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ES1103 Week 2_Tutorial 2_Reading Strategies_AT

Reading Strategies and Text Deconstruction


The reading strategies we use depend on our purpose for reading. In the course of your studies, you
will encounter the following purposes for reading:
1. reading to summarize a short passage or article
2. reading to respond to ideas in an article
3. reading to research for an essay/oral presentation
4. reading to prepare for a class discussion
5. reading to prepare for a test or exam

Objectives
When you have finished this section, you will be able to:
1. employ suitable reading strategies for different reading purposes
2. deconstruct an academic text to analyse its content, organization and authors stand

Resource List
1. SQ4R: Strategic reading:
http://sydney.edu.au/stuserv/documents/learning_centre/M1.pdf
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DbMlIPgqXB8
2. Annotating while reading:
http://learners.ncu.edu/writingprogram/writing_center.aspx?menu_id=82
3. Summarizing:
http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/reading-and-researching/summarize
4. Taking notes from research reading:
http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/reading-and-researching/notes-from-research
5. Critical reading towards critical writing:
http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/reading-and-researching/critical-reading
6. Critical reading:
https://www.brookhavencollege.edu/about/readingtheappforlife/Documents/critical-
reading-final.pdf

Before class
1. Organize the class into 4 groups.
2. Each group assigns members to read one or two of the links provided in the resource list.

1. Activity
1. Members share what they have read with the group.
2. Each group pools their knowledge and puts together a set of strategies for each of the
following reading purposes.
a. reading to summarize a short passage or article
b. reading to respond to ideas in an article
c. reading to research for an essay
d. reading for a test or an exam
3. Groups share their ideas with the rest of the class.
4. Work in pairs. Select an article from the Reading Resources list. Use reading strategies to:
a. Identify the authors stand and key ideas
b. Identify the supporting ideas
c. Identify the purpose of each paragraph
d. Identify the relationship between paragraphs/sections
ES1103 Week 2_Tutorial 2_Reading Strategies_AT

Activity

1. Read about critical reading at this link:


https://www.brookhavencollege.edu/about/readingtheappforlife/Documents/critical-
reading-final.pdf
2. Practice critical reading. Work in pairs. Select and an article from the Reading Resources list.
Then discuss answers to the questions in the critical reading article.
ES1103 Week 2_Tutorial 2_Reading Strategies_AT

Text deconstruction

When we deconstruct a text, we become aware of the strategies good writers use.

The following exercises are aimed at increasing your awareness of important features in the
organization and language of academic writing. Understanding how all these features are used
together in an essay will help you to write more effective and impactful essays.

Look at the following sample academic essay. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the purpose of this essay?

2. Identify the main claim (usually expressed in the thesis statement).

3. What is the relationship between the thesis statement and the essay question?

4. Identify the main ideas presented to support this main claim (usually expressed in the topic

sentences)

5. How does the writer introduce the topic to the reader?

6. How does the writer conclude the essay (look at the last paragraph)?

7. Impactful topic sentences consist of a topic and a claim. Can you identify the topic and claim

of each topic sentence in the body paragraphs?

8. In the body paragraphs, how does the writer support his/her main idea? (eg identify the

explanation, evidence, example, etc.)

9. How does the writer conclude each body paragraph?

10. How does the writer incorporate citations into the essay (compare paragraphs 3, 4 and 5)?

11. What tense is the essay written in? Why?

12. Find examples of how the write states his/her opinion without using personal pronouns.

13. How does the writer link each sentence and paragraph to the next or the one before?

14. Revisit the table of common academic features and mine the text below for resources for

Cohesion, Complex sentences and logical links, Noun groups and Evaluation. Use the table

from the handout An overview of Academic Discourse: Genre and Language to remember

what these resources are.


ES1103 Week 2_Tutorial 2_Reading Strategies_AT

How can schools make the best use of information technology in the
classroom?

Education means considerably more than just teaching a student to read, write, and manipulate
numbers. Computers, the Internet, and advanced electronic devices are becoming essential in
everyday life and have changed the way information is gathered. How this new technology is utilized
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in the curriculum and managed by teachers will have an important role to play in widening the
resource and knowledge base for all students. Technology affects the way teachers teach and students
learn. To make the best use of information technology (IT), schools need a workable plan to fully
integrate it into all aspects of the curriculum so students are taught how, why, and when to use
technology to further enhance their learning.

If a school does not have a clear plan of how and why it wishes to implement IT, then it runs the risk
of wasting money. In schools today, nearly all classrooms have access to a computer. However, many
schools mistake this as incorporating information technology into the curriculum. School staff need to 2
research what IT is available and what would best serve the school's purpose, not simply purchase the
latest equipment. There should be a policy stating how IT is going to assist pupils' development and
what teachers want pupils to achieve (Reksten, 2000). Staff members need to be clear about what
they want IT to do for them before they can start incorporating it into their lessons.

The only way information technology is going to be useful to schools is if all staff members are well-
informed and fully supported. It is the principal's responsibility, and should be part of the school's
plan, to ensure that all staff are consulted about the changes, and that the change is carefully
organised. Some teachers may be resistant, especially if they have not had much experience with 3
computers, so training teachers is essential in implementing IT into the school curriculum. Staff
members must feel involved in the process of acquiring technology, and in learning how to operate it,
in order for them to increase their confidence in using IT as a curriculum tool. Teachers are only going
to be able to incorporate IT into their lessons if they are competent users themselves (Reksten, 2000).

In addition, teachers need to be aware that IT within the classroom is extremely flexible, but that they
need to plan what purpose IT serves in each lesson. The skills a child learns are the important part of
any lesson, and it is the same with technology. IT needs to be used and understood in all subjects in
the same way as the ability to read is necessary for all subjects, and must be used across the 4
curriculum, in the same way that a pen and pencil are used in most subject areas (Ager, 2000, p. 15).
The best way to plan the use of IT in the classroom is to approach it as simply a learning tool that is
more advanced (and more exciting) than the traditional pen and paper.

It is vitally important for students to be taught the strategies for using IT. Children also need to be fully
informed about the capabilities of IT before being asked to use it. Pupils should be aware that the
contexts in which they use IT will change, and they need to know what the appropriate use of IT is and
what is not. Whilst it is important that children learn to use IT effectively, teachers must emphasise
that IT is not always suitable. According to Apter (1968), the danger is that the computer
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dehumanizes people and inevitably leads them to act like machines themselves (p. 58). Teachers
must make sure they plan to use variety in their lessons. Too much IT instruction may be just as
harmful to a child as not enough.

The usefulness of IT in the classroom, as with any learning tool, depends on the innovation and
imagination of the teacher. It is imperative, though, that the implementation of IT into a school is
carefully planned. The current information explosion makes it essential that IT be used extensively
within the classroom so children know how to use IT appropriately and effectively. Teachers must,
therefore, be fully informed about what kinds of IT are available and whether or not they are 6
appropriate for classroom use. School boards and teachers must therefore ensure that all staff have a
ES1103 Week 2_Tutorial 2_Reading Strategies_AT

clear plan about what they want their students to achieve through IT. The appropriate incorporation
of IT into the classroom will broaden the minds and skills of students, allowing them to be better
prepared for further technological advances.

References

Ager, R. (2000). The art of information and communications technology for teachers. London,
England: David Fulton.

Apter, A. J. (1968). The new technology of education. London, England: Macmillan.

Reksten, L. E. (2000). Using technology to increase student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
Press.

Source:
Massey University: Online Writing and Learning Link: Sample Essay 1:
http://owll.massey.ac.nz/sample-assignments/sample-essay-1.php
ES1103 Week 2_Tutorial 2_Reading Strategies_AT

Look at this sample essay and answer the following questions.

1. What is the purpose of this essay?

2. What is the purpose and main idea of each paragraph in this essay?

3. How does the writer introduce the topic to the reader?

4. Identify the sentence that provides the definition of online piracy. How does the writer

introduce this definition without overtly referring to it as a definition (e.g. Online piracy is

defined as?

5. Which sentence indicates the causes of online piracy? How are these causes related to the

rest of the essay?

6. Identify the thesis statement. How does this thesis statement control the content, focus

and organization of the rest of the essay?

7. Impactful topic sentences consist of a topic and a claim. Can you identify the topic and claim

of each topic sentence in the body paragraphs? (Note: The topic sentence for Paragraph 4 is

NOT the first sentence.)

8. In the body paragraphs, how does the writer support his/her main idea? (e.g. identify the

explanation, evidence, example, etc.)

9. How does the writer conclude each body paragraph?

10. What is the function of the citations? How are they linked to the previous or subsequent

sentences?

11. Find examples of how the write states his/her opinion without using personal pronouns.

12. How can this essay be further enhanced?

13. Revisit the table of common academic features and mine the text below for resources for

Cohesion, Complex sentences and logical links, Noun groups and Evaluation. Use the table

from the handout An overview of Academic Discourse: Genre and Language to remember

what these resources are.


ES1103 Week 2_Tutorial 2_Reading Strategies_AT

Addressing online piracy in Singapore


In Singapore, 3 out of every 5 people are guilty of online piracy (Lay, 2014), the illegal download of
such copyrighted content as music, movies, drama and anime series, games, and software. Online
pirates claim that they are driven to illegally downloading content because original content is too
expensive, and because free content, although illegal, is so easily and readily available. Although 1
there are laws prohibiting and punishing online piracy, these do not seem to have been very effective.
Therefore, there is a need for other ways to combat online piracy. This essay will specifically examine
the impact of online piracy on the entertainment (music and film) industry in Singapore, analyze the
effectiveness of current anti-piracy laws, and offer an effective solution to complement these laws.

Online piracy severely impacts the sustainability of the entertainment industry in Singapore. Illegal
downloading has been cited as the main reason for the drastic fall in music sales from $29.8 million
in 2009 to $16.4 million in 2013, which eventually led to the closure of two international music retail
chains, Tower Records and Gramophone in Singapore (Lay, 2014). Illegal downloading not only hurts 2
legal content distributors, it hurts content creators as well as it deprives singers and actors of their
income, which largely come from CD and movie sales. Poor income prospects make the
entertainment industry less lucrative as a profession, which will ultimately lead to the demise of this
industry in Singapore. Therefore, urgent measures are needed to stem internet piracy.

The Singapore government has proposed site-blocking laws to counter internet piracy. In 2014,
amendments to the Copyright Act were proposed, enabling content creators to require internet
service providers (ISPs) like Starhub and Singtel to block illegal content sharing websites like The 3
Pirate Bay (Lay, 2014). Unfortunately, implementing this law is problematic because for every site
that the ISPs block, dozens appear to take its place and illegal downloaders always find ways to bypass
these blocks through proxies and virtual private networks (ibid.). In fact, the Netherlands has
reversed a 2012 ban on The Pirate Bay because it found that the number of internet pirates had
increased despite the ban (Lay, 2014). In addition, site-blocking is counter to the spirit of freedom of
access to information on the internet, which many claim deters further innovation and creativity in
the entertainment industry (Lay, 2014). Site-blocking laws are therefore not entirely effective on their
own.

Online piracy thrives because original content is expensive and people are willing to break the law
and illegally download free content to save money. The fact that people could not wait to watch the
last episode of the Game of Thrones on their television networks, and instead downloaded illegal
copies as soon as it was aired in the US (Beynon, 2015) shows that people are also willing to break
the law for the sake of instant gratification. Therefore, the key to stemming online piracy of music 4
and movies in Singapore is to make content more affordable and accessible through paid-for
streaming services like Netflix and Spotify. These services offer the latest songs and movies at
reasonable prices (Beynon, 2015). Netflix and Spotify have proven to be very popular in the US and
is seen as a possible solution to illegal downloads (Baynon, 2015). The only challenge then is to
determine a fair subscription fee that is low enough that people are willing to pay to download such
content, but yet high enough to offer fair royalties to content creators and producers as well.

Internet piracy will thrive as long as original content is deemed too costly, and illegal content is easily
available. So, a two-pronged approach is needed to stem illegal downloading; laws to make it 5
punishable to download illegal content, and services to make it easier and cheaper to access legal
content.
ES1103 Week 2_Tutorial 2_Reading Strategies_AT

References

Baynon, W. (2015). The Piracy Problem - The Hunt for an Effective Solution. The Huffington Post UK.
Retrieved 28 October 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/wayne-beynon/online-
piracy_b_7880522.html

Lay, B. (2015). Site-blocking wont be a panacea for online piracy. Retrieved 28 October 2015, from
http://www.ipscommons.sg/site-blocking-wont-be-a-panacea-for-online-piracy/