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LNB 30503 Ship Structures

TOPIC 1

INTRODUCTION TO SHIP STRUCTURES

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Since World War II, size and shape of ship have gone through tremendous advancement.
New technologies have push to a more complex and fast ship. Among those are using
computer in ship design, automation in ship production, a more systematic fabrication and up
righting process, and larger and greater transportation system.

With the introduction of these new technologies, various kind of ship has been built to cope
up with the advancement of the world economy. A ship was designed to move on top, on, or
below water. Based on this principal, ships can be categories into three groups, as seen in
Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Vessels categories

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1.1 SHIP TYPES

bulk carrier high speed & light ro-ro


container ships craft specialised ships
fishing vessels naval ships tanker for chemicals
gas carriers offshore vessels tanker for oil
general cargo passenger ships Yachts

1.2 VARIOUS MERCHANT SHIPS

a) Container ships
b) Bulk carriers
c) Tankers
d) Ferries and Cruise ships
e) Ro-ro
f) Specialist ships

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a) Container ships
Carry most of the world's manufactured goods and products, usually through scheduled liner
services

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b) Bulk carriers
The work horses of the fleet, these transport raw materials such as iron ore and coal.
Identifiable by the hatches raised above deck level which cover the large cargo holds.

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c) Tankers
Transport crude oil, chemicals and petroleum products. Tankers can appear similar to bulk
carriers, but the deck is flush and covered by oil pipelines and vents.

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d) Ferries and Cruise ships


Ferries usually perform short journeys for a mix of passengers, cars and commercial vehicles.
Most of these ships are Ro-Ro (roll on - roll off) ferries, where vehicles can drive straight on
and off, making it a speedy and easily accessible way to travel.

Demand for cruise ships expanded rapidly during the 1980s, leading to a new generation of
large and luxurious 'floating hotels'.

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e) Ro-ro Vessels
Cargo roll on and off from the vessel.

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f) Specialist ships
Such as anchor handling and supply vessels for the offshore oil industry, salvage tugs, ice
breakers and research vessels.

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1.3 SHIP STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS

In this sub-chapter, various ship structural components will be introduced. Figure below
shows a transverse view of a typical ship structural design.

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1.4 STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS

Keel
- Large center plane girder
- Runs longitudinally along the bottom of the ship

Plating
- Thin pieces closing in the top, bottom and side of structure.
- Contributes significantly to longitudinal hull strength.
- Resists the hydrostatic pressure load (or side impact).

Frame
- A transverse member running from keel to deck.
- Resists hydrostatic pressure, waves, impact, etc.

Girder
- High strength structure running along the ship longitudinally.

Stringer
- Girders running along the sides of the ship.
- Typically smaller than a longitudinal.
- Provides longitudinal strength.

Deck Beams
- Transverse member of the deck frame

Deck Girder
- Longitudinal member of the deck frame
(deck longitudinal)

Floor
- Deep frame running from the keel to the turn of the bilge
- Frames may be attached to the floors
(Frame would be the part above the floor.)

Longitudinal
- Girders running parallel to the keel along the bottom.
- It intersects floors at right angles.
- It provides longitudinal strength.

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1.5 SHIP FRAMING SYSTEM

1.5.1 Longitudinal Framing System

- Longitudinals are spaced frequently but shallower.


- Frames are spaced widely.
- Keel, longitudinals, stringers, deck girders, plates

Primary role of longitudinal members: to resist the longitudinal bending stress due to sagging
and hogging.

A typical wavelength in the ocean is 300ft. Ships of this length or greater are likely to
experience considerable longitudinal bending stress.

Ship that are longer than about 300ft (long ship) tend to have a greater number of longitudinal
members than transverse members.

1.5.2 Transverse Framing System

- Longitudinals are spaced widely but deep.


- Frames are spaced closely and continuously.
- Transverse members: frame, floor, deck beam, platings

Primary role of transverse members: to resist the hydrostatic loads.

Ships shorter than 300ft and submersibles.

Table 1.1: Name of stiffening member in ship structure

PRIMARY SECONDARY
ITEM OVERALL SYSTEM
STIFFENING STIFFENING
Transverse Framing Frames Stringers
Shell
Longitudinal Framing Longitudinals Transverses

Transverse Framing Beams Girders


Deck
Longitudinal Framing Longitudinals Transverses

Transverse Framing Floors Girders


Bottom
Longitudinal Framing Longitudinal Transverse Floor

Bulkheads - Stiffener Webs or Stringers

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