriculturenutrition Principal activities proposed include constraints.
the promotion of marginal and small
Inclusiveness and equity in farmers groups; enabling greater Urgent correction is needed in
agriculture can be achieved by access to institutional credit, training, the existing profound gender bias
increasing agricultural productivity and capacity building; support for
in institutions for information,
in rainfed and resource-poor areas, strengthening nonfarm activities; and
gender-focused activities. extension, credit, inputs, and
thereby raising the productivity
and income of small and marginal Using NCAER Human marketing; such institutional
farmers (p.1). The shift of Development Survey, Bhagowalia processes also need to take
consumption patterns toward non
et al (2013) examine the agriculture- into account womens mobility,
nutrition linkages. Their results
cereals presents a good opportunity suggest the following. domestic responsibilities, and social
for small farmers to diversify constraints.
(a) Agricultural production
their cropping patterns in order to conditions have substantial influence
improve both income and nutrition. on household dietary diversity. Women are also predominant in
Specifically, irrigation has a substantial allied activities such as livestock,
impact on dietary diversity for marginal fisheries, horticulture, plantation, and
linkages. According to Dev and nursery. Growth of these activities will
and small farms (b) Ownership of
Kadiyala (2011), Inclusiveness and be important for the diversification of
milk-producing livestock (cattle,
equity in agriculture can be achieved by agriculture and in the improvement
buffalo, and goats) also predicts much
increasing agricultural productivity in of diets. Although women contribute
higher household milk consumption,
rainfed and resource-poor areas, thereby even after controlling for income. (c) 50 to 90 percent of the labor inputs,
raising the productivity and income of Poultry ownership increases meat the livestock development, training,
small and marginal farmers (p.1). The consumption. and extension programs are designed
shift of consumption patterns toward primarily for men (GOI, 2007).
non cereals presents a good opportunity Their results suggest that agricultural
programs aimed at irrigation, livestock Womens cooperatives, producer
for small farmers to diversify their
ownership, and crop diversification all womens groups, and other forms of
cropping patterns in order to improve
have some scope to increase dietary group efforts should be promoted to
both income and nutrition. The focus
diversity in India. overcome the constraints of small
also has to be on rain-fed areas for
and uneconomic landholdings, to
reducing inequalities. Women in Agriculture disseminate agricultural technology
Do small and marginal farmers As mentioned in Dev and Kadiyala and other inputs, and to help market
grow high-value and protein-rich (2011), Realigning agriculture policy produce (Agarwal 2010).

YOJANA July 2014 17

Policy initiatives are critically and long term measures relating to Bhagowalia, P., D. Heady and
needed to address the conditions supply side can also improve drought- S.Kadiyala (2013), Agriculture, Income
(for example, prolonged exposure proofing and de-risking agriculture. and Nutrition Linkages in India: Insights
to fertilizers and pesticides, long Similarly, rural non-farm sector has from a Nationally Representative Survey,
working hours) under which women are to be developed. Inspite of these mimeo.
employed and to create support systems measures, agriculture would always Birthal, P. S., P. K. Joshi, and
to strengthen womens capacity to care be subjected to shocks in the form of A. V. Narayanan. 2011. Agricultural
for themselves and their children. volatility in global agricultural prices D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n I n d i a : Tr e n d s ,
Easy access to maternity entitlements, and natural calamities like droughts, contribution to growth and small farmer
as well as optimum quality daycare floods and temperature changes. participation. ICRISAT, mimeo.
facilitieseither within the community Therefore, there is a need to put in Dev, S.Mahendra (2012), Agricultural-
or at the place of workare also place social protection programmes nutritional Linkages and Policies in India,
critical for strengthening families and drought or flood management IFPRI discussion paper 01184, May 2012,
caring capacity and translating higher practices including crop insurance IFPRI, Washington, D.C.
incomes into health and nutrition to take care of risks or shocks in
benefits (Dev and Kadiyala 2011). agriculture. For example, social Dev, Mahendra S., and S. Kadiyala.
protection programmes like PDS and 2011. Pro-Nutrition Agriculture in India:
Convergence of Programmes and rural public works programmes helped Entry Points and Policy Options. India
Policies in a big way the drought effects in Health Beat 5(8).
It is well known that for Gujarat and Rajasthan in 1987-88. Gillespie, S., and S. Kadiyala. 2011.
reducing malnutrition, India requires Exploring the agriculturenutrition
disconnect in India. 2020 Conference
multisectoral inputsthat is, Agriculture would always be Brief. IFPRI.
convergence and intersectoral actions
subjected to shocks in the form GOI. 2007. Report of the Working
involving the fields of nutrition,
health, agriculture, livelihoods, and of volatility in global agricultural Group on Gender Issues, Panchayat Raj
womens empowerment (Ved and prices and natural calamities like Institutions, Public Private Partnership,
Menon 2011). droughts, floods and temperature Innovative Finance and Micro Finance
In agriculture policies, there changes. Therefore, there is a need in Agriculture. New Delhi: Planning
has been hardly any convergence to put in place social protection
with other sectors. One finds more programmes and drought or flood Joshi, P.K. and P.K. Aggarwal (2014)
convergence between health and Prepare for Negative Impacts of Climate
management practices including Change, mimeo, International Food
nutrition than between agriculture
and nutrition. crop insurance to take care of risks Policy Research Institute
or shocks in agriculture Kadiyala, S., P.K. Joshi, S.Mahendra
In general, government ministries
Dev, T.Nandakumar and Vijay Vyas
at both the central and the state level Business as usual approach (2012), A Nutrition Secure India: Role
work in silos. The silo mentality may not help revival of agriculture. of agriculture, Economic and Political
works against not only inter sectoral A big push is needed for reforms in weekly, Vol.47, No.8
convergence but also intra sectoral supply side for agriculture. Similarly
convergence. In recent years, however, NCUES. 2009. The Challenge of
demand factors also have to be Employment in India: An Informal
the thinking on convergence has been addressed. Given the short run and
changing. The nutrition chapter of the Economy Perspective, Vol. I: Main Report.
structural long term problems in National Commission for Enterprises in
Eleventh Five Year Plan, for example, agriculture, the government should
envisions convergence of several the Unorganized Sector (Government of
give large push to core issues to make India).
departments, including the Ministry cultivation viable and profitable.
of Agriculture. Similarly, the chapter Ved, Rajani, and P. Menon. 2011.
There is a need to concentrate on
on womens agency and child rights in Convergence Framework for Nutrition.
delivery systems also. Indias large
draft Twelfth FiveYear Plan calls for a Mimeo, IFPRI, New Delhi.
numbers of farmers can benefit if
multi-sectoral action for children and there are right policies and effective Endnotes
women. It lists actions to be taken for implementation.
20 ministries. 1 See Dev and Kadiyala (2011),
References Dev (2012), Kadiyala et al (2012)
Concluding Remarks on the entry points for strengthening
A g a r wal, B. 2010. Rethinking
linkages between agriculture and
There is a need for improvement of agricultural production collectives.
nutrition.  q
resilience in agriculture which can take Economic and Political Weekly 2010;
care of shocks and risks. The medium Vol.45(17) (E-mail:profmahendra@igidr.ac.in)

18 YOJANA July 2014


YOJANA July 2014 19


Hyper Plurality of Candidates and

Indian Electoral Reforms
Kaushik Bhattacharya

lection for the through continuous monitoring and

sixteenth Lok Sabha reforms.
in India has recently
This essay is neither a summary,
been completed and
nor a critical review of Indian electoral
a new government
reforms. Several experts and expert
has already sworn in.
groups have already contributed
Regular conduction of such elections,
to this subject and as a result, the
often leading to defeats of the political
academic literature on it has become
party or parties in power, is one of
voluminous. A summary of these
the major achievements of post-
weaknesses and policy measures
independent India. These largely free
that could tackle them are available
and fair elections have given Indian in the background paper on Indian
democracy a lot of credibility among
These largely free and its citizenry and increasingly, in the
electoral reforms. In any democracy,
reform efforts should be discussed and
fair elections have given entire world. Naturally, to many other debated openly and in line with this
Indian democracy a lot countries that want to strengthen tradition, the background paper is also
democracy, Election Commission of
of credibility among its India (ECI) and the legal framework
available in the public domain.
citizenry and increasingly, within which it functions has become This essay attempts to highlight an
in the entire world. a kind of benchmark. aspect of the Indian electoral process
that has, so far, been comparatively
Naturally, to many other Stakes in elections are typically less discussed. We observe that
countries that want to huge and all political parties and compared to the Lok Sabha election
strengthen democracy, groups are acutely aware of this fact. in 2009, number of candidates in 2014
While the institutional framework election has increased marginally
Election Commission of under which elections in India are (from 8069 in 2009 to 8251 in
India (ECI) and the legal conducted are apparently sound, there 2014). Electoral history in India,
framework within which is a clear scope of improvement. As however, suggests that unless the
it functions has become a the external environment changes, Representation of the People Act is
unsavory and criminal activities also changed, number of candidates will
kind of benchmark change. In order to be effective, the have an increasing trend in future. It is
regulatory process should ideally also predicted that if unchecked, many
preempt those activities from actually constituencies in future elections will
happening and that is possible only have more than 16 candidates, causing

The author is Associate Professor at IIM, Lucknow He has worked for more than ten years in statistics and monetary policy departments
of the Reserve Bank of India. He had also been a visiting research fellow at the Bank for International Settlements. His current research
interest is electoral studies, specially the study of hyper-pluralirty in elections and its implications on electoral regulation, political party
systems and democracy.

20 YOJANA July 2014

difficulties in electoral management. regulations that block entries of divide the votes of major rivals.
More than 16 candidates not only candidates serve the purpose. When two or more political parties
mean more regulatory efforts on Arguments in favor of restriction engage in such cynical maneuvers
the part of the electoral authorities. are generally based on manageability simultaneously, there could be a
Operationally, electoral authorities of elections. They highlight the high sharp rise in the number of candidates
would also require more than one transaction cost associated with in a constituency. Similarly, an
EVM machines in every booth of unrestricted entry and argue that if authoritarian candidate selection
those constituencies. unchecked, it could undermine the process within a political party may
sanctity of the electoral process lead to a lot of rebel candidates,
Electoral statistics in India
itself 1 . Many political scientists, increasing the total number of
supports our claim. Since 1980s, the
however, are not comfortable with candidates further.
total number of candidates in many
this view. They argue that the impact
Lok Sabha constituencies crossed An interesting example of cloning
of fringe candidates should not be
50 and in a few cases, even 100.
judged by their electoral success is to float a candidate that has the
The number of candidates peaked in same or very similar name of a
alone. The issues that they raise and
1996. During Parliamentary elections rival. It may be noted that although
in 1996, Nalgonda constituency fight for often change the nature
of the electoral debate and force one may suspect of unfair play,
in Andhra Pradesh and Belgaum
the incumbents to change their it is very difficult to prove that
constituency in Karnataka had 480 candidates with similar names are
and 456 candidates respectively. behavior2. As per this view, artificial
restrictions on electoral entry choke clones. Some of these candidates
During the same year in the assembly may, in fact, be free riders. Electoral
election in Tamil Nadu, Modakurichi the voices of dissent and as a result,
diversity of opinions so necessary authorities may, however, draw
assembly constituency had 1033
in a democracy suffers at the cost conclusions based on circumstantial
candidates. In each of these cases,
of manageability. Some political evidences. First, a clone candidate is
...the impact of fringe candidates likely to file nomination at the last
scientists also argue that attempts
should not be judged by their to artificially restrict electoral moment because of fear of retaliatory
electoral success alone. The issues participation had never succeeded tactics from rivals. Second, a clone
that they raise and fight for often and had generally been counter- candidate with same name as one
of the major candidates is unlikely
change the nature of the electoral productive in the long-run3.
to spend any time in campaigning
debate and force the incumbents U n f o r t u n a t e l y, r e g u l a t o r y as campaigning would make the
to change their behavior2. As per agencies worldwide sometimes tend electorate aware about the presence
this view, artificial restrictions on to arrive at policy positions without
electoral entry choke the voices of a proper theoretical framework Whether free rider or a clone,
dissent and as a result, diversity that attempts to explain why a legally one cannot prevent these
of opinions so necessary in a
high number of candidates have candidates from participating in
suddenly appeared or could appear.
democracy suffers at the cost of elections. The best policy in this
An unintended consequence of this
manageability. is often an articulation in favor of case, arguably, is information
extreme positions like banning the dissemination. Ideally, electoral
the ECI was forced to make available entries of the so called non-serious authorities should disseminate in
ballot booklets rather than ballot candidates4. every booth the information that
papers. Although, subsequent policy
Given the hyper-plurality of such there are candidates with same
interventions were effective in the
non-serious candidates, it is natural or similar name. As this unsavory
short run, in the 2009 Lok Sabha
election, more than 70 per cent of
to examine the motive behind their practice is aimed primarily at
participation. Although electoral literate voters, written notices or
the constituencies had more than
participation could be a form of
10 candidates. An overwhelming
protest against incumbent politicians,
banners in booths are likely to be
majority of these candidates were
in most cases, the root of that adequate.
either independents or belonged
to small parties with only a local motive may lie in the manipulative
and authoritarian nature of Indian of such candidates. In contrast, a free-
existence. rider with a similar name is likely
political parties. The manipulative
There is a debate among political nature manifests in fielding of to spend some time in campaigning
scientists on whether electoral clone candidates (dummies) to because otherwise he/she will not be

YOJANA July 2014 21

able to extract any rent out of that found evidence, the ECI also started it be given the power to prescribe
election. Presence of free-riders with to take action against dummy deposit before each election.
similar candidate name, however, candidates. In so far as policies are
concerned, the LCI recommended I n t e r e s t i n g l y, c u r r e n t l e v e l
may trigger a full scale clone war
that independent candidates should of deposit in India is extremely
among major political parties.
be debarred from contesting Lok high compared to the international
Whether free rider or a clone, Sabha elections. Suggestions from benchmark. Deposit required is
legally one cannot prevent these the NCRWC and the ECI were about one third of annual per-capita
candidates from participating in also similar, although a bit less income in current prices in India,
elections. The best policy in this case, stringent. whereas in countries like the United
arguably, is information dissemination. Kingdom, Canada and Australia, it is
Ideally, electoral authorities should In practice, democracies worldwide typically less than two per cent of the
disseminate in every booth the mainly rely on two types of indirect same. More worryingly, for effective
information that there are candidates restrictions on candidate entry at deterrence on continuous basis, India
with same or similar name. As this the stage of filing nomination, e.g., may have to sustain deposit at this
unsavory practice is aimed primarily (i)submission of an electoral deposit high level and that could discriminate
at literate voters, written notices or (deposit in short) which is not political participation of genuinely
banners in booths are likely to be refunded if the candidate fails to underprivileged groups (say, the
adequate. obtain the minimum votes required, tribal population in a locality).
(ii) provision of documentary evidence
The problem of large number of support of a minimum number of Unfortunately, the policy tool of
of candidates and the consequent electors in the constituency (signature signature requirement has not been
malpractices bothered Indian requirement in short). used in India on a scale like deposit.
electoral authorities for a long time The current requirement of only ten
in India. The ECI had time and again Like many other democracies, signatures for fringe candidates can
articulated the possibility that major India also has put in place these be easily met by a candidate from his
political parties had surreptitiously restrictions. The electoral deposit
floated fringe candidates for their for general candidates in Lok Sabha ...the reason behind the sharp
election was Rs.500/- in 1951. The rise in the number of candidates
...current level of deposit in India deposit was increased to Rs.10,000/- during the late 1980s and early
is extremely high compared to the after the huge influx of candidates in 1990s was not just political
international benchmark. Deposit the 1996 parliamentary election. On
uncertainty, but also that the
required is about one third of recommendations from expert groups,
financial cost of participation
annual per-capita income in current it was further increased to Rs.25,000/-
in 2009. of potential candidates was low
prices in India, whereas in countries
during that period. Electoral data
like the United Kingdom, Canada It may be noted that inflation
reveal that the post-1996, increase
and Australia, it is typically less shrinks the real value of electoral
deposit and growth in income increases in deposit had a significant short-
than two per cent of the same.
its affordability over time. Thus, the term impact on candidate
More worryingly, for effective reason behind the sharp rise in the entry in India.
deterrence on continuous basis, number of candidates during the late
India may have to sustain deposit 1980s and early 1990s was not just or her own family and close circle
at this high level and that could political uncertainty, but also that of friends. Interestingly, signature
discriminate political participation the financial cost of participation of requirement, when considered as a
potential candidates was low during proportion of total number of electors
of genuinely underprivileged in a typical Lok Sabha constituency,
that period. Electoral data reveal that
groups (say, the tribal population in the post-1996, increase in deposit had is low in India compared to the
a locality). a significant short-term impact on international benchmark. A further
own gain. The diagnosis of the candidate entry in India. It is likely increase of the minimum signature
problem by the Law Commission that the increase in 2009 will also requirement, say to the level in
of India (LCI), and the National have a similar impact. However, to Australia where all non-incumbents
Commission to Review the Working be effective, deposit requires near- need at least fifty signatures, would
of the Constitution (NCRWC) was continuous changes. The ECI is well not increase the cost of conducting
similar. Recently, in cases where it aware of this fact and proposed that elections substantially.

22 YOJANA July 2014

Interestingly, the US experience suggests that a local
approach on signature requirement could also be an effective
tool in controlling candidate entry. For example, if the number
of candidates in a constituency exceeds a certain cut-off limit
(say, 30), the electoral act should enable the ECI to change
the minimum signature requirement up to a pre-specified limit
(say, 100) for all fringe (e.g., candidates other than those of
recognized national and state parties). Since collection and
verification of signature requirement would take time, fringe
candidates in those constituencies may be given some more
time (say, 7 days) to demonstrate support failure of which
would lead to cancellation of their nomination. Clearly, the
timeline of the electoral process also needs to be adjusted

India has so far not experimented much with signature

requirement. Signature requirement, in contrast to electoral
deposit, is more in line with the spirit of democracy as it
does not discriminate the poor. Obviously, strengthening
this requirement would need a change in the Representation
of the People Act.

The crucial question is: whether the change would

take place at all. Interestingly, even Indian political parties
sometimes realize that their cynical maneuvers are not only
hurting their rivals, but also themselves. In the past, they came
together to enact tough anti-defection laws precisely because
it was in their own interest to do so. One can only hope that
they will behave sensibly one more time.

1 See Deborah McKnight, Constitutional Issues in Regulating
Independent Candidates, Mimeo, House Research, Minnesota
State Relay Service, 1999, www.house.leg.state.mn.us/hrd/hrd.
2 See Liam Weeks, We Dont Like (to) Party: A Typology of
Independents in Irish Political Life, 1922-2007, Irish Political
Studies, 24, 2009, 1-27.
3 See Balbir Arora, Political Parties and the Party System: The
Emergence of New Coalitions in Zoya Hasan, ed., Parties and
Party Politics in India ( Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.
504-532. An interesting example is Tanzania where independent
candidates were legally prohibited to take part in general
elections. Findings, however, suggest their de facto presence
in these elections. See Frank J Matenge 2012: Protesting the
Independent Candidacy in Tanzanias Elections: A Bona Fide
Cause?, Journal of Politics and Law, Vol. 5, 2012, 1832.
4 `For example, in a survey of 52 democracies, it was found that
18 explicitly restricted participation of independent candidates
in elections at the national level. See Dawn Brancati, Winning

Alone: The Electoral Fate of Independent Candidates

Worldwide, Journal of Politics, Vol. 70, 2008, 648662.  q
(E-mail: kbhattacharya@iiml.ac.in)

YOJANA July 2014 23


The Electoral Participation of Women

Lakshmi Iyer

he W omen s Several recent cases of horrific

Reservation Bill, sexual assaults have rightly generated
which seeks to reserve a sense of outrage among Indian
one-third of all seats in citizens. Indias crime statistics
the Lok Sabha and the recorded 2,28,650 First Information
state legislatures for Reports (FIR) registered for rapes in
women, is yet to become law despite 2012 or a rate of 0.39 rapes per 1000
being passed by the Rajya Sabha in women, which is much lower than the
2010 itself. Other pending reforms 0.54 rapes per 1000 women reported in
to the electoral system include the the United States. This is most likely a
Constitution (110th Amendment) result of many crimes against women
Bill for reserving half the seats not being registered, either because
How can parties be in panchayats for women and the the victims do not approach the
Constitution (112th Amendment)
encouraged to field more Bill reserving one-third of elected
police or because the police refused to
register FIRs for gender-based crimes.
seats in municipalities for women.
women candidates? And Will such changes to Indias electoral
For instance, rape cases are often
characterized by policemen as cases
how can a political career democracy in fact benefit women as
a whole? How can womens political of consensual sex, and kidnapping
be made more attractive/ representation be increased? In this cases are not registered if policemen
are of the opinion that the woman
welcoming to women? essay, I provide some answers to these
questions, based on rigorous empirical has eloped. A study in the state of
Pipeline quotas, such as the research. Rajasthan found that only 50 per cent
of sexual harassment cases and 53 per
Panchayati Raj reforms, are In this context, we should cent of domestic violence cases were
a step in the right direction remember that India has a poor registered by the policeand that too
record on the treatment of women. when a male relative tried to report it
but more needs to be done The United Nations ranked India on behalf of a female victim (Banerjee
to address both the political 134th out of 187 countries in its 2012 et. al., 2012).
Gender Inequality Index. Several
under-representation statistics bolster this fact. The 2011 On the other hand, India also
and the socio-economic population census of India shows only boasts of having the largest number of
940 women per 1000 men, a result of elected women representatives in the
disadvantages faced by selective abortion, female infanticide world, thanks to the 1993 Panchayati
women in India and neglect of girl children. Only Raj constitutional amendment. This
65 per cent of women were literate, mandated that all states had to
compared to 82 per cent of men. constitute directly elected councils at
The author is is an Associate Professor at Harvard Business School. Her primary research fields are political economy and development
economics, with a special emphasis on property rights and the distribution of political power within societies. She holds a Ph.D. in
Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

24 YOJANA July 2014

Figure 1: Panchayati Raj and Crimes Against Women Notes: Crime data obtained from
annual Crime in India publications of
the National Crime Records Bureau,
New Delhi. Crime incidence is
measured as number of crimes per
1000 population (gender-specific
population for gender-specific
crimes). Total crimes against women
includes rape, kidnapping of women
and girls, dowry deaths, sexual
harassment, molestation, cruelty by
husbands or relatives, importation
of women and girls, prostitution,
pornography, giving and receiving
dowry and sati (widow-burning).
Source: Iyer et. al. (2012). Results control for demographic
characteristics, real per capita state
the village, intermediate and district reservation for women in the 1993
GDP, policy strength per capita,
levels (panchayats, panchayat samitis Panchayat elections, even before
state and year fixed effects and state-
and zila parishads, collectively the constitutional amendment was
specific time trends.
known as Panchayati Raj Institutions officially in force. But Bihar conducted
or PRIs). Further, one-third of all its first Panchayati Raj election only Could this simply be the result
seats in these councils, and one- in 2001, since a lawsuit had been of electing relatively inexperienced
third of chairperson positions, filed regarding the representation of women leaders and a consequent
were to be reserved for women. Other Backward Castes (OBCs) in decline in law and order? This does
This is a dramatic increase in the Panchayati Raj institutions (PRIs). not appear to be the case. We do not
representation of women in political see any similar increases in crimes
We compared crimes against
office. By comparison,in a setting in where the victims are men (such
women in each state before and
which there are no quotas for women, as kidnapping, which is reported
after the elections which elected for men and women separately), or
only 5.9 per cent of Vidhan Sabha
women in large numbers to the PRIs, crimes which are gender neutral (such
members over the past three decades
using data from the National Crime as property crimes). More tellingly,
have been women.
Records Bureau. We found, to our we also do not see any increases in
How does the increased political initial surprise, a large increase of 26 murder rates after the implementation
representation of women affect crimes per cent in the documented crimes of Panchayati Rajthe crime category
against women? To find out, my against women after the increased where under-reporting is least likely
coauthors and I leveraged the fact political representation of women. to be a problem. In fact, we see
that different states in India conducted This included an 11per cent increase decreases in the incidents of all these
Panchayati Raj elections at different in the number of reported rapes and a crime categories (Figure 2).
time periods. For instance, West 12per cent increase in the kidnappings
Bengal instituted the 33per cent of women (Figure 1). Notes: Crime data obtained from
annual Crime in India publications
Figure 2: Panchayati Raj and Other Crime Categories of the National Crime Records
Bureau, New Delhi.Crime incidence
is measured as number of crimes
p e r 1 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ( g e n d e r-
specific population for gender-
specific crimes). Results control for
demographic characteristics, real per
capita state GDP, policy strength per
capita, state and year fixed effects and
state-specific time trends.
The fact of increased reporting
of crime, rather than an actual
rise in crimes against women, is
corroborated by our analysis of an
Source: Iyer et. al. (2012). individual crime victimization survey

YOJANA July 2014 25

conducted in Rajasthan, in which Several other studies find that candidates (Lawless and Fox,
women are asked if they have been elected women to political office 2010).
the victims of a crime in the past two results in benefits not just to women,
years.1 There is no difference in crime but to society as a whole. Having more What might hold back women
victimization rates between places women in Indian state legislatures from political candidacy in India?
which have panchayats headed by leads to improvements in infant Based on interviews with politicians
women and those which do not. But mortality rates (Bhalotra and Clots- from several political parties, I find
women in villages with women-headed Figueras, 2013) and primary school that the primary criterion for being
panchayats are significantly more completion (Clots-Figueras, 2013); chosen as a candidate appears to be
likely to say that they will approach a similar result is observed in Brazil, winnability or the ability to win the
the police if they are the victims of a where female mayors act to reduce election, for which name recognition,
crimean effect not seen for the male infant mortality rates (Brollo and party service, financial resources,
respondents in the survey. Troiano, 2012).3 caste identity and internal party
support are all considered relevant.If
Women in villages with female Given these positive results, winnability is the relevant criterion,
panchayat heads reported greater it is important to understand why perhaps observing a woman actually
there are so few elected women winning a competitive election
satisfaction with the police and a representatives in the first place, will open the door to more women
lesser likelihood of being asked and what measures can be put in candidates in subsequent elections.
to pay bribes. Again, there was place to ensure womens greater Does this happen in practice?
representation. We should note that
no difference in the experience of My coauthors and I compared
womens participation as voters has
men. Most importantly, we find increased dramatically over time. the presence of women candidates
that arrests for crimes against In the 1962 Lok Sabha elections, i n Vi d h a n S a b h a e l e c t i o n s i n
women increased by 31 per cent womens voter turnout was only constituencies where women had
46.6 per cent compared to 63.3 won the previous election and in those
in a state after Panchayati Raj where women had lost the previous
per cent of men. In the most recent
elections were held, particularly 2014 Lok Sabha elections, womens ...the primary criterion for being
for the kidnapping of women. This voter turnout was only 1.46 per cent chosen as a candidate appears to
is an important first step towards lower than that of men. In fact, more
be winnability or the ability
women than men turned out to vote in
obtaining justice for these crimes. to win the election, for which
nine states/UTs. However, womens
We find evidence that police representation in the Lok Sabha has name recognition, party service,
behavior is also changed by the only increased from 6.3per cent in financial resources, caste identity
presence of local women leaders. A 1962 to 11.3per cent in 2014.
nationwide survey assessed actual and internal party support
interactions of women and men with
An important barrier to womens are all considered relevant.
political representation is womens
the police.2 Women in villages with
participation as political candidates. If winnability is the relevant
female panchayat heads reported
Using data from Vidhan Sabha criterion, perhaps observing
greater satisfaction with the police
and a lesser likelihood of being asked
elections over the period 1980- a woman actually winning a
2013, I find that only 5.9 per cent of competitive election will open the
to pay bribes. Again, there was no Indias state legislators were women.
difference in the experience of men. But only 4.7 per cent of election door to more women candidates in
Most importantly, we find that arrests candidates were women. In other subsequent elections.
for crimes against women increased by words, conditional upon becoming
31 per cent in a state after Panchayati election (Bhalotra, Clots-Figueras and
a candidate, women have a slightly
Raj elections were held, particularly for Iyer, 2013). Of course, places where
higher probability to win elections
the kidnapping of women. This is an women won elections are likely to be
compared to men. Research from the
important first step towards obtaining United States suggests that women are
different in many ways from places
justice for these crimes. This result is without a woman winner. For instance,
much less likely to view themselves
particularly notable because the PRIs they might be more women-friendly
as viable political candidates, and
do not have any formal authority over much more likely to view politics in general, or have higher level of
the police. Law and order is not among as an extremely competitive field. education. So to examine the pure
the list of functions to be devolved to Furthermore, women are very rarely impact of the woman winning, we
PRIs, and decisions on police budgets encouraged by others (peers, mentors, focus on close elections between men
and staffing are decided by the state party activists, party leaders) to put and women candidates, where the
government. themselves forward as political margin of victory was less than 5per

26 YOJANA July 2014

cent of total votes cast. The idea is that Figure 3: Panchayati Raj and Womens Political Candidacy at
such places are likely to be similar Vidhan Sabha Level
along many dimensions, and that
the outcomes of close elections are
decided by many somewhat random
We find that the victory of a
woman in an election increases
the likelihood of having woman
candidates in the subsequent election.
(Table 1). Constituencies in which a
woman wins a close election have
a 79per cent probability of having a
woman candidate in the subsequent
election, while constituencies where
a woman candidate narrowly lost Source: Author computations. Differences are computed after controlling for state and
the election have only a 62per cent year fixed effects, and state specific linear trends.
probability of having a woman
c a n d i d a t e . T h i s d i ff e r e n c e i s candidates remains unchanged at 4.8 current one (though the difference is
statistically significant at the 5per per cent, regardless of whether a man or not statistically significant i.e. could
cent level of significance.4Consistent a woman wins the election. And there have occurred purely by chance).
with this, the share of major party is only a very small increase in the There is also no difference in voter
candidates who are women increases share of women among independent turnout, of men or women, following
from 19.5 per cent to 28.5 per cent candidates, suggesting that observing a womans electoral victory.
when a woman wins a close election, a womans electoral victory does not
lead to a large-scale participation of As discussed above, the
compared to cases where a man wins demonstration effect of a womans
the close election. women in the political process.
electoral victory does not extend
We should note that this increased Does a womans electoral victory to changing voter behavior, or
probability of having a woman change womens chances of winning encouraging the entry of new women
candidate is primarily driven by the the next election? This does not appear into the political process as a whole.
woman winner from the previous to be the case. Women are 6 per A natural question then arises: in the
election contesting for re-election. centage points less likely to win the absence of directly reserved seats for
We see that the share of new female next election, even after winning the women at the Vidhan Sabha level,
how can womens political presence
as candidates be increased? Can
Table 1: Effects of a Womans Electoral Victory on Subsequent Elections existing electoral reforms at lower
Constituencies with close levels of governance, in particular, the
Outcomes in the subsequent election Woman Woman Difference Panchayati Raj reforms, play a role in
lost won increasing womens representation at
higher levels?
Any women candidate 61.8% 79.4% 17.6%**
Fraction of female candidates 10.9% 13.0% 2.2%* I examined the share of women
candidates in Vidhan Sabha elections
Female share of major party candidates 19.5% 28.5% 8.9%***
held before and after each state had
Female share of independent candidates 5.4% 6.3% 0.9% held elections under the Panchayati
New female candidates (as a share of total 4.8% 4.8% 0.1% Raj rules, similar to the approach
candidates) used in assessing the effects of the
Female voter turnout 60.1% 59.0% -1.1% Panchayati Raj on crimes against
Male voter turnout 67.2% 67.0% -0.2%
women. I find that the share of
women among political candidates
Woman wins election 30.0% 24.3% -5.7% among national parties at the Vidhan
Number of electoral races 207 214 Sabha level increases by 1.43 per
Source: Author computations based on Election Commission data collected for Bhalotra, Clots-
centage points after the Panchayati
Figueras and Iyer (2013).*** indicates statistically significant differences at 1% level of significance, Raj provisions are implemented. The
** at 5% level and * at 10% level of significance. increase is still significant at 1.2 per

YOJANA July 2014 27

centage points when major state and policies (substantive representation Iyer, Lakshmi, Anandi Mani, Prachi
regional parties are included, but of womens interests) be achieved Mishra and Petia Topalova (2012), The
declines to a statistically insignificant even if women are not themselves Power of Political Voice: Womens
0.74 per centage points when all elected to office? How can parties Political Representation and Crime in
parties and independent candidates are be encouraged to field more women India. American Economic Journal:
taken into account. Importantly, about candidates? And how can a political Applied Economics 4(4), pp 165-193,
35 per cent of the increase in political career be made more attractive/ October 2012. Pre-publication version
candidacy among national parties, welcoming to women? Pipeline available at: http://www.people.hbs.edu/
and 46 per cent of the increase among quotas, such as the Panchayati Raj liyer/IMMT_AEJAppFinal.pdf
national and major state parties, is reforms, are a step in the right Lawless, Jennifer L. and Richard L.
driven by an increase in the share of direction but more needs to be Fox. (2010) It Still Takes A Candidate:
new women candidates i.e. those who done to address both the political Why Women Dont Run for Office, New
did not contest the previous election under-representation and the socio- York: Cambridge University Press.
(Figure 3). These results mean that economic disadvantages faced by Rehavi, Marit. 2012. Sex and Politics:
electoral reforms targeted at one level women in India. Do Female Legislators Affect State
of government can have effects on Spending?
the progress made by women at other References
Working Paper, University of British
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Chattopadhyay, Esther Duflo, Daniel Wooldridge, Jeffrey R.,Introductory
To summarize, our analysis of
Keniston and Nina Singh (2012), Can Econometrics: A Modern Approach
electoral reforms in India indicates
Institutions be Reformed from Within? (Cincinnati, 2002).
that having more women in political
Evidence from a Randomized Experiment
office can have a very important Endnotes
with the Rajasthan Police. Yale University
effect on outcomes such as crimes Working Paper. Available at: http://
against women. The current level of keniston.commons.yale.edu/files/uploads/
1 J-PAL Indian Crime Survey
under-representation of women is also RajasthanPolice_finalFeb19.pdf
conducted by Abdul Latif Jameel
Poverty Action Lab, Massachusetts
...our analysis of electoral reforms Bhalotra, Sonia and Irma Clots- Institute of Technology; see
in India indicates that having Figueras. Forthcoming. Health and the
Banerjee et. al. (2012) for details.
Political Agency of Women. American
more women in political office can
Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 2 Millennial Survey conducted
have a very important effect on by the Public Affairs Centre,
Bhalotra, Sonia, Irma Clots-Figueras
outcomes such as crimes against and Lakshmi Iyer (2013), Path-Breakers: Bangalore.
women. The current level of under- How Does Womens Political Participation
3 Many other studies find, in
representation of women is also Respond to Electoral Success? Harvard
India and other countries, that
Business School Working Paper No.
inconsistent with the principles of electing women to political office
14-035. http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/
representative democracy. Research Publication%20Files/14-035_17a2aec5-
changes spending priorities
also shows that the key barrier to towards areas preferred by women
(Chattopadhyay and Duflo, 2004;
womens representation is their Brollo, Fernando and Ugo Troiano. Rehavi, 2012).
involvement in electoral politics as 2012. What Happens When a Woman
Wins a Close 4 This means that if the presence
candidates, and that demonstrated of a woman candidate occurred
Election? Evidence from Brazil.
electoral success by women does purely by chance, the probability
Working Paper, Harvard University
not spur entry by new candidates of observing a difference as large
Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra and
as 15% is less than 5%, a standard
inconsistent with the principles of Esther Duflo. 2004. Women as Policy
threshold for statistical tests of
representative democracy. Research significance. A rigorous treatment
also shows that the key barrier to Evidence from a Randomized Policy of statistical testing of hypotheses
womens representation is their Experiment in India. Econometrica can be found in Wooldridge (2002,
involvement in electoral politics as 72(5): 1409-1443.
Chapter 4).Jeffrey R. Wooldridge,
candidates, and that demonstrated Clots-Figueras, Irma. 2012. Are Introductory Econometrics: A
electoral success by women does not Female Leaders Good for Education? Modern Approach (Cincinnati,
spur entry by new candidates. Several Evidence from 2002), Chapter 4.  q
questions nevertheless remain to India. American Economic Journal:
be answered. Can women-friendly (E-mail: liyer@hbs.edu)
Applied Economics 4(1), 212-44.

28 YOJANA July 2014


YOJANA July 2014 29


UID Project: Does Evidence Matter?

Reetika Khera

he sales pitch for the (e.g., computerization, sms alerts

Unique Identification etc.), along with other reforms, have
(UID) project had contributed to the turnaround of the
three important PDS in Chhattisgarh and Odisha. In
planks corruption these states estimated leakages of
control, inclusion and PDS grain have come down from
portability. All three claims were around 50 per cent in both states,
based on a poor understanding of to 10per cent and 20 per cent
the relevant programmes. Recent respectively.1
experience in several states suggests
The biometric aspect of aadhaar,
Against its success that the same goals can often be
could have contributed to corruption
achieved with simpler and more
in generating more appropriate technologies without the control by enabling reduction in
than 50 crore unique hassles attached to the UID project. On the number of duplicate, ghost and
the other hand, UID application pilots fake cards in circulation. While such
numbers, there are cards are a source of leakages in
initiated by the Unique Identification
many questions, even Authority of India (UIDAI) and others the PDS (and other welfare schemes
too), there is little or no systematic
failures, from the UID have faced serious challenges. Yet the
evidence on the size of this problem.
government has been pushing towards
pilots. Meanwhile, state making UID compulsory, and worse, In order to understand this, as part of
governments using other is now moving towards charging for the Public Evaluation of Entitlement
use of (free thus far) authentication Programmes (PEEP) survey in ten
technologies innovatively states, a pension social audit was
have demonstrated also undertaken. 2 Official lists of
Selling the Idea pension beneficiaries were obtained
that corruption can be for sample villages, and the survey
controlled; inclusion The advertising blitz to sell the teams traced each person on the list to
UID project made three claims: one, count the number of duplicates, ghosts
and portability can be that corruption would be eliminated, and fakes on the pension lists.
achieved without the especially in the Public Distribution
System (PDS) and the National Out of 3752 pensioners on the lists,
hassles that are a part Rural Employment Guarantee Act teams verified 99 per cent. A large
of the UID package. (NREGA). As far as corruption majority (89 per cent), they were able
Evidence, it seems, does in the PDS is concerned, Tamil to meet the person or a family member.
Nadu has been running a clean We found dead persons (5per cent)
not matter system without UID. Intelligent and other cases (6per cent). In many
applications of simpler technology states, since pensions are paid through
The author teaches economics at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. She was a post-doctoral Research Associate at Princeton
University. She is a development economist who has worked on issues of social security policy including employment, food and

30 YOJANA July 2014

banks, this meant that the pension of credited into a bank account, it cannot in need determining the size of the
a dead person keeps accumulating in be fraudulently withdrawn. budget, the budget determines the
the account of the pensioner, until size of the target population. To
authorities are notified. Where cash In the NREGA, the scope for make things worse, there are serious
is paid (e.g., Odisha), the pension of a corruption was greatly reduced when exclusion errors - e.g., according to
dead person could be appropriated by wages began to be paid through bank National Family Health Survey data
the GP functionary. Among no such and post office accounts in 2008-09. from 2005-06, nearly half of those in
person was known in the village and (In fact, NREGA has contributed the poorest 20per cent did not possess
other cases, there is some overlap: much to financial inclusion even a BPL ration card (Drze and Khera,
it included people who had moved before UID existed.) Yet, corruption 2010). UID alone can remedy neither
permanently (due to marriage or continues in the following three ways: the budget constraint nor can it reduce
work), migrants, imperfect matches coercion, collusion with laborers, and exclusion errors.
of names (e.g., fathers name did not collusion with post office officials.
match) and suspected fake names. Coercion occurs when laborers wages The National Food Security Act
Often the person belonged to another are forcibly shared with corrupt (NFSA) increases the coverage in the
officials after being withdrawn from PDS (from about half of the population
...millions of Indians are excluded the bank or post office. Collusion can to two-thirds). Independently of the
from the governments social be between implementing officials NFSA, there has been a trend towards
and labourers: days of work are greater coverage (or, inclusivity) as
welfare programmes, but the main inflated to defraud the system. In state governments, one after another,
cause for exclusion is not the lack such cases, UID authentication
of identity. In the PEEP Survey cannot help. Collusion also occurs Independently of the NFSA, there
2013, we asked people about the between NREGA functionaries has been a trend towards greater
different IDs they possessed. In our and post office officials (identity coverage (or, inclusivity) as
fraud), who operate the labourers
sample of 1900 households (taken state governments, one after
account without her /his knowledge.
from the NREGA job card register), It is only in this case that the UID- another, have rejected the central
95 per cent had a voter card, 85per authentication can control corruption. caps on coverage. Starting with
centhad a ration card, 82per cent (Even here, identity fraud can be Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and
had a bank or post office account controlled further by switching to Himachal Pradesh, which run
and 16 per cent had an aadhaar universal or quasi-universal PDS,
number. Two, UID was supposedly a Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Rajasthan
project of social inclusion for the and even Jharkhand have
revenue village of the same Gram millions who were excluded from
Panchayat (GP). In a handful of cases, expanded their PDS by committing
social welfare programmes because
the team visited the neighboring they do not have an identity. It is true state funds.
village, and found that the claim that millions of Indians are excluded
was true. Interestingly, in the entire have rejected the central caps
from the governments social welfare on coverage. Starting with Tamil
sample, there was only one duplicate programmes, but the main cause for
name. Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Himachal
exclusion is not the lack of identity. Pradesh, which run universal or quasi-
While the pension lists did not In the PEEP Survey 2013, we asked universal PDS, Chhattisgarh, Odisha,
match the ground reality entirely, people about the different IDs they Rajasthan and even Jharkhand have
mismatches were often a sign of poor possessed. In our sample of 1900 expanded their PDS by committing
record-keeping. Outdated records do households (taken from the NREGA state funds.
open the door to corrupt practices job card register), 95 per cent had a
(e.g., in Tulasikani GP, Odisha, we voter card, 85per centhad a ration Portability
found that the panchayat secretary card, 82per cent had a bank or post
office account and 16 per cent had an The third claim of UIDAI was
had been embezzling the pension
aadhaar number. portability of benefits. In the current
of two dead persons for more than a system, most entitlements are tied
year)3, but do not automatically imply The main reason for exclusion to the recipients place of residence.
corruption. Thus, e.g., in Jharkhand, from these programmes is the meager When people migrate, they are forced
if records are outdated (e.g., a dead budget and exclusion errors (i.e. poor to forego their entitlements. For
persons name continues to appear on people being classified as non-poor). instance, one can only draw subsidized
the pension list), because pension is Rather than the number of people PDS rations from the PDS outlet to

YOJANA July 2014 31

which one is tied. Indeed, the ability the prime reason for switching: the years of preparatory work, a large
to run a PDS which is portable outlet to which people were originally and dedicated team with dynamic
would be a great improvement. tied was not the nearest, tenants who leadership (provided by the sub-
moved residence, when supplies ran Collector). In September 2012 , the
The Food Department in pilot was launched in 5 per cent of
out, etc. To cut a long story short,
Chhattisgarh took up the challenge of PDS outlets of the district. It has not
portability has been achieved without
designing a portable PDS, and in April seen any scaling up since. It still does
2012, they launched the Centralized not offer portability.
Online Real-time Electronic PDS This raises the question of
(CORE PDS). Ration card holders choosing between UID and smart If the ration card and UID number
have been given a smart card. cards for portability. Smart cards are match, the electronic-POS (e-POS)
Smart cards (like ATM cards) can be a tested and affordable technology. prompts the card holder to place
used to draw rations at any CORE In Chhattisgarh, it cost Rs. 50 per one of their best fingers for real
PDS outlet which has a point of cardholder to implement smart cards. time authentication. Five trials are
sale (POS) machine. The POS (On the other hand, UID enrolment allowed, failing which, a one-
machine is, in fact, a mini-computer of each person costs Rs. 50.) Apart time password (OTP) is issued.
with connectivity. Once a smart card from cost considerations, UID has OTP is an override facility when
is inserted, the machine authenticates raised other issues: surveillance and
If the ration card and UID number
tracking, data security, personal and
The only successful UID pilot civil liberty concerns, privacy, etc match, the electronic-POS (e-POS)
is the integration of PDS with (see Drze, 2011, Abraham 2012, prompts the card holder to place
UID in East Godavari (see Khera 2013 and Ramanathan, 2013). one of their best fingers for real
2013a). It required nearly two The cost of implementing a smart- time authentication. Five trials
years of preparatory work, a card based portable PDS appear to are allowed, failing which, a one-
large and dedicated team with be reasonable approximately Rs. time password (OTP) is issued.
dynamic leadership (provided by
50 per ration card holder in the 400 OTP is an override facility
shops in which it has already been
the sub-Collector). In September when biometric authentication
2012 , the pilot was launched fails (either due to biometrics,
in 5 per cent of PDS outlets of
UID pilots crash connectivity, etc). Transaction data
the district. It has not seen any While state governments have from the first year suggest that
scaling up since. It still does not been using simple technology OTP had to be used in 13 per cent
offer portability.
creatively, UIDAIs pilots have faced of all transactions.
serious challenges, often crashing.
A pilot in Mysore, linking UID with biometric authentication fails (either
it, and sales can proceed. Offline LPG cylinder purchase was aborted as due to biometrics, connectivity, etc).
sales are also possible when there it did not take off at all (Bhatti, 2013). Transaction data from the first year
are issues related to the server or In Jharkhand, an attempt was made suggest that OTP had to be used in
mobile connectivity. In such cases, to integrate NREGA payments with 13 per cent of all transactions. This
the ration card number needs to be UID. Notwithstanding tall claims failure rate is not small, but has not
entered for sales. in media reports, on the ground the been discussed at all.
pilot turned out to be miniscule: e.g.,
Starting with two shops of Raipur, in just three GPs of Ranchi district, Yet the UID juggernaut rolls on.
the CORE PDS now covers 400 PDS one of the three pilot districts; hardly In November 2012, the government
outlets of which 40 are rural outlets. any payments had been made through announced Aadhaar-enabled cash
About one-fifth of transactions at the new system, and almost always transfers for existing schemes.
these shops have used the portability under great scrutiny for the benefit Seven months later, a review at the
option i.e., ration card holders chose of a visiting dignitary (see Bhatti et PMO acknowledges that preparatory
to go to a PDS outlet other than the al, 2012 and Bhatti, 2012). The pilot work was complete for only 9 per
one to which they were originally was quietly wound up. cent of all beneficiaries. Undeterred,
allocated. In most cases ,portability in October 2013, the UIDAI put out
The only successful UID
was exercised within the ward. (The its pricing policy approach paper
pilot is the integration of PDS with
density of PDS outlets in Raipur for authentication services which
UID in East Godavari (see Khera
seemed very high.) Convenience was 2013a). It required nearly two are free only until December 2013.

32 YOJANA July 2014

Private and public entities will be charged for iris and
fingerprint and demographic data authentication, e-KYC,
Against its success in generating more than 50 crore
unique numbers, there are many questions, even failures,
from the UID pilots. Meanwhile, state governments using
other technologies innovatively have demonstrated that
corruption can be controlled; inclusion and portability can
be achieved without the hassles that are a part of the UID
package. Evidence, it seems, does not matter.
Abraham, Sunil (2012), Do we Need the aadhaar scheme?,
Business Standard, 1 February.
Abraham, Sunil (2013), Freedom from Monitoring: India Inc
should push for Privacy Laws, Forbes India, 21 August.
Bhatti, Bharat (2013), A Pilot that lost direction, India Together,
20 June, 2013. http://www.indiatogether.org/2013/jun/eco-aadhaar.
htm, last accessed 18 January, 2014.
Bhatti, Bharat (2012), Aadhaar-enabled payments for NREGA
workers, Economic and Political Weekly, 8 December.
Bhatti, Bharat, Drze, Jean and Khera, Reetika (2012),
Experiments with Aadhaar, The Hindu, 28 June.
Drze, Jean (2010), Unique Facility or Recipe for Trouble,
The Hindu, 25 November.
Dreze and Khera, Reetika (2010), The BPL Census and An
Alternative, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 45, No. 9, 27
Khera, Reetika (2013a), The East Godavari Pilot, The Hindu,
11 April.
Khera, Reetika (2013b), Do Government Schemes Ever
Work in India?, Yahoo, 22 October. http://in.news.yahoo.com/
last accessed 18 January, 2014.
Khera, Reetika (2011), The UID Project and Welfare Schemes,
Economic and Political Weekly, 26 February, Vol 46, No. 9.
Ramanathan, Usha (2010), A Unique Identity Bill, Economic
and Political Weekly, 24 July.
1 The scope for reducing corruption in the PDS and in NREGA
through computerization, UID and other technologies,
achievements of various states so far and the further scope
for corruption control are discussed in greater detail in Khera
2 For more details of the PEEP Survey 2013, see http://web.iitd.
3 Khera, 2013b provides details on the scale of corruption there

and action taken. q

(E-mail: reetika.khera@gmail.com)

YOJANA July 2014 33

Best practices

Boat clinics: the only hope floating for

Assams river island community
oats are a feature case of Amiya Begum of the Baleswar option because it can come close to

B of everyday life for the

river island dwellers of
Assam. They are, after
all, the only connecting
link to the mainland
the source of essential supplies and
services, such as education and health.
sapori in the Nalbari district, about 70
km from Guwahati.
Over and above, now we were
being regularly checked, treated of our
ailments, and given free medicines,
without having to pay Rs.10 one
the villages, especially when the water
level rises in the monsoons.
Riturekha Baruah of C-NES who
oversees the boat clinic programme in
the Jorhat district, says that the team also
assists in childbirth. Communication
is difficult in the saporis, and many
way for a boat ride to the mainland
Yet, when a particular kind of boat times because of an emergency, a
hospital. We are poor people and most
turns up every few weeks at their woman cannot go to the hospital for
of the times, unless its an emergency,
embankment, the excitement in the air is delivery. In such cases we have assisted
we avoided going to the hospital
palpable. Carrying doctors, paramedics, in childbirth, she said. Assam has been
medicines, even a laboratory, to tend to fighting one of the countrys highest
their health related complaints, the The boat clinics typically work maternal mortality ratio at 328 per
boat clinic is a ray of hope for the model is to organize health camps in 100,000 live births.
island dwellers, and, not surprisingly, the villages on the islands. Word is
nicknamed the boat of hope. spread about the camp through the The clinic also encourages family
ASHA, the visits are also usually timed planningan especially tough task
Started in the year 2005 with in accordance to immunization dates. given high levels of illiteracy among
a single boat, Akha (hope) in the the island dwellers, and superstitious
Dibrugarh district of Assam, the boat beliefs. For this (family planning)
clinic initiative by the Centre for we have to step beyond our immediate
Northeast Studies and Policy Research duties and work towards changing
(C-NES) was in response to the poor attitude of people, building trust, and
quality healthcare that island dwellers removing misconceptions. We also
are exposed to. With no health facilities, discourage girls from being married off
poor communication to the mainland, young, and talk about spacing between
made even more difficult during the kids, said Minhazuddin Ahmed, a
monsoon floods and diseases aplenty, doctor with the boat clinic.
especially affecting the vulnerable lot,
Among the most common ailments
women and children, such an initiative Such has been the effect of these affecting the island dwellers are water
spelt the idea, if they cannot come, the boat clinics, that even in Majulithe borne diseases and skin infections.
hospital can come to them. worlds biggest river island on the
Brahmaputrawhich, unlike other Gaining access to healthcare used
The clinics success got the river islands, has a Community Health to be a privilege earlier. Now with the
attention and the subsequent support Centre (CHC) and health sub centre, boat clinic, we have been blessed with
of the National Rural Health Mission people wait eagerly for the clinics hope for a better life, smiled Anjana
(NRHM) and Unicef, driving it to a visit. Das, an island dweller in the Dibrugarh
public private partnership (PPP) that district.
helped the programme spread to 13 The closest health sub centre
districts of Assam. from our village is four kilometres (Azera Parveen Rahman is a
and there is a river in between. In fact freelance journalist. This story is part
The boat clinics success can be that sub centre caters to 15 villages of her National Media Fellowship work
gauged in the changing attitude of and of them 14 are on this side of the supported by the National Foundation
the people, who first eyed the entire river, said Deboshree Das of Samuguri of India)
initiative with suspicion, before being village in Majuli. The boat clinic, she
convinced about its intention. Take the says, is a better and more convenient Charkha Features

34 YOJANA July 2014


YOJANA July 2014 35

special article

Organ Donation In India: arduous Road Between

Altruism and Action
Subhadra Menon

t is an imperfect world assessments at one in every 10 adults

that we live in. Every in India having Chronic Kidney
day, there are people Disease (CKD) and requiring either
whose lives could be dialysis or a fresh kidney1, making up
saved if only they at least five lakh people at any point
would receive a fresh of time. Of these, only a miniscule
organ that is healthy 6000 receive a kidney donation,
in place of their mal-functioning and some 30,000 are able to afford
one. A variety of illnesses or mishaps dialysis. This leaves out a massive
can lead people into this terrible 4.5 lakh patients who have no light
condition either as sufferers of a at the end of the tunnel. It is obvious
Utopian it may seem, but chronic medical condition that could that well-managed and transparent
the vision of a country result in a damaged kidney or liver or cadaver organ transplant programmes
heart, or of a road accident that harms can make a difference between life
where no person loses his a particular organ and can threaten the and death for a massive section of the
or her life simply because person with complete debilitation. For Indian population. Equally important
instance, one of the most effective is the transplantation of human cells
an organ transplant could therapies for end-stage kidney or and organs from live donors, such
not be carried out in good liver disease is organ transplantation. as that of stem cells that can be an
time is a good one to hold Then, there is a need for healthy absolutely precious gift to a patient of
hearts, lungs, eyes, the pancreas and leukaemia or blood cancer.
and to dream of. It goes the intestines, among others. Growing
without saying that the disease burden has translated into a It, therefore, ought to be so
swelling need for healthy organs from straight-forward: organ donation and
systems and networks are people who cease to live to grant fresh transplantation can save lives and there
there and altruism still lives lease of life to those who do, who are many people who die with most of
in millions of hearts. What wait with mounting desperation for their organs intact. But, the simplicity
an organ transplant as a life-saving ends here, and India has among the
is to be done is to simply procedure. As always, one of the lowest organ donation rates in the
work the system well, and greatest barriers to generating the world. The actual rate is variously cited,
evidence for any convincing policy or again owing to a lack in the way we
ensure it delivers what it programmatic reform is the paucity of manage our health data and statistics.
is mandated to. Let that trust-worthy and complete data. What According to some figures, India has
possibility not be so remote India has is sporadic data compilations a very low level of organ donation,
that are used in diverse settings by just 0.16 per million population2. That
that we stop dreaming of a multiple stakeholders. For instance, makes it less than one donor per million
better day nephrologists and experts place their population, an abysmally low rate of

The author is Professor of Health Communication at the Public Health Foundation of India. She is a health communication and advocacy
expert having worked in diverse capacities covering professional and community activist experiences, advocacy, consensus and capacity
building, policy analysis, research, and writing. Her book 'No Place to Go: Stories of Hope and Despair from Indias Ailing Health
Sector' (Penguin, India) is widely acclaimed.

36 YOJANA July 2014

organ donation. It is 27 in the United to save a precious life or the struggle requirements very difficult, besides
Kingdom, 20-25 in the US and 35 in against extreme poverty have led to the creating hurdles in smooth donation
Spain. It is understood that there is a mushrooming of a prolific and illegal and transplant management
need for at least 25,000 donors in India trade in organs, exacerbated by the l Gaps in knowledge create a
each year, but this figure is barely in the expenses and waiting periods related lack of understanding among
100s. There are at least one lakh road to medical procedures and surgery that people, particularly in the case of
accidents each year and this means are required for a successful organ recognising and acknowledging
the possibility of a large number of transplant, and the restrictive aspects the finality of brain death. Since
donors because road accidents often of legal instruments and guidelines the heart continues to beat, people
cause brain death. At least five lakh that are actually meant to facilitate find it difficult to accept brain
lives can be saved each year in India, genuine cases of organ donation. death despite there being a law that
if only organ transplantation would Relying on peoples acts of kindness recognises this.
happen smoothly. But these people are on the one hand, and the ability of an
dying. This is a reality that needs to efficient and well-managed system Organ donation and retrieval
on the other, the entire realm of for transplantation, for all of the
There are at least one lakh road organ donation and transplantation, above reasons and more, is a highly
neglected area of public health that
accidents each year and this means whether cadaver-based or live, is a
tortuous one to manage and deliver comes into focus but infrequently,
the possibility of a large number of upon. Against this background, it is often through the angst of personal
donors because road accidents often obvious that concerned stakeholders loss or stories of despair and death.
cause brain death. At least five and those who could take strong and Efforts have been made, over the
positive decisions have often taken years, to address these issues and
lakh lives can be saved each year in create facilitatory mechanisms. That
the ostrich approach, and as a result
India, if only organ transplantation chronic organ failure and the remedial is why, although organ donation is
would happen smoothly. But these action it requires has received scant
It is easy to be critical of these
people are dying. This is a reality attention.
guidelines because altruistic acts
that needs to change, and several Anybody who enters this world,
by humans do not happen because
efforts are ongoing at various driven by human necessity for the
treatment of an end-stage disease or the theres a rule that mandates it so,
levels to drive it. saving of a life after an accident that they happen because certain people
change, and several efforts are ongoing debilitates beyond repair a particular feel the need to offer a gift to
organ, faces at least one, if not all, of
at various levels to drive it.
these many hurdles: somebody. But the reality is one of
Need for Efficient Systemic l The clinical requirement for an a pressing demand far outstripping
Response organ is most often a desperate the supply and of endless waiting
By its very nature, the decision to human need that is a life or death lists.
donate an organ and its consequent situation, where time is of the
transplantation is not only a complex essence more like a gift, or a bestowment, it
medico-legal procedure, but also l Organ transplantation is either certainly needs rules and guidelines
one that relies heavily on altruism, completely unaffordable or a so as to regulate this important aspect
an equally tricky trait of human stupendous financial hurdle for of modern therapeutic medicine. It is
nature that defies logic or definition. most people easy to be critical of these guidelines
With cadaver-based transplants, this because altruistic acts by humans do
l Historically, the organ trade has
not happen because theres a rule that
act of kindness must eventually be flourished as an illegal, underground
exercised by the kith and kin of the mandates it so, they happen because
activity that exploits poverty,
person who dies and leaves behind certain people feel the need to offer a
making any law enforcement a
a body with healthy organs. It can gift to somebody. But the reality is one
retrospective action that meets with
also mean honouring a persons of a pressing demand far outstripping
tremendous resistance
wishes or written pledges in the the supply and of endless waiting
l One donor can save five lives but lists.
immediate aftermath of his or her there are very few organised organ
death. With transplants involving donation registries and systems Legal Frameworks and Guidelines
people who are living, the kindness linked with public/private clinical
is the under-pinning of what can be It was twenty years ago, in 1994,
establishments of credible repute
a fairly difficult medical decision by to facilitate organ retrieval.
that the Indian Parliament passed the
the donor. Transplantation of Human Organs Act
l The inadequacy of formal systems (THOA) with the aim of providing
Historically, acts of desperation also makes assessments of transplant for the regulation of removal, storage

YOJANA July 2014 37

and transplantation of human organs refine the earlier guidelines, keeping organ removal from such a person.
for therapeutic purposes in India. In patient needs in mind. This was a
February 1995, the Act came into force result of several years of advocacy by The process is quite cumbersome,
after its rules were formulated, in Goa, multiple stakeholders and concerned especially when viewed from the
Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra people and institutions, because in perspective of the family or loved
and all the Union Territories, after its earlier form, the Act, while doing ones of an ill person in desperate
which it was also adopted by all States little to curb illegal trade in organs, need for a healthy organ. But, the
except the States of Jammu & Kashmir had created barriers for genuine cases, urgent need fuels and compensates
and Andhra Pradesh, which have their slowing down inordinately the process for the complexity. First, the formal
own legislations to regulate organ of donation and transplantation3. diagnosis of brain death from an
donation and transplantation. The approved authority, then formal and
primary motivation was obviously to All in all, the legal framework complete consent from the family of
check the trend of commercialisation is there. It articulates systemic the deceased, and finally, paperwork
that was getting quite established when processes, management bodies and and documentation that must be
it came to dealings with human organs. appropriate authorities that form the completed with the appropriate
The Act lays out provisions relating to supportive structure for legal organ authority in the state, in the officially
the authority for removal of human donation. But, ever too often in the approved hospital. To declare a person
organs, preservation of human organs, history of Indian social and human brain-dead, the Act spells out the
regulation of hospitals conducting the development, it is difficult, if not requirement: a team of four doctors
removal, storage or transplantation nearly impossible, to make social (one of them a neurologist) must
of human organs, functions of the legislation walk the ground. Legal confirm the brain death, and all tests
appropriate authority, registration of tools can be hard to administer and With organ donation, one of the
enforced when they address a complex
In 2013, the Government of India, most sensitive areas addressed by
social issue, and the examples are
through the Ministry of Health and many: the Pre-Conception and Pre- the Act was the grey area of brain
Family Welfare, released revised natal Diagnostics Techniques Act death. One of the key challenges of
rules called the Transplantation of
(PCPNDT), the Prohibition of Child ensuring smooth organ transplants
Marriage Act, the Protection of
Human Organs and Tissues Rules in Women from Domestic Violence, and is the declaration of a potential
2013, in order to refine the earlier more lately, the Sexual Harassment of donor being brain-dead, despite
guidelines, keeping patient needs in
Women at the Workplace (Prevention, having a still beating heart. This
Prohibition and Redressal) Act. With declaration is accepted only through
mind. This was a result of several all of these legislations, redressal is
years of advocacy by multiple a big challenge because of several hospitals officially approved for
stakeholders and concerned people issues the lack of a clear victim- organ transplantation4.
criminal scenario, the difficulty of
and institutions, because in its holding up witness reports, and conducted for this purpose must be
earlier form, the Act, while doing many other issues. That is why, in repeated after six hours. This time
little to curb illegal trade in organs, the case of THOA, it has not been as lapse can prove a hurdle for smooth
effective in curbing illegal trade, as it and successful organ donation.
had created barriers for genuine has been in becoming a troublesome
cases barrier for genuine cases. With organ Awareness, Advocacy and the Need
donation, one of the most sensitive for Good Practice
hospitals and punishment/penalties
for offences relating to aforesaid areas addressed by the Act was the To d a y, s e v e r a l e x p e r t s a r e
matters. Since then, there have grey area of brain death. One of the advocating for the law to become
been some amendments and the key challenges of ensuring smooth more enabling than knotty, as much
Government of India notified the THO organ transplants is the declaration as possible, although it is obvious
Amendment Act, 2011, which more of a potential donor being brain-dead, that it must be restrictive to be able to
comprehensively included standards despite having a still beating heart. check what has been rampant illegal
for the transplantation of tissues like This declaration is accepted only trade in organs and the exploitation of
bones, the skin, heart valves and the through hospitals officially approved the poor. But although Indian law is
cornea besides organs like the heart, for organ transplantation4. Very often, trying to safeguard genuine interests,
liver, pancreas and kidneys.In 2013, in persons declared brain-dead define it is also slowing down the process
the Government of India, through brain death, the heart still beats for up considerably, and in the case of organ
the Ministry of Health and Family to 48 hours, this is a critical window donation and transplantation, this can
Welfare, released revised rules called for organ donation, but it is very be a very grave challenge because the
the Transplantation of Human Organs hard because the family and loved window for effective transplantation
and Tissues Rules in 2013, in order to ones feel that it would be almost like and the saving of a life can sometimes
practicing euthanasia, to allow any

38 YOJANA July 2014

be really narrow. Just a miniscule recombinant DNA technology, does answers.
proportion of Indias 1.2 billion have some known side effects, none
population signs up for such donation, major. In the extreme, fatal impact In the case of eye donation,
as compared to the US where despite on the spleen is a remote possibility. seemingly so uncomplicated because
a smaller population, many millions So, knowledge is the most critical it involves fulfilling the wishes of
more sign up. factor, and once people know enough a deceased person, or of a family
about the procedure, there should be deciding to donate a dead family
Do you remember a catchy and no problem. This has been seen the members eyes is plagued by a
compelling organ donation message world over, but there is a huge, unmet similar paralysis of decision-making.
or campaign from the recent past? need for information, knowledge and Despite recent encouraging trends,
Information and awareness as always awareness. there are huge gaps. An expert in this
are critical, and it is unfortunate that area of work had said this to me, many
there are hardly any campaigns and This problem was highlighted years ago The donor may be ready,
messages in the public domain on worldwide recently, upon the death of with filled-out forms and pledges and
the need for organ donation. Blood Professor Nalini Ambady, who taught everything. But when he or she dies,
donation, and eye donation perhaps, psychology at Stanford University in the the pathos of that moment can paralyse
are the only ones that stick somewhere US, and succumbed to Acute Myeloid the immediate family or even stir
in the sub-conscious, making a person Leukaemia, a form of blood cancer. up a completely adverse reaction. It
take a decision. How many people The Indian-American Ambadys family can be very difficult to ensure timely
and friends launched a massive search action, allow removal of the healthy
Information and awareness for stem cells that would be compatible cornea, and all this within the first
as always are critical, and it is to her body. The struggle was to find few hours of death, beyond which the
unfortunate that there are hardly a donor whose bone marrow with its cornea becomes useless. Credible
any campaigns and messages in healthy blood stem cells (the cells that and clear data are hard to come by,
create all of the human bodys blood but there are roughly 12 million
the public domain on the need for cells) could be used for regenerative blind people in India, of whom about
organ donation. Blood donation, therapy. This regeneration of fresh and
Credible and clear data are hard
and eye donation perhaps, are the healthy blood cells initiated through the
transplantation of stem cells is a critical to come by, but there are roughly
only ones that stick somewhere in way forward in the progressive story 12 million blind people in India, of
the sub-conscious, making a person of human medicine, with a growing whom about 2 million are those
take a decision. list of diseases where a significant
treatment option is stem cells therapy. who suffer from corneal blindness,
really know the power of their act It was the only prime alternative left for a condition that can be treated
of donating healthy organs from the treatment in her case. About a dozen through the transplant of a healthy
body of a loved one who is brain- potential matches had been found in cornea from a cadaver donation of
dead? Not many at all, and those the last few months before her passing,
who do hardly receive any reinforced but half of them were imperfect, and eyes.
messaging to ensure that they stick to the rest did not materialise because
their altruistic desires or thoughts, or the donors declined to go in for the 2 million are those who suffer from
even their pledges. It is said that bone final task of donation. How frustrating corneal blindness, a condition that
marrow donation is almost as simple and deeply saddening this would have can be treated through the transplant
as donating blood, but when it comes been for Ambady and her family is of a healthy cornea from a cadaver
to actual decision-making time, many almost unthinkable. In the current, it is donation of eyes. Of these 2 million
potential donors back off because they important to think about is whether all also, not all are suitable cases for such
hear of possible discomfort, or even these extraordinary narratives of human a transplant, but as per data from the
more serious impact, of donating their struggle can lead us to something National programme for the Control
stem cells. While with cadaver organ tangible as solutions. The problem of Blindness under the Ministry of
donation, there is at least no impact is the dense shades of grey between Health and Family Welfare, in 2011-
on the donor in any way, with the the start and end of a search there 12, the country collected just a few
donation of cells from a living person is no telling what the outcome would over 49,000 eyes. It is the same story
there is that challenge. Although be. Either a happy story of success or with the donation of a kidney, or a
Peripheral Blood Stem Donation is the helpless angst of loved ones and liver or a heart.
non-surgical as a procedure, one must family when things do not work out:
visit the hospital more than once, and what should it be? Why are we creating With the usual centre-state
just before donating stem cells, a drug systems and legislation and putting in relations and tensions when it comes
must be consumed so as to increase resources if not to save as many lives to regulation in the public health
the donors stem cell production as possible from unnecessary death. sector, some states have stood out
and filgrastim, a drug produced by These heart-wrenching questions need as examples of how all this can be

YOJANA July 2014 39

made to work, to the benefit of those who need organ
donation the most. Tamil Nadu has led from the front
over the years, using progressive legislation, setting up
extensive networks and an organised registry, working
with the basic principles of good health management,
to lead the country with 0.8 donations per million per
year5. Recognising that coordination and organisation
were critical, whether it is with handling live donor
transplantation or that from cadavers, the Government
of Tamil Nadu established a framework through which
organs could be allotted in a fair manner to potential
recipients awaiting organ transplantation. This was after
expert consultations, workshops and intensive research
to come up with the most appropriate guidelines for the
state. Today, Tamil Nadu leads in cadaveric transplants.
Meanwhile in Kerala, a series of progressive orders were
issued in 2012, explaining how the government is also
aware that the success of Organ Transplant, especially
Cadaver Organ Transplantation depends on efficacious
donor management and meticulous coordination with
Organ Retrieving Centres and Organ Transplant Centres6.
Kerala set up the Kerala Network for Organ Sharing, a
registry for organ transplantation for cadaver donation
along lines similar to that of Tamil Nadu.
All in all, much is being done, but there is a lot of
ground left to cover. Utopian it may seem, but the vision
of a country where no person loses his or her life simply
because an organ transplant could not be carried out in
good time is a good one to hold and to dream of. It goes
without saying that the systems and networks are there
and altruism still lives in millions of hearts. What is to
be done is to simply work the system well, and ensure it
delivers what it is mandated to. Let that possibility not be
so remote that we stop dreaming of a better day.
1 Dhar, A. http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/policy-
article5777927.ece; accessed on May 10, 2014
2 Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Special
Service and Features. Keshavamurthy, HR. August 2013.
Organ Donation and Transplantation Provides Second Life
to Thousands of People
3 www.prsindia.org. Note on the Amendments Proposed in the
Transplantation of Human Organs Act.
4 http://healthcare.financialexpress.com/it-healthcare/2043-
accessed on May 10, 2014.
5 Cadaver Transplant Programme, Government of Tamil
6 Health and Family Welfare Department, Government of
Kerala Order, Transplantation of Human Organs-Cadaver
Organ Transplantation Programme-Procedure to be Adopted
by the Government and Private Hospitals Approved for

Organ Transplantation-Guidelines Issued. February 4,

2012. q

40 YOJANA July 2014

elections & democracy

Electoral Reform and the Deepening

of democracy in India
Subrata K Mitra

emocrats all over electorate rapidly expanded, bringing

the world have good into the political arena a large
reasons to celebrate number of voters with no previous
the significance of the experience of electoral participation.
sixteenth Lok Sabha Such a sudden induction of new
elections in India. The voters could have been a recipe for
level of participation at 66.4 per disaster for parliamentary democracy
cent, the highest ever since the and political order, particularly
introduction of universal suffrage in conjunction with the violence
(see table 1) puts India, the worlds that accompanied the Partition of
largest democracy, in the league of India. But the subsequent career of
...in the competitive era of high participation countries. The parliamentary democracy, thanks to
global cultural flow, India, fact that despite a long, bruising the continuity of the institutions of
nuclear powered and a campaign, the election itself was state and the structures of leader-
generally peaceful, orderly, free and constituent relations, saw parties
major emerging economy, fair is a testimony to inner strength and elections becoming an essential
can no longer expect a and resilience of democracy in India. part of the political culture of post-
bonus as a third world This article provides a brief glance Independence India. Voter turnout,
democracy. The paradox into the electoral process and the
deepening of democracy in India,
spread over all social classes, has
gone up steadily (Table 1).
of successful conduct of and makes a case for some electoral
The statistical indicators in Table
elections in the largest reforms that can reinforce democratic
1 are illustrative of Indias success
democracy of the world at organizing an electoral process
being contingent on one Elections and the deepening of on a continental scale. Large-scale
democracy in India poverty and illiteracy notwithstanding,
of the largest deployments India, under the supervision of an
of the army in peace time Universal adult franchise with independent Election Commission,
first-past-the-post electoral rules
has to be faced squarely was first introduced in the general
has organized elections involving very
large electorates who, by law, have to
if India were to claim election of 1952, the first after be provided with polling booths within
full membership of the Independence. All political parties easy walking distance. The campaigns
including communists and the right themselves are strictly monitored. It is
global club of functioning wing Jan Sangh were permitted to not unusual for polling to be stopped
democracies participate in the election. Thanks and re-polling ordered in the event of
to the extension of suffrage, the electoral fraud or violence.

The author, Professor of Political Science, South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University, is the author of 'Politics in India: Structure,
Process and Policy' (Oxford University Press, 2014). He has taught in the UK at Universities of Hull and Nottingham and University of
California, Berkeley. Governance, Citizenship, Negotiation, Rational Choice, International Relations, Research Methods, Comparative
Politics and South Asian Area Studies are among his areas of interest.

YOJANA July 2014 41

Table 1. Election Data, Indian Parliamentary Elections, 1952-2014
Year Seats Candidates Polling Stations Electorate Vote Polled Turnout
(In Millions) (In Millions) (%)
1952 489 1874 132,560 173.2 79.1 45.7
1957 494 1519 220,478 193.7 92.4 47.7
1962 494 1985 238,355 217.7 120.6 55.4
1967 520 2369 267,555 250.6 153.6 61.3
1971 518 2784 342,944 274.1 151.6 55.3
1977 542 2439 373,908 321.2 194.3 60.5
1980 529 4629 434,742 363.9 202.7 56.9
1984 542 5493 479,214 400.1 256.5 64.1
1989 529 6160 579,810 498.9 309.1 62.0
1991 534 8780 588,714 511.5 285.9 55.9
1996 543 13952 767,462 592.6 343.3 57.9
1998 539 4708 765,473 602.3 373.7 62.0
1999 543 4648 774,651 619.5 371.7 60.0
2004 543 5435 687,402 671.5 389.9 58.1
2009 543 - 828,804 716,0 - 56,9
2014 543 - 930,000 814.0 - 66,4
Source: Data Unit, CSDS, Delhi, The Election Commission of India (1999, 2004, 2009, 2014).

Trust, efficacy and legitimacy: highly educated. However, scheduled in those without an opinion or the
the democratic dividend of the castes, Muslims and Christians undecided. A small per centage of
electoral Process also appear on the higher levels of the population, hovering around a
efficacy. This is the consequence tenth of the total, remains convinced
Thanks to the availability of that alternatives to parliamentary
of political mobilization, driven by
public opinion data, we are in a d e m o c r a c y m i g h t b e b e t t e r.
position to observe the sense of ambitious leaders, mobilizing special
interest constituencies within the Further analysis shows that those
efficacy within different subsections highly educated, upper castes and
of the Indian population. In response electorate (Mitra & Singh 2009).
Christians, urban, male and younger
to the question Do you think your A pattern similar to efficacy can sections of the population are on the
vote has effect? one can notice the be noticed in the case of legitimacy. higher levels of legitimacy.
steady rise of the sense of efficacy Here, the question has been posed in
in the population as a whole, going Some milestones of electoral
the negative, in order to make sure
up from 48.5 per cent of the entire reform in India
that those who consider the existing
population in 1971 to 67.5 per cent
political system, based on parties, The evolution of the institutions,
in 2004. Interestingly, the gain in
elections and assemblies preferable laws and norms that buttress
efficacy has come from the steady
decline in those who either do not to one without these attributes of Indias electoral process show great
have an opinion, or are not able to parliamentary democracy will answer ingenuity in adapting imported
take a position on the question. The the question in the negative not an practice of universal adult franchise
per centage of those who do not feel easy thing to do for interviewees to Indian conditions and moulding
efficacious appears to have stayed facing college-educated young men them to respond to the need for
low (less than a fifth of the population and women, carrying clip boards and transition to democracy and its
as a whole) but stable over the three ceremoniously writing the answers consolidation. The practice of
decades between 1971 and 2004. One out. Impressively, the per centage of multi-member constituencies was
notices a similar trend with regard to those who see the political system as abandoned in favour of single
the sense of efficacy as well. Thus, legitimate has gone up from 43.4 per member constituencies, first-past-
both in 1996 as well as in 2004, those cent in 1971 to 72.2 per cent in 2004. the-post electoral rules, which help
with higher level of efficacy tended to As in the case of efficacy, here also create coalitions of interests that in
be male, upper class, upper caste and the gain has been made by a decline turn, necessitate the formation of

42 YOJANA July 2014

general, political categories rather Considerable of knowledge about and announcement of the elections is
than reinforcing narrow, sectarian how to improve the functioning of not accidental. Taking on the security
identities, as one might expect from elections has been generated by a forces is the most effective way for
the application of proportional number of institutional initiatives Maoists to assert their local control.
legislation in a diverse society, such as the Joint Parliamentary Such attacks are well calculated
fragmented along the lines of caste, Committee on Amendments meant as much to loot weapons and
tribe, language, ethnicity and other to Election Law (1971-72), the assert their influence as to show
forms of primordial identities. Tarakunde Committee Report of determination to enforce the poll
However, representation of special 1975, the Goswami Committee boycott that Maoists have already
interests deemed under privileged Report of 1990 and the Election announced. In view of these violent
or vulnerable was retained in Commissions recommendations in threats, polling is spread out over
the form of quotas for scheduled 1998. The most important innovation nine phases, which is necessary for
castes, scheduled tribes, women in electoral practices has however the deployment and movement of
(in local elections) and Anglo- been introduced by the Election troops to protect polling. Presence
Indians. Proportional representation Commission of India which has of paramilitary forces is imperative
is retained for Presidential elections, been designed by the Constitution not just for disturbed areas such as
to ensure equal weightage for (art 324), to act as guardian of free Kashmir or the North East, but for
States as compared to the Union. and fair elections (McMillan 2010). the country as a whole. Paradoxically,
A number of amendments have In every election, it issues a Model the worlds largest democracy can
code of Conduct for political parties
...the Anti- Defection Law, passed and candidates to conduct elections
generate consent only under military
in the form of 52nd amendment, in a free and fair manner. The
affecting articles 101, 102, Commission issued the code for the Talk about the need for reform
190 and 191, passed in in first time in 1971 (5th Election) and to cure the malaise is ubiquitous.
revised it from time to time. These One commentator writes: The first
1985 reinforced the power of have served India well. However, as and foremost task that is required to
representation by forbidding the the following section argues, there be done at this hour is the removal
practice of individuals defecting is still considerable need for further of three dreadful things, that is,
from the party under whose reform. money power, muscle power and
the mafia power. Besides this, four
label they were elected. The 61st The violent underbelly of Indias
Cs have also to be wiped off. This
amendment to article 326 which electoral politics and the need for
electoral reform ...polling is spread out over nine
brought the voting age down
from 21 to 18 vastly extended the The fact that the election of 2014 phases, which is necessary for the
scope of enfranchisement. had to be spread out over nine phases, deployment and movement of
necessary to move troops essential
strengthened the functioning of the to the safe conduct of the voting is
troops to protect polling. Presence
democratic process and expanded an important fact that gets lost in the of paramilitary forces is imperative
the scope of elections. Thus, the euphoria over successful conducting not just for disturbed areas such
Anti- Defection Law, passed in the
form of 52nd amendment, affecting
of a general election of gigantic as Kashmir or the North East,
proportions. The necessity of troops
articles 101, 102, 190 and 191, passed to hold an election points towards the
but for the country as a whole.
in in 1985 reinforced the power of lethal miasma of violence that lurks Paradoxically, the worlds largest
representation by forbidding the under the bright surface of brand new democracy can generate consent
practice of individuals defecting from electronic voting machines, highly only under military protection.
the party under whose label they were motivated staff manning the booths
elected. The 61st amendment to article and much finger-pointing by comely includes corruption, criminalization,
326 which brought the voting age faces for the benefit of television casteism and communalism (Shankar
down from 21 to 18 vastly extended cameras. The gruesome sight of 2014). But such ideas expressed
the scope of enfranchisement. The bodies of para military troops stacked in colourful rhetoric, quintessential
73 rd amendment, passed in 1993, on the ground in front of a police of the political discourse of India
introduced a statutory third level to station, killed by Maoists in a daylight
sadly does not lead us anywhere
the federal structure, introducing for attack in Chhattisgarh in Eastern
because the moral sentiments are not
the first time direct democracy at the India, was a grim reminder of the
local level and empowering women attached to any specific policy, action
violence that marked the campaign in
by setting a target of one third of the plan or an institutional arrangement,
the Naxalite affected areas of Eastern
seats to be occupied by women. build on a theory of incentives. To
India. The coincidence of the killing

YOJANA July 2014 43

cope with the violence which casts disappointment sets in quickly and the electorate. (Mitra 2914) The gamble
its long shadow on contemporary frustration often takes a violent shape, of introducing universal adult franchise
politics, there are three issues that making fresh elections necessary. in one fell swoop at the end of colonial
need urgent attention. First, the linkage To cope with such contingencies rule, rather than the steady, incremental
between widespread corruption and anywhere in the sprawling country, pattern that underpins the growth of
criminalisation of the political arena a constitutional mandate for a model western democracy has paid off. The
(charge-sheeted legislators, black code of conduct on the lines of first elections after Independence had
money, bribery, nepotism) are visible the German Parteiengesetz, 1 and a produced Congress dominance, but the
signs of the symbiosis between crime, bureaucratic apparatus at the disposal 1967-elections saw the first coalitions
electoral politics and disorder. As of the Election Commission are of the left and right, strengthening the
such, legitimacy lowering activities necessary.2 This would regulate the competitiveness of Indias elections
by people in leading positions electoral process, campaign funding, in general. 1971 brought in popular
should be registered by the Election and keep a sharp eye of the parties and authoritarianism. The elections of 1977
Commission. The EC itself, instead candidates becomes urgent. brought back a broad based coalition
of having to borrow staff from central of opposition parties to power at the
and State governments, should have Table 2. Trust in Institutions center. Since 1989, a multi-party
dedicated personnel, suitably trained system and coalition politics have been
Great Some- Not at the rule.
in law and electoral sociology, with Deal what all
guaranteed funds and constitutional The achievements of Indias
status. Secondly, the model code of Election 45.9 31.1 23.0
Commission electoral process in terms of the
conduct Indias all-purpose remedy deepening of democracy believes the
against electoral malpractices is no Judiciary 41.6 34.2 24.2
apprehensions of early Cassandras
help against Maoists who explicitly Local 39.0 37.8 23.2 like Selig Harrison (1968) who
reject the electoral option. However, Government predicted its demise, or the prediction
a firm directive to political parties State 37.2 43.6 19.2 of the downfall of democracy in
to refrain from seeking the help of Government the face of popular mobilisation,
Maoists overtly or covertly at the pain consequent on sudden expanse of
Central 35.2 42.5 22.3
of appropriate sanctions by the Election Government participation (Huntington 1968). Nor
Commission will possibly deny anti- has India lived up to the scenarios of
state forces the political protection Elected 19.9 40.4 39.7
Representatives the soft state, incapable of taking
they get from local politicians and hard decisions (Myrdal 1970), or
candidates. Finally, Indias active Political Parties 17.4 43.6 39.0
peaceful paralysis. Democratic
judiciary and civil society need to Government 17.2 40.4 42.3 participation, starting with its modest
remember that hungry men rebel, is Officials start under British colonial rule in
at best a dangerous half-truth. Being Police 13.0 29.9 57.1 the 1880s, has now become a fully
quintessentially strategic actors, the grown institution, ably mentored by
likely rebels are those who see a Source: Mitra and Singh, Democracy and the Election Commission, has become
concrete benefit and an opportunity to Social Change (Delhi: Sage, 1999) p.260 a reliable instrument for eliciting the
strike and get away. The solution for collective choice out of the individual
turning rebels into stakeholders lies Conclusion
voices of the Indian electorate.
not in homilies but in simultaneously Elections in India as indeed in any
fostering the rights to livelihood, I have argued in this essay
mature democracy, are aggregations
security and property, backed by that the basic structure of the
of individual preferences into a social
firm policing and administration, electoral process single member
choice which then forms the basis of
and drawing local panchayats into constituencies and majority voting
legislation. By holding the executive
the institutional mechanism for the have ably met the urgent need of
accountable for the policy output as a post-colonial state to inculcate a
maintenance of law and order. indeed for transparency in the process sense of enfranchisement, entitlement
The model code of conduct has of governance, an alert electorate and empower in a subject population,
no constitutional status. The Election ensures the broadening and deepening fragmented into narrow, sectarian
Commission does sometimes appear to of democracy. Transition from colonial identities, suddenly catapulted to
be overstepping its mandate (Alistair rule to competitive elections and citizenship. Subsequent electoral
McMillan, 2010, p. 113). The table universal adult franchise was made reforms and the rise of the Election
below shows that the Indian voter has a possible in India through vertical Commission to the Olympian heights
trust hiatus between trust in the referee mobilisation of the electorate by the of able and impartial monitoring of
institutions such as the Supreme Court upper social strata in the early elections, the process has set it on the right
and the Selection Commission and trust eventually leading to the differential course towards the transition to
in the elected representatives. As such, and horizontal mobilisation of the democracy and its consolidation.

44 YOJANA July 2014

However, in the competitive era of global cultural flow,
India, nuclear powered and a major emerging economy,
can no longer expect a bonus as a third world democracy.
The paradox of successful conduct of elections in the
largest democracy of the world being contingent on one of
the largest deployments of the army in peace time has to
be faced squarely if India were to claim full membership
of the global club of functioning democracies.
Harrison, Selig, India: the Most Dangerous Decades
(Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1960)
Huntington, Samuel P., Political Order in Changing
Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968)
McMillan, Alistair, The Election Commission in
Niraja Gopal Jaya and Pratap Bhanu Mehta, eds., The
Oxford Companion to Politics in India (Delhi: OUP, 2010),
pp 98-116.
Mitra, Subrata and V B Singh, When Rebels
become Stakeholders: Democracy and Social Change
in India (Delhi: Sage; 2009)
Mike Enskat, Subrata Mitra and V B Singh, India in
Dieter Nohlen, ed., Elections in Asia: A Data Handbook,
(Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2001)
Mitra, Subrata K., Politics in India: structure, process
and policy. Delhi: Oxford University Press; 2014.
Mitra, Subrata and Mike Enskat, Parties and the
People: Indias Changing Party System and the Resilience
of Democracy, Democratization, vol 6 (1), 1999.
Myrdal, Gunner, An Approach to the Asian Drama:
Methodological and Theoretical (New York: Random
House, Vintage Books, 1970)
Shankar, Megha, An essay on Electoral Reforms in
India, http://www.academia.edu/1982828/An_essay_on_
Electoral_Reforms_in_India, visited on 7.6.2014
1 Political Parties Act of 1967 (2002 Amendment), which
stipulates that every donation/contribution exceeding 10,000
Euros must appear in the statement of accounts (financial
reports) of each party, whereas those exceeding 50,000 Euros
must be additionally reported to the Bundestag President and
made public.
2 In Germany, for example, the Committee for the Scrutiny of
Elections (Election management bodies are independent federal
agencies, which federal Ministry of Interior does not have the
authority to issue directives against) only makes sure that the
Federal Voting Act is implemented properly, whereas the Federal
Constitutional Court deals with possible unconstitutionalities.
Within two months after the election, any voter can request the
scrutiny of elections. It does follow a complex procedure, but
if this is successful, the affected member will lose his or her

seat in the parliament.  q

(E-mail: Mitra@uni-heidelberg.de)

YOJANA July 2014 45

J&K Window
Rs. 21 Crores Spent in Ramban under MGNREGA
he state government has spent Rs. 20.84 crores for accomplishing the targets of Rural Development in the financial year

T 2013-14 in the district of Ramban in J&K. This has benefitted 26463 families through the completion of 3011 works during
this period. 50753 Job Cards were also given out under the scheme of MGNREGA. An amount of Rs.126.17 lakhs has been
utilized under Indira Awas Yojana. Also, 19 SOS IAY units have been made so far and the work on another 359 houses is under
process. These IAY units will soon get the GPS facility for their easy indentification. Under the scheme of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan,
an amount of Rs. 998.60 lakhs has been spent towards sanitation and hygiene related work in the district.  q

State Gives Nod to Civil Services Board

ammu and Kashmir Government has given the permission to clear the proposal to constitute a Civil Services Board (CSB),
following the directions of the Supreme Court. This board will have the mandate/authority to decide the posting and the transfers
in the prestigious All India Services OF IAS, IPS and IFS. The recommendations of this panel will be presented to the State
Cabinet for the final nod. This panel will have senior bureaucrats as its members and it will look into the matters pertaining to
civil servants, their postings and transfers. After the All India Services, a similar board will be set up for Kashmir Administrative
Services also.  q

North east diary

Shillong most Popular Destination in North East

nown as the Scotland of the East, the capital of Meghalaya, Shillong is the most frequently visited and favoured
tourist destination. Services like adventure activities, eating points and 24-hour taxi service have added to the
increased footfall in this city. So far, there are 17 recognised tourists hubs in this city. The State Government
is planning to open even more of these to promote tourism. The most popular places for tourism are the wobbling and
sparkling rivers, waterfalls, streams and mountain ranges. Besides these, a suitable climate, a golf course and scenic
lakes offering boating options also attracts the tourists.  q

28 Flood Management Schemes Approved

ith a cost of Rs.583 crores, the Government of India has sanctioned 28 Flood Management Schemes for the
state of Assam. Out of the submitted 32 medium and major Flood Management Schemes last year 30 projects
have been given the nod under this Flood Management Programme. These schemes are aimed at curbing
damages caused by the flood and the safety of the local people.  q

Oldest Female Member to be Head of Family on Ration Cards

he Government of Arunachal Pradesh has brought out a notification according to which, the new ration cards

T will have the oldest female member of the family as the Head, instead of its male counterpart. As per the Section
13 of the National Food Security Act 2013, the female member, however, has to be not less than 18 years of age
and should be the oldest woman of the household for availing the items under the Targeted Public Distribution System
(TPDS).  q

Website for NE Launched by DoNER

he North East region will soon have its own website by Department of North Eastern Region (DoNER)
which will be launched exclusively for the people of North Eastern region. This website is targeted at sharing
the problems and the grievances of the local people and therefore, will function as a connecting bridge
for the locals of this land locked region. A Help Group will also be set up which will work round the clock on all
days.  q

46 YOJANA July 2014


YOJANA July 2014 47


Is There a Trade-Off between Agricultural

Development, Adaptation and Mitigation?
Ashwini K Swain

ndias long-standing the largest contributor to inflation

official position in global for several years, contributing to
climate negotiations has staggering poverty.
been that any discussion
While India has emerged as a net
on agriculture must be held
exporter of agricultural products, it is
in the realm of adaptation,
still dependent on imports for essential
not mitigation. 1 The government
food items like pulses and cooking oil.
considers the sector a clear out-of- Though food self-sufficiency is not
bounds sector with respect to emissions a distant goal, food security at micro
reduction as agriculture is a sensitive level remains a formidable challenge.
issue and pursing mitigation may Unswerving slowdown in performance
India may resist produce negative impacts on peoples of the sector is a cause of concern in
inclusion of agricultural livelihoods. Is this apprehension the overall agenda for food & income
sound? Is there any trade-off between security and rural poverty eradication.
mitigation in global agricultural development, adaptation
climate negotiations, but and mitigation? Being a climate change hotspot,
embryonic impacts in form of extreme
it cannot afford to avoid Indian Agriculture and Climate weather events seem to be further
the mitigation needs Change aggravating the agrarian distress in
at the domestic level, India. About 70 per cent of arable land
Even after decades of in the country is estimated to be prone
especially when adaptation industrialisation, India still remains to drought, 12 per cent to floods and
an agricultural country. While there
and development are is a global trend of decline, according
eight per cent to cyclones. At the same
time, temperature rise would result in
closely linked with and to Worldwatch Institute, agricultural significant reduction in agricultural
dependent on mitigation populations in India has grown by a yield. The latest IPCC AR5 claims,
actions. However, effective whopping 50 per cent over 1980-2011. with medium confidence, that higher
On the contrary, agricultures share in temperature will reduce rice yields in
implementation of these the GDP has seen a secular decline Asian countries as a result of shorter
strategies would necessitate since independence. Nonetheless, growing period. Indo-Gangetic plains
agriculture has far more important role of South Asia could face a decrease of
bundling of policies and in Indian economy and policymaking about 50 per cent in the most favourable
interests to internalise than its share of GDP suggests. It and high yielding wheat due to heat
the transaction costs and employs about half of the workforce, stress at 2x CO2. Similarly, sorghum
provides livelihood to about two-third yield in India is projected to decrease
ensure social acceptability of the population, and food has been by 2-14 per cent by 2020, which will

The author is a Fellow at CUTS Institute for Regulation & Competition, New Delhi. His current research looks into the interface
between energy service needs and climate mitigation goals, and emerging energy-climate governance architecture in India. His other
work includes the political economy of regulation and the rise of the 'regulatory state' in India, with a focus on infrastructure. Dr Swain
holds a Ph.D. in Politics from University of York.

48 YOJANA July 2014

further worsen by 2050 and 2080.2 Under the provisions of National policy. Such an obscure strategy, that
With about 250 million populations Action Plan on Climate Change, a merely addresses a few adaptation
being food insecure, the challenge is dedicated Mission- National Mission concerns, certainly falls short of a
to produce enough food sustainably for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)- sustainable pathway for agricultural
to meet the increasing demands, with has been set up to promote sustainable development.
shrinking resource (land, water and agriculture, seeking to transform
energy) availability. Other schemes targeting water
Indian agriculture into a climate
and energy use efficiency have not
While the sector is most vulnerable resilient production system through
been much successful. Government
to climate change, agricultural suitable adaptation and mitigation
initiatives to promote micro irrigation
production contributes considerably measures in the domain of crops and
technologies, that have a huge
to the problem, accounting for 17.6 animal husbandry.
potential to reduce water demand
per cent of total emissions in India. If NMSA has been partly successful in agriculture, are dispersed and
we attribute agricultural consumption in identifying the challenges faced have very limited success in few
related emissions, involving energy use by agriculture and how they will states. While the state governments
and fertiliser production, the sectors be exacerbated in a changing have made provision for substantial
contribution to GHG emissions rises to climate. Yet, it has failed to bring in investment subsidies, owing to high
30 per cent (See Table 1). Thus, as an innovation in finding solutions for transactional costs in accessing those
economic activity, agriculture emerges these challenges. With an approach to subsidies, there is low incentive for the
as not only less productive but also promote resource efficient technology, farmers to adopt such technologies.
highly carbon intensive which is not a
it has missed to address unhealthy
sustainable scenario. Under the National Mission
agricultural practices. While water
on Enhanced Energy Efficiency,
Table 1: GHG Emissions from
Agricultural Production and ...weak institutional and human India has launched the Agricultural
Demand-Side Management (AgDSM)
Consumption (in MtCO2e) 3 capacity will be a key challenge programme to limit agricultural
Agricultural Production Related for effective implementation of electricity demand. Considering
(Direct) Emissions (MtCO2e) agricultural policy. Such an obscure significant contribution of electricity
Livestock 212.10 strategy, that merely addresses a consumption to agricultural GHG
emissions, it is essential to tame the
Rice Cultivation 69.87
few adaptation concerns, certainly demand. However, taking another
falls short of a sustainable pathway narrow and technology-centric
Soil Management 43.40
for agricultural development. approach, the programme seeks to
Burning of Crop Residues 6.61 improve pump efficiency by replacing
Manure Management 2.44 existing pumps with five-star-rated
use efficiency is emphasised, skewed energy efficient pumps. Can these
Sub-Total 334.41 use of chemical fertilisers is ignored; new pumps save energy? The goals
the latter is a major driver of rising seem to be far from the reality.
irrigation water demand. Moreover,
Agricultural Consumption Related
(Indirect) Emissions (MtCO2e) many of the proposed strategies Considering the past experiences
target the big farmers, who can in Indian electricity, we are not very
Use of Electricity 130.63 afford newer equipment, while the optimistic about the replacement
Use of Other Energy 33.66 small and marginal farmers are left of 18.5 million irrigation pumps
vulnerable. installed across India. The proposed
Energy Use in Fertiliser 20.57 Energy Service Companies (ESCO)
Production Though the mission is technology- model of investment seems unrealistic
Sub-Total 184.86 driven, it neither clarifies how the and financially unviable; the energy
technologies will be governed nor service companies (potential
Grand Total 519.27 addresses the weak agricultural investors) are taking their hands off
extension services. Furthermore, actual implementation. Even if India
Current Strategies
absence of adequate credit and manages to implement the AgDSM
Has agriculture received due insurance facility, particularly for the programme, there is no hope for
importance in Indias low-carbon large number of small and marginal energy saving. The new pumps being
development strategy and action? farmers, would be a bottleneck for promoted are claimed to be capable
Keeping with the global trend, India has wider adoption of these technologies. of drawing more water with the
been prioritising electricity, industries Finally, weak institutional and human limited electricity supplied to Indian
and transport sectors for low-carbon capacity will be a key challenge for farmers. Considering the fact that
development. effective implementation of agricultural farmers need water, not electricity,

YOJANA July 2014 49

and water demand is much higher change induced stress, extreme events improved feed is also expected
than the current extractable quantity, and their intensity can be reduced. to neutralise the adverse effects
improving pump efficiency will In that sense, both adaptation and of climate change and warming,
increase water use and thus, cause mitigation have same goals, seeking and thus, contribute to adaptation.
further depletion of groundwater to achieve sustainability in agricultural Reduced herd size, through health
table. We must not forget that a consumption and production. and reproduction management, with
depleted water table requires raising a larger proportion of healthy and
the horsepower of irrigation pumps Converging agricultural productive animals in dairies will
to draw water from further below. development with mitigation and increase productivity and at the same
The addition of each horsepower adaptation actions poses new time reduce emissions. Gerber et al.
means an increase in electricity challenges and requires better (2013) claim that in South Asia that a
consumption.4 capacities, interventions and creative 38 per cent reduction in emission is
manoeuvres. To achieve the objective, achievable in mixed farming systems
Way Forward India needs to reorient its agricultural if measures are taken for improving
development policy and strategy feed quality, animal health and
In the coming decades, feeding
weighing its social, political, economic husbandry.5
growing population will require
and environmental settings directly
ingenuity and innovation in agriculture
against each other, instead of thinking Water is What Matters
to produce more food with less
of them as separable.
An effective adaptation strategy Water is a crucial input for
This calls for a broader and agriculture. While current availability
would seek to raise their resilience embedded approach towards of irrigation water is inadequate and
by preparing the communities agricultural development. While it going to be more unobtainable in
to deal with resource scarcity may be politically infeasible and coming years, a significant part of
and extreme events through socially unacceptable to take up a agricultural emission comes from
mitigation first approach, India can prevailing irrigation patterns that is
alternatives and resource use predominantly flooding and highly
plan a development first strategy for
efficiency. Likewise, mitigation in agriculture with clear adaptation and dependent on electricity and diesel
agriculture would require improved mitigation co-benefits. Following for pumping. In this context, a
efficiency in resource consumption three broad strategies would be convergence of the three goals can be
so that climate change induced useful for achieving the much needed
agricultural development while ...a convergence of the three goals
stress, extreme events and their accruing adaptation and mitigation can be achieved by improving
intensity can be reduced. co-benefits. irrigation water management.
resource in more sustainable ways. Livestock Management While substantial water demand
Agriculture must therefore transform Livestock is the major emitting
can be reduced by adopting efficient
to adapt to changing climate and sub-sector accounting for about 40 irrigation technologies like drip and
lower emission intensities per output. per cent of embedded emissions in sprinkler, much of the remaining
Therefore, a climate-responsive
development strategy is required in
agriculture, but somehow not much demand can be met by revitalising
discussed in the policy domain.
Indian agriculture to achieve the triple However, simple interventions
and extending surface irrigation
wins of development, adaptation and like feed quality improvement and network. It can further be
mitigation. health and reproduction management complemented through sustained
The major climate threat to can reduce much of the emissions rain water harvesting and
w h i l e i m p r o v i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y.
agriculture comes in form of increased groundwater recharge initiatives
stress on already scarce resources and More than two-third of livestock
thus raising vulnerability of agriculture related emissions come from dairy and improvement of irrigation
dependent communities. An effective animals that can be easily targeted. pump efficiency.
adaptation strategy would seek to Improvement of the digestibility
raise their resilience by preparing the of the diet, which can be achieved achieved by improving irrigation water
communities to deal with resource by feed processing and addition management. While substantial water
scarcity and extreme events through of improved forages, will result in demand can be reduced by adopting
alternatives and resource use efficiency. additional lactation and enhanced efficient irrigation technologies
Likewise, mitigation in agriculture farm income and at the same time in like drip and sprinkler, much of the
would require improved efficiency in the reduction of methane emission. remaining demand can be met by
resource consumption so that climate Additional lactation resulting from revitalising and extending surface

50 YOJANA July 2014

irrigation network. It can further be resource use efficiency and improve on mitigation actions. However,
complemented through sustained rain productivity. effective implementation of these
water harvesting and groundwater strategies would necessitate bundling
recharge initiatives and improvement Realigning Wider Agricultural of policies and interests to internalise
of irrigation pump efficiency. Policies the transaction costs and ensure
The state can facilitate execution social acceptability. Moreover, it
While these initiatives will raise would require intervention of state
resilience to water scarcity situation of these measures at farm level
agencies as a facilitator at multiple
without compromising productivity, co- through creating effective incentive
benefits include significant reduction mechanisms at wider level. Moreover,
in agricultural energy consumption there is a consensus that agricultural Endnotes
and methane emissions from flood electricity and fertiliser subsidies 1 Swain, A K & Charnoz, O (2013):
irrigation. in India, though lower than global Agriculture- An Undervalued Sector
Restoring Agricultural Practices standards, have contributed to for Climate Mitigation, Financial
significant inefficiencies. This calls Express, 4th January, New Delhi.
Although modernisation is crucial for realigning the wider agricultural 2 Hijioka, Y., Lin, E. & Pereira, J. J.,
for development, some traditional subsidy policies and food procurement (2014): Chapter 24: Asia, in Climate
practices must be retained for policies to incentivise resource Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and
better efficiency. For example, use efficiency and conservation in Vulnerability, IPCC Working Group II
land levelling, mulching and crop Contribution to AR5, Intergovernmental
agriculture. For example, offering
diversification are some traditional
agricultural practices that reduce the better support price for water efficient Panel on Climate Change.

need for input resources like water crops and varieties may foster 3 INCCA (2010): Climate Change and
and fertiliser. However, farmers often their adoption, while substituting India: A 4x4 Assessment- A Sectoral
ignore these practices largely to avoid regressive energy and fertiliser And Regional Analysis For 2030s.
extra labour required and partly due subsidies with subsidies for efficient New Delhi, Indian Network for Climate
to limited awareness pertaining to irrigation technologies can benefit the Change Assessment and Ministry of
the benefits. While these inexpensive poor farmers more. Environment and Forests, Government
practices reduce the need for inputs, of India.
they also reduce erosion, preserve Based on a conservative 4 Swain, A. K. & Charnoz, O. (2012):
soil nutrients, supress weeds and estimation, these climate-smart In Pursuit of Energy Efficiency in
increase fertility. Crop residues measures together could result in Indias Agriculture: Fighting Free
that are largely being burnt in field, reduction of a quarter of embedded Power or Working with it? AFD
contributing to emissions and local air emission in the sector, while increasing Working Paper 126, Agence Franaise
pollution, can be used productively as productivity. Postponing these low- de Dveloppement, Paris.
mulch. Further, on field plantation of hanging opportunities for triple wins 5 Gerber, P. J., H. Seinfeld, B. Henderson,
trees that can transfer nitrogen to soil is short-sighted. India may resist A. Mottet, C. Opio, , J. Dijkman and G.
would not only reduce requirement of inclusion of agricultural mitigation Tempio (2013): Tackling Climate Change
chemical nitrogen fertiliser, but also in global climate negotiations, but it through Livestock: a Global Assessment of
can sequester carbon. cannot afford to avoid the mitigation Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities.
needs at the domestic level, especially Food and Agriculture Organization of the
In addition, modern practices
when adaptation and development are United Nations, Rome. q
like soil fertigation and systemic rice
intensification can further improve closely linked with and dependent (E-mail: ashwini@ashwiniswain.net)

Yojana August 2014

September 2014
Forthcoming Issues
Urban Planning (Special Issue)
Informal Sector

YOJANA July 2014 51


52 YOJANA July 2014


Manufacturing in India: Future Scenarios

Soumitra Biswas
M Thamarai Selvan
Suresh Babu Muttana
Jancy A
Gautam Goswami

anufacturing development of a country is directly

activities act as the linked with the share of tertiary sector
multipliers in value- (services) to the country's GDP as the
chain starting from tertiary sector enjoys the highest value-
cheap raw materials addition potential. In India, services
to more expensive sector enjoys the major share (~58 per
intermediates to sought-after products, cent) of GDP while employing ~20
which can be positioned to command a per cent of the workforce. For poverty
very high value appreciation. The entire reduction and better prosperity of
gamut of manufacturing by adding people, creation of more employment
Indian manufacturing value at every stage of production can avenues assumes importance. It is
thus have a positive impact on national anticipated that with the increased
is currently at the economies. Indian manufacturing productivity in agriculture, the sector
crossroads braving sector currently contributes around 26 would disengage surplus manpower,
per cent to the GDP, which amounts which is expected to be absorbed in
more competitive to a mere 1.8 per cent of the world the manufacturing sector. Even the
manufacturing output. With the highly performing services sector
manufacturing means number of middle-class households alone cannot meaningfully employ
and strategies from other swelling by 12 times and urbanization 250 million new job seekers in the
of population increasing to 38 per coming 15 years. Moreover, the
nations. Thus, it would cent by 2025, India would be the fifth sector typically employs less people
largest consumer market in the world. with specific skill sets. As skilling
be interesting to portray This promises a huge opportunity for or re-skilling of people requires a
the likely scenarios, Indian manufacturers to cater to the longer time horizon, the emphasis on
domestic demand in addition to the tertiary sector based economy tends
which may prevail 20-25 international market. to leave out majority of people from
years from now and how In Indian economy, agriculture the development process in the near
while employing 37 per cent of the term. Hence, manufacturing assumes
they will influence the workforce contributes 16 per cent key role especially for developing
of GDP vis--vis manufacturing countries like India, where the sector
manufacturing sector sector employing 12 per cent of the can potentially generate large scale
in India. manpower contributing to 26 per cent employment and meaningfully
of GDP. It is often said and seen from engage sizable populace in economic
international experiences that the activities.

Soumitra Biswas is working as Adviser in the Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment Council (TIFAC), Department of
Science & Technology (Govt. of India), New Delhi. Gautam Goswami, M Thamarai Selvan, Jancy A and Suresh Babu Muttana are
working as Scientists in TIFAC.

YOJANA July 2014 53

establishes the contribution and IMPACT IMPACT
criticality of manufacturing sector Access to education & skill
in Indian economy. It is important Demographics
to note that Indian manufacturing is Urbanization & life style Disposable income
currently at the crossroads braving changes Access to energy
more competitive manufacturing E n e r g y e f f i c i e n c y a n d Entrepreneurship
means and strategies from other emissions FDI
nations. Thus, it would be interesting Design and Quality Merger & Acquisition
to portray the likely scenarios, which Input cost
Access to funds, financial and tax
may prevail 20-25 years from now R&D, innovation
and how they will influence the I T e n a b l e d & e m b e d d e d
manufacturing sector in India. Alignment with global business manufacturing
Domestic market Environmental considerations
Methodology Labour laws
Land availability & physical
The first step of scenario building Resource depletion Infrastructure
exercise involves identification of key
Transparency in governance Geopolitical scenario
'Drivers' grouped under broad categories
(STEEP Social, Technological,
Economic, Environmental & Political) LOW UNCERTAINTY & LOW IGH UNCERTAINITY & LOW
for the specific sector. They are the most IMPACT IMPACT
important factors, which have almost Marketing and export support Government investment and
direct cause-effect relationship with the subsidy
sector. For the manufacturing sector,
the key drivers can be summarized the manufacturing sector were The aforesaid extreme of uncertainties,
as: subsequently ranked High and Low when plotted would depict four
and tabulated as follows: scenarios as below:
Technological (R&D, innovation,
energy efficiency & emissions, The drivers having 'low impact' Manufacturing Sector Likely
access to energy, design & are not considered for further analysis Scenarios
quality, IT enabled & embedded due to their insignificant influence on
manufacturing, digital business the future. The drivers grouped under SCENARIO 1 : Trouncing Tiger
the quadrant, 'low uncertainty & (Break-through Innovations &
high impact' are expected to occur in Economic Buoyancy)
Economic (entrepreneurship, access all probabilities and thus they would
to funds, financial & tax systems, be inevitable across the scenarios. This is India of our dreams poised
marketing & export support, FDI, The drivers grouped under the 'high like a Royal Bengal tiger symbolizing
aligning with global business, uncertainty & high impact', can be majesty and magnificence. We imagine
domestic market, infrastructure, considered as the game changers for India has been reinventing its golden
merger & acquisition, IPR etc.) the future of manufacturing in India. past when the world came here to
From the aforesaid quadrant, drivers share her pie of prosperity. The
E n v i ro n m e n t a l ( r e g u l a t o r y were grouped under two categories of double-digit GDP growth for more
framework, clean technologies, overarching and critical uncertainties than a decade has placed India in
reuse & recycle etc.) namely, technology and economics the top three of global economies.
Social (demographics, access to for generating the scenarios. India now commands around 10
education, urbanization, disposable The extremes of critical uncertainties per cent share of world trade and
income, life style changes, skill (technology & economics) were has been championing technology
levels etc.) considered as follows : led growth. India is now home to
Political (geo-political stability,
economic reforms & industrial
policies, labour laws, land acquisition
& availability, transparency in
governance etc.)
The drivers as per their nature
of uncertainty and impact on

54 YOJANA July 2014

workstations are effectively being
used. Interactive decision support
expert systems have helped capturing
and documenting expertise generated
and assimilation of knowledge gained
by individuals.
Application of high end advanced
sensor and fuzzy logic systems have
led to advent of novel products, with
more active interactive surfaces,
specifically in automobiles. Virtual
reality labs and online design clinics
have acted as catalysts for growth of
SMEs in the country. The erstwhile
sprawling and huge complexes for
heavy chemicals, petroleum refineries
and petrochemicals are now smaller,
compact and more efficient, thanks
to process intensification techniques
deployed. These techniques have also
with improved urban amenities, enabled significant reduction in energy
high-end manufacturing operations
health, education and recreational consumption and emissions. Near
producing low-volume high-value
infrastructure thus attracting and net processes adopted in component
special purpose applications for
retaining talents for creation of wealth manufacturing helped in effective use
the world. On occupying the global
in dispersed locations. of material resources and energy for
leadership role, India promotes
peace and prosperity among all her
All this have brought out
neighbours by strengthening and T h e i m p r o v e d a ff o r d a b i l i t y
perceptible changes in lifestyle with
augmenting bilateral and regional has fuelled the level of aspirations
double income family being the
ties. With the overall improvement in amongst Indians demanding products
accepted norm. People are concerned
economic performance, Indians enjoy of superior design and performance
and conscious about healthy lifestyle
better access to and affordability of quality. The consciousness for better
and food habits with greater sensitivity
quality healthcare and habitation. The quality and services has been pervading
about environment. With a burgeoning
enhanced societal values, human rights thus prompting the manufacturers to
and gender equity have all contributed middleclass (50 per cent of population),
India is now the third largest consumer tone up their quality of inputs, methods
to position India several notches of manufacturing and after-market
upward in the Human Development market in the world.
services for their existing products.
Index scale. Additive manufacturing The technological breakthroughs have
The demography has shaped like a technologies, adopted earlier for simultaneously enabled manufacturers
perfect diamond with more than 45per prototyping have been deployed offer innovative products to novelty
cent population in the productive and used extensively for developing savvy clientele with their higher
range contributing effectively to various industrial applications. disposable incomes. Manufacturers
economic activities. The entire These technologies have been now spend more than 4 per cent of
productive band of the population found to have manifold growth, their annual turnover for their research
has been meaningfully and effectively specifically in medical and healthcare and design development.
employed. applications. Modularity introduced in
manufacturing has enabled flexibility With stricter norms on emissions,
The big cities have long stopped of the operation both in terms of its substantial efforts are directed to
growing as economic activities are range of functions and also its ability improve the energy efficiency of any
more widespread and decentralized, to be easily reconfigured in the face of production operation and transportation.
thus turning smaller towns into changing conditions (thereby focusing Clean energy technologies have been
near-metros with urban population on low volume production). Machine well established with reduced raw
touching 40 per cent with smaller vision, diagnostic tools (acoustic/ material consumption, effective reuse
cities enjoying excellent road, vibration), machine-to-machine & recycle and carbon emissions. With
transportation, optics connectivity (M2M) communications, wi-fi enabled the adoption of environmentally benign

YOJANA July 2014 55

technologies, climate change is under entities and start-up entrepreneurs are effective manner. With the balanced
controlled realms limiting the global being supported by angel investors resource allocation and progress
warming levels within 2 deg C as and venture capitalists for really among agriculture, manufacturing and
targeted. worthy innovations by helping them services, India has been on the right
achieve global market or by enabling path to sustainable development.
E-Governance has taken its them get gobbled up by bigger players.
roots with complete enumeration Entrepreneurship has been the new India stands tall among all the
of individuals across the country mantra of success in India creating nations in the world for her dogged
and all C2G activities have been wealth, generating employment, pursuit of non-violence, promotion of
computerized. Operations such as fostering innovation and projecting fraternity, and extending helping hand
birth/death registration, registration Indian cerebral success stories to the to others in distress. The knowledge-
of properties, vehicle and business, world. based growth and economic prosperity
payment of all taxes, issue of passport, have gone a long way to promote the
driving licenses have all been brought The fiscal system put in place by happiness and confidence exuded by
on e-platform for efficient and the Government offers no ambiguity; her citizens.
transparent operations. they are simple, transparent and
encouraging for the economic SCENARIO 2 : Swaying Elephant
All the relevant Government activities. With the application of IT (Economic Prosperity but Low
policies both at the Central and State enabled tax collection & payment Novelty Regime)
levels concerning the manufacturing infrastructure, human interfaces have
sector are in unison creating highly Indian economy has progressed
been totally eliminated. well with 10 per cent YoY growth in
conducive business environment.
Major hurdles such as labour laws, Deployment of appropriate this scenario ushering in simultaneous
land acquisition, women employment technologies coupled with break- changes in urbanization and life style
have been resolved amicably through innovations, astute fiscal of people. India has been successful
with a win-win approach for the management and prudent governance, in attracting substantial share of FDI,
stakeholders. The companies are manufacturing sector has truly which has bolstered the infrastructure
allowed to retrench surplus labour leapfrogged with the employment and basic manufacturing operations.
force only when they contribute 1 of factors of production in an Huge funds have also flown in as FII in
per cent of their total turn-over to the Indian equity market. This has created
a strong tertiary sector based economy
National Skill Development Fund. Healthiest situation, where the strengthening the services sector
The fund, professionally managed
for effective returns, is deployed in
innovation led growth has created and generated jobs with fancy pay
skill development programmes of the great national wealth, effectively packages. Sectors such as banking,
retrenched labour. This is essentially employed the entire productive financial services, insurance etc. have
all flourished well catering to the
a 'safety net', where a worker is band of population and positioned international trade and commerce.
trained for newer or higher skills and India as the knowledge-power.
supported by the minimum wages
payable during the training period.
The economy has witnessed major People are content with their basic
needs being met with easy efforts.
The programme also helps in suitable transition from agriculture to India has long forsaken the journey
placement of trained workers thus manufacturing to services deploying towards technological excellence.
providing an opportunity in upward the surplus manpower from the Indian innovations are at low key with
career mobility. primary sector. There has been the gifted scientific minds leaving the
India is completely aligned with simultaneous upgradation of country for better intellectual pursuits
elsewhere. India has reconciled itself to
the global economy with seamless skill sets across the productive be a cheap manufacturing base where
transfer of funds, technology and population. The scenario fuelled by the global players with their patented
even manpower. Indian corporate
houses have been routinely accessing
innovation has generated a whole technology know-how congregate
capital from International sources on lot of aspirations & ambitions to convert them into products for
the assurance of higher returns. The among the people. In order to domestic consumption.
corporate sector has now mastered the sustain the growth momentum, the India has done rather well in
game plan of mergers & acquisitions country should steadfastly pursue a primary industrial sectors such as
especially for technology & IPR
related issues trying to transcend
steep innovation trajectory buoyed manufacturing steel, aluminium,
cement, textiles, power generation,
geo-political boundaries. Small scale by vibrant economy. petroleum refining, mining and has

56 YOJANA July 2014

been meeting the domestic demands. short-term emergencies. Without the fruits of such innovations, which
The entire industrial sustenance aligning with the global economy, could have been the game changers
depends on acquired technologies. The India has focused more and more for Indians have eluded them.
national economy has bloated in size for indigenization. The world has
and the domestic market has occupied The scenario typically depicts
moved on. The developed countries
huge elephantine volume without any cunning but opportunistic foxes
have located greener pastures to park
cutting edge technology while missing foraging the best for themselves in
their FDIs. With the investments from
out the global leadership and esteem. a forest.
overseas sources (FDI & FII) drying
This scenario may not be sustainable up, Indian economy is in doldrums. SCENARIO 4 : Marauding Monkeys
in the long run as international Confronted with burgeoning energy (Economic Downturn along with
investors are on a continuous look import bill, India has hardly any Technological Obsolescence
out for cheaper options. With any such surplus to invest in manufacturing,
This is the scariest of them all
economically attractive locations, education and health. So while
where, India is delegated to dark
India may lose all her competitive economy has been stagnating without
dungeons. Due to extreme fallouts
edge and the investments may leave newer employment opportunities and
in geopolitical scenario and also
Indian shores denying the economic creation of wealth in real terms, it
for the lack of political will and
benefits to the country. faces the fangs of inflationary pressure
leadership, governance has gone
for acute resource constraints.
into complete disarray. Enhanced
With the overall gloom in the hostility by its neighbours and mindless
economic scenario, the national acts of terrorism are threatening the
The economy tends to portray a nations stability at times. Self-serving,
research and educational institutions of
happy situation without strong international standing have achieved priorities of political leaders have
fundamentals. With the services great intellectual heights. They taken over the national interests.
sector leading the pack, the wealth have been working on cutting edge Regional imbalances have cropped
distribution is skewed benefitting technologies adding to their kitty of up resulting in a whole lot of internal
strife, inequitable development has
only the select section of people. breakthrough innovations on a regular
basis. Their scientific dissertations are caused widespread discrepancy and
India is placed rather lowly in the the federal structure is too constrained
world class; intellectual properties
world in technology value-chain. are protected globally. The industrial tending to collapse.
The situation will lead to creation R&D outputs have also kept pace. All these have resulted in
of low-skill job opportunities But in a stagnating economic set up, irreversible damages to Indian
in basic industrial sectors. By their innovations are not exploited economy shoeing away the global
neglecting technology innovation in commercially in India. International investors. The technological prowess
companies routinely approach these
manufacturing sector, the economy pathfinder Indian institutions lapping
has taken a backseat and socio-
economic system is in tatters. World
may not be sustainable in the long up their technologies with handsome has firmly stamped seal of the failed
run and may be quite vulnerable to handout of royalty. Sadly enough state on India.
vagaries of the extraneous forces
Industrial activities are at the
threatening the countrys stability. The scenario goes to prove that lowest ebb and intellectual pursuits are
SCENARIO 3 : Foraging Fox economics alone can nurture and no longer respected. The total darkness
(Technological Excellence faced nourish innovation. Innovation has of despair has descended on India. The
people are the worst sufferers with
with Economic Slowdown) been the key to a smarter nation no employment opportunities and
This scenario depicts India where creating high skill-high value jobs, augmentation of disposable income,
technological development and promoting entrepreneurial spirit, faced with spiraling double digit
economic progress are not in tandem. promising great economic returns inflation. In such a gloomy scenario
This is rather a sad story where the thereby carving out the global people have lost their self respect and
individuals are worshipped around social values, always trying to fend
the world while India whines in
leadership role. But to foster themselves from impending perils
agony. innovation and reap these benefits and pitfalls.
to society in general, economic
India has been squabbling with The scenario typifies when the
fiscal policies tweaking them on
prosperity is the effective enabler. monkeys take over the forest with no

YOJANA July 2014 57

orderly hierarchy, no laws and rules of the path of rapid economic progress cannot prosper in isolation purely on
the games but might and muscle are and adopting appropriate policies the merit of indigenous consumption.
deployed for immediate sustenance. in the intervening period. With such Hence, it is imperative that the
economic attainment, manufacturing economic progress should pervade
activities in the basic industrial sectors worldwide and the geo-political strife
The scenario is the most pessimistic of steel, cement, power generation be minimized.
depiction of the future, where not etc. while following a steep growth
While scripting the country's
trajectory initially would tend to taper
a single parameter has worked off eventually. The bulk manufacturing future, India runs the risk of slipping
in the countrys favour. Economic operations would be expected to grow @ into Scenario 2 (economic prosperity
bungling, delinquency in governance 3-4 per cent purely on incremental and but low novelty regime) by choosing
an easier path to contentment. It
and geo-political strife have all renewal basis. Indian manufacturing
sector would be positioned in high-end is hoped that Indians with their
pushed the country to its nadir, to of the value-chain focusing mostly on preference for education and allied
almost an irreversible regression, customized & flexible production, end- skill development, would champion
where India is writhing with pain. use specific applications development the knowledge creation activities
In such a gloomy socio-economic and precision engineering. Such high- especially by exploring entrepreneurial
value manufacturing activities may not avenues. This is expected to steer
backdrop, intellectual pursuits have create large-scale job opportunities in the country firmly into knowledge
taken a backseat and technological the long run and services sector in the leadership regime.
excellence is long forgotten. developed economy is expected to offer
valued career options for majority of The scenario analysis may be
the population with higher skill sets. construed as wishful thinking for the
Conclusion collective good of people along with
An important inference in the a wish list of actionable options but it
Thescenarios attempt portrayal of 'best case' scenario is simultaneous cannot be considered as the forecast
India 20-25 years from the current prosperity of the global economy. outcome unless buttressed with the
time frame. Hence, in the 'best case' India being a large country with a right intents and initiatives.
scenario, India would have attained the humongous domestic market can
developed country status by treading absorb shocks to some extent but E-mail: soumitra2000@gmail.com

Electronics Voting Machines

Election Commission of India designed EVMs by collaborating with two
Public Sector undertakings viz., Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore and
Electronics Corporation of India Limited, Hyderabad. These Electronic Voting
Machines ("EVM") are being used in Indian General and State Elections to conduct
electronic voting in parts from 1999 elections and in total since 2004 elections.
These indigenously designed EVMs were first used in 50 polling stations of
Parur Assembly Constituency of Kerala in May 1982. These machines could
not be used after 1983 after a Supreme Court ruling that necessitated legal
backing for the use of Voting machines in elections. Since, November 1998,
EVMs have been used in each and every general/bye elections to Parliamentary
and Assembly Constituency. India was turned into an e-democracy in General
Elections 2004 when 10.75 lakh EVMs were used across all polling Stations in the
country. Since then, all elections are conducted through EVMs .The EVMs have
many important features. They are very simple to operate. The Program which
controls the functioning of the control unit is burnt into a micro chip on a one
time programmable basis. Once burnt it cannot be read, copied out or altered
thus, making them tamper proof and eliminating the possibility of invalid votes,
facilitating the counting process much faster and reducing the cost of printing.
An EVM can record a maximum number of 3840 votes. An important feature of EVMs is that it can be used in areas
without electricity as it runs on alkaline batteries. However, the Elections can be conducted through EVMs if the number
of candidates does not exceed 64.

58 YOJANA July 2014

Suggested Heading Modification auto-
engine with mileage
Sib Sankar Mandal

ib Sankar Mandal (37), a The modified auto engine combustion. Also, the temperature of

S mechanic from Kokrajhar,

has modified the auto
engine incorporating a
process to pre-heat the
incoming air for complete
combustion of the fuel, significant
improvement in the mileage.
The innovation is a modification
of an auto rickshaw engine assembly.
In the modified system, a part of the
exhaust gas is utilized to heat the
incoming air while the remaining part is
utilized to heat the mixture containing
the exhaust gas is less, ensuring that
heat does dissipate in the environment.
The system was tested at IIT Guwahati,
which reported that the fuel efficiency
increased by 35 per cent using
this system in comparison to other
conventional engines. It was also
both the air and fuel before the entry
mentioned that preheating both the
As a child, Sib Sankar made various to the engine. This is to ensure the
complete combustion of the fuel, which intake air as well as the charge using
models like wind turbine, water pump,
motorcycle etc., he used to participate results in increased fuel efficiency. exhaust gas was a new concept which
in science exhibitions and win prizes. is possible for other three wheelers
Somehow, he could not continue The heat from exhaust gas is utilized as well. With the support of NIF, an
his studies beyond class ten due to warm the intake air by means of a improved prototype is also being made
to the poor financial conditions at heat exchanger having surface contact and further tested by the IIT Guwahati
home. But he continued to work on with the silencer pipe. Some exhaust experts.
the science models and took up odd gas is channelized to the carburettor
section, which is used to heat the Prior art search has disclosed
jobs in workshops including electric preheating methods of intake air (for
wiring works, water system work etc. air fuel mixture using another heat
exchanger. Besides the cylinder valve cold start) for small period of time. But
he continued to make models, which none of the system
were exhibited at Bodo Sahitya showed the capacity
Sabha exhibition, Krishi Vibhag to perform two
Pradarshini etc among others. His levels of preheating
Hitachi crane model in an exhibition and the alternatives
impressed an engineer so much that available are only
he offered him a job at the site of
super charging
GAMMON in Arunachal Pradesh, but
and turbo charging
he did not join as it was too far from his
where increased
home. But he is now willing to explore
intake of the
an opportunity outside Kokrajhar.
exhaust pressure
Apart from his interest in models and
is allowed to enter
in the combustion
Genesis chamber for better
combustion. Hence
While studying the working models considering the
of bike engines in garages, he identified novelty of the
gaps, which reduced efficiency. After has also been modified in a manifold
system, NIF filed the Patent (1811/
many rounds of changes, he was able way so as to ensure that the air fuel
KOL/2008) in the name of Sib Sankar
to modify the valve system and the heat mixture does not move out from the
chamber, which resulted in increasing cylinder.
the mileage to about 65 km/l. While he At present Sib Sankar Mandal
Using this system, lesser harmful
was working on the engine, he came is using this system in his auto
pollutants are released in the
to know that pre-heated fuel results in rickshaw and is satisfied with the
environment due to improved fuel
better combustion. performance. q

YOJANA July 2014 59

do you know?
The term Crowd-sourcing was coined in the year 2005 by Jeffe Howe and Mark Robinson. It is defined as the process
by which the power of the many can be leveraged to accomplish feats that were once the province of a specialized few.
Crowd-sourcing refers to the process for seeking contributions , raising funds, services , new ideas , content, pictures
and information from a large pool of people especially from internet or online communities instead of a conventional
known supplier. The rationale behind it is that more heads are better than a single head. The companies are often
inclined towards crowd-sourcing as it helps them to widen their horizon to attract the best pool of talent and skills as
it is inexpensive or rather free of cost. This principle is often applied to divide the tedious work where a wide variety
of information is to be gathered. It is based on the efforts of many self identified people, amateurs or volunteers, part
time workers , experts or small businesses where each one adds his contribution which helps to get better quality of
content and ideas for obtaining a more comprehensive result. The work is done faster and usually with reduced errors
by people from different parts of the globe across various sectors to work in collaboration on a particular target or a
project through an online platform bringing together expertise of various levels that can very well be utilized to seek
profit making. Usually, the only reward is the appreciation for their intellectual satisfaction. But in some cases, the
contributing members are also paid or given prizes.
There are different types of crowd-sourcing such as crowd-source designing, crowd-source funding or crowd-funding,
micro-tasking and open innovation.
Euroclear was founded in 1968 in Belgium to settle international and domestic security based transactions especially
in the eurobond market. It is a financial services company specialising in settlement of securities transactions and
asset servicing. It provides securities services to financial institutions based in more than 90 countries. It is the largest
international central securities depository in the world. The Euroclears total turnover is more than 500 trillion euros
per annum and its assets held for clients are worth 23 trillion euros.
In 2012, India had started exploring the possibility of joining the euroclear to attract foreign investment into India
which was expected to deepen its capital market. Financial markets experts argue that since euroclear has a wide reach
and strong infrastructure many of the international investors would invest in India only if the product is allowed to
be settled through the euroclear channel. Joining the Euroclear would facilitate inclusion of India in global domestic
currency bond indices and making it easier to trade in Indian securities abroad. However, joining euroclear settlement
system would require changes in the Foreign Exchange Management Act.  q
(Compiled by Vatica Chandra, Sub Editor )
(E-mail: vchandra.iis2014@gmail.com)

Voter Turnout Trends Over the Years

60 YOJANA July 2014