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Ryerson University

Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science

Department of Civil Engineering

Geology for Engineers (CVL 423)

Lab report questions

Due date: Nov. 20, 2015

1. What is the scale of a map and how can we expect the level of detail and accuracy to be affected by a larger scale (i.e. 1:10 000) vs smaller scale (1:250 000)?

2. What is the difference between true north and magnetic north? How does this difference affect you in Toronto if you go hiking for 10 km vs if you go for a walk of 200 m with only a magnetic compass for navigation?

3. What are contour lines and what do they represent on a topographical map? Cramahe Hill is surrounded by a contour line that forms a circle, what does this tell us about the area immediately outside this contour line?

4. What are longitudes and latitudes and in what units are they measured? What is the difference between locations that have the same longitude but different latitudes with respect to their position on the globe?

5. What is the hardest mineral as per the Mohs scale? What is its chemical formula? Why it is the hardest mineral?

6. List the main physical properties that you used in the lab to identify the minerals

7. What are the main tools and/or equipment that you used in minerals identification lab

8. By defining both sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, explain the difference between formations of these two categories of rocks.

9. Consider that you have two samples of sedimentary rocks, one of them is a Reefal Dolostone and the other is Lithographic variety of Limestone. Explain the steps that you would take to identify each one.

10. Explain briefly the different stages for coal formation.

11. What is the metamorphic stage of Shale?

12. Can we find fossils in igneous or metamorphic rocks? Why?

13. If we have to dig a tunnel in an area full of shale, as a civil engineer, please make a judgment as to which case of the following two cases would be favoured for construction and why? Case 1: No underground water present within the depth of construction Case 2: The shale soaked in underground water

14. Imagine that you are Mark Watney (Astronaut) who also graduated from the Civil Engineering program at Ryerson University. During a mission to Mars you encountered what is unlike any rock discovered on Earth. Pleases explain how you are going to describe your new found rock

15. You are given six samples of rocks (breccia, shale, sandstone, granite, conglomerate, and limestone), their pictures are shown bellow. Can you identify each one?

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)



(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)



(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)