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550 N.W.

LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126


Total Welding Management and Total Welding Management System are both copyrighted (2005) by Jack R. Barckhoff,
P.E. Throughout this manual, the use of Total Welding Management or TWM, and Total Welding Management System
or TWMS refers to copyrighted Total Welding Management System. Copyright laws protect any reference to this
system. Total Welding Management is also the title of a book written by Jack R. Barckhoff, P.E., copyrighted and
published by the American Welding Society (AWS). In this book, all of the principles and concepts of Total Welding
Management (TWM) are detailed.

The Barckhoff Welding Management System and the Barckhoff Method are both copyrighted (1980) and later service
marked by Jack R. Barckhoff. Copyright law protects any references to Systems and Methods used in this manual. The
use of the Management System or The System refers to the Barckhoff Welding Management System. The use of The
Method refers to the Barckhoff Method.

International Standard Book Number: 0-87171-029-3

American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126

2005 by American Welding Society. All rights reserved


Printed in the United States of America

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing
from the publisher.

NOTE: Although care was taken in choosing and presenting the data in this guide, AWS cannot guarantee that it is
error free. Further, this guide is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the topic and therefore may not include all
available information, including with respect to safety and health issues. By publishing this guide, AWS does not insure
anyone using the information it contains against any liability or injury to property or persons arising from that use.

Photocopy Rights

Authorization to photocopy items for internal, personal, or educational classroom use only, or the internal, personal, or
educational classroom use only of specific clients, is granted by the American Welding Society (AWS) provided that the
appropriate fee is paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, Tel: 978-750-8400;
online: http://www.copyright.com.

Several years ago on the Gulf Coast, a group of dedicated men in the shipbuilding industry were
concerned about the lack of well-trained welding supervisors. If welding supervisors did not have
the appropriate knowledge and skill levels, how then could the welders being supervised achieve
improved quality and productivity levels? To this end, those dedicated men became the catalyst that
advanced the Certified Welding Supervisor Program to where it is today. Most likely, this manual
would not have become a reality when it did without their support, their initial efforts as a Beta Test
Site, and their feedback during program development. For that reason, this manual is dedicated to
Ron Pierce of Welding Engineering Services Company and Tom Bender, Jackie Morris, and Lavon
Mills of Bender Shipbuilding & Repair Company.

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Introduction..................................................................................................................................1
No SystemSystem ......................................................................................................................3
Lean Manufacturing.....................................................................................................................3
Total Quality Management (TQM)..............................................................................................7
Total Welding Management (TWM) .........................................................................................10
Conclusion .................................................................................................................................18
References..................................................................................................................................18
Review Questions ......................................................................................................................19
Answers .....................................................................................................................................21


Introduction................................................................................................................................23
Requirements for a Fillet Weld..................................................................................................23
Objectives ..................................................................................................................................25
Weld Terminology .....................................................................................................................25
Weld Failure ..............................................................................................................................27
Weld Size ...................................................................................................................................27
Weld Length ..............................................................................................................................36
Appearance and Weld Profile ....................................................................................................37
Weld Soundness.........................................................................................................................38
Mechanical Properties................................................................................................................44
Corrosion Resistance .................................................................................................................46
Achieving the Correct Requirements of a Weld ........................................................................47
Welding Procedures ...................................................................................................................47
References..................................................................................................................................50
Guides and Exercises .................................................................................................................50
Answers .....................................................................................................................................52


Introduction................................................................................................................................53
Chapter Objectives.....................................................................................................................53
Process Fundamentals................................................................................................................53
SMAW Electrodes .....................................................................................................................56
Features and Applications of SMAW Electrodes ......................................................................59
Recommended SMAW Equipment ...........................................................................................62
SMAW Essential Welding Variables ........................................................................................66
SMAW Procedures and Techniques ..........................................................................................76
Identify and Correct SMAW Defects ........................................................................................80
Reference ...................................................................................................................................81
Guides and Exercises .................................................................................................................81
Answers .....................................................................................................................................86


Introduction................................................................................................................................87
Chapter Objectives.....................................................................................................................87
What is Gas Metal Arc Welding? ..............................................................................................87
Modes of Metal Transfer in GMAW .........................................................................................94
Applications ...............................................................................................................................97
Wire and Base Metal Melting ....................................................................................................99
Wire Burnoff and Arc Length..................................................................................................104
GMAW Essential Welding Variables......................................................................................105
Summary of the Eight Essential Welding Variables ...............................................................130
Equipment for GMAW ............................................................................................................130
Find Out More .........................................................................................................................132
Reference .................................................................................................................................132
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................132
Answers ...................................................................................................................................136


Introduction..............................................................................................................................137
Chapter Objectives...................................................................................................................137
What is Flux Cored Arc Welding? ..........................................................................................137
Process Fundamentals .............................................................................................................. 145
Objectives ................................................................................................................................145
Manufacture of FCAW Wires..................................................................................................145
Classification of Filler Metals for FCAW of Mild Steel ......................................................... 147
Electrode Size ..........................................................................................................................148
Effect of Shielding Gases ........................................................................................................150
Electrode and Base Metal Melting...........................................................................................153
FCAW Essential Welding Variables .......................................................................................157
Summary of the Seven Essential Welding Variables ..............................................................175
FCAW Equipment ...................................................................................................................175
Welding Techniques ................................................................................................................177
Reference .................................................................................................................................180
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................180
Answers ...................................................................................................................................184


Introduction..............................................................................................................................185
Advantages of SAW ................................................................................................................185
Joint Tracking Methods ...........................................................................................................187
Evolution of the Welded Joint .................................................................................................189
Applications .............................................................................................................................191
SAW Fluxes .............................................................................................................................191
SAW Essential Welding Variables for Single Wire Applications...........................................195
Effect and Control of SAW Essential Welding Variables .......................................................196
Effect of Other Variables in SAW ...........................................................................................199

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Reference .................................................................................................................................201
Guides and Exercises ...............................................................................................................201
Answers ...................................................................................................................................203


Introduction..............................................................................................................................205
Steelmaking .............................................................................................................................205
Chemical Reactions in Steelmaking ........................................................................................206
Important Elements in Plain Carbon Steels .............................................................................207
Carbon in Iron ..........................................................................................................................208
Strengthening Methods ............................................................................................................210
Alloying ...................................................................................................................................212
Carbides ...................................................................................................................................212
Effects of Manganese and Sulfur.............................................................................................214
Effects of Aluminum ...............................................................................................................214
Strengthening by Solid Solution ..............................................................................................214
Strengthening by Precipitation Hardening...............................................................................216
Grain Size Strengthening .........................................................................................................217
Normalizing .............................................................................................................................218
Fine-Grained Microalloyed Steels ...........................................................................................219
Strengthening by Heat Treating ...............................................................................................221
Effect of Alloy Additions ........................................................................................................221
Mechanical Testing of Base Metals.........................................................................................226
Weld Testing............................................................................................................................228
Welding Metallurgy of Steels ..................................................................................................232
Mechanical Properties of Welds ..............................................................................................232
Hydrogen Cracking..................................................................................................................241
Controlling the Hydrogen Content in the Weld.......................................................................243
Preheating ................................................................................................................................245
Postheating...............................................................................................................................247
Controlling the Hardness of the Weld Zone ............................................................................248
Weld Metal Cracking...............................................................................................................252
Solidification Cracking ............................................................................................................252
Find Out More .........................................................................................................................257
Reference .................................................................................................................................257
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................257
Answers ...................................................................................................................................262


Introduction..............................................................................................................................263
Objectives ................................................................................................................................264
Types of Joints and Types of Welds ........................................................................................264
Components of a Welding Symbol ..........................................................................................267
Weld Symbols and Supplementary Symbols...........................................................................270
Groove Welds ..........................................................................................................................271

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Partial Penetration Welds.........................................................................................................274


Fillet Welds..............................................................................................................................276
Combined Weld Symbols ........................................................................................................281
Other Welding Symbol Conventions .......................................................................................281
Plug and Slot Welds.................................................................................................................283
Welding Symbol Summary......................................................................................................284
References................................................................................................................................284
Guides and Exercises ...............................................................................................................286
Answers ...................................................................................................................................290


Introduction..............................................................................................................................293
Quality Metric..........................................................................................................................293
Cost Metric ..............................................................................................................................295
Throughput Metric ...................................................................................................................295
Safety Metric............................................................................................................................296
Welding Procedures .................................................................................................................296
Welder Qualification Test Record ...........................................................................................304
Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................306
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................307
Answers ...................................................................................................................................308


Introduction..............................................................................................................................309
Welding Productivity ...............................................................................................................310
Dos Goal 1: Reduce Weld Metal Volume ..............................................................................311
Dos Goal 2: Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment .......................................................................323
Dos Goal 3: Reduce Rejects, Rework, and Scrap ..................................................................328
Dos Goal 4: Reduce Work Effort ...........................................................................................333
Dos Goal 5: Reduce Motion and Delay Time ........................................................................336
Method for Computing Operating Factor ................................................................................340
Putting It All together ..............................................................................................................342
Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................347
Summary of Key Concepts ......................................................................................................348
Reference .................................................................................................................................349
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................349
Answers ...................................................................................................................................354


Introduction..............................................................................................................................355
Widely Used Standards and Codes ..........................................................................................355
Qualification of Welding Procedures ......................................................................................359
Qualification of Welders..........................................................................................................359
Comparison of Common Standards .........................................................................................359
Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................362

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Review Questions ....................................................................................................................363


Answers ...................................................................................................................................364


Welding Inspection ..................................................................................................................365
Acceptance Criteria..................................................................................................................366
Visual Discontinuities..............................................................................................................367
Visual Inspection Method ........................................................................................................373
Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) .................................................................................................379
Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) ..............................................................................................381
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)...........................................................................................................385
Radiographic Testing ...............................................................................................................389
Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................392
References................................................................................................................................393
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................393
Answers ...................................................................................................................................396


Creating a Safe Workplace ......................................................................................................397
The Importance of Training .....................................................................................................397
Important References ...............................................................................................................398
Hazards in the Shop and Construction.....................................................................................398
Electrical Safety .......................................................................................................................399
Arc Radiation ...........................................................................................................................404
Burns and Fire..........................................................................................................................404
Fumes and Gases .....................................................................................................................407
Gases Produced During Welding.............................................................................................413
Working with Oxygen and Other Gases ..................................................................................413
Cylinders ..................................................................................................................................415
Working in Confined Space.....................................................................................................418
Welding on Containers that Have Held Hazardous Materials .................................................419
Reference .................................................................................................................................419
Guides and Exercises ...............................................................................................................420
Answers ...................................................................................................................................424


Introduction..............................................................................................................................425
Quality Metric..........................................................................................................................426
Cost Metric ..............................................................................................................................426
Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................432
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................432
Answers ...................................................................................................................................434

ix

In 2000, the American Welding Society (AWS) initiated the establishment of a Certification
Program for Welding Supervisors. First, an AWS committee drafted the B5.9:2000, Specification
for the Qualification of Welding Supervisors, which was followed by the AWS QC-13, AWS
Standard for the Certification of Welding Supervisors. This groundwork was done by AWS, which
recognized that the position of welding supervisor was one of the most under-trained positions in all
of manufacturing, construction, and fabricationparticularly in the area of optimizing the quality
and productivity of personnel under the supervisors direction. AWS saw an industry need and
responded.

Welding supervisors are found in every industry that uses welding as a core process in the manu-
facture, construction, or fabrication of their products. The role they play is often one of organizing
production paperwork and ensuring that parts are available to the welders. In many cases, welding
supervisors have little or no welding experience, knowledge of welding science, or training in how
to support their welders. This situation has resulted in years of missed opportunities in many com-
panies to improve welding quality while also increasing productivity.

Significant improvements can be made through the efforts of a well-trained welding supervisor, who
knows what factors influence welding quality, and how monitoring welders can achieve that quality.
At the same time, through training, a welding supervisor can understand all of the complimentary
factors in welding operations that lead to maximized productivity.

This manual takes a comprehensive approach to present the welding supervisor, planner, engineer,
or other management personnel with the most useful technical welding information combined
with the most effective management principles, concepts, and techniques to apply this welding
knowledge.

Sample questions are included in each section of this manual to help students gauge their under-
standing and confidence level. When this program is completed, the welding supervisor will have
the working knowledge to direct, support, and instruct welders to improve both quality for the
customer and productivity for the company.

This manual has been developed by AWS to support welding supervisors in one of the most
challenging and rewarding careers in industry. Those candidates who successfully complete this
program will be prepared to take the AWS Certification Test. More importantly, they will be better
prepared to make one of the most important contributions that any employee can offerhelping
their company to be more competitive in the global marketplace by improving manufacturing
performance. This is a challenge that all companies now face.

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The material for this Certified Welding Supervisors Manual for Productivity and Quality Improve-
ment was developed for AWS by Barckhoff Welding Management Corporation, a thirty-year-old
welding management consulting firm.
This manual has been copyrighted by the American Welding Society (AWS), and Barckhoff
Welding Management holds and retains prior copyrights for much of its material.
The authors of this manual include:
Jack R, Barckhoff, P.E. is the founder and CEO of Barckhoff Welding Management and a member
of the 2004 Class of Counselors of the American Welding Society. Jack is a management consultant
whose career spans over half a century. He has devoted his lifes work to helping companies apply
his philosophy of Total Welding Management to become more competitive and profitable through
effective management of their entire welding operations. Jack is an industry recognized expert on
welding management. He is the author of Total Welding Management, which was published by
AWS in 2005, has published many articles, and lectured to thousands over his long career on the
management of welding. He is a member of the Board of Trustees for the AWS Foundation, estab-
lished the Jack R Barckhoff Welding Management Scholarship, which is awarded to college
students pursing a career in Welding Engineering, has received the AWS District Meritorious
Award; served as AWS Section Chair, and is a lifetime member of AWS. Jack studied Mechanical
Engineering and Business Administration at The Ohio State University.
Don L. Lynn, P.E. has over thirty years of diversified experience in all aspects of welding. His tech-
nical welding experience spans shipbuilding, nuclear, sheet metal, pressure vessel, piping, and power
generation in a variety of roles from engineering design and supervision to quality assurance. He
holds a B.S. Degree in Welding Engineering from The Ohio State University as well as a Masters
Degree in Business Administration from Northern Kentucky University. Don is an AWS Certified
Welding Engineer and a Certified Welding Inspector, and also holds a diploma in International
Welding Engineering. He is an active member of AWS, serving on several committees, and is also a
member of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers and the American Society of Metals. He has
written technical welding articles, has contributed to the AWS Welding Handbook Chapter Commit-
tees, and has served as a technical welding expert in litigation regarding welding issues. For the past
14 years Don has worked as a consultant and project manager for Barckhoff Welding Management.
Kenneth M. Kerluke, P. Eng. has over thirty years of broad welding industry experience in
manufacturing, fabrication, and quality assurance. Ken holds a Bachelors Degree in Mechanical
Engineering from the University of British Columbia as well as a Masters Degree in Welding Engi-
neering from the Cranfield Institute of Technology in the United Kingdom. Ken is a welding process
specialist with experience in all arc welding processes. He is an active member of AWS and the
Canadian Standards Association, and served on the technical committee for the CSA W59 Welded
Steel Construction. He has also served as Director of Technology Outreach Services for the Weld-
ing Institute of Canada, which was a national technology center in Canada, where he was responsi-
ble for the transfer of welding technology to Canadian companies. Ken has also provided training
and education services to the welding industry, conducted welding failure investigations, developed
welding procedures, provided technical consulting services, and presented expert reports in welding
related litigation. For the past 11 years Ken has served as a technical consultant and trainer for
Barckhoff Welding Management.

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In manufacturing and construction companies that use welding as a core


process, welding supervisors hold a unique position. To begin to understand
the welding supervisor and his duties, it is important to understand his unique
position.

Most companies have supervisors. They may be called team leaders or manag-
ers, but their role is the same. A supervisor provides workers their assignments,
makes sure they have the tools, materials, and training to do their work, pro-
vides support, and monitors them throughout their work shift. The result of
effective supervision is each worker is efficient and produces only quality
work. With effective supervision, production workers achieve higher levels of
productivity and quality.

With the day-to-day pressures of getting production out, how a supervisor


should function and the results expected are lost. In many production environ-
ments, supervisors, including welding supervisors, are expediting parts, chas-
ing paperwork, filling out unnecessary reports, and performing other non-
supervisory duties, which take them outside of their assigned department. This
leaves production workers unsupervised for long periods of time. This results
in lack of communication and support, leaving welders with the feeling that
they are on their own. Problems that they encounter must be handled with the
hope that the results will be acceptable.

In many cases, welding supervisors have limited understanding of the technical


aspects of welding and, therefore, are unsure of their ability to provide direc-
tion and support to the welders. This situation has unwittingly limited the
amount of daily support the welder receives. Company management may not
realize the detrimental affect when welding supervisors are not properly
trained or assigned to perform essential duties, which can lead to improved
quality and productivity on each shift.

Any training course for welding supervisors should address a welding super-
visors need both for technical and managerial training to develop the skills to
perform his job in the most professional manner. This leads to improved results
in both quality and productivity. This Certified Welding Supervisor Manual for
Quality and Productivity Improvement recognizes that the welding supervisor
has an important role in the operations of any company that does welding.

To fully understand and appreciate his role, the supervisor must first under-
stand some of the different management systems currently used by manufac-
turing companies.

The management systems used by companies are numerous and varied. To


maintain a manageable review of these systems, this manual will consider only

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those systems that are most widely used and have the most impact on welding
operations.

The systems that will be reviewed are:

1. No SystemSystem. Some companies do not have a comprehensive man-


agement system, but instead follow an undocumented way of doing
things. Their No System has evolved over the time that the company has
been in existence. This system exists in a wide variety of companies and
may describe the approach used in your company.

2. Lean Manufacturing. This management system brings a variety of tech-


niques and tools to all types of manufacturing companies, including weld-
ing companies. Lean Manufacturing is a broad-based management system
that has been designed for all types of manufacturing environments. The
primary focus of Lean is to reduce or eliminate waste or non-value added
steps in all processes, including design, administration, and sales.

3. Total Quality Management (TQM). This is a management system that


focuses on all the measures necessary to meet the quality requirements of a
customer. This system has evolved over many years and is manifested in a
number of different ways. TQM is a system that extends beyond manufac-
turing and incorporates all functions involved in assuring that the customer
gets the quality product or service that he expects.

4. Total Welding Management (TWM).1 Total Welding Management is


an approach to improving welding operations that uses the Barckhoff
Welding Management System and The Barckhoff Method2 to focus on
the critical company functions, key results areas, and welding goals to
achieve improved quality and productivity. It was developed for companies
that do welding, but has been successfully applied in other production envi-
ronments. A principle of TWM is to align the organization to serve the
welder with the tools needed to achieve consistently high levels of quality
and productivity.

1. Total Welding Management and Total Welding Management System are both copyrighted
(2005) by Jack R. Barckhoff, P.E. In this chapter and throughout this manual, the use of Total
Welding Management or TWM, and Total Welding Management System or TWMS refers to
copyrighted Total Welding Management System. Copyright laws protect any reference to this
system. Total Welding Management is also the title of a book written by Jack R. Barckhoff,
P.E., copyrighted and published by the American Welding Society (AWS). In this book, all of
the principles and concepts of Total Welding Management (TWM) are detailed.
2. The Barckhoff Welding Management System and the Barckhoff Method are both copy-
righted (1980) and have been Service marked by Jack R. Barckhoff, P.E. In this chapter and
throughout this manual, the use of Systems or The System refers to the Barckhoff Welding
Management System. The Method refers to the Barckhoff Method. Copyright law protects
any reference to Systems and Methods used.

2

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- This system, although it has little documentation or specific training, is consid-


- ered a management approach. Companies that use this approach can be easily
identified by the way they conduct day-to-day operations. They rely heavily on
what was done in the past and often learn expensive lessons from their failures.
What they do in the future is defined primarily by what worked or did not work in
the past. In many cases practices are defined in negative terms of what not to do.

When it comes to training new personnel, the veterans conduct on the job
training that consists of both useful practices as well as the transfer of bad
habits. This training can perpetuate a pattern of performance that is similar to
the performance the company experienced in the past. With this management
system, it is difficult to make improvements, as most of the learning comes
from correcting mistakes of the past.

In order to survive, companies using the No SystemSystem management


approach emphasize the need to be productive and to get out the shipments.
This can lead to a belief among manufacturing personnel that productivity and
output are more important than quality. Even if this is not true, the lack of a
management approach and supporting system that defines the needs of both
quality and productivity leaves the impression that getting out shipments is the
foremost concern of management.

Companies using this No SystemSystem tend to be slow to react to change


and slow to make improvements, since only costly mistakes are likely to move
them into a new direction.

Companies with this type of management system pose a challenge along with a
level of frustration to a new manufacturing supervisor. The challenge starts
when a new supervisor begins his duties. In most cases the supervisor he is
replacing or the manager he will be working for usually trains the new super-
visor. New supervisors, not exposed to a quality/productivity approach, learn
to focus primarily on making sure that parts are always available to meet
production schedules. New supervisors receive little formal training on how to
technically support their welders. As a result, many end up as glorified
expediters, spending the bulk of their time making sure that production is not
interrupted. They have very little day-to-day contact with their employees and
therefore have little impact on either the quality of the welds made or on
increasing the productivity of the welders.

Lean Manufacturing is a management system that has received much attention


in manufacturing companies in the past several years. Lean started to gain pop-
ularity in the U.S. after the Japanese automaker Toyota demonstrated its suc-
cess. The introduction of Lean Manufacturing is viewed as a management
paradigm shift. It represents a cultural change in the way companies are man-
aged in all aspects. The paradigm shift comes from the concept that everyone
in the company must focus on eliminating waste in all operations, from sales

3

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and design through production. When applied to welding, Lean would review
each welding operation with the goal of eliminating the steps that do not
contribute to making quality parts efficiently. Lean is a continuous improve-
ment process that never ends. After more than twenty years of dedicated effort,
Toyota acknowledges that they have only achieved about 1015% of their total
potential improvement.

Lean Manufacturing achieves results by focusing on several core concepts and


tools:

1. Just-in-Time (JIT) Production. This concept requires a company to pro-


duce products only when customer orders exist. JIT requires that a com-
pany rethink its traditional approach to high volume continuous production
and develop systems that are cost effective and responsive to low volume
and high variety demand. JIT results in a steady flow of parts. The right
parts arrive at the right time, in the right place, and in the right quantity to
keep production moving on schedule. When carried out properly, JIT
results in shorter customer lead times, improved quality, a minimum
amount of work-in-progress inventory, and less finished goods. Lean
considers any inventory as waste that needs to be eliminated from all parts
of a business.

2. Quality Principle. This principle requires quality to be built into the


design of each part and into each production process. It prevents defective
parts from moving from one workstation to the next. For welders this
means inspecting their own work and assuring that they correct any defects
found. The supervisor is notified if this cannot be done. In Lean organiza-
tions, this quality principal is extended to all functions, and gives everyone
both the responsibility and the authority to halt production for any
observed quality defect. Everyone accepts responsibility for quality.

3. Full Utilization of Team Members. Lean Manufacturing holds the funda-


mental belief that all members of an organization can contribute to all
aspects of the business. Continuous training and development is a corner-
stone of Lean. Lean utilizes cross training and defines the responsibilities
of a team or department. This concept supports a team or department in
solving problems and taking responsibility for the workmanship of what
they produce. Through training and utilizing the potential of each
employee, everyone is more committed to the goals of the organization and
develops the additional skills to increase their contribution.

4. Muda. Muda is the Japanese word for waste. In Lean Manufacturing, the
elimination of Muda is considered the highest principle. All activities,
training, analysis tools, controls, and management systems in Lean are
used to focus on improving everyones ability to eliminate waste. Waste in
Lean is defined as any non-value added step or process. In a Lean organiza-

4

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tion, waste in every function is viewed as an opportunity to improve and


reduce costs. Lean analysis tools such as Value Stream Mapping and
Process Flow focus on identifying waste. Lean companies train all employ-
ees in these basic tools so that they can all contribute to elimination of
Muda.

5. Pull. In Lean Manufacturing plant layouts, process flows and systems are
designed around the concept of pulling materials through the factory rather
than the traditional approach of pushing materials through based on a pro-
duction schedule. In traditional systems, detailed schedules for each
department and supplier are developed to support the production schedule.
With Pull, schedules for supporting departments are determined by the
demand of the final operation. Parts are replenished by both internal
departments and outside suppliers. Kanban, JIT, and other tools are used to
accomplish this. The Pull system supports the Lean concept of elimination
of waste, as nothing is produced until it is needed by the customer.

Lean Manufacturing uses a variety of tools, techniques, and methods to sup-


port its concepts and achieve its higher-level goals. Some of the more common
ones include:

KanbanKanban is the communication process used to ensure that parts


are available when they are needed for subsequent manufacturing opera-
tions. It is generally a visual message or signal that is sent to a supplying
department or outside supplier to communicate how many and when the
next batch of parts is needed for production. Many companies with and
without Lean Manufacturing use this replenishment process.

Single Piece FlowThis is the system that allows a company to cost effec-
tively build only parts when needed. It requires a great deal of focus on
manufacturing throughput, where quick change set ups will allow for eco-
nomical production runs of as little as one part. The focus is on eliminating
the waste of inventory and having production resources making parts that
are needed now.

Takt TimeThis is an approach to manufacturing planning that begins by


establishing a rate of required production output based on customer
demand. Production capacities and production rates of all parts and pro-
cesses are established based on the output rate required to meet customer
demand. Once the Takt time for the end product is established, the produc-
tion rates and allowed production times for each part can be established.
These become the output standards for component parts and operations.

Standardized WorkThis is used to determine the method and sequence to


make the parts in the most efficient manner. Standardized work units for
component parts must support the overall Takt time required to support the
final production rates.

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KaizenA technique used by a team or department to make improvements


in a process or series of processes. A Kaizen event is usually conducted
with all team members over a few days and then the improvements are
made and implemented immediately. This is an intensive effort to reorga-
nize an activity to achieve higher efficiency, better quality, and lower costs.
The basic premise for this technique is to achieve continuous improvement.
It is done using a very intense, tight time frame.

Poka-YokeThis is a technique that is used to design processes and equip-


ment for processes to prevent the possibility of error. Common applications
include the detection of missing parts or the prevention of incorrect assem-
bly. Poka-yoke is often referred to in Lean as mistake proofing. It is used to
improve quality by reducing the possibility of error through process design.

Visual ControlThis technique involves the use of lights and/or audible


signals that highlight a problem at a workstation. They are used to get a
quick reaction to solve a problem so that quality productive work can
resume.

TeamingThis is the technique of forming teams of six to eight people


with the responsibility to meet a specific quality, production, or safety goal
of the company. Teams are formed only after adequate training and often
assigned to work on specific improvement projects. An hourly employee
often leads these teams, and they stay together until the project has been
completed and implemented.

For welding supervisors there are several positive things that result from the
implementation of a Lean Manufacturing system. They include:

1. An approach to standardizing the process times for each welding operation,


which gives the supervisor standards by which to evaluate productivity.

2. The use of process control and monitoring equipment to detect missing


parts and incorrect assemblies. This helps improve the quality of input
parts for welded assembles.

3. A welder inspecting his own work and not allowing defective parts to
move on helps define many of the inputs and outputs to and from the weld-
ing workstation.

4. Lean Manufacturing also introduces the concept of 5S to the workstation,


which can be used as an organizing and housekeeping system.

The 5S system consists of the following sequence of steps:

1. Sortremove from the workstation any item that is not needed.

6

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2. Straightenarrange items in the workstation so that they are easy to find


and use. Mark and label items to aid in identification and for ease of future
location.

3. Sweepclean the workstation thoroughly, paint if necessary, and replace


all worn and nonfunctioning items.

4. Scheduleset up a schedule to see that the first 3Ss sort, straighten, and
sweep are continued and do not become just one time events.

5. Sustainmonitor the repetition of these procedures until they become


habit.

The result of the 5S approach is a neater, better organized, and more attractive
work area. This helps set the environment that leads to better productivity. The
5S approach to layout represents a series of steps that are applied to each spe-
cific area, such as a welding workstation. How the 5S principles are applied by
the welding supervisor with the welders depends on the knowledge and experi-
ence of both in building the best environment for the welder.

One of the drawbacks to using the 5Ss and other Lean principles in welding
operations is that many company and supervisory personnel have little techni-
cal training either in welding or in the Lean principles to effectively implement
them. Without specific training, attempts at Lean Manufacturing are likely to
fail. Lean is a general company-wide system for managing and improving all
processes. It does not specifically focus on any one manufacturing technology
such as welding.

The system of TQM grew out of the need to ensure quality in day-to-day man-
ufacturing. As pointed out in the No SystemSystem, quality is often ignored
in the day-to-day push to get product out the door.

TQM traces its origins to the 1960s when Japanese companies desired to
improve quality in order to compete in world markets. The Japanese started
their journey to quality by listening to W. Edwards Deming, an American
trained statistician and quality teacher. Deming was a pioneer in the field of
applying statistical approaches to measuring quality and designing techniques
for controlling processes and predicting when deviations were leading to out of
control conditions. These techniques are practiced today by many companies
in the U.S. as Statistical Process Control.

TQM begins with an understanding of what the customer wants, and then cre-
ates a quality system that will ensure that the customer receives the product
that fulfills his requirements. TQM does this by focusing on three goals:

1. Quality of Design. A product must be designed to meet the customers


needs.

7

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2. Quality of Conformance. Takes the design and any standards that are
needed, and puts in place the measurements and controls to ensure that the
specifications are met.

3. Qualities of Performance. The performance of the product and customer


satisfaction with the product are measured and any shortcomings corrected.

TQM achieves these goals through the quality assurance function in a com-
pany. They develop and implement the quality system to ensure the quality of
design, conformance, and performance. As part of the TQM system, reports of
the quality measures go to the Quality Department. This data provides facts for
the correction of deficiencies that occur during various production processes.
This feedback provides the opportunity for continuous improvement of
processes and quality.

In some companies, there is not a strong link between TQM and productivity.
This is often due to the perception that there are few opportunities to improve
both quality and productivity. This has been disproved, especially in welding.
As an example, the reduction in welding defects results in a marked savings in
welders time to make repairs. That time can then be used to make more pro-
duction welds, thus increasing productivity.

A TQM management system tries to integrate the following organization


functions:

1. Marketing

2. Management

3. Product Design

4. Process Control

5. Production

6. Training

7. Quality Assurance

Although TQM can take a number of different forms in an organization, there


are some characteristics that are common to successful TQM companies. They
include:

The culture of the organization changesthis is seen most notably at the


supervisory level by better training and a deeper understanding of the
importance of quality and how quality is achieved.

8

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Greater welder involvement in more aspects of the business by using the


welders as a source of ideas for continuous quality improvement.

Use of incentives, such a gain sharing or other profit sharing, to reward all
employees for improved results.

Improving customer satisfaction with the quality of the product. A willing-


ness to make changes that answer customer concerns about quality without
blaming employees.

Elimination of rigid constraints that were put in place as a result of earlier


problems or failures. Band-aid solutions are eliminated and replaced by an
effective quality system.

Greater use of technology and more flexibility in solving problems and


addressing quality issues.

Better cooperation with suppliers to improve the quality of materials


supplied.

Measurable progress in recording, analyzing, and reporting quality


improvement, and providing more emphasis where needed for further
improvement.

The welding supervisor sees that a company that follows the TQM system
shows a definite focus on quality. A TQM company has the support of man-
agement and the rest of the organization to achieve and sustain the quality of
not only welding, but also of all the materials and parts that are used in welded
assemblies. The drawback of TQM for the welding supervisor is that it is not
welding specific. It only identifies the need to put in place measures, proce-
dures, and methods that will improve quality but does not provide the technical
detail required to achieve welding quality.

TQM does not include the technical specifics of the science of welding and
welding processing required to define what form the procedures and methods
should take or how specific values are determined. The supervisor also does
not see in TQM what training is necessary to raise the level of knowledge and
skill of the welders to meet the quality needs of the TQM system. Although
improved quality does help improve productivity, the TQM system itself does
not specifically address productivity in any meaningful way to aid the super-
visor in trying to increase productivity while improving quality. For companies
doing welding, TQM needs to be supplemented by a system, which is focused
on improving total welding operations so that higher levels of quality and pro-
ductivity can be achieved.

9

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Total Welding Management1 (TWM) is a system for managing welding opera-


tions that leads to the achievement of high levels of quality and productivity. It
is the only management system that provides the detail required for every func-
tion and person involved in welding. TWM offers a comprehensive organiza-
tion wide approach to long-term sustainable improvement.

The control system within TWM is designed to assure that all welding related
activities are carried out in a correct, safe, timely, and efficient manner, and
results in the production of cost effective quality products every time.

TWM is based on the Barckhoff Welding Management System, which is the


model that provides the framework of TWM to plan and control all welding
related activities in a company. This model represents a systematic approach
for the development of a companys specific welding management system.

TWM encompasses much more than the welding supervisors responsibility,


but by reviewing the total system, supervisors will better understand their role
in achieving the companys goal of quality weldments at the lowest cost.

TWM uses a three-phased process of evaluating, planning, and improving all


of the welding-related activities in a company referred to as the Barckhoff
Method.

The Method encompasses product design, material procurement, process


design and control, quality assurance, parts preparation, fitup, and final assem-
bly to meet specifications without defects.

TWM using the Barckhoff Method applies proven technical, organizational,


and management principles to welding as they have been applied to other
manufacturing processes such as machining and assembly.

TWM has three distinct characteristics:

1. It combines the art, science, and technology of welding with tested and
proven management principles and includes the four critical organizational
functions, which impact welding (Four Critical Functions).

2. It associates five defining responsibilities (Five Key Results Areas) for


each of the Four Critical Functions, resulting in twenty different Key

1. Total Welding Management and Total Welding Management System are both copyrighted
(2005) by Jack R. Barckhoff, P.E. In this chapter and throughout this manual, the use of Total
Welding Management or TWM, and Total Welding Management System or TWMS refers to
copyrighted Total Welding Management System. Copyright laws protect any reference to this
system. Total Welding Management is also the title of a book written by Jack R. Barckhoff,
P.E., copyrighted and published by the American Welding Society (AWS). In this book, all of
the principles and concepts of Total Welding Management (TWM) are detailed.

10

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Results Areas that collectively represent all of the welding-related respon-


sibilities in a company.

3. It is a systematic approach in which a six-step process (Six Managerial


Steps) and cost reduction goals (Five Welding Dos or Goals) are applied
to the Five Key Results Areas of each of the Four Critical Functions to
identify and quantify opportunities to improve productivity and quality.

The Four Critical Functions are:

1. Design Engineering

2. Manufacturing Engineering

3. Manufacturing Operations (including Supervisors)

4. Quality Assurance

The Five Welding Dos (Goals) are:

1. Reduce Weld Metal Volume

2. Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment

3. Reduce Rejects, Rework, and Scrap

4. Reduce Work Effort

5. Reduce Motion and Delay Time

Welding supervisors, as part of their daily responsibilities, focus on these five


goals.

The Five Key Results Areas for Manufacturing Operations are:

1. Personnel Training and Qualification

2. Material Input

3. Equipment Performance

4. Method and Procedure Application

5. Work Center Control

11

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These Key Results Areas of Manufacturing Operations affect and are affected
by welding supervisors more than any others. The other Critical Functions also
have Key Results Areas related to achieving the Five Welding Dos.

The Six Managerial Steps are:

1. Information Gathering and Analysis

2. Planning and Goal Setting

3. Training

4. Implementation and Fine Tuning

5. Measurement and Control

6. Reporting

These six managerial steps are used both to implement TWM and provide the
framework for the management system.

The Barckhoff Method has three phases to TWM:

1. Phase ISurvey and Evaluation. The improvement of welding opera-


tions begins with benchmarking current conditions and performance. Gath-
ering data as well as conducting interviews at all levels in the organization
helps establish the baseline.

The Six Managerial Steps and the Five Welding Dos are used to evaluate
each of the Five Key Results Areas within each of the Four Critical Func-
tions to find opportunities for improving productivity and quality.

This data is then analyzed. From the summarized results, improvement


goals are established and projects prioritized. Potential savings are reported
in both man-hours and dollars.

2. Phase IIManagement Planning and Goal Setting. Management


reviews the Phase I findings, recommended actions, and potential produc-
tivity and profitability gains. Projects are then prioritized. Resources are
assigned, schedules agreed to and then a Gantt chart is developed. This
serves as the roadmap for TWM.

3. Phase IIIImplement and Sustain. In this phase, the company develops


and implements a customized welding management system and pursues the
objectives selected in Phase II. Teamwork and team building are stressed
as knowledge is instilled in welders and others through training.

12

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- -

These Dos represent the five major goals that any welding company needs
to focus on to gain significant improvement in both welding quality and
productivity.

1. Reduce Weld Metal Volume. The intent of this goal is to eliminate waste
by reducing the volume of weld metal to the minimum necessary to be
consistent with the joint application and specification requirements.
Designers should minimize the volume of weld metal required and avoid
over-specifying weld sizes. Welders should not deposit welds larger than
required by the design specifications. Although this goal directly affects
arc time, it is considered separate from arc time because it is distinct from
weld process deposition rate.

2. Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment. This goal centers on the deposition rate
capabilities of the welding process and the welding technique used. The
specified volume of weld metal should be deposited in the least amount of
arc time.

3. Reduce Rejects, Rework, and Scrap. This goal focuses on eliminating or


correcting any situation that tends to result in the production of unaccept-
able welds. The achievement of this goal results in minimizing or eliminat-
ing the costs and unproductive labor hours associated with rejects, rework,
and scrap. This results in both weld quality improvement and a reduction of
weld costs for repairs.

4. Reduce Work Effort. Work effort refers to the degree of difficulty,


fatigue, and hazard associated with welding. The focus of this goal is to
minimize or eliminate characteristics of work habits; methods, environ-
ment, equipment, tooling, and workplace that tend to increase the difficulty
of work effort.

5. Reduce Motion and Delay Time. This goal includes all time elements
associated with a welding operation except for arc time. The focus of this
goal is to minimize or eliminate all characteristics of work habits, methods,
environment, equipment, tooling, and the workplace, that tend to increase
time, produce excess motion or repeat time, or cause the welder delay time.

- -- -

There are four distinct support functions required to produce a weldment or


welded product. The Barckhoff Method defines them as the Four Critical
Functions. They are Design Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Manu-
facturing Operations and Quality Assurance.

13

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Key Results Areas make up the major portion of a Critical Functions responsi-
bility as related to welding. They are defined as follows:

Design Engineering

Key Results Areas are:

1. Material Selection. Identifying, evaluating, and choosing between combi-


nations of base metal and filler metal

2. Weld Size Determination. Determining the proper size of weld for a spe-
cific type of joint and specific application.

3. Weld Joint Selection. Selecting and applying the appropriate type and
geometry of weld consistent with welding economics and quality.

4. Manufacturing Review. Reviewing and appraising weldment design to


ensure economic manufacturing consistent with specifications and manu-
facturing capabilities.

5. Weldment Specification. Development, review, and release of the docu-


ments that define, describe, and explain the welding requirements for each
weldment.

Manufacturing Engineering

Key Results Areas are:

1. Workmanship Standards. Specifying or providing welding production


requirements to meet quality and quantity standards.

2. Welding Process Selection. Choosing and specifying the most efficient


and effective process for a welding application.

3. Equipment and Tooling Selection. Choosing and specifying welding


equipment, fixtures, jigs, and positioners for a welding process and
application.

4. Method and Procedure Development. Determining the most effective


combination of welding materials, welding process, and technique charac-
teristics, consistent with production and quality requirements to satisfy in-
service conditions.

5. Work Center Planning. Organizing efficient and effective work center


layout, workflow, process sequencing, motions, and accountabilities to
enable the welder to meet or exceed productivity and quality requirements.

14

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Manufacturing Operations

Key Results Areas for the welding supervisor are:

1. Personnel Training and Qualification. Instruction and qualification of


welders and other manufacturing personnel in the use of the work methods,
procedures, fixtures, and equipment in accordance with the work center
control plan.

2. Material Input. Controlling the shape, size, dimensions, surface condi-


tion, and composition of materials entering all welding workstations.

3. Equipment Performance. Insuring all equipments capability to perform


to its intended purpose.

4. Method and Procedure Application. The use of equipment, tooling, pro-


cess, and techniques to meet standards, specifications, and procedures.

5. Work Center Control. Auditing and monitoring the welder, work meth-
ods, procedures, materials, equipment, and tooling in accordance to plan
and correcting variances.

Quality Assurance

The Key Results are:

1. Policy and Accountability. Statements of acceptable standards, behavior,


and organization responsibilities relating to quality.

2. Quality Standards. Definitions and descriptions of acceptable quality levels.

3. Quality Procedures. The means and methods for measuring quality.

4. Inspect, Measure, Report. The process of translating technical measure-


ments into meaningful management reports.

5. Corrective Action. Procedures that describe the actions to be taken to cor-


rect variances from standards, specifications, or other requirements appli-
cable to a part, product, or process.

In a TWM system, to properly develop, implement, and control a welding


management system project and effectively solve any welding problem, the
following Six Managerial Steps as described below are applied.

15

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Step 1Information Gathering and Analysis. This step is used for col-
lecting, recording, and analyzing facts and information necessary to build
the foundation for the project. This step also provides the basis for evaluat-
ing the projects performance after its implementation. Personnel working
in this step must be knowledgeable in the operations surveyed and with the
resultant data.

Step 2Planning and Goal Setting. In this step, the total project is devel-
oped and the goals are established. Assignments are made and schedules
are determined. All necessary methods for insuring the development and
implementation of the program are established. The necessary control
methods for insuring maintenance of the implemented project and mea-
surement of project performance are also developed.

Step 3Training. In this step, all personnel who will control, use, or work
on the project are trained in the detail of their functional responsibility,
how the overall program works, what the goals are, and when the project is
to start.

Step 4Implementation and Fine-Tuning. In this step, the project is put


into action. It is closely monitored to insure that all necessary details are
covered. When required, on the job follow-up training is conducted.

Step 5Measurement and Control. This is the step that audits, monitors,
and collects data regarding project performance. Essential data must be
reported to insure the continuing success of the project.

Step 6Reporting. In this step, all measurements are analyzed for com-
parison to goals and the results reported to management and others respon-
sible for taking corrective actions. Timely feedback of critical information
is essential to reverse undesirable trends and avoid unwanted change.

When implemented, TWM results in a closed-looped management system that


includes all aspects of welding, and ensures both proper control as well as
continuous improvement of welding operations.

Before we summarize the advantages of each of the four systems reviewed


above, a brief discussion of both Six Sigma and ISO would be appropriate as
welding supervisors may encounter them.

Six Sigma. Six Sigma is a methodology and set of tools used to evaluate
processes for the purpose of reducing variation to reduce costs and improve
quality. The tools used by Six Sigma can be quite analytical and involved
and require specialized training.

16

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With completion of formal Six Sigma training, formal levels of proficiency


are granted from Green Belt to Black Belt. Companies such as General
Electric, under the leadership of Jack Welch, have trained thousands of
Black Belts. This training in their estimation has result in significant annual
cost reductions through the application of Six Sigma tools and methodolo-
gies. Savings have come from reducing process variation both internally
and with suppliers.

Six Sigma tools can be used in both TQM and TWM systems to support
improvement programs. These tools can also be used with the No System
System but without a formal structure, results would be limited.

ISO. ISO represents the formal documentation of a companys quality sys-


tem to defined national and international standards. ISO requires formal,
periodic external audits to assure that a companys documented quality
procedures are followed. Many companies are required to maintain ISO
certification by the industry or customers they serve. ISO international
standards include ISO 9000, 9001, 9002, and 1400. ISO is a natural exten-
sion of TQM, as it provides the structure for formal documentation
required for an effective TQM system and provides the formal certification
and independent outside audit.

TWM supports ISO as it provides complete documentation with the TWM


system for all welding-related operations. A No SystemSystem would
have difficulty meeting any ISO certification requirements as there is little
formal documentation followed in the No SystemSystem.

Table 1 will help highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses of the man-
agement systems reviewed. The characteristics included in the comparison
show how each system supports quality improvement, productivity improve-
ment, continuous improvement, and whether each system provides generalized
or detailed welding specific information for improvement.

- - -

- - -

- - - -

17

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- A welding supervisor could work for a company using any one of the above
management systems. Only one has been found to provide the detailed techni-
cal and managerial information required to achieve lasting welding quality and
productivity improvement. For this reason, this manual is written using the
Total Welding Management System to prepare welding supervisors for their
very important role in manufacturing.

This does not mean that a welding supervisor who has learned the concepts and
principals of TWM will not be able to apply them in other environments. He
will find that this detailed technical and managerial knowledge will fit very
neatly with and enhance other systems of management. It will definitely
enhance the quality and productivity where there is no company manufacturing
system at all.

A welding supervisor is not expected to be involved in all of the activities of


TWM. The purpose of introducing TWM is to provide a better understanding
of how other parts of the organization function and to show how the super-
visors role forms an integral part of the management system.

The most important knowledge that a welding supervisor should come away
with after having studied this manual is their new found ability to:

look at the situation that exists in their department and evaluate whether it
is the most appropriate way to perform the welding tasks, based on this
manual; if not to understand what actions need to occur to correct the
situation.

then take those things that should and can be changed, and have the confi-
dence and knowledge to effect change without fear or doubt.

evaluate the changes that have been made through monitoring of those
improvements to verify that they have achieved the desired result, and then
to continue to refine and improve upon the result.

In this manual, it will become clear that supervisors play a very important role
in any management system. This is true, especially in the Critical Function of
Manufacturing Operations and the Key Results Areas of Personnel Training
and Qualification, Material Input, Equipment Performance, Method and Proce-
dure Application and Work Center Control. Throughout the remainder of this
manual the welding supervisors role will be detailed along with the technical
information required to fulfill his important role in the quality and productivity
of his welding operations.

- The Lean Company, Making the Right Choices, James A. Jordon, Jr. and
Frederick J. Michel. 2001. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn,
Michigan.

18

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Total Quality Management for Engineers, Mohamed Zairi. 1991. Woodhead


Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge, England.

Implementing World Class Manufacturing, Larry Rubrich & Madelyn


Watson. 1998. WCM Associates, Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Total Welding Management, Jack R. Barckhoff, P.E. 2005. American


Welding Society, Miami, Florida.

-- 1. Many companies have supervisors doing which of the following?


A. Supporting the welders activities
B. Checking the quality of parts
C. Expediting parts and pushing productivity
D. Playing cards
E. None of the above

2. Which management approach relies on welders teaching welders on the


job?
A. Total Welding Management
B. No SystemSystem
C. Lean Manufacturing
D. Total Quality Management
E. Total Quality Welding

3. In the Lean Manufacturing System, which is not a concept?


A. Muda
B. Pull
C. Quality Principal
D. Just-In-Time
E. Quality of Conformance

4. In the workstation approach using 5S, which of the following are part of
that system?
A. Sort
B. Straighten
C. Schedule
D. Sustain
E. All of the above

5. The TQM System approach relies on which of the following to achieve the
goals of this system approach?
A. Quality of Effectiveness
B. Quality of Efficiency

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C. Quality of Repair
D. Quality of Performance
E. Quality of Training

6. Which if any of the following may be characteristic of a TQM System


approach?

A. Use of incentives
B. Kanban
C. Improving customer satisfaction
D. A and C
E. Takt time

7. The TWM System approach which of the following is not one of the
5 Welding Dos Goals?

A. Reduce Nonconformance
B. Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment
C. Reduce Work Effort
D. Reduce Weld Metal Volume
E. Reduce Motion and Delay Time

8. For a welding supervisor which of the Key Results Areas are most
important?

A. Welding Process Selection


B. Method and Procedure Application
C. Material Selection
D. Weldment Specification
E. Quality Standards

9. Which of the Six Managerial Steps is essential for sustainability?

A. Information and Goal Setting


B. Measurement and Control
C. Reporting
D. Implementation and Fine Tuning
E. Training

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-- 1. C
2. B
3. E
4. E
5. D
6. D
7. A
8. B
9. C

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Welds must meet a variety of requirements to provide a safe and economical


structure or weldment (see Figure 2.1). Requirements for welds can be speci-
fied in several different ways:

Company design and quality requirements

Codes and specifications

Customer requirements and/or expectations

- These requirements need to be well thought out and properly documented for
shop use. Formulating these requirements into a welding workmanship stan-
dard along with weld sample boards and mock-ups is best way of doing this.
Quality cannot be a matter of opinion but should be defined by requirements
that mean the same to all those involved in welding operations. The quality
requirements should be both observable and measurable, and need to be effec-
tively communicated to the shop floor.

Quality requirements for shop use are specified by:

Welding workmanship standards

Weld sample boards

23

-

Weld mock-ups

Weldment mock-ups and sample boards are effective communication tools.


Mock-ups can be a replica of the actual products being produced or a represen-
tation of typical welds. Mock-ups show how the parts fit together, where the
welds are placed, acceptable weld appearance and even weld sequence,
if appropriate. They provide a visual display of the weld bead and joint
requirements (see Figure 2.2).

Sample boards on the other hand, represent acceptable and unacceptable welds
from a visual inspection perspective. Company expectations in terms of weld
quality are effectively communicated with weld sample boards (see Figure
2.3). In essence, mock-ups and sample boards are the visual representations of
the welding workmanship standard.

Requirements for welds can include:

Size

Length

Profile and appearance

Weld soundness

24

-

Mechanical properties

Leak tightness

Corrosion properties and/or chemistry requirements

- This chapter has the following objectives:

1. Learn the terms and definitions commonly referred to in welding

2. Understand how weld size is specified

3. Know how to use a welding gage

4. Understand the difference between a weld discontinuity and a defect

5. Learn the types of defects encountered in welding

It is important to define the terminology used in the industry before discussing


welding requirements in detail. Figure 2.4 describes parts of a weld. Root of
joint vs. root of weld is shown in Figure 2.5.

25

-

Weld size and throat for flat, convex, and concave profile fillet welds are
shown in Figures 2.62.8.

Terminology for groove welds is illustrated in Figure 2.9.

26

-

How do welds fail? To understand how welds are sized we first need to know
how welds fail when overstressed. Which is the most likely failure plane for
the simple T-joint shown in Figure 2.10? Make a note of your answer. The
most likely plane of failure will become evident as you read the next few
pages.

The requirements of a weld are shown in Figure 2.11. Weld size determines the
strength of a weld. When a plate is loaded in tension as shown in Figure 2.12,
the load is transferred from one part to the next by the connecting welds.
Before the designer can correctly design the weld, he or she must first under-
stand how the joint will fail. Both the base metal and weld metal must be
designed to carry the intended loads.

27

-

-
---

-
--

28

-

- - -

For a fillet weld, failure will occur through the weld throat, which is the short-
est distance from the root of the weld to the weld face. The weld throat is, in
fact, the weakest part of the weld (see Figure 2.13). Hence, the answer to the
question posed for Figure 2.10 is the # 3 failure plane.

29

-

- -

- - -

30

-

When designing a fillet weld, the engineer works with weld throat but speci-
fies leg size in accordance with our standards. Similarly, when the shop deter-
mines the size of a weld by its leg size, it is really trying to ensure that the
weld throat is adequate. Caution must be exercised when measuring the size
of concave weld because the leg will not be representative of the throat (see
Figure 2.14).

- - -

A typical gage for measuring the size of a fillet weld is shown in Figure 2.15.



- -

Proper use of a fillet gage to measure the size of a weld is shown in Figures
2.16 and 2.17. Examples of the proper use of a weld gage are shown in Figure
2.18.

31

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-

32

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- -- - --



--

- - - -

- -

33

-

Gaps between the base metals in a fillet welded connection present a special
problem. As shown in Figure 2.19, a gap can reduce the weld throat. This
reduction of weld throat lessens the load carrying capacity of the fillet weld.

- -
-

- - -

When the gap is 1/16 in. or greater the weld size must be increased by the
amount of gap (see Figure 2.20).

34

-

Welders should also be knowledgeable about the costs of overwelding. As


shown in Figure 2.21, the adjacent sidebar small changes in weld size can
make a big difference in weld volume and costs

-
-

A very common overwelding problem, which can result from an incorrect


transverse electrode angle, is a horizontal leg that is larger than required. As
shown in the table in Figure 2.22, weld volume and costs are significantly
affected by this type of problem.

Excessive convexity can also lead to unnecessary extra costs. Welding posi-
tion, shielding gas, and other essential welding variables can affect the amount
of convexity (see Figure 2.23).

35

-

- -





- --

-- -- --

Continuous welds run from one end of a joint to the other end. Craters must be
filled to ensure that the weld throat is continuous for this length. Similarly for
an intermittent weld (or stitch weld, which is a nonstandard term), craters need
to be filled within the required weld length (see Figure 2.24).

36

-

The shape or profile of a weld is also important. Welds with sharp edges or
sharp changes in direction cause a concentration of stress at these points. Stress
concentrations will produce higher stresses, which can be undesirable (see
Figure 2.25).

- ---

--


---

--

37

-

When loaded, rounded type discontinuities will be less likely to propagate or


fail than planar or sharp discontinuities. Rounded discontinuities have a lower
stress concentration effect (see Figure 2.26).

-- --

Some unacceptable welds are shown in Figure 2.27.

-- All welds contain discontinuities of one type or another. It is difficult to


deposit a perfect weld, however, in many cases small discontinuities have no
detrimental effect on the weld. Workmanship requirements take this fact into
consideration. A discontinuity is classified as a defect only when the disconti-
nuity exceeds a certain size or number (see Figure 2.28).

Incomplete joint penetration is generally not acceptable (see Figures 2.29


2.31).

Incomplete fusion is generally not acceptable (see Figures 2.32 and 2.33).

38

-


- -
--


- -
--


- -
- -

-- - -
- -

-- -

39

-

- -

Porosity can be acceptable if a certain size or frequency is not exceeded.


Where leak tightness is important, porosity of any size may be unacceptable
(see Figure 2.34).

40

-

Unless it is highly excessive, porosity usually has little effect on weld strength
(see the fractured tensile specimen shown in Figure 2.35). Because porosity
can obscure and hide other more serious defects on a radiograph, there is usu-
ally some limit on the amount allowed. Excessive porosity can also be an indi-
cation of something wrong with the welding process (lack of shielding) or that
the welding was performed on dirty materials.

41

-

- -

Cracks are never acceptable. They present a plane of separation with a sharp
stress concentration at the leading edge of the crack. Under stress the crack can
extend in length (see Figures 2.362.38). Refer to Chapter 7, Steel Metallurgy,
for more information on this subject.

- -

Slag can be acceptable if a certain size or frequency is not exceeded (see


Figure 2.392.41). Slag is usually the result of inadequate cleaning between
passes.

Arc strikes can leave small hard spots or even cracks on the surface of base
metals. Avoid arc strikes as much as possible (see Figures 2.42 and 2.43).

42

-

--

--

43

-

--

A work return (ground) clamp with inadequate clamping force can also leave
hard spots on the base metal surface due to arcing between the clamp and base
metal (see Figure 2.44).

Although spatter has little effect on the strength or performance of a weld, it


gives the impression of poor quality. Spatter can also be a sign that the welding
parameters are incorrectly set. This cosmetic type of discontinuity is usually
removed wherever it is exposed (see Figure 2.45).

To carry the required loads, the weld should be as strong and ductile as the
- base metal (see Figures 2.46 and 2.47).

For some materials such as aluminum the welding wire is selected to avoid
cracking.

44

-

- -

Matching properties or other requirements are achieved by selecting the cor-


rect welding electrode for the materials to be welded. The American Welding
Society (AWS) classification for the welding electrode must be specified.
Refer to Chapter 7, Steel Metallurgy, for more information on this subject.

45

-

- -

- -

- --

- When materials such as stainless steels are used, corrosion resistance is usually
-- an important factor. Ensure that the weld is as good, if not better than, the base
metals. The correct filler metal needs to be specified to achieve this result.

46

-

Our previous discussion described many of the requirements that a weld may
have to meetbut how are these requirements actually achieved? Getting the
- job done right the first time and every time is not a simple matter. As you
review this program, it becomes evident that there are many facets to a man-
agement system which can achieve these kinds of results on a consistent basis.
Just a few of the important considerations are as follows:

Correct welding symbols on drawings

Workmanship standards with communications tools

Proper welding procedures

Trained and qualified welders

Proper supervision

Let us consider the use of welding procedures. When performed by different


- people, most work requires some kind of direction or recipe to consistently get
the job done right. This is where written welding procedures play an important
role. Some key points about welding procedures are:

They provide the essential information (or recipe) to make a weld that
meets the productivity and quality requirements.

They list the seven essential welding variables that determine the produc-
tivity and quality of a deposited weld (see Figure 2.47).

-- -

-- -

47

-

They can be prequalified or be based on actual tests that prove whether the
productivity and quality requirements have been met. This information is
then documented in a Procedure Qualification Record (PQR).

Welding procedures are necessary to ensure that:

Welds will be made to the proper size.

Welds will meet the arc time requirements.

Welds will meet the quality requirements.

Correct welding electrodes will be used.

Welds will be consistent when all welders follow the same procedure
(recipe).

A mechanism to constantly improve welding procedures will be provided.


Any new variable or change in variable can be applied to all welders (see
Figure 2.48).

-
- --
- - -

- -

48

-

Welding procedures that meet the requirements of specific codes or standards


(e.g., AWS D1.1) are described as Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs).
A typical WPS in accordance with the requirements of AWS D1.1 is shown in
Figure 2.49, with some additional essential welding variables indicated under
General Notes.



---
- -
-- - -

- -
-
--

-
p -
-- p --

-- -
-
- -

-- - -


- -

o -- p -

49

-

- AWS B1.11, Guide for the Visual Examination of Welds

AWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions

- To obtain maximum benefit from this program it is recommended that you fol-
-- low this guide and complete the exercises. It is important that you thoroughly
study each section carefully before moving to the next section. The exercises are
designed to give you an indication of whether you understand the material pre-
sented. If you answer a question incorrectly, go back and read that section again.

1. Which of the following are ways in which a proper welding management


program can communicate weld quality requirements to shop floor
workers?
A. Welding workmanship standards
B. Equipment manufacturers information
C. Weld sample boards
D. Weld mock-ups
E. All of the above
F. A and C and D

2. List four possible requirements for a fillet weld.


__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

3. True or False?
For a concave fillet weld you only need to measure the leg to determine
the weld size. True False

4. A T-joint has a 1/4 in. fillet weld called for on the print. If there is a gap of
1/8 in., what should the final weld size be?
A. 1/4 in.
B. 5/16 in.
C. 3/8 in.
D. 1/2 in.

5. If a 1/4 in. fillet weld is overwelded by 1/16 in. on both the horizontal and
vertical legs, by how much is the weld volume increased?
__________________________________________________________

50

-

6. If a welder deposits a 3/16 in. specified fillet weld with a 3/16 in. vertical
leg and a 1/4 in. horizontal leg, by how much is the weld volume and
arcing time increased?

__________________________________________________________

7. Identify the parts of the following welds.

8. An unfilled crater in a fillet weld has the following effect:

A. Increases overall weld size


B. Reduces overall weld size
C. Reduces the effective length
D. Has no effect
E. All of the above

9. True or False?

Stress concentrations are desirable in a weld. True False

10. Which of the following explains why a crack type defect can be more
dangerous than a slag type defect?

A. A crack is a planer defect


B. A crack will tend to propagate under load
C. A crack is a higher stress concentration
D. All of the above

11. True or False?

Arc strikes are so small they never have any effect on weld quality.
True False

51

-

-- 1. F
2. Size, length, profile and appearance, weld soundness, mechanical proper-
ties, leak tightness
3. False
4. C
5. 56%
6. 33%
7.


-

-

-

-

8. C
9. False
10. D
11. False

52


The numerous advantages of the SMAW process make it the preferred choice
for many welding applications. SMAW can deposit high quality welds with
relatively simple equipment. Successful application of SMAW requires that
the supervisor have a good understanding of the process variations and the
controlling essential variables. The focus of this chapter is SMAW applied to
mild steel.

After successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:


-
List the advantages and limitations of the SMAW process

Recognize the different types of electrodes available for SMAW

Set up the welding equipment for SMAW

Understand each of the seven essential welding variables

Know how the essential variables affect bead shape, penetration, and
spatter

Set the essential variables for different electrodes and welding applications

Avoid commonly encountered SMAW defects

-- SMAW (often called stick welding, a nonstandard term) is a process in


- which the heat for welding is generated by an electric arc between the end of a
flux-covered metal electrode and the base metal. As the electrode metal pro-
gressively melts, it is transferred across the arc into the weld (see Figure 3.1).

-



-

-

--

53

The core of the electrode is a solid metal rod that conducts the electric current
to the arc and provides filler metal for the joint. The flux coating decomposes
to provide ingredients that stabilize the arc and gases that shield the molten
weld metal from the atmosphere. The flux coating may also contain additional
weld metal additives such as iron powder.

A typical electric circuit for the SMAW process is shown in Figure 3.2. Weld-
ing current flows when an electric arc is struck between the end of the elec-
trode and the work. Current then flows from the power source to the arc
through the welding lead or cable and back to the power source through the
work return lead.

--

SMAW is one of the most widely used processes, particularly for maintenance
and repair work and in field construction. Compared with other welding
processes, SMAW has the following advantages:

The equipment is simple, inexpensive, and highly portable

Gas shielding or additional flux is not required

Less sensitive to wind and drafts than gas shielded processes, and therefore
is ideal for outdoor applications

54

Can be easily applied in any welding position

Can be used in areas of limited access

--

Compared with other welding processes, SMAW has the following


disadvantages:

Welding travel speeds and productivity are much lower (see Figure 3.3).

Fume generation rate is relatively high (see Figure 3.4).

- -

55


- -

- Electrodes for the SMAW process have a solid metal core rod with a flux
coating (see Figure 3.5). These electrodes are available in sizes ranging from
3/32 in. (2.5 mm) to 1/4 in. (6.0 mm) or larger (see Figure 3.6).

- -

The flux coating performs the following important functions:

1. The flux is broken down by the heat of the arc to produce shielding gases
that protect the molten weld metal from contamination.

2. Melted flux forms a slag that chemically reacts with the molten weld metal.
This reaction helps to purify the weld metal by reducing the oxygen
content as well as minimizing the effect of contaminates from the base
metal surface.

56

-
--


--

- - -

3. Flux contains ingredients that help to stabilize the arc.

4. The flux coating may contain additional weld metal additives, such as iron
powder, which increases the deposition rate of the electrode.

5. Molten slag supports and shapes the weld pool.

Specifications for SMAW electrodes conform to American Welding Society


(AWS) standards. Most electrodes are manufactured to meet the requirements
detailed in the various AWS Filler Metal Specifications, such as:

Size

Mechanical properties

Chemical composition

Type of coating

Welding position

Type of currentDirect Current (DC), Alternating Current (AC)

A typical electrode classification number in accordance with AWS A5.1, Spec-


ification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding, is shown
in Figure 3.7. A detailed breakdown of the A5.1 classification system is shown
in Figure 3.8.

57

- -

--

-
-
-

-
-
--

--
- -


- -- -

The flux thickness depends on the type of electrode coating (see Figure 3.9).

--

58

- - -

-
- EX0X0
EX0X1

Cellulosic electrodes have either a 0 or 1 as the last digit. These electrodes


have a large portion of cellulose (wood pulp) in the coating that produces a
large volume of carbon dioxide and hydrogen to shield the weld pool.

Because the hydrogen produced by these electrodes can cause cracking, cellu-
losic electrodes should not be used for any applications that require thicker car-
bon steels or alloy steels of any thickness.

- -

- -

-


--
--
-
--

NOTE: Cellulosic electrodes are designed to have moisture levels


from 3%7% and should not be rebaked or stored at higher than room
temperature.

CAUTION: Do not store cellulosic electrodes in heated rod ovens.

-

EX0X2
EX0X3
EX0X4

Rutile electrodes have either a 2, 3, or 4 as the last digit. The rutile coating
produces a heavy, fast-freezing slag that makes this electrode easy to use in all
positions. The E6013 electrode is useful for sheet material because of its low
penetration characteristics. The E7014 electrode version has a higher iron
powder content for faster welding.

59

- -



--
--
-
--

-

EX0X5
EX0X6
EX0X8

Low hydrogen, or basic, electrodes have either a 5, 6, or 8 as the last digit. The
coating of these electrodes contains a large amount of lime or calcium carbon-
ate. When properly stored, this type of coating gives off relatively little hydro-
gen and is therefore resistant to hydrogen cracking. Low hydrogen electrodes
are not as penetrating as the cellulosic electrodes, and produce less carbon
dioxide to shield the weld pool. As a result, they must be used with a short arc
length to avoid porosity.

- -



--
--
-
--

NOTE: Because low hydrogen electrodes can absorb water, they are
packed in moisture resistant containers. Once removed from the container
they should be stored in a heated oven (250F min) or used within 4 hours
(see Figure 3.10).

CAUTION: Always store low hydrogen electrodes in heated rod ovens.


Any electrodes that have flux that is chipped, cracked, or wet from expo-
sure to rain or snow should be discarded.

60

-


EX024
EX027
EX028

The coating of these electrodes is a high iron powder version of rutile, mineral,
and low hydrogen type coatings. The iron powder content of the coating is
about 50% of the weight and provides a high deposition rate for fast welding
speeds. The number 2 as the second to last digit indicates that iron powder
electrodes are used for flat groove and horizontal fillet welds only. AC polarity
provides the highest travel speeds and best operating characteristics, particu-
larly on larger diameter electrodes.

- -



-- - -
--
-
-- - -

A comparison of the AWS system with other classification systems that use
metric units is shown in Table 3.1.

61

--
- --

-- --



The welding power source is typically either a transformer-rectifier or an
engine-driven generator (see Figure 3.11). Engine-driven generators use either
a gasoline or diesel engine.

-
- -

62

The polarity and welding amperage are set at the welding power source. A
typical control panel of a welding power source is shown in Figure 3.12.

Electrode holders are available in a range of sizes and capacities, and should be
selected for the maximum amperage to be used. This equipment should be
properly maintained and used only for its intended application.

A whip lead of flexible welding cable is connected directly to the electrode


holder to allow easy manipulation of the holder (see Figure 3.13).

Welding cables are available in a variety of sizes to suit the amperage and
cable length (see Figure 3.14).

63

Welding cables should be of good quality and be properly maintained. Any


cuts must be repaired and any exposed copper conductor must be replaced. It is
also important that the welding cables be of the correct size for the job as
shown Table 3.2.

Cable connectors are used to connect the cables to the power source or to
connect lengths of welding lead together (see Figure 3.15). Ensure that all con-
nectors are clean and correctly sized for the cables that they connect.

64

- -

Often incorrectly referred to as the ground clamp, this piece of equipment is


important for safety and obtaining proper welding conditions (see Figure 3.16).
Rust, paint, or other potential insulators must be removed prior to attachment.
Always attach the work return clamp securely in order to make good electrical
contact and position it as close to the welding arc as practical. In some situ-
ations, welding current flowing long distances through a structure or piping
system can be dangerous.

65

-- The SMAW process is controlled by seven essential welding variables (see


- Figure 3.17). These variables are set by the welder to control welding speed,
bead appearance, penetration, and spatter. These variables are the key settings
that make the deposit a good weld or an unacceptable weld. Knowledge and
control of the seven essential welding variables are critical factors if quality
welds are to be consistently obtained.

--

-- -

To consistently obtain quality welds, the welder must:

Understand each of the seven essential welding variables

Know how the essential variables affect bead shape, penetration, and spatter

Be able to set the essential variables for different electrodes and welding
applications.

As detailed in Figure 3.8, SMAW electrodes are designed to operate on DC,


AC, or both. The effect that current type and polarity have on welding is shown
in Table 3.3.

66


- -

- - - - -
-

For most electrodes, DC electrode positive (DCEP) is the preferred choice if


the power source operates in this polarity. AC is beneficial, however, where
arc blow is a problem. In addition, for iron powder electrodes like E7024, AC
can increase the deposition rate over DC.

Current type and polarity for different electrodes are shown in Table 3.4.

- -- -

--




o
o



o
o

67

Correct amperage settings are critical to the welder who wants to make sound
welds. Arc starting, penetration, bead appearance, and spatter are all affected


by the amperage setting.

For example, increasing the amperage increases penetration, because of greater


arc heating. Increasing the amperage also increases the burnoff of the electrode
as shown in Figure 3.18.


- -

- - -

The effect of incorrect amperage settings are shown in Figure 3.19. Too low an
amperage setting produces a narrow, cold-looking weld. Too high an amperage
setting produces excessive spatter.

- - -

68

The correct amperage range depends on the electrode size and type of coating
(see Table 3.5).

- - -

Arc length determines the voltage across the arc (see Figure 3.20).

-
-

- -
- --

Too long an arc can cause spatter, undercut, and porosity. Electrodes such as
E7018 are designed to operate with a short arc length; E6010 electrodes are
designed to operate with a longer arc. Generally, arc length should be less than
the diameter of the electrode.

The effect of incorrect arc length is shown in Figure 3.21.

69

Travel speed affects the amount of filler metal deposited per inch of weld. A
speed that is too slow deposits excessive weld metal; a speed that is too fast
deposits too small a bead (see Figure 3.22).

--

- -

Although the bead-on-plate results in Figure 3.23 show that slower travel
speeds result in greater penetration, this is not the case when the weld pool is
allowed to build in depth. Using too slow a travel speed when making a groove
weld or a fillet weld typically results in undercut and lack of penetration (see
Figure 3.24).

NOTE: Keep the arc at the front of the weld pool.

70

- -

- -
- -- -
-

- - --
--

71

The electrode forms an angle with the workpiece in a plane that is parallel to
the direction of travel. This angle is called the travel angle, which can be a
push or drag angle (see Figure 3.25).

With the SMAW process, use a drag angle to keep the slag back from running
in front of the weld pool (see Figure 3.26).

- pp

72

--

The electrode forms an angle with the workpiece in a plane that is


perpendicular to the direction of travel. This angle is called the transverse
angle, which can affect bead shape, penetration, and undercut (see Figure
3.27).

- --

The position of the electrode in the joint is an important factor that determines
the quality of the weld. Examine the edges of the weld pool and position the
electrode so that the weld is centered on the joint (see Figure 3.28).

Electrode manipulation as shown in Table 3.6 is used to control the bead


shape.

73

- -

- --

- - -
- - --
- - -
- -
-

- - -
-- --- -
- -- -
-
- -- - -

-
- - --
- -

- - -
--- -
- - - -
-

- - -
- - -
- - -

- - -
-- - -

Remember the seven essential welding variables. They are the key to making
quality welds with the SMAW process (refer to Figure 3.29).

74

--

-
-- -

-- -

Once the equipment is properly set up and the correct polarity is selected, the
welder should adjust the amperage control and make the initial settings for:
type of electrode, size of electrode, and position of welding (see Figure 3.30).

Once the arc is struck, additional adjustments may be necessary to obtain optimum
conditions. Do not set up on the work. Use scrap material to test the arc conditions.

Typical amperage ranges were listed previously.

75

-
-

NOTE: Do not set up on the work. Use scrap material first to test the arc
conditions.

Since an air gap will not conduct electricity, the arc is formed by quickly strik-
ing the work and pulling the electrode back about 1/8 in. This action creates
enough heat to get the arc started (see Figure 3.30).

Once the arc is struck, additional amperage control adjustments may be neces-
sary to obtain optimum conditions. Typical amperage ranges were listed previ-
ously (see Table 3.5)

The coating of E7018 type electrodes burns back at a slower rate than the metal
core, which forms a cup at the end of the electrode (see Figure 3.31). Because
this type of electrode has a thicker coating, it is more difficult to reignite after the
first start. As a result, these electrodes must be scratched or tapped fairly hard.

76

Once the arc is struck, do not move the electrode over the work. Hold the elec-
trode at the starting point until the weld pool begins to form. When the weld
pool reaches the correct size (approximately 1.5 times the diameter of the elec-
trode), move the electrode at a uniform speed. Control the travel speed by com-
paring the weld size with the electrode diameter (see Figure 3.32).

NOTE: Remember to incline the electrode at a slight drag angle as


shown in Figure 3.33.

pp

77

-- -

For each electrode size there is a maximum fillet size that can be deposited (see
Table 3.7). As the weld size increases, higher amperage is needed to ensure
fusion to the root, therefore, a larger electrode size is required. Making too
large a weld with a given electrode size results in the welding arc staying on
top of the pool, rather than penetrating to the root.

--

--
-

To achieve adequate penetration with the minimum electrode sizes in Table


3.7, run the electrode at the upper end of the amperage range. To achieve good
root penetration in the vertical position, it is easier to keep the arc at the front
of the pool because the pool is sagging down and the electrode progression is
up. Therefore, in the vertical position, 1/8 (3.2 mm) or 5/32 (4.0 mm) diameter
electrodes can deposit a fairly wide range of weld sizes.

If a weld cools too quickly it can crack. For a given plate thickness a small
weld cools faster than a large weld (see Figure 3.34).

It is good practice to deposit a minimum fillet size in a single pass. Table 3.8
gives the requirements used in structural welding codes.

To avoid trapping slag in the weld, always remove the slag between welding
passes. Slag must also be removed after the last pass to allow proper inspection
of the completed weld (see Figure 3.35).

78


--

- --

--
--

79

(Weld bead is ropey in appearance or shows little fusion)



- Problem
Electrode too small
Current too low
Travel speed too fast

Solution
Use a larger electrode
Increase amperage
Use a slower travel speed

(See Chapter 12, Welding Inspection)

Problem
Amperage too high
Arc length too long
Erratic travel speed or electrode manipulation
Travel speed too slow

Solution
Reduce amperage
Shorten arc length
Keep travel speed and electrode manipulation smooth
Increase travel speed

-- (See Chapter 2, Requirements of a Weld)

Problem
Amperage too high
Arc length too long

Solution
Reduce amperage
Shorten arc length

- (See Chapter 12, Welding Inspection)

Problem
Contaminated base metal
Improper shielding from excessive arc length

Solution
Clean base metal of rust, oils or grease
Shorten arc length
Keep travel speed smooth

80

(See Chapter 12, Welding Inspection)

Problem
Electrode size too small for size of weld
Amperage too low
Travel speed too slow; arc is not at the front of the weld pool

Solution
Use a larger diameter electrode
Increase amperage
Increase travel speed

The AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 2, Welding Processes, Chapters 1


and 2.

- To obtain maximum benefit from this program, it is recommended that you fol-
-- low this guide and complete the exercises. It is important that you thoroughly
study each section carefully before moving to the next section. The exercises
are designed to give you an indication of whether you understand the material
presented. If you get a question wrong go back and read that section again.

1. What does SMAW stand for? ___________________________________

2. SMAW can be used in which of these welding positions?


A. Flat and horizontal only
B. Flat, horizontal, and overhead only
C. All welding positions
D. None of the above

3. Which of the following is not an advantage of the SMAW process?


A. Simple, portable, and inexpensive equipment
B. It can be used in areas of limited access
C. Most metals and alloys can be welded
D. Very low fume generation rate

4. The size of a SMAW electrode is determined by the:


A. Outside diameter of the electrode
B. Electrode core diameter
C. Length of the electrode
D. Recommended current range

81

5. The functions of the flux coating include:


A. Arc stabilization
B. Forms a shielding gas
C. Supports and shapes the weld pool by forming slag
D. Reduction in weld pool oxygen content
E. All of the above

6. An electrode with an AWS classification of E7018 means that it:


A. Has a minimum tensile strength of 70,000 psi
B. Can be used in all positions
C. Is a low hydrogen electrode
D. Is 18 in. long
E. All of the above
F. A, B, and C

7. Where are cellulosic electrodes (E6010) used?


A. High deposition rates are needed
B. A low hydrogen electrode is required
C. Deep penetration and sound weld metal are desirable
D. Low penetration is needed
E. Sheet metal thicknesses are to be joined

8. An electrode with an AWS classification of E6027 means that it:


A. Has a minimum tensile strength of 70,000 psi
B. Can be used in all positions
C. Is a low hydrogen electrode
D. Can be used for flat and horizontal fillets
E. All of the above
F. A, B, and C

9. Low hydrogen electrodes when removed from their packaging container


should be stored:
A. At room temperature
B. At 150F maximum
C. Anywhere that is dry
D. At 250F minimum

10. What is the maximum length of time E7018 electrodes should be left out
of the rod oven once the packaging container is opened?
A. 1 hour
B. 2 hours
C. 4 hours
D. 8 hours
E. 6 hours

82

11. True or False?


E6010 electrodes should always be stored in a heated rod oven.
True False

12. E6010 electrodes are used with the following polarity:


A. AC or DC
B. DC negative
C. DC positive
D. None of the above

13. Which of the following electrodes would make the fastest 1/4 in. fillet
weld?
A. E7018
B. E6010
C. E7014
D. E7028

14. Which of the following electrodes has the greatest resistance to hydrogen
cracking?
A. E7018
B. E6010
C. E7014
D. E6013

15. DC Reverse Polarity has the electrode connected to the:


A. Positive (+) connection of the power source
B. Negative () connection of the power source
C. AC connection of the power source
D. Work lead

16. DC Straight Polarity has the electrode connected to the:


A. Positive (+) connection of the power source
B. Negative () connection of the power source
C. AC connection of the power source
D. Work lead

17. For a 400 amp power source, what size welding cables should be used for
250 ft of cable?
A. 3
B. 1/0
C. 4/0
D. 1

83

18. Compared to DCEN, DCEP has:

A. Shallow penetration, higher metal deposition rate


B. Deeper penetration, lower metal deposition rate
C. Shallow penetration, lower metal deposition rate
D. None of the above

19. For a given electrode size, increasing the amperage:

A. Reduces the penetration


B. Reduces the metal deposition rate
C. Increases the metal deposition rate
D. Increase the penetration
E. A and B
F. C and D

20. List the seven essential welding variables for the SMAW process:

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

21. Which three of the above variables have the greatest effect on weld
penetration?

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

22. What is the amperage range for a 1/8 diameter E7018 electrode?

__________________________________________________________

23. What three things determine your amperage setting?

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

84

24. What is the largest fillet weld that can be deposited with a 1/8 in. E7018
electrode in one pass in the horizontal position?
A. 3/16 in.
B. 1/4 in.
C. 5/16 in.
D. 3/8 in.

25. What are the effects of setting the amperage too high?

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

26. What are the effects of setting the amperage too low?

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

27. What are possible causes of undercutting?

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

85

-- 1. Shielded Metal Arc Welding


2. C
3. D
4. B
5. E
6. F
7. C
8. D
9. D
10. C
11. False
12. C
13. D
14. A
15. A
16. B
17. C
18. B
19. F
20. Polarity, Amperage, Arc length, Travel speed, Travel angle, Transverse
angle, Electrode position
21. Polarity, Amperage, Travel speed
22. 110160
23. Type of electrode, Size of electrode, Position of welding
24. B
25. Excessive spatter
26. Poor penetration, Poor starting, Narrow cold looking weld
27. Amperage to high, Arc length too long, Travel speed too slow or erratic

86

- -

The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process has numerous advantages
that make it the preferred choice for many welding applications. GMAW
can deposit welds with high productivity and good quality. However, it is one
of the more challenging processes to apply, because it has four different
process variations that must be correctly selected and set up for the job in
hand. Successful application of GMAW demands on a relatively high level
of knowledge from those who utilize it. The GMAW welder must have a
good understanding of the process variations and the controlling essential
variables.

After successfully completing this chapter the supervisor should be able to:
-
List the advantages and limitations of the GMAW process

Understand the four modes of metal transfer and how each is applied

Know the difference between base metal melting and wire melting, and
how each is controlled

Understand the relationship between wire feed speed, voltage, and arc
length

Use the eight essential welding variables to control weld productivity and
quality

Read and understand GMAW procedures

Avoid commonly encountered GMAW defects

- - GMAW is a welding process that uses an electric arc to generate the heat
for welding. The electric arc is maintained between a consumable wire
electrode and the work. The wire electrode is fed continuously into the weld
pool and becomes the weld deposit as the wire is burned off. The welding
power source provides arc stability so that the rate of burnoff matches the
rate of wire feed. A gaseous shield provided by a stream of gas delivered
through the welding gun protects the electrode and molten weld pool (see
Figure 4.1).

87

- -

--

Advantages of GMAW

Can be applied to many commercially important metals


Mild Steels
Alloy Steels
Stainless Steels
Aluminum

Accommodates a wide range of material thicknessby using appropriate


operating parameters, GMAW can weld from very thin to very thick
materials with high welding productivity

Has high productivity rate compared to manual (SMAW) welding pro-


cesses (see Figure 4.2)

Has low fume generation rate (see Figure 4.3)

Requires no deslagging or cleaning between passes (see Figure 4.4)

Has high deposition efficiency rate (see Figure 4.5)

Provides a low hydrogen deposit that helps to avoid cracking in thick or


alloyed materials (see Figure 4.6)

88

- -

--


- -

89

- -

- - ---

- -


-
- -- --

-
---

90

- -

Disadvantages of GMAW

Requires more control of the essential welding variables than other weld-
ing processesGMAW typically has a narrower range of parameters that
deposit acceptable welds than FCAW (see Figure 4.7).

Has potential for lack of fusion when the process is not properly applied
(see Figure 4.8).


-
-
-
-

- -

91

- -

GMAW is susceptible to the following mill scale problems (see Figure


4.9):

Mill scale on plate or structural shape surfaces affects process


performance

The weld bead is more convex

Spatter is more prevalent

Mill scale also causes undercut at higher travel speeds

GMAW is more sensitive to porosity formation than other welding


processes because of the following factors:

The absence of a slag, which provides additional chemical reactions to


minimize porosity is one factor (see Figure 4.10)

The use of a shielding gas, which can be blown away by drafts (see
Figure 4.11)

Sometimes requires a special equipment feature such as pulsed GMAW


for out-of-position welding; however, standard GMAW works well in the
vertical down position on thin materials (see Figure 4.12)

92

- -

-
-

- - - ---

93

- -

- The GMAW process supports four different modes of metal transfer: short-
- circuiting, globular, spray, and dip-spray when utilizing a shielding gas with a
high percentage of argon. Dip-spray is a nonstandard term and is used in this
program to explain a mode that is above the transition wire feed speed (WFS)
but has insufficient voltage to be in a true spray mode. With 100% CO2 shield-
ing gas only the short-circuiting and globular modes are possible. The voltage
and WFS determine the mode of metal transfer as shown in Figures 4.13 and
4.14.


- -

- -

94

- -

- (see Figures 4.15 and 4.16)

Also referred to as short arc or dip transfer

Occurs in the low WFS, low voltage range

Metal transfer occurs only when the electrode touches or dips in to the
weld poola short circuit occurs (no arc) and the current goes to a high
value to pinch off the molten droplet

Short-circuiting can lead to lack of fusion problems on thicker materials


(see Figure 4.16).

95

- -

- (see Figure 4.17)

Occurs in the low WFS, high-voltage range with high argon shielding
gases

Occur at higher WFSs with high CO2 content in the shielding gas (does not
spray with >20% CO2 )

Metal transfer occurs with large droplets (typically larger than the wire
diameter) and can be seen visually

Generally associated with high spatter levels

- (see Figures 4.18 and 4.19)

Occurs in the high WFS and high voltage range

Characterized by a stream of fine droplets (not visible) that are smaller than
the wire diameter

Spatter is minimal

96

- -

- (see Figure 4.20)

A variation of spray transfer using a shorter arc length (lower voltage)

Metal transfer occurs with smaller droplets, but the short arc length
allows some short circuiting, which results in higher spatter levels than
with spray

The change from short circuiting to spray or dip spray occurs over a
small range of welding current, or transition current. This value is important,
because it allows the welder to quickly set the mode of metal transfer (see
Figure 4.21).

- Each mode of metal transfer has characteristics that make it ideal for particular
applications. Short-circuiting provides the lowest level of heat, which makes it
ideal for thin materials. On the other hand, spray transfer is very hot and works
best on thicker materials (see Figure 4.22).

97

- -

- -

98

- -

Typical applications for each mode of transfer are shown in Figure 4.23.

--

- - -

NOTE: The secret to the successful application of GMAW is to select


the right mode for each application, and then to correctly set the parame-
ters for the mode of metal transfer to be used.

- An electric light bulb circuit is similar to a welding circuit. Electricity from a


battery or power source is used to generate heat and light (see Figure 4.24).

An electric arc is also an energy conversion device that converts electrical


energy into heat to melt the base metal and burn off the wire (see Figure 4.25).

99

- -

-
-

An important characteristic of the GMAW process is that arc heating is not the
only type of heating that occurs. Because a high current flows through the elec-
trode extension, the electrode becomes very hot due to resistance heating
effects. This electrode extension is sometimes referred to as the electrical
stickout (ESO) (see Figures 4.26 and 4.27). For practical welding applications
the contact tube to work distance (CTTWD) is most often stipulated, because it
is an easier dimension to measure.

Total heating and melting of the wire results from both resistance heating and
arc heating (see Figure 4.28).

100

- -

--
- -

-
-


- -

- -

-




- -

--

101

- -

As shown in Figure 4.29, the levels of resistance heating and arc heating are
determined from experimental analysis. In many GMAW situations, resistance
heating actually melts more of the wire than arc heating.

--





- -


--

Resistance heating increases by:

Increasing the amperage

Increasing the electrode extension past the contact tip

Using smaller diameter wires

Longer CTTWDs will reduce the welding amperage since resistance heating
effects are increased. If the WFS is set to a particular value, the resulting
amperage depends on the electrode CTTWD as shown in Figure 4.30.

Compared to large diameter wires, small diameter wires provide a higher resis-
tance heating component, which results in a lower welding amperage. Figure
4.31 shows that for the same deposit area, a larger diameter electrode produces
a greater fused area.

102

- -

- -

NOTE: Resistance heating does not contribute to base metal melting.


Only arc heating melts the base metal.

103

- -

When a welder sets the wire feed speed, the welding power source provides a
specific amperage to burn off the wire. For a stable arc, the wire burnoff rate
must match the wire feed speed (see Figure 4.32).


-
-


A constant voltage (CV) power source provides this stability, because the
amperage automatically adjusts to give a stable arc (see Figure 4.33).




--
-

The arc length is determined by the WFS set at the wire feeder and the voltage
set at the power source (see Figure 4.34).

104

- -

An instability or an unbalance can still occur with a CV power source, because


burnback or stubbing results when wire feed speed fluctuates. Inconsistent
wire feeding results in large arc length variations. Proper setup of the wire
feeding system is important to the GMAW process (see Figure 4.35).

-- The GMAW process is controlled by eight essential welding variables that are
- set by the welder (see Figure 4.36). The GMAW essential welding variables
control welding speed, bead appearance, penetration, and spatter. Knowledge
and control of these variables are important to consistently achieve high
productivity rates and quality welds.

105

- -

--

-- -

To consistently obtain quality welds, the welder must:

Understand how the essential welding variables affect the mode of metal
transfer

Know how to set the essential welding variables for different welding
applications

Understand how the essential welding variables affect bead shape, pene-
tration, and spatter

106

- -

Effect of Wire Feed Speed on Transfer Mode

As discussed earlier in this chapter, wire feed speed (WFS) and voltage are
used to set the transfer mode. The transfer mode is set either above or below
the transition WFS. Thicker materials require a spray type metal transfer and
thinner materials require a short circuiting type transfer. Globular transfer is
not often used because of high spatter levels (see Figure 4.37).

- -

Typical transition WFSs are shown in Table 4.1. The importance of increasing
wire diameter with material thickness is also demonstrated here. When in spray
transfer, the larger wire ensures a higher current level.

- -

- - -




- -

Two types of heating that occur in GMAW are arc heating and resistance heat-
ing, both of which depend on the welding current. Welding current provides
heat to melt both the wire and the base metal (see Figure 4.38).

107

- -


-- -
-

-
-

--

Penetration of the base metal is dependent primarily on the welding current, as


measured by the amperage (see Figures 4.39 and 4.40).


- -

- -

-
- -

108

- -

- -
-

Effect of Wire Feed Speed on Fusion and Penetration

Although there is no amperage control in GMAW, there is a direct relationship


between WFS and welding current. Increasing the WFS increases the welding
current as shown in Figure 4.41.

109

- -

A minimum WFS is necessary to provide adequate penetration and depends on


the wire diameter, CTTWD, and shielding gas. Experimental results for
0.035 in. diameter wire are shown in Figure 4.42. This figure indicates that
100 ipm per 1/16 in. of material thickness is required for the root of the weld to
reach the root of the joint (for safety, add 50 ipm or more). This type of infor-
mation should only be used as a starting point for procedure development.




- -


--

Increasing WFS increases penetration (arc heating) and fill as shown in Figure
4.43.


- -

- -

110

- -

Effect of Wire Feed Speed on Travel Speed

WFS has a primary effect on travel speed, and travel speed significantly affects
welding productivity; therefore, selecting and maintaining the WFS is impor-
tant to the GMAW process. Figure 4.44 shows the effect of increasing the
WFS for a 1/4 in. (6 mm) fillet weld. The travel speed increase is proportional
to the wire feed speed increase.

111

- -

Effect of Voltage on Transfer Mode

As discussed previously, voltage plays an important role in determining the


mode of transfer. For any particular mode of transfer, the voltage must be set
within a specific range. Compared to short circuiting, spray arc metal transfer
requires a relatively high voltage. Results for a 95% Ar/5% O2 shielding gas
using 0.045 diameter wire on 1/4 in. (6 mm) plate are shown in Table 4.2.

-
-- -

-- - -- -
-
- - -

- - --
--

The voltage at the power source, or machine voltage, is the voltage that the
welder reads and sets. The voltage at the arc, or arc voltage, is less depending
on the voltage drop between the power source and arc. Although cable size and
length have some effect, these voltages go up and down proportionately; there-
fore, for this discussion the effect of voltage is the same.

Effect of Voltage on Bead Shape

Voltage controls arc length. Increasing the voltage increases the arc length and
arc width (see Figure 4.45).

- --

112

- -

Voltage determines the amount of radiated heat, which in turn, provides a sur-
face heating effect (see Figure 4.46). Bead width and arc length also increases,
caused by an increasing voltage (see Figure 4.47).

-
- -

-
-

Effect of Voltage on Undercut and Penetration

Voltage has a major effect on heat input to the plate surface. Voltage also
affects the amount of radiated heat, therefore, longer arcs seem much hotter to
the welder. Voltage also has a significant effect on shape and undercut (see
Figure 4.48).

113

- -

NOTE: A longer arc is also wider, which makes it more likely to cause
undercut in a fillet weld.

The effect of voltage in a groove weld is shown in Figure 4.49.

114

- -

Once the correct arc length is set for a given weld, it should be kept constant
even when the WFS is increased or decreased. As shown in Figure 4.50, it
is necessary to change voltage along with WFS to maintain a constant arc
length.

-
- -
- -

-

Voltage can be thought of as surface heating, however, it can have an effect in


determining penetration when the wrong transfer mode is used. For example, if
the arc length is too short, high WFS can cause excessive stubbing or short-
circuiting and dramatically reduce the heat input.

On thinner materials, voltage must be kept low enough to avoid burnthrough or


undercut. On thicker materials, voltage must be set high enough to obtain spray
transfer. Therefore, use dip-spray instead of spray arc transfer on thinner mate-
rials and use spray arc transfer instead of dip-spray on thicker material.

Effect of Voltage on Spatter

Voltage plays a major role on the amount of spatter produced. The effect of
voltage on short-circuiting conditions is shown in Figure 4.51. To low a volt-
age causes stubbing and too high a voltage puts the metal transfer in globular
mode. Both situations cause excessive spatter. At the optimum voltage, spatter
is minimal and the arc has a distinctive frying bacon sound that results from
the high short circuit frequency. Short circuit frequency is the number of short
circuits that occur per second.

NOTE: With short-circuiting transfer, spatter is reduced by turning the


voltage down.

115

- -




-





-

For spray arc welding, voltage determines whether we are working in the
true spray or dip-spray region. Associated spatter levels are shown in Figure
4.52.


- -
-


--
-

116

- -

NOTE: With spray or dip-spray type metal transfer, spatter is reduced by


turning up the voltage.

Figure 4.53 shows that voltage plays a major role in controlling spatter levels
for all types of metal transfer. However, to control bead shape or undercut,
spatter may be unavoidable in some situations.

-
- -

- -

NOTE: In the dip-spray region, spatter at low voltage levels is


relatively fine and does not stick as much as the spatter at higher voltage
levels.

Travel Speed and Productivity

Travel speed has a major effect on welding productivity. The faster the
speed, the less time it takes to make a weld. Most welders never measure
their travel speeds, because they generally have a good feel for how slow
or fast the travel speed is. It is difficult to manually travel above 30 ipm in
the horizontal position. Examples of travel speed ranges are shown in Figure
4.54.

117

- -

-
- -



- - - - -
-- -- - -

Effect of Travel Speed on Penetration

A general pattern emerges as travel speed is decreased:

Heat input per inch is increased

More filler metal is applied per inch, which results in a larger weld

Because the metal spreads out, penetration is increased in a bead-on-plate


test (see Figure 4.55)

--

- -

- -

Bead-on-plate welds are generally not made, and when the puddle is allowed to
build up in a groove or fillet weld, penetration can be significantly decreased
when welding speed is too slow (see Figure 4.56).

Avoid weaving with the GMAW process. A good rule of thumb is to never
make a bead in a groove weld larger than that of an equivalent 5/16 in. (8 mm)
fillet weld for 0.045 in. (1.2 mm) diameter wire (see Figure 4.57).

118

- -

- - -

- -
- -- -
--

- - - --
--

119

- -

When considering travel speed and productivity, remember to:

Weld hot and fast

Keep the arc at the front of the pool

Use stringer beads

NOTE: Stringer beads are preferred over weaving beads because they
require less skill and promote a higher travel speed. With weaving, the
potential to get lack of fusion is much higher and with the slower travel
speed there is a tendency to get more oversized welds. Refer to the wire
position later in this chapter.

Throughout most of the welding circuit, heavy copper cables are used to carry
the welding current, which can be as high as 500 amps in GMAW. However,
once past the contact tube, the current is forced to flow through a small steel
wire, which is a poor conductor of electricity. This extension of the wire elec-
trode becomes very hot and, in effect, becomes preheated before it reaches the
arc. The extension of the wire past the contact tip is the electrical stickout (see
Figure 4.58). The CTTWD is the electrical stickout plus the arc length (see
Figure 4.59).

When a WFS setting is made, the melting heat is a combination of both arc
heating and resistance heating: wire melting = melting from resistance heating
+ melting from arc heating (see Figure 4.60).

120

- -

- -

--

--

When the CTTWD is changed, the ratio of arc heating to resistance heating is
also changed. With small diameter wires and long CTTWD, high resistance
heating of the electrode extension can cause burnoff of the wire, even when the
amperage is relatively low.

121

- -

Effect of CTTWD on Welding Amperage

Changing CTTWD changes the welding amperage as shown in Figure 4.61.

-
-

-

- --

As the wire CTTWD is increased, less current is needed to melt the wire,
because there is more preheat from the electrode extension. Less current
means less heat into the work and, therefore, less penetration. The opposite
occurs when the CTTWD is reduced in length. It is important to keep the
CTTWD constant at the correct value. Some typical settings are shown in
Table 4.3.

The setting of the contact tube relative to the shielding gas cup has an effect on
the electrical stickout and should be set according to the mode of metal transfer
and welding parameters used (see Figure 4.62).

122

- -

o
- -

The wire forms an angle with the workpiece in a plane parallel to the direction
of travel, which is the travel angle. The travel angle has a significant effect on
the weld bead, in terms of a push or a drag. The effect of travel angle on
bead shape and penetration is shown in Figure 4.63.

In welding processes that produce a slag, a drag angle typically is used to


prevent the slag from rolling in front of the weld pool (see Figure 4.64).
Because GMAW does not have a slag, a push or drag angle can be used. Some
of the advantages and disadvantages of each are shown in Table 4.4.

123

- -

- -

--

--

With the GMAW process, a slight push angle is used to provide a flatter bead
shape as shown in Figure 4.65. On heavier materials, a drag angle is used to
enhance penetration.

An excessive push angle reduces penetration and increases spatter (see Figure
4.66).

--

The wire forms an angle with the workpiece in a plane perpendicular to the to
the direction of travel, which is the transverse angle. This angle affects bead
shape, penetration, and undercut (see Figure 4.67).

124

- -

- - -
-

-- -
-




pp

--

125

- -

The position of the wire in the joint is an important factor in making a quality
weld. Even if all the other operating variables are correctly set, incorrect wire
position in the joint results in poor quality welds (see Figure 4.68).


- -

-
-

With manual and semiautomatic applications, the welder positions the wire so
that the weld pool is in the right location and the exact position of the wire is
not a concern (see Figure 4.69).

With mechanized or automated welding, the welder must position the wire in
the correct location before starting. For a horizontal fillet weld, a slight offset
is often used to obtain an equal leg fillet weld (see Figure 4.70).

126

- -

-
--

For circumferential joints under rotation, the position of the wire relative to top
dead center has a major effect on bead shape (see Figure 4.71).

-
-

-
- -

Wire position is used to describe various electrode manipulations used in


GMAW (see Table 4.5).

127

- -

- -

- - - -

- - --
-
-

-
- - -
-

-

-

-
-
- - -
- --


- -
- -
-


The inductance setting controls spatter and bead appearance in the short-
circuiting mode of metal transfer. In this type of metal transfer, the arc cycles
on and off for specific periods of time as shown in Figure 4.72. The inductance
setting is an electrical feature of the equipment that can change the shape of
this current vs. time curve.

The short-circuit time between t1 and t2 is expanded in Figure 4.73. It can be


seen that increasing the inductance reduces spatter, but if the inductance is set
too high stubbing can occur. Increasing the inductance reduces the rate of
current rise during the short circuit portion of the cycle and therefore limits the

128

- -

-- --

-
-

- -

129

- -

current and spatter when the arc reignites. Increasing the inductance also
increases the arc-on time which tends to give a smoother bead. Note that not all
GMAW equipment has an inductance control but most GMAW power sources
can be operated in the short-circuiting mode of metal transfer.

Remember the eight essential welding variables. They are the key to productiv-
-- ity and quality in GMAW (see Figure 4.74).
-


--
-


-


-- -

Equipment for GMAW is shown in Figure 4.75.

130

- -


- -

--
-

131

- -

The following publications are referenced in this chapter:

1. CO2 Welding of Steel, A. A. Smith. The Welding Institute (TWI)

Comment: This is one of the most authoritative works available on the short-
circuiting mode of metal transfer.

2. Welding Steels Without Hydrogen Cracking. F. R. Coe. The Welding


Institute (TWI).

Comment: A very comprehensive book on the hydrogen cracking problem


that covers a wide variety of steels.

3. Control of Melting Rate and Metal Transfer in Gas Shielded Arc Welding,
Part I and Part II. A. Lesnewich. AWS Welding Journal, August and
September, 1958

Comment: These two papers are considered classics in the field of welding
research. These papers provide the first real understanding of how the pro-
cess works in a highly quantitative approach. They are a treasure of infor-
mation on the GMAW process.

The AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 2, Welding Processes, Chapter 4.

-- To obtain maximum benefit from this program it is recommended that you fol-
low this guide and complete the exercises. It is important that you thoroughly
study each section carefully before moving to the next section. The exercises
are designed to give you an indication of whether you understand the material
presented. If you get a question wrong go back and read that section again.

1. Which of the following is an advantage of the GMAW process?


A. Resistant to porosity formation
B. Easy to use in the vertical-up position
C. Fume generation rate is low
D. Produces high hydrogen levels
E. A and B

2. Which of the following determines the mode of metal transfer in


GMAW?
A. Travel speed
B. Voltage
C. Wire feed speed (WFS)
D. Travel angle
E. B and C

132

- -

3. The transition range in GMAW is the reference current between:


A. Short-circuiting and globular
B. Spray and dip-spray
C. Short-circuiting and spray
D. Low voltage and high voltage
E. None of the above

4. Which of the following produces the highest heat input and penetration?
A. Spray transfer
B. Dip-spray transfer
C. Globular transfer
D. Short-circuiting transfer
E. High voltages and low wire feed speed

5. Which of the following produces the lowest spatter levels?


A. Spray transfer
B. Dip-spray transfer
C. Globular transfer
D. Short-circuiting transfer
E. High voltages and low wire feed speed

6. Which of the following is best for sheet metal?


A. Spray transfer
B. Dip-spray transfer
C. Globular transfer
D. Short-circuiting transfer
E. High voltages and low wire feed speed

7. True or False?
A larger diameter wire will generally produce better penetration charac-
teristics than a smaller diameter wire. True False

8. What are the main problems when using GMAW on hot rolled steel?

__________________________________________________________

9. Name the eight Essential Welding Variables in GMAW

(1) ________________________________________________________

(2) ________________________________________________________

(3) ________________________________________________________

133

- -

(4) ________________________________________________________

(5) ________________________________________________________

(6) ________________________________________________________

(7) ________________________________________________________

(8) ________________________________________________________

10. For a given wire diameter, which of the following determines the welding
amperage in GMAW?
A. Type of wire
B. Shielding gas
C. Wire feed speed (WFS)
D. Travel angle
E. Wire feed speed and contact tip to work distance

11. Turning the voltage up or down:


A. Changes welding amperage
B. Changes arc length
C. Changes surface heating
D. Requires a change in shielding gas flow rate
E. B and C

12. Which of the following affects the amount of spatter?


A. Voltage setting
B. Excessive push angle
C. Hot rolled or cold rolled base metal
D. Amount of CO2 in the shielding gas
E. All of the above

13. Which of the following should change if your Wire Feed Speed (WFS) is
too low and your arc is too long?
A. Increase voltage setting
B. Lower WFS only
C. Increase WFS and lower voltage
D. Lower WFS and increase voltage
E. Increase CTTWD

134

- -

14. In the semiautomatic mode of GMAW, if you want to obtain spray trans-
fer with an Argon-CO2 shielding gas mixture, what should be the maxi-
mum CO2 content?

A. 8%
B. 15%
C. 20%
D. 25%
E. 30%

15. True or False?

You can maximize your current when welding by increasing the contact
tip-to-work distance. True False

16. How you would adjust the voltage for reducing excessive spatter in each
of the following cases?

Short circuiting transfer _______________________________________

Spray transfer _______________________________________________

17. When welding with GMAW, you should adjust your travel speed so that:

A. the weld pool rolls in front of the arc


B. the arc is at the back of the weld pool
C. spatter is maximized
D. the arc is at the front of the weld pool
E. the slowest possible speed is obtained to maximize penetration

18. Give three reasons for undercut occurring in a weld on cold rolled steel.

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

19. If you are making a fillet weld and you want to increase the travel speed
by 30%, which welding variables do you need to adjust and how do you
need to adjust them?

135

- -

-- 1. C
2. E
3. C
4. A
5. A
6. D
7. True
8. Spatter, poor bead shape, possible porosity
9. (1) WFS
(2) Voltage
(3) Travel Speed
(4) Contact tip to work distance
(5) Travel angle
(6) Transverse angle
(7) Wire position
(8) Inductance
10. E
11. E
12. E
13. C
14. C
15. False
16. Short-circuitingturn down; Sprayturn up
17. D
18. Voltage too high, travel speed too slow, travel speed erratic
19. Turn WFS up 30% and turn voltage up to maintain same arc length

136

-

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) has numerous advantages that make it the
preferred welding process for many applications. In the past, utilization of the
process was impeded by consumables that deposited welds with properties that
were inferior to other welding processes. However, in recent years consumable
manufacturers have made significant improvements in both weld metal and
diffusible hydrogen propertiesto the point that FCAW is now considered
equivalent in these respects to other welding processes.

To obtain the benefits of FCAW, welders must understand the process and its
correct application. The FCAW welder must have a good understanding of the
process variables and how to control them. Therefore, the main purpose of this
training program is to enhance the welding skills of those who use the process.
Both the gas-shielded and self-shielded versions are included in this chapter.

After successfully completing this chapter the supervisor should be able to:
-
List the advantages and limitations of the FCAW process

Understand the FCAW consumable classification system

Select wires sizes for different applications

Understand the effect of different shielding gases

Use the seven essential welding variables to control weld productivity and
quality

Understand the relationship between wire feed speed, voltage, and arc
length

Read and understand FCAW procedures

Avoid commonly encountered FCAW defects

- FCAW is a welding process that uses an electric arc to generate the heat for
welding. The electric arc is maintained between a consumable wire electrode
and the work. The electrode is a tubular wire filled with a powdered flux. The
wire electrode is fed continuously into the weld pool and becomes the weld
deposit as the wire is burned off. The welding power source provides arc

137

-

stability so that the rate of burn-off matches the rate of wire feed. The process
can be used with or without external gas shielding.

In the gas-shielded version of FCAW, a stream of gas delivered through the


welding gun protects the electrode and molten weld pool from contamination
with air (see Figure 5.1).



- -


-



-

- --

A self-shielding version of FCAW is also used where contamination is con-


trolled by flux ingredients that provide some gaseous protection and specific
chemical additions (see Figure 5.2).

Can be applied to many commercially important metals, such as:


Mild Steels
Alloy Steels
Stainless Steels

138

-


-



-

--

FCAW has high productivity compared to the SMAW process. FCAW has
similar welding productivity to GMAW and as shown in Figures 5.3 and
5.4 has a much higher deposition rate than SMAW.



- -


-- ---

- - -

139

-

- -

With gas shielding, FCAW is less sensitive to changes in the operating vari-
ables than other welding processes. FCAW typically has a broader range of
parameters that deposit acceptable welds than with GMAW. Lack of fusion
is a problem that can occur with GMAW when the process is not properly
applied. Because FCAW does not change the mode of metal transfer over
a large current range, it is less sensitive to this problem. The process also
provides a broader penetration profile than GMAW, which enhances the
penetration characteristics of FCAW. Refer to Figures 5.55.7.

FCAW has good out-of-position welding capability and smaller wires


work well in all positions (see Figure 5.8).

FCAW has good deposition efficiency. For example, 85% or more of each
pound of wire becomes deposited weld metal as opposed to SMAW, where
only about 60% is deposited (see Figure 5.9).

FCAW handles mill scale much better than GMAW. The slag formed dur-
ing FCAW helps to form a smooth bead with minimal spatter, even with
heavier mill scale. This makes the process ideal for thicker materials (see
Figure 5.10).

140

-

-
- - -

-
-

141

-

NOTE: With FCAW, the metal transfer occurs from the periphery of the
wire, which provides a broader penetration profile than GMAW.

- -

142

-

--

Fume generation is higher than other processes. Self-shielding wires have


a particularly high fume generation rate and are used mainly in outdoor
applications (see Figure 5.11).

Deslagging or cleaning is required between passes (see Figure 5.12).

FCAW is generally considered to be a low hydrogen welding process (see


Figure 5.13). Most FCAW wires are classified as having up to 16 ml H 2 /
100 g of deposit (H16). Although this is not necessarily low hydrogen,
most wires contain significantly less than this level; however, not low
enough to be classified as an H8. Not all FCAW classifications are avail-
able in the H16 or lower diffusible hydrogen levels; therefore, the use of
FCAW in very thick or alloyed materials needs careful consideration. Most
manufacturers offer lower hydrogen wires for these applications. Hydrogen
content is important to prevent cracking. See Chapter 7, Steel Welding
Metallurgy, for more information.

143

-


- -

- -

-
---

144

-

Air drafts can disturb the shielding gas and cause porosity when using the
gas- shielded version of FCAW (see Figure 5.14).

-- Because it is easy to change the chemistry of the core ingredients, different


- FCAW wires can be economically produced for different base metals or types
of applications. The supervisor should know the different types of wires and
shielding gases available and understand the important characteristics of the
process.

- The objectives of this section are to:

Understand how FCAW wires are manufactured

Understand the AWS classification systems for FCAW consumables

Know how wire size effects operating characteristics

Know how to select shielding gases for different applications

Understand the effects of resistance heating on wire burn-off

Understand how the process melts the base metal and wire differently.

The FCAW process uses a continuous tubular electrode of mild steel and a flux
- core mixture of various powdered ingredients (see Figure 5.15).

A manufacturing system for FCAW is shown in Figure 5.16.

145

-

-
-
--

-
- -
-

--
- -

- -

Different methods are used for joining the tube edges. The butt, overlap, and
folded seams are shown in Figure 5.17. A macrosection of five different types
of 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) diameter wires commonly used in industry is shown in
Figure 5.18.

146

-

- - -

-
-

- - -

-- Filler metals for FCAW of carbon steels are classified according to their
- operating characteristics and mechanical properties (see Figure 5.19).

- -
--


- --

147

-

In the U.S., AWS A5.20, Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux
Cored Arc Welding, covers FCAW filler metals. The classification system is
shown in Figure 5.20.

- --
-
- - -
-

--

--



- - -
--

- -
- -

-- -

A large range of electrode sizes is available for the semiautomatic mode of


FCAW, ranging from 0.035 in. (0.9 mm) to 3/32 in. (2.4 mm). The electrode
diameter selected must be suitable for the intended application.

Typically, electrode diameters for the gas-shielded process are classified as all-
position wires for diameters 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) and less (see Figure 5.21).

It is important to understand the effect of wire diameter on base metal fusion,


because the resistance heating of the wire extension is a major contributor to
the melting of the wire (see Figure 5.22). Smaller diameter wires (for the same
deposition rate) need less welding current, therefore, they produce less pene-
tration into the base metal. In addition, the welding amperage for a given wire
diameter will not increase proportionally with the wire feed speed (WFS). Both
of these effects are discussed later in this chapter.

148

-

--

- --

- -

The practical result is that the wire diameter used should increase with the
material thickness as shown in Figure 5.23.

149

-

--

- --

-
- --

A variety of shielding gases are available for the FCAW process, therefore, it
-- is important to make the correct gas selection for a particular application.
The most important function of the shielding gas is to protect the transferred
molten droplets and weld pool from contamination with air (see Figure 5.24).

Some gas is produced by the core ingredients of self-shielding wires, however,


that alone is not totally effective in providing shielding (see Figure 5.25).
Therefore, self-shielding wires use other means to handle the nitrogen and
oxygen that enter the weld pool. These wires produce excellent results without
draft protection.

150

-

- - -

One method commonly used with self-shielded wires is to add aluminum to the
weld pool (see Figure 5.26). Aluminum reacts preferentially with contaminants
to eliminate porosity. The amount of aluminum transferred across the arc
depends on the voltage. Too high a voltage burns off most of the aluminum
before it reaches the weld pool.

-
- -

For gas-shielded FCAW, the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the shielding gas
has a major effect on penetration and fusion characteristics. As shown in
Figure 5.27, 100% CO2 provides a better penetration profile than an Ar-CO2
mixture, which ensures better side-wall fusion.

151

-

- -

- -


-
-

The CO2 content also has an effect on the amount of fume. Shielding gases
higher in argon content produce less fume (see Figure 5.28).

-

-
-

-- --

152

-

A summary of shielding gas effects is shown in Figure 5.29.

- -

- -

- -

-- -

- -

An electric light bulb circuit is much like a welding circuit, because electricity
- from a battery or power source is used to generate heat and light (see Figure
5.30).

153

-

An electric arc is also an energy conversion device that converts electrical


energy into heat to melt the base metal and to burn off the wire (see Figure 5.31).

- - -

An important characteristic of the FCAW process is that arc heating is not the
only type of heating that occurs. A high current flows through the electrode
extension, which becomes very hot due to resistance heating effects (see
Figures 5.32 and 5.33).

--
- -

-
-

-- -

154

-

- -

Total heating and melting of the electrode results from both resistance heating
and arc heating (see Figure 5.34).

- -

-




- -

--

Resistance heating increases by:

Increasing amperage

Increasing electrode extension (stickout) past the contact tube

Using smaller diameter electrodes

Longer CTTWDs reduce the welding amperage, because resistance heating


effects are increased. When the wire feed speed (WFS) is set to a particular
value, the resulting amperage depends on the CTTWD as shown in Figure
5.35. CTTWD is the contact tube to work distance.

With gas-shielded FCAW, the deposition rate (wire melting) does not depend
significantly on the electrode type or manufacturer for the commonly used
E7XT-1 and E7XT-9 classifications. However, for self-shielding FCAW,
the electrode type has a major impact on the deposition rate. Even electrodes
of the same classification can have different deposition rate characteristics.
Therefore, careful selection of these types of electrodes is necessary to ensure
optimum welding productivity (see Figure 5.36).

155

-


--
-

- - -
-

156

-

NOTE: Base metal melting depends only on amperage or arc heating;


wire melting depends both on arc heating and also on resistance heating

-- The FCAW process is controlled by seven essential welding variables that are
- set by the welder (see Figure 5.37).

--

-- -

The FCAW essential welding variables control welding speed, bead appear-
ance, penetration, and spatter. These essential variables are the key settings
that make a weld what it is. A welders knowledge and control of these vari-
ables are important to consistently achieve high productivity rates and quality
welds.

157

-

To consistently obtain quality welds, the welder must:

Understand how the essential welding variables affect weld quality and
productivity

Know how to set the essential welding variables for different welding
applications

Understand how the essential welding variables affect bead shape, penetra-
tion and spatter

Know how to avoid common FCAW defects

1. Effect of Wire Feed Speed on Base Metal Fusion and Penetration

As discussed earlier in this chapter, there is a direct relationship between WFS


and welding current. Increasing the WFS increases the welding current, as
shown in Figure 5.38.

Welding current provides heat to melt the electrode and base metal. Increasing
welding current increases both arc heating and resistance heating (see Figure
5.39).

Increasing WFS increases penetration (arc heating) and fill (electrode melting)
as shown in Figure 5.40. A minimum WFS is required to obtain adequate
penetration depending on the thickness of the material. Essentially, a given
material thickness requires a minimum amperage to achieve adequate pene-
tration in a T-joint (see Figure 5.41).

2. Effect of Wire Feed Speed on Travel Speed

Travel speed is predominately determined by the WFS setting. Keeping


in mind that welding productivity is significantly affected by travel
speed, then selecting and maintaining the WFS is very important with FCAW.
Figure 5.42 shows the effect of increasing the WFS for a 5/16 in. (8 mm) fillet
weld.

158

-

- --

-
--


-
-

-

- --
--

159

-


- -

- --



- -

--

-- -

NOTE: Penetration and fusion for self-shielded FCAW electrodes can be


less than for gas-shielded FCAW. This is because of the use of electrode
negative polarity for some wires (typically out-of-position) and other
characteristics of the self-shielding version (such as longer CTTWDs for
some electrodes).

160

-

-
-

The effect of WFS on travel speed for different fillet sizes is shown in Figure
5.43 for a 1/16 in. E71T-9 electrode.

NOTE: WFS has a major impact on both quality (fusion and penetration)
and productivity.

Note that the polarity for self-shielding FCAW electrodes depends on the
electrode classification being used. Some electrodes (e.g., E70T-4) operate on
electrode positive (DCEP) and others (e.g., E70T-8) operate on electrode nega-
tive (DCEN). Ensure that you have the correct polarity for the electrode being
used.

Most gas-shielded electrodes operate on electrode positive (DCEP).

161

-

1. Effect of Voltage on Bead Shape

Voltage controls arc length (see Figure 5.44). Increasing the voltage increases
the arc length and arc width. Bead width also increases as arc length increases
(see Figure 5.45).

The voltage at the power source, or the machine voltage, is the voltage that the
welder reads and sets. The voltage at the arc, or arc voltage, is less dependent
on the voltage drop between the power source and arc. The difference depends
on cable size and length as well as welding amperage, but these voltages go up
and down proportionately; therefore, for this discussion the effect of voltage is
the same.

162

-

- --

-
-

-- - --

Once the correct arc length is set for a given weld, it should be kept constant
even when WFS is increased or decreased. As shown in Figure 5.46, it is
necessary to change voltage along with WFS to maintain a constant arc length.

2. Effect of Voltage on Undercut and Penetration

Voltage has a major effect on heat input to the plate surface. Voltage also
affects the amount of radiated heat, therefore, longer arcs seem much hotter to
the welder. As a result of this surface heating effect, the voltage also has a
significant impact on bead shape and undercut (see Figure 5.47). In multipass
welds, undercut or poor bead shape can trap slag, leading to slag inclusions in
the complete weld.

Because a longer arc is also wider, it is more likely to cause undercut in a fillet
weld (see Figure 5.48).

163

-

-
- -
- -

-

-- - -- -

164

-

3. Effect of Voltage on Spatter

Spatter is minimal with gas-shielded FCAW wires of the E7XT-1 or E7XT-9


classifications. However, very low or high voltages can increase spatter levels.
The E7XT-5 classification produces considerable spatter with CO2 shielding
gas. Some improvement with this classification can be made with the use of
argon mixtures and pulsed arc power sources.

4. Effect of Voltage for Self-Shielding Wires

Because the voltage setting determines the amount of aluminum transferred,


too high a voltage setting results in excessive porosity with self-shielding wires
(see Figure 5.49).

NOTE: Voltage has a major impact on surface heating, which affects


bead shape and undercut. In the case of self-shielding wires, voltage also
affects porosity levels.

1. Travel Speed and Productivity

Travel speed has a major effect on welding productivity. The faster the speed,
the less time it takes to make a weld. Most welders never measure their travel
speeds, because they generally have a good feel for how slow or fast the travel

165

-

speed is. It is difficult to manually travel above 30 ipm in the horizontal position.
Examples of travel speed ranges are shown in Figure 5.50 for fillet welding.

-
- -

2. Effect of Travel Speed on Penetration

A general pattern emerges as travel speed is decreased:

Heat input per inch is increased

More filler metal is applied per inch and consequently, the weld is larger

Penetration increases in a bead-on-plate test as shown in Figure 5.51,


because the metal spreads out.


--

- -

- -

Bead-on-plate welds are generally not made, and when the puddle is allowed to
build up in a groove or fillet weld, penetration decreases if the welding speed is
too slow (see Figure 5.52).

166

-

- - -

- -
- -- -
--

- - - --
--

-
-

NOTE: Always keep the arc at the front of the pool.

Throughout most of the welding circuit, heavy copper cables carry the welding
current, which can be as high as 500 amps in FCAW. However, once past the
contact tube, the current is forced to flow through a small steel wire, which is a
poor conductor of electricity (see Figure 5.53). This extension of the wire elec-
trode is very hot and, in effect, becomes preheated before it reaches the arc.

The length of the wire past the contact tip is called the electrical stickout (see
Figure 5.54). The CTTWD is the electrical stickout plus the arc length.

167

-


-
-

When a wire feed speed setting is made, the heat needed to melt the wire off is
a combination of both arc heating and resistance heating (see Figure 5.55).

When the CTTWD is changed, the ratio of arc heating to resistance heating is
also changed. With small diameter wires and long CTTWDs, high resistance
heating of the electrode extension can cause burnoff of the wireeven when
the amperage is relatively low.

168

-

--


--

1. Effect of CTTWD on Welding Current

Changing the CTTWD changes the welding amperage as shown in Figure


5.56.

As the wire CTTWD is increased, less current is needed to melt the wire,
because there is more preheat in the electrode extension. Less current means
less heat into the work, and therefore, less penetration. The opposite occurs
when the CTTWD is reduced in length. The CTTWD is important and should
be held constant at the correct value.

Some typical settings are shown in Table 5.1. The CTTWD is typically greater
with larger diameter wires. Some self-shielding FCAW wires are designed for
very long CTTWDs.

169

-

-
-

-

- --

--
--
--
-
-

The wire forms an angle in a plane parallel to the direction of travel, which is
the travel angle. In terms of a push or drag, the travel angle has a sig-
nificant effect on the weld bead. The effect of travel angle on bead shape and
penetration is shown in Figure 5.57.

With the FCAW process, a drag angle typically is used to avoid pushing slag
ahead of the arc. Slag can be trapped between passes and is a particular
problem at slower travel speeds (see Figure 5.58).

A drag angle helps push the slag back from the front of the pool and also
provides increased penetration (see Figure 5.59).

170

-

-
-

- -

-
-

- -

171

-

A drag angle from 10p to 20p is typically used with the FCAW process (see
Figure 5.60).

pp - --

--

The electrode forms an angle with the workpiece in a plane perpendicular to


the to the direction of travel, which is the transverse angle (see Figure 5.61).
This angle can affect bead shape, penetration, and undercut. Excessive trans-
verse angle also can cause incomplete fusion.




pp

--

The position of the electrode in the joint is an important factor in making a


quality weld (see Figure 5.62). Even if all the other operating variables are
correctly set, incorrect electrode position in the joint results in poor quality
welds.

172

-


- -

--

With semiautomatic applications, the welder usually positions the electrode so


that the weld pool is in the right location and the exact position of the electrode
is not a concern (see Figure 5.63).

With mechanized or automated welding, the welder must position the electrode
in the correct location before starting. For a horizontal fillet weld a slight offset
is often used to obtain an equal leg fillet weld (see Figure 5.64).

For circumferential joints under rotation, the position of the electrode relative
to top dead center has a major effect on bead shape. The bead shape can be
convex, flat, or concave as shown in Figure 5.65.

173

-

- -
--

- - -

- -

174

-

Remember the seven essential welding variables. They are the key to making
-- quality welds with the FCAW Process (refer to Figure 5.66).
-

-
-- -

-- -

Typical FCAW Equipment is shown in Figure 5.67.

175

-

--
-

176

-


-
A properly filled crater is important to ensure full throat thickness for the
complete length of the weld. Two different crater filling techniques are shown
in Figures 5.68 and 5.69.

-
-

177

-

178

-

To ensure good fusion and root penetration at a stop-start location, a proper


technique is required as shown in Figure 5.70.

- --


- -
- -

179

-

The AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 2, Welding Processes, Chapter 5.

-- To obtain maximum benefit from this chapter it is recommended that you fol-
low this guide and complete the exercises. It is important that you thoroughly
study each section carefully before moving to the next section. The exercises
are designed to give you an indication of whether you understand the material
presented. If you get a question wrong go back and read that section again.

1. The electrode wire for FCAW is:


A. Solid
B. Tubular and filled with flux
C. Tubular and filled with metal powder
D. Flux coated

2. The range of WFS and voltage for FCAW to produce acceptable welds is:
A. Less than GMAW
B. Same as GMAW
C. Greater than GMAW

3. Which of the following welding processes has the best deposition rate?
A. SMAW
B. FCAW
C. GTAW

4. The deposition efficiency of FCAW is approximately:


A. 50%
B. 25%
C. 85%
D. 100%

5. For the classification E71T-1, the 71 stands for:


A. 71,000 lb. tensile strength
B. 70,000 lb. tensile strength and all positions
C. 70,000 lb. tensile strength and flat and horizontal positions
D. 70,000 lb. Tensile strength and low hydrogen

6. Which of the following is an advantage of an Argon/CO2 shielding gas


mixture?
A. Less expensive than CO2
B. Better penetration
C. Lower fume level
D. Can use a longer contact tip to work distance

180

-

7. True or False?
Self-shielding wires produce insufficient gases to protect the weld pool
from contamination. True False

8. True or False?
Melting of the base metal (penetration) depends mainly on the amperage.
True False

9. True or False?
For self-shielding FCAW, the wire type for the same diameter does not
effect the deposition rate. True False

10. Amperage in FCAW depends mainly on:


A. Voltage
B. Wire feed speed
C. Travel speed
D. Wire feed speed and contact tip to work distance

11. List the seven essential welding variables for the FCAW process:

(1) ________________________________________________________

(2) ________________________________________________________

(3) ________________________________________________________

(4) ________________________________________________________

(5) ________________________________________________________

(6) ________________________________________________________

(7) ________________________________________________________

12. When increasing WFS or amperage with FCAW, which of the following
will occur?
A. Higher voltage
B. More porosity
C. Greater penetration
D. Less penetration
E. Greater deposition rate
F. More spatter
G. C and E

181

-

13. Too high voltage in a multipass weld leads to which of the following?

A. Slag inclusions
B. Undercut
C. Smaller weld sizes
D. A and B

14. True or False?

A push travel angle tends to produce more of a concave bead.


True False

15. When making a horizontal fillet weld with the FCAW process, the trans-
verse gun angle should be:

A. 15 to 20
B. 40 to 45
C. 60 to 65
D. 90 to 95

16. Increasing arc voltage will increase which of the following?

A. Bead width
B. Penetration
C. Contact tip to work distance
D. Weld reinforcement

17. With gas-shielded FCAW, the electrode is connected DCEP. What does
this mean?

A. The welding gun is connected positive and the work lead is negative
B. The welding gun is connected negative and the work lead is positive
C. Alternating current is used
D. None of the above

18. With self-shielded FCAW, too high a voltage leads to which of the
following?

A. Narrow bead width


B. Convex bead
C. Porosity
D. None of the above

182

-

19. True or False?


Increasing the contact tip to work distance will increase the current.
True False

20. For 1/16 in. diameter FCAW (E71T-9), at a CTTWD of 3/4 in., what wire
feed speed is necessary to obtain approximately 300 amps?

___________________________________________________________

183

-

-- 1. B
2. C
3. B
4 C
5. B
6. C
7. True
8. True
9. False
10. D
11. (1) WFS
(2) Voltage
(3) Travel Speed
(4) Contact tip to work distance
(5) Travel angle
(6) Transverse angle
(7) Wire position
12. G
13. D
14. True
15. B
16. A
17. A
18. C
19. False
20. 275

184

--

This chapter will provide an overview of the Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
process, with particular emphasis on the advantages of using this process in
specific applications. Special considerations in using the process, such as joint
tracking requirements, will also be discussed.

NOTE: Although the scope of this section does not allow a thorough
description of all aspects of the SAW process, it will focus on the important
advantages that make SAW the preferred process for specific applications.

The SAW process differs from other arc welding processes in that the arc is
shielded beneath a blanket of granulated flux as shown in Figure 6.1. Since the
arc is not visible, the weld is produced without the associated radiation, fume,
and spatter that characterize open arc processes.

--

The SAW process is usually applied with mechanized equipment, because


a flux feeding system and a means of tracking or guiding the consumable
electrode in the joint is needed. However, the process can also be successfully
applied in the semiautomatic mode.

- In addition to the absence of both arc radiation and fume, some less obvious
but still important advantages of SAW are as follows:

185

--

1. The ability to achieve high deposition rates and productivity. Since the
SAW process allows the use of relatively high welding currents, high
deposition rates can be achieved as compared with other welding processes
(see Figure 6.2). Furthermore, since the SAW process is applied with
mechanized equipment, high operating factors and productivity can also be
attained, which generally makes SAW the preferred process for welding
thick materials.


-- ---

- - -

2. The ability to produce welds that are generally sound and free from
fusion-type defects. Because the SAW process employs relatively large
wire diameters, resistance heating effects from the electrode extension are
proportionately less than with other welding processes. For the same size
deposit of filler metal, therefore, the total fused area of SAW typically will
be greater than that obtained with other welding processes (see Figure 6.3).
This ability not only provides a decreased susceptibility to fusion-type
defects, but it also allows square groove welds to be welded to greater
thicknesses. In heavy plate fabrication, this advantage also makes the
SAW process well suited to narrow gap applications.

3. The ability to provide a low hydrogen deposit. This advantage of SAW


makes the process ideal in situations where hydrogen cracking is a possi-
bility, such as when welding heavier materials. A precautionary note: the
high productivity rates of SAW can actually increase the risk of cracking,
due to relatively short interlayer times. Circumferential seams in thick
cylindrical components are at particular risk.

186

--

4. The ability to be unaffected by wind or drafts when performed out-


doors. This advantage makes the SAW process well suited to many
construction welding situations. The best example is welding horizontal
seams on tanks and vessels. The problem of the flux preventing SAW from
being used in the horizontal position is easily overcome by the use of
suitable flux support devices. Figure 6.4 shows a typical arrangement of
equipment for horizontal or 3 oclock welding in the field.

With manual and semiautomatic open arc welding processes, the welder
- tracks the arc by guiding the torch manually relative to the joint. With SAW,
because the arc and joint are submerged under a flux, alternate means are
needed to provide joint tracking. Selecting the right joint tracking system for a
particular application and ensuring that the system is correctly set up and
maintained is critical to successful SAW. The SAW operator needs to be very
knowledgeable in this area. When compared with other welding processes, the
SAW process, in general, requires the operator to have a higher level of
knowledge skills.

187

--

The most commonly used joint tracking methods for SAW are as follows:

1. Mechanical guidance systems. These systems are designed to cope with a


wide range of industrial seam tracking situations. Their low cost, simplic-
ity, and robust nature make them the preferred method whenever the appli-
cation of mechanical systems is suitable. SAW portable tractors are most
commonly guided using a mechanical system (see Figure 6.5). Another
mechanical system employs a guide wheel running in the joint to center the
electrode is shown in Figure 6.6.

2. Tactile probes. Electromechanical systems can also provide effective joint


tracking. The probe runs in the joint and electrically feeds back to horizon-
tal and vertical cross-slides to move the wire feeding system for accurate
placement of the electrode (see Figure 6.7).

3. Guide lights. Figure 6.8 shows how a guide light is used for joint tracking.
The guide light is attached to the welding head and is set to line up with the
electrode so that the point of impingement of the light in the joint repre-
sents the position of the electrode underneath the flux. The light impinge-
ment point is kept just ahead of the flux and allows the welding operator to
make an accurate assessment of bead placement. This method is commonly
used for welding circumferential and longitudinal seams on vessels. When
guide lights are not available, welding operators will often use a bent wire
that runs just above the joint to provide a similar, but less accurate, effect.

188

--

4. Other methods. A variety of other joint tracking methods are also used
with SAW. Through-the-arc sensing and laser vision systems, although
used less frequently, offer alternatives to the methods described above.

Methods and techniques for joining materials using arc welding processes have
evolved over the years. The butt joint, in particular, is worth examining since it

189

--

represents one of the most commonly used connections in industry. Circumfer-


ential and longitudinal butt joints in cylindrical components are typical exam-
ples. Figure 6.9 indicates the general procedural changes that have occurred
over the years in welding of the butt joint. The progression represents increas-
ing productivity and cost reduction but also requires an increasing level of
sophistication of methods and techniques and capital investment.

The one pass single-sided weld, in fact, represents the highest level of produc-
tivity in welding. Further improvements are obtained only by increasing the
joining rate (travel speed) or by eliminating the seam itself. Several industries
have successfully employed single-sided welding, most notably the ship build-
ing industry. Multipass welds still have widespread use in situations where the
volume of work may not justify the capital expenditure required for single-
sided systems.

190

--

-- -- -- --
- - --

The SAW process plays a significant role in one pass single-sided welding,
because it offers the following three advantages:

Using SAW in multiwire systems, an operator can weld up to 16 mm thick-


ness in one pass using a square groove preparation. Single wire GMAW
and FCAW processes are generally limited to about 6 mm.

Using SAW with an appropriate copper-flux backing system, an operator


can provide a superior back bead. In fact, it is sometimes difficult to distin-
guish the top side from the back side of the weld.

Using SAW with an appropriate procedure, a relatively large fused area


can be provided (as described previously), which allows for greater toler-
ances to fitup conditions.

- Typical applications of SAW are shown in Figures 6.106.14.

- SAW fluxes are used to provide a variety of functions, such as:


to shield the weld pool from the atmosphere
to provide mechanical support to the weld bead
to provide arc stabilizers
to alter the chemistry of the weld deposit through slag-metal reactions

A typical SAW flux contains seven or more components, including metal


oxides and silica, which are ideal for providing the previously mentioned func-
tions. Originally, fluxes were manufactured by grinding up the individual
components and mechanically mixing them together. However, the components
in these early flux mixtures could separate into a nonuniform composition that
produced erratic results.

191

--

- -
- -
-

This problem was overcome by the following methods.

1. Fused fluxes. To produce a fused flux particle, components are first melted
together to form a uniform mixture. The melt is then poured onto a chilling
block, crushed, and screened to obtain a specific range of particle sizes.
Each flux particle and any fines (fines are fine sizes of the larger flux
particle as shown in Figure 6.15) are identical.

Due to their glasslike composition, fused fluxes provide good chemical


uniformity and resistance to moisture absorption. The main disadvantage is
that the high temperatures associated with the manufacturing process of
fused fluxes make adding deoxidizers and ferroalloys difficult.

192

--

-
--

-
- --

2. Bonded and agglomerated fluxes. In this process, the flux components


are ground to a very fine particle size and then bonded together by adding a
binder material in a wet mix. After bonding, the mix is pelletized, heated to
a relatively low temperature, and then each pellet is ground to particle size.
Each resulting particle is identical and contains many individual compo-
nents (see Figure 6.16).

The advantage of this manufacturing method is that deoxidizers can be


added because of the low temperatures used. Deoxidizers aid in reducing
porosity when welding over dirty or rusty plate. Ferroalloys can also be
added to the flux as a means of adding alloying elements to the weld.

193

--

- -
- -

-
-

-
- -
-

-
- -
-

Hence, alloy deposits can be obtained with a plain carbon steel electrode.
Flux consumption will usually be less than with fused fluxes. These fluxes
can absorb moisture if not properly stored and changes in the flux composi-
tion are possible due to segregation or removal of fine particles.

194

--

From a supervisor standpoint, the handling of fluxes has some similarities to


that of flux coated shielded metal arc electrodes. As is the case with both types
of flux, moisture is the concern. Some points to keep in mind when handling
SAW flux are:

Keep flux in the original hermetically sealed undamaged bags until ready
to use. If bags become damaged and vapor seal is broken, remove flux and
place in flux oven.

During use, all flux that is not converted to slag during the welding may be
reused immediately provided the welding surface is not wet (rain or snow)
nor has any contaminates such as grease or oil.

No flux should be left in submerged arc equipment; when equipment is not


in use, the flux should be placed into a flux oven.

Fluxes that have become wet due to either rain or snow should be discarded.

All flux not in use and not in original storage bags should be placed in flux
ovens.

-- The SAW process in a single wire application is controlled by eight (8) essen-
- tial welding variables that are set by the operator (see Figure 6.17).

-
NOTE: There are many different process variations that use SAW. Parallel
electrodes and tandem electrodes, for example, will include additional SAW
essential variables; however, these will not be covered in this program.

Because the SAW process is typically mechanized, all of the variables are
machine settings and some settings cannot be changed once welding com-
mences. This emphasizes the importance of proper machine setup prior to
welding. Careful and meticulous adjustment of the eight essential variables and
the joint tracking system settings are key to successful SAW. The SAW pro-
cess requires little manipulative skill of the operator but requires considerable
knowledge skills in these areas.

The SAW essential welding variables control bead shape, appearance, pene-
tration, and weld quality. These essential variables are the key settings that
make it possible to consistently obtain high productivity rates and quality
welds.

195

--

--

-- -


--
- The SAW process can be run with either a constant voltage power source (CV)
or constant current power source (CC). In the case of CV, the wire feed speed
is set in inches per minute. For CC, the current is adjusted as an amperage set-
ting. CV is preferred for smaller diameter wires and CC for larger diameters
although they can be used interchangeably.

1. Increasing Wire Feeder/Amperage Dial will:

Increase wire feed speed rate; therefore, permitting increased weld size
or permit an increase in the welding travel speed

Increase amperage

Increase electrode melt-off rate

Increase penetration and reinforcement of bead

196

--

2. Decreasing Wire Feeder/Amperage Dial will:

Decrease wire feed speed rate; therefore, permitting decreased weld


size or require a decrease in welding travel speed

Decrease amperage

Decrease electrode melt-off rate

Decrease penetration and reinforcement of bead

1. Direct Current, Electrode Positive (DCEP):

Lowers deposition rate

Increases the penetration for better fusion characteristics

2. Direct Current, Electrode Negative (DCEN):

Increases deposition rate for faster welding

Decreases the penetration

1. Increasing dial (greater number) increases welding arc length and voltage:

Increases the width of the weld bead and flattens the weld bead in
appearance

Decreases the penetration

2. Decreasing dial (lower number) decreases welding arc length and voltage:

Decreases the width of the weld bead and increases weld bead height at
the center, i.e., more convex

Increases the penetration

3. Voltage can have a significant effect on slag detachability. Excessively


concave or convex beads can make the slag difficult to detach. Higher
voltages also have higher flux consumption.

197

--

1. Increasing the travel speed dial will:

Increase the speed of the torch across the surface of the base metal

Decrease the width of the weld bead

Typically decrease the penetration of the weld

2. Decreasing the travel speed dial will:

Decrease the speed of the torch across the surface of the base metal

Increase the width of the weld bead

Typically increase the penetration of the weld bead but if speed is set
too low, the weld pool can flow ahead of the arc and reduce penetration
and trap slag

1. Increasing CTTWD will:

Decrease amperage.

Decrease penetration of the base metal.

2. Decreasing CTTWD will:

Increase amperage.

Increase penetration of the base metal.

1. Push Travel Angle will:

Flatten bead

Decrease penetration into the base metal

2. Drag Travel Angle will:

Produce a more convex bead

Increase penetration into the base metal

198

--

--

The correct transverse angle for a single pass fillet weld is about 40 from
the horizontal.

Increasing transverse angle will deposit a larger or taller vertical leg.

Decreasing the transverse angle will deposit a longer horizontal leg.

For small fillets, set the wire on the joint centerline. For larger fillets, bring
the wire out from the joint horizontally about 1/2 to 1 wire diameter.

Moving away from the joint horizontally will deposit a larger horizontal
leg.

Moving away from the joint vertically will deposit a larger vertical leg.

Other variables that have an impact on the SAW process are:


-

A tight butt joint decreases penetration

A gaped butt joint allows for increased penetration

A backup bar will support thin butt welds to prevent burnthrough

Maximum penetration in square butt joints without backup is 60% to 80%

Slag is more difficult to remove when the weld bead shape in the deep-
groove is full width and concave

Narrow and deep weld root beads are more prone to cracking; amperage on
root pass should not exceed 100 amps per 10 of bevel for a single wire
application

Slag is easier to remove when the weld bead shape in the deep-groove is
convex and less than full width of the weld joint

199

--

Opening up the included angle in a deep-groove weld can prevent cracking


in the root bead

Narrow and deep backgouging can lead to cracking, weld beads should be
wider than they are deep

A 3/8 in. leg is the largest single-pass fillet weld that can be made in the
horizontal position with a single electrode

A 1/2 in. leg is the largest single-pass fillet weld that can be made in the
horizontal position with a multiple electrodes

1. Positioning of the arc on the circumference of the joint determines bead


shape and flux cover as follows:

With excessive displacement ahead of vertical center, the weld will


produce a shallow, concave bead

With inadequate displacement after or past the vertical center, the weld
will produce a narrow, humped bead

2. Positioning of the arc on the inside diameter of the joint determines bead
shape and flux cover as follows:

With inadequate displacement after or past the vertical center, the weld
will produce a shallow, concave bead

With excessive displacement ahead of the vertical, the weld will


produce a narrow, humped bead

1. Inadequate flux cover causes:

Arc flashing

Incomplete slag cover, which results in defects such as porosity, brittle-


ness, and reduced weld strength

200

--

2. Excessive flux cover causes:

Narrow, rough bead shape

Pockmarking of the bead surface

The AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 2Welding Processes, Chapter 6.

- To obtain maximum benefit from this program it is recommended that you


-- follow this guide and complete the exercises. It is important that you thor-
oughly study each section carefully before moving to the next section. The
exercises are designed to give you an indication of whether you understand the
material presented. If you get a question wrong go back and read that section
again.

1. Which of the following is not an advantage of the SAW process?


A. High deposition rates
B. Joint tracking is simple, compared with other processes
C. Low hydrogen deposit
D. Not affected by wind or drafts

2. Which of the following type of SAW flux does not require a binder during
manufacture?
A. Fused
B. Bonded
C. Agglomerated
D. Iron powder

3. Which of the following welding processes has the highest deposition rate?
A. SMAW
B. SAW
C. GTAW
D. GMAW

4. On a constant current system (CC), increasing the amperage increases the:


A. Bead width
B. Voltage
C. Flux depth
D. Penetration

201

--

5. An increase in voltage produces the following effect:


A. Increases flux consumption
B. Reduces flux consumption
C. Produces narrow beads
D. Reduces arc length

6. An increase in CTTWD on a constant voltage (CV) system with the same


wire feed speed will:
A. Increase amperage
B. Increase deposition rate
C Increase the machine voltage
D. Reduce amperage

7. True or False?
DCEN will give a higher deposition rate but DCEP will increase
penetration. True False

202

--

-- 1. B
2. A
3. B
4. D
5. A
6. D
7. True

203

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204


Steel is a very versatile material. It is relatively inexpensive and is produced in
a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties. About 850 million
metric tons of steel were produced in the world in 2000, far exceeding any
other metal. Hence, it is not surprising that steel is the most commonly welded
material.

Steelmakers use a variety of methods to achieve specific properties of steel


products. When welded, steels undergo metallurgical transformations that can
lead to the loss of these properties, cracking, or other detrimental effects. It is
vital that the welding supervisor has a basic knowledge of steel metallurgy in
order to properly apply welding procedures and practices.

The modern age of steelmaking began in the middle of the 19th century in
England when Henry Bessemer developed a converter process to produce
carbon steels in large quantities. Modern steel works use a modified version of
the converter process called the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF). In this process,
oxygen is used to reduce undesirable levels of carbon and other elements (see
Figure 7.1).

205

Wrought iron is soft because it contains almost no carbon and cast iron is
brittle because it contains too much. Intermediate carbon levels provide the
best combination of strength, ductility, and toughness (see Figure 7.2).

-
-

-
-

The blast furnace reduces iron ore (iron oxide) to form iron by using the reduc-
- ing agents of carbon monoxide and carbon. A sample reaction is shown in
Equation 7.1.

FeO + CO Fe + CO2 (Eq. 7.1)

The resulting iron is brittle because of excessive carbon and other elements.
Steelmaking lowers carbon (C), silicon (Si), and phosphorous (P) levels by
combining these elements with oxygen (O2) to form compounds that are
removed with the slag (see Figure 7.3).

206

At this point the steel will contain about 0.20% O2 , which can make the steel
brittle or cause the evolution of gas when the oxygen combines with carbon.
This extra oxygen must be removed by adding deoxidizers such as manganese
(Mn), silicon (Si), and aluminum (Al) just before casting. These elements
combine with the oxygen, and the resulting compound is removed through the
slag (see Figure 7.4).

The degree of steel deoxidation is described below.

1. Rimmed Steelsare only slightly deoxidized. Carbon monoxide gas is


produced, which leaves the outer layer or rim almost free of carbon. The
low carbon surface layer of rimmed steel is very ductile and suited to sheet
steel for cold forming and for applications where the quality of the surface
condition is important.

2. Killed Steelsare strongly deoxidized and have a high degree of uni-


formity in chemical composition and properties. The low oxygen content
provides good mechanical properties, especially toughness.

3. Semikilled Steelshave an intermediate level of deoxidation between


rimmed and killed steels.

Based on the previous discussion, it is evident that certain elements are impor-
- tant in determining the properties of plain carbon steels. Most steel specifica-
- tions will specify at least the range of chemical composition for the elements
shown in Tables 7.1 and 7.2.

- -


-


--

207

- --

Aluminum is another element often specified in mill test reports. Aluminum is


used to control grain size and provide deoxidation. Aluminum killed steels
have a higher level of fracture toughness. Typical aluminum content for carbon
steels, when used, is in the range of 0.02%0.05%.

Some steel mills use scrap steel as their source of material. This scrap can con-
tain small amounts of elements called residuals, including Cr, Ni, and Cu,
which have a negative effect on weldability, and need to be controlled by the
steelmaker. Some steel specifications have been designed to take advantage
of controlled residuals like copper. For example, ASTM A 992 specifies steel
to be strengthened with copper as a precipitation hardening agent. This speci-
fication is restrictive on other elements such as carbon, allowing for good
weldability.

Iron has the special characteristic of existing in different arrangements of


atoms as a solid. Depending on the temperature, it can have either a body
centered cubic (bcc) or a face centered cubic (fcc) crystallographic structure
(see Figure 7.5).

- -

Another important characteristic of iron is the difference in the solubility of


carbon between the bcc structure and the fcc structure. This difference depends
on the space between the iron atoms as shown in Table 7.3.

208

- - -
- -
-

The characteristics shown in Table 7.3 provide steel with some unique metal-
lurgical properties that are best explained using the iron-carbon phase diagram.
The phase diagram shown in Figure 7.6 shows the phases that are present at
various temperatures for the complete range of compositions of steel under the
conditions of slow heating and cooling. Fcc iron (austenite) has a much greater
solubility for carbon than bcc iron (ferrite). Hence, at lower temperatures steel
exists as two phases, and at higher temperatures as a single phase.

209

During slow cooling, the carbon cannot be accommodated in the ferrite phase
(bcc); therefore, a second phase is formed called cementite (Fe3C), which is a
very hard carbide. At 0.8% carbon, this carbide and ferrite form simulta-
neously from austenite (fcc) to a microstructure called pearlite (see Figure 7.7).

- -

At 0.20% carbon, the resulting metallurgical structure is a combination of


ferrite grains and pearlite grains (see Figure 7.8).

Cementite is very hard and brittle as compared with ferrite. However, the
cementite in pearlite is surrounded by soft ferrite and the combination provides
good strength and ductility in the lower carbon range. Increasing the carbon
above 0.8% (100% pearlite) does not increase the strength of steel as shown in
Figure 7.9.

The steel metallurgist has a variety of methods for increasing the strength of
- steel. Depending on the steel alloy, the steel producer uses different strengthen-
ing methods. The method selected depends on the intended application for the
material and the desired mechanical properties. When steel is heated and
cooled during the welding operation, these properties may change. To under-
stand these changes and control the welding procedure to minimize any detri-
mental effects, the welding supervisor should have a basic understanding of
strengthening methods and how the steel is affected by welding.

210

- -

-- -
-


- -

Many methods to increase the strength of steel rely on preventing movement in


the atomic structure of each grain of steel. This movement, called slip, occurs
in the crystal pattern of atoms as shown in Figure 7.10.

211

-
- - -

Other methods use second phases that are much harder than the surrounding
matrix to increase strength. The role of cementite as described above is an
example of this method.

For structural applications, most metals are not used in their pure form. For
example, we can change the properties of iron by adding other elements to
form alloys. Solid solutions are mixtures of the atoms of two or more different
elements in the solid state. There are two different types of solid solutions as
shown in Figure 7.11. The alloy distorts the crystallographic structure, which
makes slip more difficult and thereby increases strength.

- - - - - - - -
- -
- -- -

- -
-

- - -

- Another very useful feature of alloy additions is that some alloys tend to form
carbides (see Figure 7.12) rather than go into solid solution. Different alloys
have different tendencies to go into solid solution or form carbides as shown
in Figure 7.13. We will discuss the effect of carbides later under Strengthen-
ing by Precipitation Hardening.

212

213

- Certain elements combine with iron to form brittle compounds and need to be
- controlled. For example, sulfur can react with iron to form iron sulfide, as
shown in Equation 7.2.

Fe + S = FeS (Brittle) (Eq. 7.2)

FeS forms at grain boundaries, making low manganese steel brittle. Because
FeS melts at low temperatures, welding can cause the sulfides to melt at the
grain boundaries, which makes the steel weak. Weldable steels have sulfur
levels at less than 0.05%.

With manganese in the steel, sulfur tends to form manganese sulfide, which is
present as globules distributed throughout the grains, rather than at grain
boundaries. MnS is one of the main nonmetallic inclusions in steel and is not
detrimental in the rolling direction when uniformly distributed. Manganese
additions are important for deoxidation during steelmaking and increase
strength though solid solution effects.

- Because aluminum is strongly attracted to oxygen, it can further decrease the


level of dissolved oxygen beyond that obtained with just silicon alone. Alumi-
num also lowers the soluble nitrogen content and forms aluminum nitride,
which is beneficial in retarding grain growth during subsequent heating opera-
tions such as normalizing (see Equations 7.3 and 7.4).

Al + O2 = Deoxidizing (Eq. 7.3)


Al + N2 = Denitriding (Eq. 7.4)

The strengthening effect of carbon compared with other alloying elements is


shown in Figure 7.14.


--

- -

214

In actual results, the elements may have other effects in addition to simple solid
solution strengthening, therefore, the strength increase may be different from that
shown in Figure 7.14. For example, carbon also forms pearlite, which has a good
combination of strength and ductility. Increasing the carbon content increases the
amount of pearlite and therefore the strength, as we have shown previously.

Carbon and nitrogen also provide a distinct yield point in steel as shown in Fig-
ure 7.15. The yield stress is the load at this point divided by the area of the test
specimen.


- -

--

However, increasing the carbon content has a negative effect on ductility as


measured by the reduction in area of a test specimen (see Figure 7.16).


--

215

Furthermore, increasing carbon levels raises the risk of certain types of weld
cracking so that weldability is reduced. Some typical carbon steels are shown
in Table 7.4.

-- -














- -

- -

-- - - --

In the precipitation hardening method, small additions (microalloying) of ele-


ments like vanadium and columbium (niobium) are added to steel to increase
strength. We have seen previously that second phases in steels like cementite can
be useful in increasing strength. Microalloying is somewhat different in that the
elements form second phases or precipitates that are embedded within the atomic
structure, as shown in Figure 7.17. Typically the precipitates are carbides.

This method is more effective than solid solution strengthening, because the
precipitate helps prevent movement of the atoms in the grains of steel. This
method also allows a reduction in carbon content, which improves weldability.
ASTM A 441 and A 572 are typical examples of steels that use this method.
ASTM A 992 is a relatively new grade, which is strengthened with copper as a
precipitation hardening agent.

216

- -

- -

- -

- -
-- -

- -

-- - --
--
-- - -
--

Grain refinement is a powerful tool for the steel metallurgist. Smaller grains
increase strength since grain boundaries provide an obstacle to slip within the
atomic structure. The smaller the grain size, the greater the number of grain
boundaries.

The other significant feature of grain refinement is that it is the only method
that simultaneously improves strength and toughness. Toughness is the ability
of a material to resist a load (or absorb energy) without fracturing. Most other
methods of increasing strength cause a reduction in the toughness of steel,
therefore, grain size control has become an important feature of modern steels.
The effects of various strengthening methods on strength and toughness is
shown in Figure 7.18.

217

- -

--


- - -
--

The grain size of steel can be reduced by a normalizing heat treatment (see
Figure 7.19). Normalizing involves heating steel with a carbon content of
about 0.20% to a temperature of 1600pF (900pC) followed by an air cool.



--

Because significant improvements in toughness can be realized, this heat treat-


ment is commonly used for pressure vessel steels like A 516-70 (see Figure
7.20). However, heating to high temperatures is expensive and this has led
steelmakers to use other methods of grain refinement where possible.

218



--


--

The application of fine-grained microalloyed steels was initially developed by


the pipeline industry to reduce the weight and cost of welding steel by welding
- thinner but higher strength material. Today, these modern steels are used in
many other applications such as bridges and offshore drilling rigs.

These steels use vanadium and/or niobium carbides to provide increased


strength by precipitation hardening and increased toughness by minimizing
grain growth during hot rolling (see Figure 7.21).

A comparison of the toughness levels achieved through different methods is


shown in Figure 7.22.

Fine-grained microalloyed steels are particularly sensitive to the loss of


mechanical properties by improper fabrication operations. For example, over-
heating the material by the careless use of heating torches can cause an
increase in grain size, thereby damaging the metallurgical structure.

219

- - - -

- -
- -

- -
-

- -
- -
- -

-
-
-

- --

- -- -
-

220

-
-
- -

- - --

-- -
- -- -
- --
-
- - -
-

We have seen previously that when steel is heated to the austenitic phase, all
the carbon atoms will be in solid solution. For example, a 0.15% carbon steel
heated to 900C (1660F) will be fully austenitic. The phase diagrams show
the results when the steel is cooled slowly, i.e., the austenite (fcc) transforms to
ferrite (bcc) plus cementite (see Equation 7.5).

Austenite Ferrite + Fe3C (Eq. 7.5)

If rapid cooling occurs, the austenite (fcc) transformation to ferrite (bcc) still
takes place; however, the carbon atoms now become trapped within the bcc
structure because there is no time for the carbon to diffuse out. The resulting
structure, martensite, is a supersaturated solid solution of carbon in bcc iron.
Normally, bcc iron cannot accommodate much carbon in solid solution. This
limited solubility distorts the atomic structure, which causes an increase in
volume along with a significant increase in hardness and strength. These steels
are hardened by the use of relatively fast cooling rates.

In Figure 7.23, the cooling time from 900C (1660F) should be about 1 sec-
- ond to obtain the martensite structure. While this fast cooling rate may occur
on the surface of a steel plate it is not likely in the middle thickness regions
(see Figure 7.24).

When alloys are present, the transformation to martensite occurs at a much


slower cooling rate (see Figure 7.25). The movement of substitutional alloys
such as chromium from one position in the austenitic phase to another site in

221

- -

222

-
-
-

- - -

the martensite phase is much slower than the movement of carbon atoms. The
net effect of this movement is that martensite is formed at much slower cooling
rates, which allows thicker materials to be through-hardened more effectively.
The relative ability of a steel to form martensite when quenched is hardenabil-
ity. Alloy additions such as Mn, Cr, and Mo are very effective in increasing
hardenability. This is an important concept to remember when weld cracking is
discussed in a subsequent section.

Because martensite is too brittle to be used as a structural material, it is often


tempered (softened) by heating to an appropriate temperature to obtain desired
strength levels (see subsequent example for AISI 4140).

Alloy additions and heat treating are an effective technique for making strong
steels; however, it reduces weldability because the use of preheat or large
passes to reduce cooling rates has little effect on reducing hardness. In effect,
the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the weld is hard no matter what preheat or
heat input is used for welding. In such cases, thermal stress relief after welding
may be necessary to temper or soften the HAZ.

223

Caution should be used when heating quenched and tempered materials to high
temperatures, because the material can be damaged if the tempering tempera-
ture is exceeded. For example, when stress relief is needed it should be kept
about 50F below the tempering temperature to avoid loss of strength. The use
of flame heating for shape correction should be avoided, because torch heating
can be difficult to control (see Figure 7.26).

- -

It should also be noted that with alloy steels, the formation of martensite can be
depressed to relatively low temperatures. As shown in Figure 7.27, martensite
will form over a range of temperatures and the start (Ms) and finish (Mf)
temperatures can be defined. Whether the preheat, interpass, and postheat
temperatures are above or below the Ms is important, and will be discussed
further in the next section.

- -

- - -

- -

- -

224

Alloy additions do not have a significant effect on the hardness of the marten-
site, which is mainly determined by the carbon content (see Figure 7.28).



--

- - --

Because martensite is relatively hard and brittle, it must be softened or tem-


pered to obtain the best combination of strength and toughness. The effect of
tempering temperature is shown in Figure 7.29.

-
-

- --
- -
-

-- - -
- --

-
-

225



p
p

p - - -


p p

--

Steel base metals are tested by the steel mill to ensure that all the requirements
- of the steel specification are met. In addition to the chemical analysis, the mill
- - test report provides the results of the various mechanical tests, including:

Tensile strength

Yield strength

Elongation

226

The tensile and yield strengths are shown in Figure 7.30. They are calculated
by taking the load at the point of interest and dividing by the area of the test
specimen taken from the base material.


- -

- -

Elongation is the measure of materials ability to stretch without breaking, or


ductility. The elongation is determined from the tensile specimen (see Figure
7.31). After the tensile specimen breaks, the two halves are put together and
the distance between gage marks applied before testing is measured. The per-
cent elongation is given in Equation 7.6.

% Elongation = Increase in length I 100 (Eq. 7.6)


Initial length

227

- It is important that the weld provides matching mechanical properties to the


base metal (see Figure 7.32).

For example, if the weld has insufficient strength, failure of the weld joint can
occur. Some welding codes ensure matching properties by specifying the elec-
trode strength level, joint details, and welding details, which are prequalified
conditions. In such cases, mechanical testing of the welding procedure may not
be necessary.

In other situations, where mechanical testing of the welding procedure is


required, the weld properties should at least match those of the base metal. The
test is also a demonstration that the fabricator can perform satisfactory welding
(see Figure 7.33).

A typical procedure qualification test plate is shown in Figure 7.34. The loca-
tion of the tensile specimens and bend specimens is indicated.

- -

The tensile test is used to determine the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the
joint. The maximum load is divided by the area (prior to testing) of the reduced
section (see Equation 7.7).

UTS = Load/Area (Eq. 7.7)

For weld testing, the yield point and elongation usually are not measured. To
pass, the tensile strength shall be no less than the minimum of the specified
tensile strength range of the base metal used.

228

- - -
-

- -

--
- -

The bend test is a measure of both the ductility of the joint and the soundness
of the weld. For acceptance, the surface on the tension side must not contain
discontinuities exceeding certain dimensions. A dimension of 1/8 in. is often
specified in welding standards. Bend tests can be either side, root, or

229

face. With the root or face bend the corresponding location of the weld is the
tension side. With a side bend the complete thickness of the joint is put into
tension (see Figure 7.35).


--

-- --

The Charpy test is a measure of toughness at a specified temperature. Tough-


ness is the ability of a material to avoid a fracture (or absorb the energy) from
an impact load. If a specimen fractures at a relatively high temperature with
low absorbed energy, it is described as being brittle. Brittle fractures are
dangerous because they can occur without warning. The fracture can extend
through the thickness of the material and propagate for long lengthsleading
to catastrophic failure.

The Charpy test measures the energy absorbed in a small test specimen that
contains a notch (see Figure 7.36). A typical Charpy impact testing machine is
shown in Figure 7.37. The difference in the initial height of the hammer and
the height obtained after striking the specimen is a measure of the energy
absorbed by the specimen.

The specimen is cooled to the temperature of interest. The energy value is


recorded in ft-lbs or joules. The higher the value the better the result. The test
can be done in the base metal, weld metal, or HAZ. Most specifications require
a minimum value of 15 ft-lbs or 20 ft-lbs.

230

- -

- -

231

In the first section of this chapter, we examined the metallurgy of steel base
metals. In this section, we will consider the metallurgy of the weld itself, which
- includes both the weld metal and adjacent HAZ. Having a good understanding
of welding metallurgy is important for the supervisor to ensure that the weld
matches the base metal in terms of mechanical properties and that the welding
operation does not introduce injurious defects into the joint.

Therefore, the objectives of this section are to:

Understand the welding procedural variables so as to ensure adequate


mechanical properties.

Understand how to minimize the risk of hydrogen cracking in steels

Understand how to avoid solidification cracking in steel.


-
- The mechanical properties of importance for the weld metal are strength and
toughness. The most obvious factor here is to ensure the use of the correct elec-
trode. The specified electrode classification will be indicated in the welding
procedures such as a welding procedure specification or similar document. It is
critical that the welding supervisor be very familiar with these procedures and
the base metals being welded so that the correct electrode is used in every joint.
Refer to the Chapter 9, Welding Instructions, for further information.

It is of interest to note that the solidified weld metal will have a microstructure
that is much different from the base metal. The base metal goes through a
slowly cooled casting process plus a complex heating and rolling sequence.
The weld metal on the other hand is a rapidly cooled casting and its properties
will depend on its microstructure and composition. Table 7.5 shows a base
metal and weld metal of equal strength. However, the chemistry will be differ-
ent with the carbon content usually much lower in the weld metal.

- -

Weld metal is actually a mixture of melted electrode and melted base metal
(see Figure 7.38). Its composition depends on three things:

1. Chemical composition of the electrode or filler metal

232

2. Chemical composition of the base metal

3. Chemical reactions between the weld metal, shielding gas, or flux

Dilution is the relative proportion of the base metal in the weld. Dilution can be
calculated from a weld cross section using the formula shown in Figure 7.39.

- I

Typical dilution values for some commonly welded joints are shown in Figure
7.40.

The welding process itself can have a major effect with SMAW having a
relatively low dilution and SAW having a relatively high dilution (see Figure
7.41).

233

-

-
-


-
-
-

- -

The essential welding variables also need to be included when considering the
mechanical properties of welds. Although heat input does not have a signifi-
cant effect on strength, it can change the toughness of both the weld metal and
the HAZ. As shown in Figure 7.42, the HAZ lies adjacent to the fused weld
metal and is typically less than 1/8 in. wide, although it can exceed this width
in high heat input processes. Initially, the HAZ is base metal that has not been
melted. However, the HAZ can be heated high enough and can be cooled fast
enough to cause changes in the mechanical properties of this region.

234

The heat from the arc raises the temperature of the base metal on either side of
the weld. The HAZ reaches the highest temperatures with the maximum tem-
perature at the fusion boundary, or weld interface (see Figure 7.43).

Within the HAZ region adjacent to the bond line, the temperature is high
enough to form austenite, which may transform to a variety of structures on
cooling. In Region 1 shown in Figure 7.44, the grain size will be relatively
large because of the high temperatures obtained. Region 2 is also austenitized,
but the temperature is too low to promote significant grain growth resulting in
a fine grain size. Next to this area is Region 3, where partial transformation to
austenite occurs. No austenite forms in Region 4 and no major changes to the
microstructure occur; however, secondary effects such as changing of the fer-
rite structure and tempering of the martensite, if present, may take place.

235

--
- -

The resulting microstructure in both the weld metal and the HAZ depend sig-
nificantly on the heat input used in making the weld. Heat input is important
because it determines the cooling rate in the weld.

In a 100 watt light bulb, the total energy output is 100 watts, most of which is
heat. If the bulb is plugged into a 110 volt outlet the resulting current will be about
0.9 amps. The light bulb converts electricity into heat and light (see Figure 7.45).

Similarly, the electric arc converts electricity into heat that melts the base
metal. Measuring the amount of heat input is important and can be quantified
using the concept of heat input per unit length (see Figure 7.46).

The rate at which energy is developed in the arc, as with the light bulb, is:

Joules per second (watts) = measured arc voltage I measured current

In arc welding, however, the arc is moved along the joint at a constant speed.
Under these conditions, the heat input per unit length provides us with the
amount of heat exposure for each unit length of weld. The formulas shown in
Equations 7.8 and 7.9 are for both U.S. Customary and metric (SI) units.

236

- - I -
I

U.S. Customary
voltage I amperage I 60
Energy input/in. (kJ/in.) = travel speed I 1000 (Eq. 7.8)

where:
kJ/in. = kilojoules/in.
travel speed = in./min.

237

Metric (SI)

voltage I amperage
Energy input/mm (kJ/mm) = travel speed I 1000 (Eq. 7.9)

where:

kJ/mm = kilojoules/mm
travel speed = mm/sec

Heat input has a major effect on cooling rate. Larger welds tend to cool at a
slower rate than smaller welds because there is greater heat to dissipate. This is
an important point to remember for understanding weld cracking (see Figure
7.47).


- -

Cooling rates can be measured and plotted against heat input and material
thickness (see Figure 7.48).

As mentioned previously, heat input has an important effect on the resulting


mechanical properties of both the weld metal and the HAZ, which primarily is
due to the effect of heat input on grain size and cooling rate. As shown in Fig-
ure 7.49, the relationship between the maximum austenite grain size in the
HAZ and the heat input is linear when plotted on a log scale. A similar effect
occurs in the weld metal, which results in toughness that decreases
significantly with relatively high heat inputs (see Figure 7.50). When tough-
ness is a specified material property, control of heat input may be required.

238


--

- --

-

-

239

--

In the HAZ, hardness affects both toughness and cracking. Figure 7.51 shows a
typical hardening curve for a plain carbon steel. The HAZ hardness changes
depending on the cooling rate. Fast cooling rates produce a harder HAZ that is
prone to cracking; slow cooling rates can cause a loss of toughness.

--

--

240

Heat input is proportional to the area of the deposited metal for a given weld-
ing process and welding conditions. The relationship between heat input and
fillet size for SMAW is shown in Figure 7.52. As expected, small welds have a
low heat input and large welds have a high heat input.

Hydrogen cracking can be a major problem when welding steels. Although


hydrogen is always involved, other factors also contribute to the problem.
Hydrogen cracking, or cold cracking, only occurs after the weld has cooled
downtypically within 24 hours after welding, although longer periods have
been recorded. This is significant in terms of determining when inspection is to
be done. Typical locations of hydrogen cracking are shown in Figure 7.53. Fig-
ure 7.54 shows a HAZ hydrogen crack at the toe of the horizontal leg of a
three-pass fillet weld.

Some important features of hydrogen are as follows:

It is the lightest of all elements

It is highly flammable

It is used as a fuel in missiles and fuel cells

It embrittles steel

241

--

It is this latter property that is of concern in the welding of steels. There are
four factors necessary for hydrogen cracking to occur:

1. The presence of hydrogen present in the weld zone

2. Stress or strain will always be present in the weld

3. Susceptible (hard) microstructure

4. Temperaturecracking does not usually occur above 200pF

242

Stress or strain will always be present due to the localized heating effects of
welding, and generally we cannot change the material thickness or joint details.
Furthermore, welds always cool to ambient temperatures at some point. There-
fore, the prevention of hydrogen cracking centers on controlling the amount of
hydrogen in the weld and the hardness of the weld HAZ (see Figure 7.55).

--

Hydrogen in the weld is determined by the following factors:



Welding process

Electrode type

Cleanliness of the base materials and electrode

Storage of electrodes

Level of preheat

Procedural details, such as interlayer delay time and postheating

The effect of welding process and electrode type is summarized in Figure 7.56.
Hydrogen levels are measured and reported in ml/100g of deposited weld
metal, which is the volume of hydrogen (ml) per weight (100 grams) of the
weld metal. A standard test is described in AWS A4.3, Standard Methods for
Determination of the Diffusible Hydrogen Content of Martensitic, Bainitic,
and Ferritic Steel Weld Metal Produced by Arc Welding. For example, an elec-
trode classified as an H8 has a hydrogen content of 8 ml/100g of deposited
weld metal or less when tested. One classification of relative hydrogen levels is
shown in Table 7.6.

Shown in Figure 7.57 are potential sources of hydrogen that can enter the weld
zone. It is important to keep the electrodes clean and to control their exposure
to ambient conditions. AWS D1.1 covers these issues in subclause 5.3 of the
code. Because SMAW electrodes pick up high levels of moisture in the first
few hours of exposure, most standards limit the exposure of low hydrogen of
standard E7018 electrodes to four hours. Moisture-resistant electrodes are also
available that allow extended exposure times (see Figure 7.58).

243

- -

-
---

-- - -

--

-
--
- -

244


-
p

-
p


-
p



- -

- -
-

It is important to start with processes and materials that introduce the least
amount of hydrogen into the weld pool. However, that may not be enough to
control the amount of hydrogen in the weld, especially when the materials are
relatively thick. This is where preheat plays an important role (see Figure
7.59).

The rate at which hydrogen is removed from the solidified weld (diffusivity of
hydrogen) depends on the temperature. As shown in Figure 7.60, allowing the
weld to stay at a higher temperature for a longer period of time greatly aids in
the removal of hydrogen. Increasing the weld temperature from 20pC (room
temperature) to 150pC increases the diffusivity of hydrogen by a factor of up to
10,000. In addition, for certain types of steels, a high preheat temperature can
help to reduce HAZ hardness by slowing the cooling rate. Using preheat is an
important technique to avoid hydrogen cracking in both the weld metal and the
HAZ.

245


- -

-
-

Also note that hydrogen diffuses much more slowly in austenite than in ferrite.
This is important because if the preheat or interpass temperature is high
enough to retain austenite in the weld, then the preheat will have a lesser effect.
This could occur if the preheat is above the Ms temperature. Too high a preheat
temperature can actually hinder getting the hydrogen out. Some approximate
Ms and Mf temperatures are shown in Table 7.7. For plain carbon steels, the
Ms is relatively high and the preheat and interpass temperatures are typically
lower. However, for alloy steels, the Ms temperature can be low, therefore,
excessive temperatures should be avoided to obtain effective hydrogen
diffusion.

- - -

- p p

246

When welding susceptible materials such as quenched and tempered steels


(A514) or other heat treatable steels (AISI 4140), preheat alone may not be
adequate. For some quenched and tempered steels, the steel manufacturer may
place a limit on the preheat, heat input, and interpass temperature to prevent
deterioration in the mechanical properties of the HAZ as a result of too slow a
cooling rate or excessive grain growth. This limits the ability of the preheat
temperature to remove hydrogen. In this case, a valuable technique is to use an
interlayer delay time prior to the next layer. Before depositing the next layer,
let the weld sit at the preheat temperature for a specified period of timerang-
ing from 10 to 30 minutes. This allows the hydrogen to diffuse out, which is a
powerful technique because the hydrogen does not have to travel very far to
diffuse from the weld. It is particularly useful where weld lengths are short and
the material is relatively thick. Figure 7.61 shows the process of preheating.

- -

--

- Postheating is another technique for hydrogen removal. It is done at the com-


pletion of welding where the weld area is heated to a specific temperature for a
period of time. Compared with preheat, higher temperatures can be used
because there is no effect on cooling rates or grain size. On high alloy materials
the weld should first be cooled to below the Mf temperature to ensure that all
austenite has transformed before the postheat is performed.

Postheating may not be as effective as interlayer delay times because diffusion


times increase greatly with thickness, however, it has limited effect on welding
productivity when the correct heating equipment is used. Even wrapping a

247

completed weld with insulation to effect a slow low temperature cooling rate is
extremely beneficial and can be imperative when welding in cold temperatures
(see Figure 7.62).

- -

The type of microstructure that forms in the HAZ, its hardness and the risk of
-- cracking depends on the following:

The hardenability of the steel

The weld cooling rate

A measure of the hardenability is given by the carbon equivalent (CE) formula


shown in the following two equations. The first, Equation 7.10, is the widely
used IIW (International Institute of Welding) carbon equivalent. The second for-
mula shown in Equation 7.11 includes the effect of silicon, which is supported by
some data in the literature and is also included in the Annex XI of AWS D1.1.

Mn Cr + Mo + V Ni + Cu
CE (IIW) = C
6 5 15 (Eq. 7.10)

Mn + Si Cr + Mo + V Ni + Cu
CE = C
6 5 15 (Eq. 7.11)

248

These formulas provide a rough indication of the risk of cracking in the HAZ.
A value greater than 0.5 is more difficult to weld and a value less than 0.42 has
relatively low susceptibility to hydrogen cracking. However, the actual condi-
tions necessary to cause cracking are more complex, because hydrogen levels
and residual stress also play important roles. The formula is useful as a compar-
ison of one steel to another. The formula also provides some insight about the
effect of different elements on cracking susceptibility and indicates that carbon
content has a major impact. As we discussed in the steel metallurgy section
under Effect of Alloy Additions, the carbon content has a primary effect on
the hardness of martensite. Also previously noted was that the actual hardness
obtained depends on the cooling rate. At fast cooling rates, a hard martensitic
structure forms; at relatively slow cooling rates, a softer HAZ results.

Most structural welding standards have requirements for minimum fillet weld
sizes that ensure that small welds are not deposited on relatively thick material.
Minimum fillet weld sizes control cooling rates to minimize the risk of crack-
ing. Table 7.8 is taken from AWS D1.1, Table 5.8.
-

- -
-- --





- -- -

The hardness of the HAZ can be measured and correlated with the risk of
cracking. Generally, a HAZ hardness less than 350 Hv (Vickers hardness
number) is not sensitive to hydrogen cracking, even with higher hydrogen lev-
els. For relatively low hydrogen levels, a hardness of 400 Hv may be tolerated.
For some steels, maximum hardness is obtained by controlling the cooling rate,
and for others, the cooling rate has little effect. A useful diagram, originally
proposed by Graville, which indicates whether the HAZ hardness can be
limited by controlling the cooling rate is shown in Figure 7.63.

The three zones in Figure 7.63 are described as follows:

Zone 1. This area defines carbon and low alloy steels with a carbon content of
0.10% or less. These steels have a low carbon content and will not produce
hard HAZs (>350 Hv) susceptible to cracking under normal circumstances.
These steels include microalloyed fine grain steels developed for pipeline
applications and some high strength structural steels. The weld metal is more
likely to crack, especially at higher strength levels, and this should be the focus
of cracking prevention (see Figure 7.64).

249

-- -


--

250

Zone II. This area includes many steels that are used for structural and pres-
sure vessel applications, e.g., A516. A hard HAZ can be avoided by controlling
the cooling rate, or alternately, cracking can be prevented by controlling
hydrogen. With Zone II steels, preheat reduces hydrogen levels and also helps
reduce HAZ hardness although relatively high preheat levels are needed to
have a major effect on the latter (see Figure 7.65).

--

--

-- -

Zone III. This area includes both alloyed steels with typically more than
0.10% carbon, and also some quenched and tempered steels, such as A514.
Hardness cannot be controlled by cooling rate, because the HAZ will be hard
no matter which heat input is used (see Figure 7.66). Additionally, a relatively
fast cooling rate is often desirable to ensure good HAZ toughness. Hydrogen
control must be used to prevent cracking.

AISI 4140 also falls into this zone. With these types of high carbon alloyed
steels, the HAZ is so hard that brittle fracture can occur under loadeven if
hydrogen cracking is avoided. These steels often require thermal stress relief
after welding to temper or soften the HAZ.

251

--

--

-- -

Weld metal hydrogen cracking can occur either transversely or longitudinally


to the weld direction, depending on the presence of gaps and notches and the
direction of the maximum residual stress. In heavy multipass welds, cracking
often occurs in the transverse direction, either perpendicular to the direction of
travel or at an angle of 45p (chevron cracking). Generally, the susceptibility to
weld metal hydrogen cracking increases with the strength of the weld metal,
although hardness has not proved to be a reliable indicator of the risk. Also,
with weld metal hydrogen cracking, hydrogen diffusion control plays a more
important role than microstructural control. The hydrogen control methodolo-
gies used for HAZ cracking also assist in preventing weld metal cracking,
however, as previously mentioned, this may not be the case for Zone 1 steels.
For Zone III steels, there is an obvious benefit to undermatch or use low
strength weld metal where permitted by design.

Cracks in the weld metal are either hydrogen-related or form during solidifica-
tion. This latter type is solidification cracking or hot cracking. Solidification
cracks are evident right after solidification while the weld is still hot. It was
previously discussed that weld metal is like a casting. Crystals begin to form at
the outside edge of the pool because of the lower temperatures, and grow in
towards the center of the pool. When the crystals grow towards each other, liq-
uid can become trapped between them. As the weld shrinks, a crack can form
as shown in Figure 7.67. A characteristic of solidification cracking is a crack
located at the weld centerline, assuming symmetrical heat conduction on both
sides. Because solidification cracks do not always come to the surface, they
may be invisible to the welder.

252

- -

-
- -
-

It can be observed that welds made at higher travel speeds tend to have elon-
gated ripples on the weld surface. This is a result of an elongated weld pool
which has a greater tendency for crystal growth that can trap liquid weld metal
as shown in Figure 7.68. Higher travel speeds tend to be more susceptible to
this problem.

- -

- -

Bead shape also can influence crystal growth patterns. Deep narrow beads tend
to trap liquid weld metal, which increases the risk of solidification cracking
(see Figure 7.69). A rule of thumb often used in SAW is that the amperage
for the root pass should not exceed 10 times the groove angle for V-grooves
and bevel grooves. For example, for a 60p included groove angle, the current
should not exceed 600 amps for the root pass.

AWS D1.1, subclause 3.7.2, requires that the depth of any weld pass shall not
exceed the depth (see Figure 7.70).

253

-
--

-
-

254

Concave welds are more susceptible to solidification cracking, because


no weld metal is available to fill a potential crack (see Figure 7.71). Craters
of welds should always be filled to avoid a concave shape at the end of a
weld.

--
-

Another influence on solidification cracking is thermal strains that take place


during welding. Any movement that opens up the weld bead during solidifica-
tion increases the risk. For example, long welds on thinner material tend to
cause the joint to open up as the weld progresses because the heat is applied to
an edge. This cracking often occurs near the end of a weld, however, using
proper tack welds and fixturing can help to avoid the problem.

Although solidification cracking can occur with any arc welding process, SAW
is particularly susceptible because it produces a penetration profile that is rela-
tively deep and narrow. SAW also produces beads that have a pronounced flare
in their shape.

SAW passes made with high voltages tend to produce a bay area near the sur-
face of the bead. The longer arc widens the bead near the surface, but has less
effect near the root. The bay region of the bead stays at a high temperature for

255

the longest time period; as a result, HAZ and weld metal grains are coarser in
this region. Also, the junction between the two parts of the weld bead locally
delays heat extraction and increases the risk of solidification cracking.
Although solidification cracking in SAW often focuses on the centerline area,
it is well documented that cracking in the weld metal near the bay region can
also occur.

These two types of solidification cracks are shown in Figure 7.72. Both types
of cracking are affected by the shape of the bead and weld metal chemistry.
Higher heat inputs also can increase the risk of solidification cracks.


- -

Carbon content plays a major role in increasing the risk of solidification crack-
ing. The British Standard for structural steel welding uses a formula for Units
of Crack Susceptibility (UCS) relative to SAW weld metal chemistry as shown
in Table 7.9.

- -


-
-

Because SAW has a relatively high dilution rate, higher weld metal carbon
contents are possible with this process. The presence of sulfur is also signifi-
cant, because high sulfur levels lower the melting temperature of steel, which
increases the risk of solidification cracking.

Note that the formula in Table 7.9 considers only the compositional effects on
solidification cracking. Other factors, such as bead shape, also play a role.
However, with high UCS numbers, cracking is possible even with favorable
bead shapes. Some early research into the development of this formula by
Bailey can be reviewed in reference (3).

256

Tandem SAW has some unique benefits in terms of minimizing the risk of
solidification cracking. The lead wire can be used to achieve relatively deep
penetration and the trail wire(s) can be used to control bead shape.

The following publications are referenced in this chapter:

1. Cold Cracking Control, B. A. Graville. 1975.

Comment: This book is a milestone in the understanding on the hydrogen


cracking problem. One of the most comprehensive works published on this
subject but unfortunately is now out of print.

2. Welding Steels Without Hydrogen Cracking. F. R. Coe. The Welding


Institute (TWI).

Comment: A very comprehensive book on the hydrogen cracking problem


that covers a wide variety of steels.

3. Effect of Wire Composition and Flux Type on Solidification Cracking


when Submerged Arc Welding C-Mn Steels. N. Bailey. TWI 3350/13.74.

Comment: Presents some of the early research in the development of the


UCS formula which has become a very valuable tool for understanding the
solidification cracking problem.

4. A Survey Review of Weld Metal Hydrogen Cracking. B. A. Graville.


Doc. IIS/IIW-851-86.

Comment: An excellent review of the weld metal hydrogen cracking problem.

The AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 4Materials and Applications Part 2,


Chapter 1.

-- To obtain maximum benefit from this program it is recommended that you fol-
low this guide and complete the exercises. It is important that you thoroughly
study each section carefully before moving to the next section. The exercises
are designed to give you an indication of whether you understand the material
presented. If you get a question wrong go back and read that section again.

257

1. The blast furnace:


A. Reduces iron ore into iron
B. Lowers the carbon content of the iron
C. Increases the carbon content of the iron
D. A and C

2. The BOF:
A. Uses argon to reduce the carbon content of the iron
B. Uses oxygen to increase the carbon content of the steel
C. Uses oxygen to decrease the carbon content of the steel

3. True or False?
The unique features of steel are a result of the difference in the solubility
of carbon between the bcc iron and fcc iron. True False

4. What is the typical maximum sulfur level for a weldable steel


A. 0.15%
B. 0.10%
C. 0.001%
D. 0.05%

5. What effect does increasing the carbon content in a steel have?


A. Increases ductility
B. Lowers ductility
C. Lowers weldability
D. Increases toughness
E. B and C

6. True or False?
Grain refinement is the only method that increases both strength and
toughness. True False

7. For a 0.20% carbon steel, normalizing involves heating to a temperature of:


A. 1000F
B. 1600F
C. 800F
D. 2000F

8. Which of the following steels is typically normalized?


A. A572
B. A36
C. A516 when over 1.5 in. in thickness

258

9. True or False?
Fine-grained microalloyed steels use vanadium and/or niobium carbides
to provide increased strength by precipitation hardening and increased
toughness by minimizing grain growth during hot rolling.
True False

10. Which of the following elements have a large effect on the hardenability
of steel?
A. C
B. Cr
C. S
D. Mo
E. B and D
F. B, C, and D

11. Which of the following alloy additions have a large effect on the hardness
of steel?
A. C
B. Cr
C. Ni
D. Mo
E. B and D

12. What should the tempering temperature of AISI 4140 be to obtain a


tensile strength of 130,000 psi?
A. 1000F
B. 1100F
C. 800F
D. 1200F

13. True or False?


It is usually important that the weld provides matching mechanical
properties to the base metal. True False

14. Toughness as determined in the Charpy Test is the measure of a materials:


A. Tensile strength
B. Ductility
C. Ability to absorb an impact load at a specific temperature
D. Tensile strength at low temperatures
E. Corrosion resistance

259

15. True or False?


Weld metals typically have less carbon content than base metals.
True False

16. Dilution is defined as:


A. Relative proportion of base metal in the weld
B. Relative proportion of weld metal in the weld
C. Relative proportion of HAZ in the weld cross section
D. Relative proportion of HAZ in the weld
E. None of the above

17. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is a region that:


A. Has been heated above 1600F across its total width
B. Has been heated to a range of temperatures across its width
C. Has been heated below 1200F across its total width
D. Is always greater than 1/8 in. wide
E. None of the above

18. Excessively high heat inputs can:


A. Reduce the toughness of the HAZ
B. Increase the toughness of the HAZ
C. Has no effect on the HAZ
D. Increase the width of the HAZ
E. A and D
F. B and D

19. Hydrogen cracking occurs:


A. Only in the base metal
B. Only in the HAZ
C. Only in the weld metal
D. In both HAZ and weld metal
E. Only above 200F

20. True or False?


Controlling the exposure of low hydrogen SMAW electrodes is not
important. True False

21. True or False?


Hydrogen diffuses faster in austenite than in ferrite. True False

260

22. Using the IIW CE formula, what is the carbon equivalent of the following
material?

- --

23. True or False?


Hardness is a good criteria for determining the susceptibility of weld
metal to hydrogen cracking. True False

24. True or False?


Higher strength weld metals are more susceptible to weld metal hydrogen
cracking. True False

25. Which of the following can affect the risk of solidification cracking?
A. Bead shape
B. Dilution of the base metal
C. Travel speed
D. Chemistry of the weld metal
E. All of the above

261

-- 1. D
2. C
3. True
4. D
5. E
6. True
7. B
8. C
9. True
10. E
11. A
12. D
13. True
14. C
15. True
16. A
17. B
18. E
19. D
20. False
21. False
22. 0.38
23. False
24. True
25. E

262

-

Effective communication between designers, estimators, welders, supervisors,


and inspectors is essential to produce a quality welded product (see Figure
8.1). The most important communication link is between the designer who
determines the weld design and the welder who must produce the weld as spec-
ified. The use of welding symbols is the most effective way to communicate
the welding requirements for a particular joint.

- --

Welding symbols provide a visual means of communicating information in


a standard format that results in a clear and very specific end result. When
welding symbols are properly applied, the welding requirements mean the
same to all those involved and the final weld is independent of who makes or
inspects the weld.

Welding symbols can describe:

Type of weld
Location of the weld
Size of weld

263

-

Length of weld
Joint preparation
Sequence of operations
Surface finishing
Reference to a welding procedure
Shop or field welding
Inspection requirements

Welding symbols used in North America are defined by the American Welding
Society in AWS A2.4, Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Non-
destructive Examination.

NOTE: Some aspects of European welding symbols are significantly


different from AWS A2.4, so users should be aware of these differences
when working with European drawings.

- This chapter has the following objectives:

Be familiar with the terms and definitions commonly referred to in welding


symbols
Read and understand welding symbols in order to prepare and fit welded
joints
Read and understand welding symbols for correct weld application

- - Before a detailed discussion of welding symbols, it is important to define the


- types of joints and welds used in industry. There are five basic type of joints
- used in welding:

1. Butt joint
2. T-joint
3. Lap joint
4. Corner joint
5. Edge joint

Each of these is shown in Figure 8.2 with a specific location for the actual
joint, which is essentially the area or line of contact between the two adjacent
base metals.

264

-

- -

Types of welds are shown in Figure 8.3. For groove welds, the weld type is
defined by the shape of the base metals prior to welding.

Some of the shapes require that the base metal be prepared by cutting or burn-
ing prior to fitting or welding. Burners or others involved in plate preparation
should also be skilled in reading welding symbols (see Figure 8.4).

Supervisors need to be especially careful when using welding terms to describe


joints or welds and not to intermix these terms. Too often when these terms are
interchanged in a conversation the listener or a welder receiving instructions
can be mislead. Some examples of commonly misused words are to describe a
butt weld or square joint. As shown in this chapter, neither of these terms
is correct and could lead to confusion or to the use of the wrong type of joint or
incorrect type of weld. Supervisors should always strive to use joint and weld
terms correctly at all times and to see that the welders under their supervision
are also properly instructed to do the same.

265

-

- -

- -
-

266

-

- The basic components of a welding symbolthe arrow, reference line, and


tailare shown in Figure 8.5.

- -

The upper and lower side of the reference line define the arrow side and
other side of the joint. Anything shown below the reference line is to be done
on the arrow side of the joint. Anything shown above the reference line is to be
done on the other side (or opposite to the arrow side) of the joint (see Figure
8.6).

-
-

Each arrow points to a joint which always has an arrow and other side [see
Figures 8.7(A) and (B)].

Welding symbols look through a joint and never through solid metal (see
Figure 8.8).

The welding symbol can be shown in any view on the drawing (see Figure
8.9).

267

-

-
-

-
-

-
-

-
-

- -

- -

-
-
-

268

-

-


-

In welding symbol terminology, it is important to understand the difference


between the following types of symbols:

Weld symbols

Supplementary symbols

Welding symbols (see Figure 8.10).

- -

269

-

- Weld symbols provide the type of weld to be used in a given joint. The weld
symbol information is placed on the reference line as shown below. The shape
- of the weld symbol is very similar to the actual shape of the weld (see Figure
8.11).

Weld size and/or bevel depth is placed on the left hand side of the weld
symbol. Weld length is placed on the right side (see Figure 8.12).

Supplementary symbols provide additional information. A summary of weld


symbols and supplementary symbols is shown in Figure 8.13.

270

-

- -

- Weld symbols for groove welds can contain a variety of important details
including:

Root opening

Included groove angle

Contour of finished bead

Finishing method:
G Grind
C Chip
M Machine
R Roll

Each of these groove details is shown in a specific order as described in Figure


8.14.

ExampleSingle V-groove weld with the correct order of groove details (see
Figure 8.15).

271

-

The depth of bevel is shown on the left side of the weld symbol (see Figure
8.16). Note that the root face is determined by subtracting the bevel depth from
the material thickness.


-
-
--

272

-

Some typical groove weld applications are shown in the following examples.

ExampleSingle V-groove, welded one side, complete penetration pipe weld


with melt-through (see Figure 8.17).

ExampleSingle V-groove, welded both sides, complete penetration (see


Figure 8.18).

ExampleSquare groove, welded both sides, complete joint penetration (see


Figure 8.19).

273

-

With partial penetration welds, it is important that they be clearly identified as


- being partial. Similarly, it is important that complete joint penetration welds be
clearly identified as being complete. The welding symbol shown in Figure 8.20
appears to indicate a partial penetration weld as only one side is welded.

A double V-groove can also be a partial penetration weld even though it is


welded both sides. The intent of the design is not clear in the first case below,
but it is in the second [see Figures 8.21(A) and (B)].

It is recommended that partial and complete joint penetration welds be differ-


entiated by adding additional information in the tail of the welding symbol. In
most cases this determines whether the welder needs to gouge to sound metal
or not. Several alternatives are as follows:

1. Use GTSM (Gouge To Sound Metal) when complete penetration is


required by gouging.

2. Use CJP (Complete Joint Penetration) or PJP (Partial Joint Penetration).


This indirectly tells the welder whether gouging is required or not.

3. Use of the groove weld size in parenthesis in front of the weld symbol to
specify weld throat. Clearly, if the weld size is less than the thickness of the
material it is a partial penetration weld.

274

-

For welds with a prepared groove it is important to specify the depth of prepa-
ration and groove weld size separately. This done by the use of parenthesis as
shown below. Note that the throat of a groove weld is now considered a non-
standard term for groove weld size (see Figure 8.22).

For welds without a prepared groove, the groove weld size must be indicated in
parenthesis. The welding symbol is meaningless unless the groove weld size is
clearly indicated (see Figure 8.23). In this example of a skewed connection the
weld size is indicated by t. The dimension w provides a way of measuring
the weld size.

275

-

ExampleFlare bevel groove weld with a groove weld size equal to 5/16 in.
(see Figure 8.24).

ExampleSquare groove, welded one side, partial penetration with a groove


weld size of 1/8 in. (see Figure 8.25).

- For fillet welds, weld size is specified as the leg size (see Figure 8.26).

Keep in mind that leg size can only be measured when the fillet is flat or con-
vex in shape. For concave fillet welds the weld throat must be measured using
a throat gage (see Figure 8.27).

276

-


- -

- -
-

Fillet weld length is specified on the right side of the fillet weld symbol (see
Figure 8.28).

277

-

When weld length is not specified it is assumed that the welding symbol
applies to the full length of joint where no change in weld direction occurs (see
Figure 8.29(A).

A welding symbol or arrow is required for each change in the direction of


welding as shown in Figures 8.29(B) and (C).

- -

278

-

Fillet welds are not always continuous in length. Intermittent welds (stitch
weld is a nonstandard term) are often used to reduce welding times and distor-
tion. For intermittent welds, the weld length and pitch are specified on the right
side of the weld symbol (see Figure 8.30).

- -
- -

The ends of a joint should not be left unwelded. It is general practice to have
the intermittent welds at both ends of the joint. Hence, it may be necessary to
have a different spacing or weld length at one end of the joint (see Figure
8.31).

NOTE: A weld must always be placed at the ends of a joint.

Some typical fillet weld applications are shown in the following examples.

ExampleSingle sided fillet weld with the all-around supplementary symbol


(see Figure 8.32).

ExampleSingle sided intermittent fillet weld (see Figure 8.33).

279

-

280

-

ExampleChain intermittent fillet weld (see Figure 8.34).

ExampleStaggered intermittent fillet weld (see Figure 8.35).

In Tee and corner joints it is common for the designer to ask for a fillet weld on
- top of a groove weld. This helps provide a smooth weld transition between the
two base metals (see Figure 8.36).

Various conventions are used in industry that are not necessarily covered in
AWS A2.4. Some may be covered in specific welding codes and standards.
- Others may be general industry conventions that are adopted by a specific
company and detailed in their own standards. Some examples follow.

281

-

Fillet welds deposited on the opposite sides of a common plane of contact shall
not be continuous at the corner common to both welds. If welds must be con-
tinuous for purposes of sealing, then the drawing should indicate such require-
ments. This is specified in AWS D1.1 (see Figure 8.37).

- -

When duplicate material such as stiffeners, web angles or gussets occurs on the
far side of a web, gusset or member, then the welding shown on the near side
shall be repeated on the far side even though no specific weld symbol is shown
on the far side (see Figure 8.38).


-
-



282

-

When a detailed piece occurs in several places on a member, the welding sym-
bol only needs to appear in one place, usually where the piece is detailed in
full. At other places, the piece mark, which identifies the piece, also implies
repetition of the welding (see Figure 8.39).

When a bevel or J-groove symbol is used (i.e., only one of the two members to
be joined is prepared) a break in the arrow is used to point to the member that
is to be prepared (Figure 8.40).

Plug and slot welds are other types of welds that can be readily be made with
- arc welding processes. Both plug and slot welds have common rules for weld-
ing symbol applications. For example, both use a rectangle for the weld sym-
bol. A typical plug weld application is shown in Figure 8.41.

Other features of plug welds such as size, spacing etc. are kept in line with that
previously described for other welds (see Figure 8.42). For slot welds a length
is indicated on the right side of the weld symbol.

283

-


-
-

ExampleTypical plug weld application (see Figure 8.43).

See Figure 8.44.

- AWS A2.4, Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive


Examination.

AWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions.

284

-

- --

285

-

- To obtain maximum benefit from this program it is recommended that you fol-
-- low this guide and complete the exercises. It is important that you thoroughly
study each section carefully before moving to the next section. The exercises
are designed to give you an indication of whether you understand the material
presented. If you get a question wrong go back and read that section again.

1. Information appearing above the reference line refers to the:


A. Tail
B. Arrow side
C. Other side
D. Near side
E. None of the above

2. The 1/4 in. to the left of the fillet weld symbol refers to:
A. Length
B. Pitch
C. Weld size
D. Number of welds
E. All of the above

3. The 2 in. to the right of the fillet weld symbol refers to:
A. Weld length
B. Size
C. Spacing between weld ends
D. Pitch
E. Finish

4. The 4 in. represents:


A. Size
B. Pitch
C. Length
D. Spacing between weld ends
E. Number of welds

5. The circle where the arrow breaks from the reference line stands for:
A. Field weld
B. Groove symbol
C. Weld all-around
D. Fillet symbol
E. None of the above

286

-

6. Match the joints with the correct names.


___ Butt joint
___ Lap joint
___ Edge joint
___ T-joint
___ Corner joint

A B C

D E

7. In the adjacent welding symbol, the weld symbol shown on the other side
represents a:
A. V-groove weld
B. Back weld

C. Melt-through weld
D. Partial penetration weld
E. A and B

8. The adjacent symbol represents what type of weld:


A. Square groove weldother side
B. Square groove weldarrow side

C. Double square groove weld
D. Single V-groove weld
E. None of the above

9. The adjacent symbol represents what type of weld.


A. Fillet weld
B. Spot weld
C. Flare V-groove weld
D. Flare bevel groove weld
E. Plug weld

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-

10. Determine the following for the adjacent symbol.


A. Bevel angle A
____
B. Root face R ____
C. Gap G ____

11. Draw in the required welds for each of the following:

12. Draw and dimension the welds on both views.

288

-

13. Complete the weld symbol for the following detail.

14. Choose the correct welding symbol.

289

-

-- 1. C
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. C
6. A, D, E, B, C
7. C
8. B
9. D
10. A. 30
B. 1/8
C. 1/8
11.

12.

290

-

13.

14. C. Answer D would also be acceptable to A2.4, but C is better as it pro-


vides more information.

291

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The welding supervisor is the primary conduit for information and instruction
to the employees in his department. He is responsible as managements eyes
and ears for the progress of production, and employee performance. To be
effective, he must be the only person that gives instructions to his welders and
other assigned personnel. This clear chain of command prevents contradictory
or incorrect instructions from other sources, which could result in work being
performed without the supervisors knowledge.

The types of daily instruction the supervisor gives welders follow the four
management metrics. These metrics are:

Quality

Cost

Throughput

Safety

These metrics are used by management in most companies. Welding super-


visors need to understand how these metrics specifically apply to the quality
and productivity of their welding department.

The quality metric provides the supervisor with a properly defined quality
standard for use by the welders. This quality standard includes visual accep-
tance criteria that define the difference between acceptable weld appearance
and defective weld appearance for each job. The existence of this standard can
also lead to the creation of welding workmanship standards, sample boards, or
weld mock ups. These physical welding aids can be used for both training and
reference by the supervisor when instructing the welder (see Chapter 2,
Requirements of a Weld). The amount of undercut or porosity allowed before
the weld is considered defective is an example of the type of information
contained in the visual acceptance criteria that would make up the quality
standard.

Visual acceptance criteria should be taught to welders so that they can inspect
their own welds as they are made. Welders should be instructed not to pass on
parts or move to the next welds until they are sure the welds just completed are
acceptable. When welds are found to be unacceptable, the welders should cor-
rect their own welding mistakes so they learn how to prevent the same type of
defective weld in the future (see Chapter 12, Welding Inspection). Also see
Figure 9.1, which demonstrates that use of the proper visual inspection by the
welder and supervisor can help ensure that any weld defect is corrected at the
welding workstation.

293

-

The Quality Assurance function, or some other part of the company respon-
sible for verifying adherence to product or customer requirements, writes
the visual inspection procedure for each specific weld, including the weld
acceptance criteria determined by Design Engineering. When welders,
supervisors, or inspectors are inspecting a weld, they are required to use the
same weld acceptance criteria from the visual inspection procedure to
ensure consistency of weld acceptance. When this is not done, it can
become a point of contention between departments. The welding super-
visor usually ends up stuck in the middle of this contention. If everyone
follows a common visual inspection procedure, disputes are eliminated.

- - - -
- -

The welding supervisor must instruct welders to follow the essential welding
variables that are detailed in the welding procedure. For example, when the
proper electrode, gun travel, and transverse angles are maintained, when the
electrode position is correct, and the proper amperage (wire feed speed), arc
voltage, contact-tip-to-work distance, and travel speeds are followed, the weld-
ers can make defect-free welds, barring outside influences.

Along with training welders in procedures and techniques, the supervisor is


responsible for communicating performance expectations and assuring that

294

-

performance standards are met each day. The most effective way the super-
visor can do this is by monitoring the welders performance on a daily basis.
Monitoring is necessary in all four metrics, but is most important in quality, as
daily reinforcement is necessary to maintain quality. The actual approach to
monitoring is covered in Chapter 14, Work Reports and Records.

Many welders required to perform tasks in accordance with drawings, pro-


cedures, work methods, and work center planning will do so only if the
supervisor is enforcing that effort. This enforcement is best accomplished
by monitoring the welders performance using the work instructions and
standards.

- The welding supervisor issues instructions to the welders to help control and
minimize welding costs. These instructions focus on reducing both the arc time
and non-arc time per weldment. To control and minimize arc time, the welders
must be instructed in the proper weld size to use and the part fitup must allow
the welders to make the weld sizes specified. The supervisor needs to assure
that the welding procedures have amperage or wire feed speed values accom-
panied by appropriate arc voltages to allow the welder to maximize the deposi-
tion rate for each specific weld. The welding supervisor may need to address
welding procedures when sufficient amperage or wire feed speed values have
not been set. The welding supervisor may have to revise the welding proce-
dures and retest them to allow for the highest productivity and lowest possible
cost. Supervisors must assure that any changes in welding procedure values are
tested before the products are released for production.

Welding supervisors also need to instruct welders in the proper welding work
methods and weld sequencing to reduce non-arc time. In most cases, the weld-
ing work methods and weld sequences are designed to limit or eliminate hand
and foot movements used when welding an assembly or component. When
dealing with welding work methods and weld sequences, supervisors should be
alert and identify new opportunities to reduce the amount of non-arc time.
When this is done, the documentation needs to be changed and the welders
need to be reinstructed to use these revised welding work methods and weld
sequences. The welders are also an important source for potential improve-
ments. Supervisors should cultivate them and be mindful that listening to the
welders can be very beneficial.

Many companies now have material pull systems. Pull systems depend on
welding departments to pull the parts they need to weld assemblies or compo-
nents to a schedule and then pass the completed work on to the next operation.
The welding department must complete their portion of the value added work
so that the manufacturing operations that follow welding will be able to pull
the materials they need from welding.

295

-

Welding supervisors must ensure that welders are capable of making quality
welds in an efficient manner to prevent the welding department from becoming
a bottleneck in the flow of materials. To accomplish this, supervisors need to
complete work within the prescribed cycle time, and ensure that the work
meets all engineering requirements, including weld quality. The throughput
metric cannot be met if the welding is not completed on time to be pulled by
the next operation, nor can it be met if the parts or the welds are defective at the
time the work is pulled.

Welding supervisors must not allow production demands on their welding


department to supersede quality requirements. Supervisors must understand
the conditions under which the welders are performing their tasks. They must
understand the condition of material fitups, either from other operations or
from the welding fixtures, the condition of those fixtures, and the maintenance
status of all the welding equipment. Any problem associated with the welders
work area could result in lost time or rework. With problems, the allotted time
for passing work through the welders will cause the planned throughput time to
be exceeded. This could cause the next operation not to have work due to the
delay in welding. Supervisors must be able to react to these situations when
they occur. By working closely with the welders, they should be able to pre-
vent these throughput problems.

Welding, if not done properly or if required safety equipment is not used, can
be dangerous and even life threatening. Welding safety is the responsibility of
both the welding supervisor and the welder. The welding supervisor is the
person responsible for monitoring the welders use of all safety equipment and
adhering to the safety requirements at all times. This requires the supervisor to
reinstruct welders and see that worn out or faulty safety equipment is replaced
so as to not place welders in dangerous situations. Safety and Health is covered
in detail in a separate section of this manual (see Chapter 13, Welding Health
and Safety). As the supervisor spends more time each day with the welders, it
will become easier to be aware of and safety issues and to support the welders
efforts to work safely.

One of the most important documentations to insure that a welding supervisor


- is giving proper welding instructions to the welders is the welding procedure.
Many supervisors view welding procedures as less than helpful. This feeling is
the result of a lack of training of the welding supervisor in the proper use of
welding procedures. Even welding supervisors that were previously welders
have similar feelings about the use of welding procedures, because welders are
seldom trained in their use. Too often, welding procedures are a form of win-
dow dressing that are pulled from files to show inspectors, or used at the begin-
ning of contracts and never seen again.

296

-

Before we begin talking about the details of the Welding Procedure Specifica-
tion (WPS), it should be noted that the supervisor may encounter different
types of WPS forms; some are suggested, none are mandatory, but they all
must have the information discussed below on them. If the supervisor encoun-
ters a form that he hasnt seen before, he should pay special attention that it
contains all of the necessary information.

Using the sample WPS as shown in AWS D1.1, Figure 9.2 demonstrates how a
welding procedure can be used by the welding supervisor to give proper
welding instructions to the welder. Most welding procedures and welder
instructions from other codes are similar for the welding supervisor.

The supervisor must understand what information is contained in a Welding


Procedure Specification and how to apply it. The following is an example of
the type of information contained in a WPS.

1. The Welding Procedure Specification includes the welding processes that


will be used by the welder for each specific job. As an example, if Flux
Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) is specified [see Chapter 5, Flux Cored Arc
Welding (FCAW)], no other welding process can be used by the welder
with this WPS.

2. Joint Design

a. Butt: Type of joint to be welded

b. Single-welded: From one side only

c. Backing: Using a backing strip or bar made out of ASTM A 131 Grade A

d. Root Opening: 1/4 in. should be the fitup spacing between the two parts
being welded

e. Groove Angle: For the butt weld is 35.

If the weld joint does not match these dimensions within the tolerances of
the engineering drawing, then either the welding procedure is wrong or the
parts to be welded are wrong. In either case, the welding supervisor should
instruct the welder not to proceed until the problem is resolved.

3. Base Metals

a. Material Specification and Type or Grade shown on the WPS as ASTM


A131 Grade A should match the engineering drawings.

b. Thickness: Groove is 1 in. If the weld is greater than 1/8 in. to unlim-
ited, then the procedure is being properly followed. If the thickness of
the actual weld is less than 1/8 in., then the WPS cannot be used to
make the weld.

297

-

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECifiCATION (WPS) Yeslxl


PRcQUALIFIED QUALIFIED ElY TESTING
or PROCEDURE QUAUFICATION RECORDS (PQR) Yes_
ldenbticatior. # WPS 231
Revision -,...:1:._---;. Date 12- 1- B 7 B)' W. Ly"
Company Name RED I no. Authoozed toy Jones Date 1-1.11-1!8
Welding Pmcess(es) Type-Manual Sel'li-Aulomatic x
Suoporting PQR No.(s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~ Machine Automatic

Type: But:t Positiono!Gro<JV<;: 4G Fille:: _ _ __


Double Wed Vertical P mgress an: Up U Dowr U
Backing: Yes XI No
Backing Material: ~.......:==-==colA~-~ t:LECiRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Root Opening 1/4 11 Root Far.:e Dimen1ian _ __
Groove Angle:--="'--~ Radius (J-U) ---~ Transfer Mode (GMAW) Short-Gicuiting _
Ba~k Gouging: Yes No X Metho.d ..__..___ G lobclar D Spray
Cumact: AC [J DCEP [::!:) DCEN ... Puls~d
Ottter
Mat&rial Sp,;c. Tungs~n Eloe!reda (GTAW)
Type SIWI -----~
Thickness: Groove Fillr>l Type:
l.liamol<>r (r' pe)
TECHNIQUE
String!'r or Waave Read: _;;;;S..;;t:;;;;r.;;;i;;,;ifll.=!;!..;;<>;;;;r:-.,-----
Multi-pass or Singie Pass (pr:.;r side) Multipass
Nu T,ber of Electrodes . 1
Elecrroce Spacing Longitudinal _ _ _ __
Lateral _ _ _ _ _ __
SHIELDING An~le
Fiux _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Gas_~~~~~=
Composi:Jon 100% C0 2
Electrode~FitJX \'-'""'!~-- Flow nate 4 5CFB
Gas Cup Size _.11.,.4.__~

Preheat Temp"' Min 75 (Ambient)


lnterpass Temp., Mtn 75 Max 3!Ul 0 l!'

WELDING PROCEDURE
Fillor MAt> Is CurrAnt
Pass or
Weld Type & \f.mp~ or Wire Travel
Layer(s) Process Class Diam. PDianty Feed Spaad \lolls Spes <I Joint Details

2-8
:L l!'CAI-1
" .
E7J.'I'-1
.
.045" DC""
"
:l.BO
200
26
21 10
8

9-11 " " 200 27 11


12-15 " " 200 l? !)
16 " 200 27 11

I I

Form E-1 Jfront)

298

-

If the base metal or thickness does not agree with the WPS, the welding
supervisor must verify that he has the correct parts. The supervisor may not
always know the specification of the base material, but he can always
verify or have the welder verify the correct thickness.

4. Filler Metals

a. AWS Specification: A5.20 should appear on the side of the weld wire
spool or on the side of the bulk wire container.

b. AWS Classification: E71T-1 should appear on the side of the weld wire
spool or on the side of the bulk wire container.

If neither of these matches the welding procedure, then either the welding
supervisor or the welder must stop and replace the wire. The welding pro-
cedure should not be used on a weld joint without the correct filler metal.

5. Shielding

a. Flux: Used to identify the Submerged Arc flux that is to be used with
the filler metal wire listed above.

b. Electro-Flux (Class): Used with the Submerged Arc welding process


and identifies the AWS Classification for the Electrode Flux combina-
tion that is to be used with this WPS (a and b are only applicable if
process is SAW).

c. Gas: The only gas qualified to this WPS is CO2no other gas can be
used with this WPS.

d. Composition: 100%. The reason for this specification is that other


welding gas mixtures could be used and the percentage of each gas
used in the gas mixture must be identified for the WPS.

e. Flow Rate: 45 CFH. This flow rate is normally set by the flow meter
mounted on the gas bottle or the wall. It should be checked by the
supervisor to see that the welder is using the right flow rate for this
WPS.

f. Gas Cup Size: #4. This gas cup size is specified since the combination
of gas type and cup size affects flow rate for effective gas shielding
during welding. If a different gas cup size is used with this WPS, it
could cause defects in the weld. (Gas cup sizes are used mostly with
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and not FCAW.)

299

-

The supervisor must see that the gas used and the equipment set up is in
accordance with the requirements of this WPS. He must instruct the welder
to make appropriate changes when required.

6. Preheat

a. Preheat Temperature: Min 75 Ambient. This value depends on mate-


rial specification and type. It can vary from ambient to several hundred
degrees above, depending on the affect of rapid cooling and the suscep-
tibility of the material to embrittlement or cracking.

b. Interpass Temperature: Min 75F, Max 350F. This temperature range


is only used with multiple pass welding. When a weld can be made
using only one pass, no interpass values are necessary. The minimum
temperature of 75F is the same as the preheat temperature, and is only
necessary when the weld is allowed to cool completely between subse-
quent passes. The maximum temperature of 350F is used when weld-
ing is continuous from one weld pass to the next. In this case, all base
metal surrounding the weld should not be allowed to exceed 350F
before the next weld pass is made.

Welding supervisors need to remind their welders to follow these preheat


requirements during the course of welding, as the supervisor may not be
present throughout the complete welding sequence.

The measurement of preheat has traditionally caused some confusion


among welders and supervisors, although the measurement can be per-
formed using a pyrometer, heat gage, or temperature-indicating crayon.
The most common approach is with a temperature-indicating crayon. This
crayon type material is formulated to melt at varying temperatures. When
applied to the surface being heated, it will melt when that area of metal
has reached the temperature corresponding to the crayon. In most cases,
the weld joint should be heated to several inches on either side of the area
where the weld will be deposited to the desired temperature before weld-
ing begins. When checking the preheat temperature, the weld joint or
weld pass of a multi-pass weld should not be touched by the crayon, as
this may leave a residue of contamination.

7. Position

a. Position of Groove: 4G. This refers to the welding position approved


for use with this WPS. They are designated by alphanumeric codes. 4G
is the overhead position. 1G, 2G, and 3G are the flat, horizontal, and
vertical positions, respectively. 1F through 4F are used to designate the
four fillet weld positions. It is important for the welding supervisor to

300

-

make sure that the orientation of the welded assembly is correctly posi-
tioned and is the same as the approved positions in the WPS. For a
more detailed description on welding positions, consult AWS D1.1 or
the AWS Welding Handbooks.

b. Vertical Progression: This refers to the direction of travel a welder


uses when welding in the vertical position. The supervisor should
observe this when the welder is welding in the vertical position. If
down progression of travel is used instead of the specified up progres-
sion, incomplete weld penetration could result. Conversely, if a welder
uses an up progression of travel instead of the WPS required down pro-
gression of travel, excessive melt through or even burn through could
result.

8. Electrical Characteristics

a. Transfer Mode (GMAW): This is used to describe the method in which


the metal transfer is made during welding [see Chapter 3, Gas Metal
Arc Welding (GMAW)]. If a welding procedure is followed for the wire
feed speed, arc voltage, and shielding gas, the mode of transfer listed in
the WPS should be achieved.

b. Current: This defines the type of current used in the WPS. AC or alter-
nating current is used on aluminum and some SMAW and GTAW
welding applications. DCEP or direct current electrode positive is the
most common type of current and polarity for welding. DCEN or direct
current electrode negative is used for selected applications where heat-
ing of the base metal is important or for GTAW welding with noncon-
sumable electrodes. Pulsed current is the welding process that uses a
background and peak current with pulsing from the background to the
peak at a set frequency. It can be used in GMAW to increase deposition
and penetration for out-of-position welds.

c. Tungsten Electrode (GTAW):

i. Size: The diameter of the tungsten or tungsten alloy electrode is


critical to welding, because the current carrying capacity of a
specific type of electrode affects the quality and productivity of
welding.

ii Type: There are multiple types of tungsten alloy electrodes as well


as pure tungsten that may be used for welding to improve current
carrying capacity or improve arc stability. Some of the types
include Thoriated Tungsten (EWTh), Ceriated Tungsten (EWCe),
Lanthana Tungsten (EWLa), and Zirconiated Tungsten (EWZr).

301

-

9. Technique

a. Stringer or Weave: This designates whether the welder is allowed to


use a single stringer or weave pass technique for welding. Stringer
technique is used in most applications except when weaving technique
may be used with manual and semi-automatic welding in the vertical
position with an up welding progressive travel. The Stringer technique
is used for all other positions because of the difficulty with insuring
complete weld fusion with the weave technique.

Stringer bead technique is the application where the weld electrode


progresses without any side to side motion of the electrode across the axis
of the travel direction. However, a whipping motionforward and back
along the axis of electrode travel is permissible and is not considered to be
a weaving motion.

Weave bead technique is just the opposite, and comprises a side-to-side


motion. When used to weld vertical up, this side-to-side motion can take
on various types of motion, from a half-moon to a zig-zag movement of
the electrode.

b. Multi-Pass or Single Pass (per side): Multi-pass welding is used to


help control heat input to the weld, and when having to deposit a larger
size weld. The size of each weld pass and the ability to control the weld
passes directly affects the quality of the weld.

c. Number of Electrodes: 1. With some welding processes such as SAW,


the option exists to use single or multiple electrodes. The quality of
welding is directly affected if the WPS was qualified with one elec-
trode and two or more are used. All of the other essential welding vari-
ables of the WPS become unusable.

d. Electrode Spacing: Longitudinal, Lateral, Angle. This refers to SAW


welding with multiple electrodes [(see Chapter 5, Submerged Arc
Welding (SAW)]. This specification defines the relative location of the
electrodes. Leaving this unspecified directly affects the process control
of the welds being made with the WPS.

e. Contact Tube to Work Distance: 3/4 in.1 in. This is one of the essen-
tial welding variables that welders control that affects penetration and
fusion. If not maintained between the allowable limits of the WPS,
weld penetration and weld strength could be negatively affected.

302

-

f. Peening: None. This specifies whether a welder is to use a mechanical


impacting device to compress the surface of a multi-pass weld in order
to help control the build up of shrinkage stresses. In the right applica-
tions, peening can help control shrinkage and distortion. When done
improperly or when not specified in the WPS, peening can lead to
cracking or masking of weld defects.

g. Interpass Cleaning: Wire Brush. The need to always weld on a clean


surface, even on the interpasses of a multi-pass welds, is critical to the
prevention of contamination of the weld which can cause porosity, slag
inclusions, or cracking. The welding supervisor must periodically
check welders to assure that this requirement of the WPS is being
followed.

10. Postweld Heat Treatment

a. Temperature: Not Applicable. This refers to the temperature that some


base materials, when welded, are required to be heat treated to after
welding to restore the metallurgical properties of the weld and the heat
affected area adjacent to the weld.

b. Time: The time is only recorded if a heat treatment is required. The


Post Weld Heat Treatment would not normally be the responsibility of
the welding supervisor or the welder.

11. Welding Procedure

This summary table includes the specific details of the actual welding for
each welding pass. It specifies the filler metal, current, arc voltage, travel
speed, and weld joint details such as welding bead placement.

From the above review of the somewhat general WPS, it should be apparent to
the welding supervisor that some of the sections in the WPS are informational
and only indirectly affect the welder during welding. Examples include Joint
Design, Base Metal/Filler Metal and Post Weld Heat Treatment. Design Engi-
neering through the Welding Specification determines these elements of the
WPS.

Some of the essential welding variables used by the welders are not in the
WPS. Examples of these include the Electrode Position, Transverse, and
Travel Angles of the Electrode. This is due to the fact that welding is a combi-
nation of technical process requirements and welder skill. Both are required to
make proper welds. Some of the skills required are not defined in a WPS.

The issue of a welders skills is addressed by the welder qualification test. To


properly use a WPS, the welder must be qualified to the essential elements of

303

-

that WPS and demonstrate the welding skills to apply those essential elements
to a test coupon, which simulates the conditions under which the WPS is used.

The qualification of a WPS is done using a Procedure Qualification Record


(PQR). This PQR consists of a welder welding up a test coupon usually
consisting of two plates approximately 7 in. wide by 15 in. or more in length.
These plates are welded together lengthwise using the essential variables and
in accordance with the WPS that is being qualified. The welded coupons are
then visually inspected and may be radiographic tested before being cut up to
make destructive test samples. These destructive tests usually consist of four
face/root or side bend tests in either the longitudinal or transverse bend mode.
In addition, two tensile tests are also made (see Chapter 7, Welding Metal-
lurgy). If all of these tests are passed the WPS is considered qualified, and a
copy of the PQR with the test parameters and test results is kept as proof of the
qualification. Also, as a result of this weld successfully passing all required
tests, the welder that performed the weld is also considered qualified to that
WPS. (More detailed information on the qualification of WPSs can be found
in AWS D1.1 or the AWS Welding Handbooks.)

The Welder Qualification Test Record (see Figure 9.3) is used to document that
- each welder has qualified to the essential elements of a WPS. The welding
supervisor is responsible for assigning a welder to a specific weld covered by a
WPS. Due to the lack of training and time constraints, the welding supervisor
may not do an adequate job of fulfilling this responsibility. This can result in
welders that are not qualified to make welds covered by the WPS being
assigned. In order to avoid this situation, the following section of the Welding
Instructions covers the elements of welder qualification that are important in
assigning welders. (See AWS D1.1 for a more detailed explanation of welder
qualification.)

The sections of a welder qualification record that determine if a welder is qual-


ified to make a weld using the assigned WPS are:

1. Process Type. If the welding process in the welder qualification test record
is different from the WPS welding process, then the welder is not qualified
to use the WPS.

2. Filler Metal. For the SMAW process, if the F-number as recorded in the
welder qualification test record under the heading of Qualification range is
the same F-number or a lower F-number as recorded in the WPS, then the
welder is qualified to use the WPS.

3. Position. The position or positions recorded in the welder qualification test


record should match the positions recorded in the WPS, and that are
assigned to the weld being made. If they are the same, then the welder is
qualified to use the WPS.

304

-

WELDER, WELDING OPERATOR, OR TACK WELDER QUALIFICATION TEST RECORD


Typo ol Woldor .
Name tdenlilication No.
Welding Procoouro Sp.;x;ificaticn No. Date

~e<:~d ~tu~lfVal';'es
se m ua ; 1cat1on Qualification Range
Variables
Process,Type [Table 4.11. hem ill]
Elnctrod" (mnglo or mlllriplo} [Tahto 4.11, l:"m (8)]
Current'Polaril';

Posrtion[lable 4.11, Item (4}J


Weld PrcgreSBion [Tab!'? ~. 11 , !tom (6)]

Backing (YES or NO) [Tallie 4.11, Item (7)]


Material/Spec. to
Base Metal
Thickness: (Plato;
Grouve
Filet
Thickness: ( Pipei:u be)
Grocve
~il'et
Dtameler: (Pipe)
Grocvs
Fil:et
Filler Metal [Table 4.11, Item (3)1
Spec, No.
Class
f-No. [Table 4.11. Item {2)]
~~~~~lux Type [Table 4.11, Item (S)J

VISUAl INSPECTION (4.8.1)


Acceptable YES or NO ..
Guided Bend Test Results t->c.>J

Fillet Test Results (4.30.2.3 a1d 4.30.4.1l


App<:~rance - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - F,llet S i r e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fracture Test Root Penetration Macroetdl --------------~
(Describe tJ:e local on, natuu:~, and size of any crad:. cr tear ng of the specimen.)
lr!lspecled by Test Number
Organization Date
RADIOGRAPHIC TEST RESUlTS (4.30.3.2)
Film Identification :Film Identification
Number Nurnt-!11 Remarks

loterprele:J by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Tes:Number________________
Dat;; _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
OrganiLalion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
We, the undersigned, cedfy 1hat the statements in this record are correct and tl.at the lest welds were prepared, welded, and
tested in oorlfoflllaroc:e uith the re~J:uirernants af Set,1:ion 4 of AWS D1.1:'D1.1M, ( ) St!UL1ural Wel:Jing Code-Sleel.

Mamlfactu'tv cr Contractor __________ Authorized


form E-4 Date----------------

305

-

4. Weld Progression. When the position that the welder is qualifying in is


vertical, the weld progression will identify if the welder qualified with
either an up or down weld progression of electrode travel. If the qualifica-
tion range for the welder matches the required weld progression used on
the WPS, the welder is qualified; otherwise, the welder must requalify.

5. Base Metal Thickness and Pipe Diameter. When a welder qualifies on a


test plate, the range of plate or pipe wall thickness is recorded. For pipe, the
diameter qualification range is also recorded. The supervisor must check
the thickness of the production plate being welded and the diameter of the
pipe. If it is a pipe weld, verify that the WPS and the welder qualification
record are in agreement with these thicknesses and diameters. If they agree,
then the welder is qualified for that production weld.

6. Backing. When a welder takes a qualification test, the use or omission of


backing material for the test joint must be recorded. If the welder uses a
backing plate to qualify, and the production weld and the WPS do not
allow for the use of a backing plate or a double sided weld using backgoug-
ing and welding from the second side, then the welder must be requalified
before being assigned to that production weld. A welder that qualifies with-
out a backing bar is, however, qualified for welding in production with a
backing bar.

7. Multiple Electrodes. If a welder uses a single electrode during the qualifi-


cation test and the WPS that is used, requires a multiple electrode, such as
with the SAW process, the welder must requalify. If the welders qualify
with multiple electrodes and the procedure they are about to use only
requires one electrode, they do not have to requalify.

These seven variables are the only ones that the welding supervisor has to
verify before assigning a welder to a specific WPS. Other industrial and
military welding standards are structured in the same way. The welding super-
visor should check each specific standard and verify which essential welding
variables the standard requires for requalification of the welders.

- The need for the welding supervisor to give clear and detailed instructions to
his welders is critical to their quality, productivity, throughput, and safety. The
contractual requirements of a specific welding job may also require the weld-
ing supervisor to make determinations on the suitability of a WPS that will be
needed for specific weld joints, and to assign only those welders that are quali-
fied to the essential elements of a WPS. The amount of time and attention
required of the welding supervisor in these responsibilities will most likely be
more than previously but without it; the true potential of his welding depart-
ment will not be realized.

306

-

-- 1. When the welder and welding supervisor are evaluating a weld visually for
weld quality, they must use?
A. What ever looks good
B. Follow the inspectors lead
C. Acceptance criteria
D. Not their job
E. Cannot be inspected in this fashion

2. If a fillet weld is made larger than the engineering drawing requires, which
of the following will it affect?
A. Quality Metric
B. Throughput Metric
C. Welding Procedure Specification
D. Welder Qualification
E. Cost Metric

3. When input parts are not to the proper engineering dimensions, which of
the following will be affected?
A. Quality Metric
B. Welding Procedure Specification
C. Cost Metric
D. Throughput Metric
E. All of the Above

4. Welders that do not weld using proper safety equipment will be violating
which of the following?
A. Quality Metric
B. Welding Procedure Specification
C. Cost Metric
D. None of these
E. Welders Qualification

5. Before a weld can be made in accordance with an industrial welding stan-


dard, the supervisor must verify which of the following?
A. Welding Procedure Specification and Welder Qualification
B. Quality Metric
C. Cost Metric
D. Throughput Metric
E. Safety Metric

307

-

-- 1. C
2. E
3. E
4. D
5. A

308

- -

It is critical for the welding supervisor to understand welding economics and


the variables that affect those economics. This knowledge provides the weld-
ing supervisor with the information necessary to make the best decisions each
day to positively affect both quality and productivity.

The Five Welding Dos Goals break down welding economics so that it can be
applied to each aspect of welding. In this chapter the Five Welding Dos Goals
will be used to explain the economics of welding. As a refresher, these Dos
Goals are:

1. Reduce Weld Metal Volume

2. Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment

3. Reduce Rejects, Rework, and Scrap

4. Reduce Work Effort

5. Reduce Motion and Delay Time

The improvement goals of any welding operations are represented by these


five goals. These goals are also referred to as expectations or Dos in the
Barckhoff Welding Management System and the Barckhoff Method.
The word Do represents the action required to achieve one of these Dos
Goals, such as, Do make welds to size to reduce overwelding.

Specific welding terms that will be used and defined in this chapter are as
follows:

Weld Metal Volume

Deposition Weight

Deposition Rates

Deposition Efficiency

Total Labor Time

Total Arc Time

309

- -

Arc Time Per Weldment

Operating Factor

Filler Metal Consumption

Non-Arc Time

The most important equation from the viewpoint of welding and weld produc-
tivity is:

Total Labor Time = Total Arc Time + Non Arc Time

Total Labor Time is the amount of time required by the welder to complete the
assigned task.

Total Arc Time is the amount of arc time a welder spends during one welding
cycle. Measured in minutes, Total Arc Time is often used as a basis to compare
the amount of welding time per hour. When converted to a percentage of Total
Arc Time of welding per hour, this time is referred to as the Operating or
Operator Factor.

Operating Factor = Arc Time


Total Labor Time

Supervisors should always be careful when doing the calculations in this


chapter not to mix Metric and U.S. Customary dimensions.

Non-Arc Time is the time used by a welder to perform tasks other than welding,
such as:

Setup time

Loading and unloading parts

Moving from weld to weld

Grinding

Inspection

Cleaning

The concepts of Total Arc Time and Operating Factor appear to be simple, but
in controlling the cost of welding, all factors involved are expressed in this
equation. The Five Welding Dos Goals are used to help the welding supervi-
sor focus on improving each welders Operating Factor.

310

- -

Dos Goals 1 and 2 focuses on reducing the arc time per weldment. Dos Goal
3 focuses on reducing both the Total Arc Time and the Non-Arc Time. Dos
Goals 4 and 5 focus on reducing Non-Arc Time. Together all Five Welding
Dos Goals result in the lowest Total Labor Time for any welding operation or
complete weldment.

We will now review in some detail how welding economics are improved by
focusing on each of the Five Welding Dos Goals.

- Weld Metal Volume is the amount of filler metal consumed in making welds.
The two most common types of welds are the fillet weld and the groove weld.

-

The fillet weld is the most commonly used type of weld joint. To understand
the economic impact of weld metal volume, it is important to understand how
the volume of a given fillet welds size is calculated.

To calculate weld volume, it is first necessary to determine the cross-sectional


area of the weld. This is done for a fillet weld by imagining the fillet sliced
crossways and looking at it from the end as illustrated in Figure 10.1.

To calculate the area of this triangular shape, it is necessary to view this triangle
as one-half of a square. Multiply the length of one side by the length of the other
side. This is the area of the square. The triangular fillet makes up one half of the
square. To calculate the area of the triangle, divide the area of the square by 2.

--
- - I )

Area of the fillet weld = a (one side of the triangle) I b (the other side of the
triangle) and then divide by 2.

The lengths of the fillet weld sides shown in these calculations are the
same sizes that a welder or supervisor sees when they measure a fillet
weld using a fillet weld gage. For example, a 1/4 in. fillet weld size on the
gage is the same 1/4 in. leg size shown here.

311

- -

If both sides of the triangle are equal in length (an equal leg fillet weld) or a =
b = leg, then the equation could be written as:

A = (a I b)/2

A = (leg I leg)/2

A = (leg)2/2

Where the term (leg)2 means that one fillet weld leg length is being multiplied
by the other fillet weld leg length, which is the same size. Leg is the size of
fillet specified on the engineering print.

A 1/4 in. fillet weld has two equal legs, each 1/4 in. in length. The area of this
1/4 in. fillet weld is calculated as follows:

Area = (1/4)2/2 Converted to decimal Area = (0.250)2/2

Area = (0.0625)/2

Area = 0.03125 square inches

The next step to calculate total weld metal volume for a given weld is to multi-
ply the area by the length of the weld. For example, if a weld is 12 in. long, the
total weld metal volume is 12 in. I the Area (A). To calculate the volume for a
fillet weld of a different length, substitute the new length (such as 30 in). for
the 12 in. shown in the following example.

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = (Leg)2 I 12/2

For the previously described 1/4 in. fillet weld, the deposited volume per linear
foot of weld is calculated as follows:

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = (0.25 in.)2 I 12/2

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = 0.0625 sq. in. I 12/2

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = 0.375 cu. in.

NOTE: When the cross-sectional area of a weld in square inches is multi-


plied by the length of the weld expressed in inches, the resulting volume
is measured in cubic inches.

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Compared to fillet welds, groove weld calculations are a little more difficult to
do, but with practice will become easier. If we wanted to calculate the volume
of weld metal deposited in one running foot (12 in.) of butt weld, with gap W
and thickness T, then multiplying W I T I 12 in. will give you the required
volume of this groove weld.

Figure 10.2 shows the calculations for a butt joint, square groove weld.

- -
-- -

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = W I T I 12 in. Multiplying the


width by the thickness by 12 in. gives the deposited volume of the weld.

Where:
W = Width of the gap
T = Thickness of the plate

Butt joint, square groove weld with 1/8 in. gap and 3/16 in. thickness of plate
(see Figure 10.2).

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = 0.125 in. I 0.1875 in. I 12 in.

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = 0.28 cu. in.

When working with beveled groove welds, the calculations get a little more
complicated. However, following this breakdown of the calculations should
make them more understandable.

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The first new term is the tangent angle of a right triangle; we have already been
discussing right triangles when discussing fillet welds. We saw that when one
of the sides of the triangle was multiplied by the other and divided by 2, you
could obtain the cross-sectional area of the triangle. Now, we will use that
triangle to help calculate the area of a beveled groove weld. We do this by
using trigonometry and specifically the relationship between one of the angles
in the triangle and the length of two of the sides of the triangle.

-
)

The angle as shown in Figure 10.3 has an angle which we call theta (a Greek
alphabet letter) and denote by using the symbol . This symbol can represent
any angle in degrees. By using trigonometry we know that the sides a and
b are related to the size of this angle by the following formula:

Tangent abbreviated tan = a b. If tan is known and side b is


known, then to find out what side a is, we change the formula to be:

a = tan Ib

Therefore, if we want to know how to calculate the cross-sectional area of a


bevel groove angle, then we can divide it up into three parts as shown in Figure
10.4.

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In part A1 we know that the thickness T is the same as side b in our equa-
tion, and that tan is the angle of the bevel cut into the plate. Since we dont
know what side a is, we can find it by the following formula:

a = tan IT

and if we now side a and side T, then it is just like our fillet weld triangle:

A1 = a I T 2

We can also see that area A3 is the same as A1; then all that remains to be done
is to calculate the center block A2, which is calculated just like the square
groove weld in the earlier example.

When we combine the three areas together we get:

A1 + A2 + A3 = (a I T 2) + (W I T) + (a I T 2)

Substituting for a will give the formula:

A1 + A2 + A3 = {(tan I T) I T 2} + (W I T) + {(tan I T) I T 2}

Simplifying the formula results in the following:

A1 + A2 + A3 = {(tan I T2) + (W I T)}

To convert the cross-sectional area into deposited volume per linear foot of
weld, it is only necessary to multiply the above equation by 1 foot (12 in.).

Tan Decimal Equivalent

15 0.268
30 0.577
45 1.000
60 1.732
75 3.732

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = {(tan T2) + (W I T)} 12

Where:
Tan = Angle that the bevel on the plate is cut, such as 30 angle
T = Thickness of the plate
W = Width of the gap between the plates; if there is no gap, W = 0

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Butt joint, V-groove weld of 30 angle, with a gap of 1/8 in. and a plate thick-
ness of 1/2 in.

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld =


{(tan 30 I 1/2 in.2) + 1/8 in. I 1/2 in.} 12

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld =


{(0.577 I 0.25) + 1/8 in. I 1/2 in.} 12

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = 0.206 cu. in.

This equation assumes no weld reinforcement. An allowable reinforcement of


no more than 1/32 in. to 1/16 in. will add between 10% and 15% of additional
deposited filler metal to the groove weld. Excessive reinforcement could push
additional weld metal volume up to 50% or more.

If a 1/16 in. reinforcement were added to Example 3, 15% would be added to


the total weld deposited volume. The calculation of the additional weld metal
volume would be as follows:

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = 0.206 + (0.206 I 0.15)

Deposited Volume per linear foot of weld = 0.237 cu. in.

To convert the deposited weld metal volume into a deposited filler metal
weight the following equation is used:

Deposited Weight = DV

Where:
= Specific density of deposited metal
DV = Deposited Volume

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The value of different materials is:

Steel = 0.283 lb./cu. in.

Aluminum = 0.100 lb./cu. in.

Stainless Steel = 0.290 lb./cu. in.

To understand specific density of deposited metal, it is easiest to picture a


one cubic foot block of metal (1 foot high, 1 foot wide, 1 foot thick.) The
volume of that block in cubic inches is 12 in. (height) I 12 in. (width) I
12 in. (thickness) = 1728 cubic inches. If that block were made out of
carbon steel it would weigh about 490 lbs. If that same block were made
out of aluminum it would weigh about 173 lbs. And if the block were
made out of stainless steel it would weigh about 501 lbs. The reason for
the difference in weight when all three blocks are exactly the same size is
the specific density of the metals. For example, take the 490 lb. weight of
the steel block, divide that weight by the 1728 cu. in. volume, and it will
equal 0.283 lb./cu. in., which is the exact value that is given for the
specific density of the steel. The same values can be calculated for the
aluminum and stainless steel blocks. What this allows us to do is to take
any volume of a metal, multiply it by the specific density as shown in the
text, and get the weight of that volume of metal.

Using the previous example where the deposited volume was 0.237 cubic
inches and the weld metal is steel with a specific density of 0.283 lbs./cu. in.,
the deposited weld metal will be calculated as:

Deposited Weight = DV

Deposited Weight = 0.283 lbs./cu. in. I 0.237 cu. in.

Deposited Weight = 0.067 pounds

This calculation demonstrates that the smaller the deposited weld metal
weight, the less time it takes to make the weld and the less filler metal is
required.

- --

When deciding which type of weld joint to use, the choice becomes a trade off
between the cost of the weld preparation time for a groove weld vs. the addi-
tional deposited weld metal needed to make a fillet weld of equal strength. In

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sheet metal and light plate thicknesses, the comparison usually favors the use
of fillet welds. In heavier plate, the advantage in productivity shifts to groove
welds. The transition point usually occurs with fillet welds of less than 5/8 in.
to 3/4 in. leg size. In some cases it can occur before, depending on an individ-
ual companys cost of weld groove preparation.

Once a groove weld has been selected over a fillet weld, then the decision whether
to use a single-sided weld joint (single bevel or single V-groove) or a double-
sided weld joint (double bevel or double V-groove) must be made. As the plate
thickness increases, the amount of extra deposited weld metal needed to make a
single-sided groove weld will exceed the cost of double-sided joint preparation.
Where this changeover point occurs will in part be affected by the companys
cost of making weld joint preparations, but in most cases this point occurs in
groove welds when the thickness of the metal exceeds 1-1/8 in.

Another factor that can affect the requirement to use the least amount of filler
metal is the need to control distortion in the welded plates. When welding is
done from one side only, the amount of weld metal deposited about the neutral
axis of the plate being welded is unbalanced, which can lead to distortion of the
material about that axis. In most cases, depositing the same amount of filler
metal on each side of the neutral axis will result in the least amount of distortion.

When backgouging is not required (e.g., for a partial joint penetration weld)
this is achieve by equal groove preparations on both sides. When backgouging
is required (e.g., for a complete joint penetration weld) this is accomplished by
making the first side of welding deeper than the second side. When the back-
gouging operation is performed from the second side into the root of the first
side, the resulting groove on each side will be equivalent. A 2/3 (first side) 1/3
(second side) is often used to achieve this result.

In any production operation there are three potential sources of overwelding.


The first source is Design Engineering. Since the Design Engineer specifies the
fillet weld size or the joint application, this selection becomes the requirement
that the welders must meet. If the Design Engineer selects a weld that is larger
than necessary, then overwelding results because the welders are required to
make oversized welds.

The second potential source of overwelding is the welder. Once the Design
Engineer has specified the weld size required, the welder must make the weld
that size and length. Any weld greater than those amounts results in overwelding.

The third potential source of overwelding is parts fitup. If a weld fillet has a
gap greater than 1/16 in. the welder is required to weld a larger fillet than the
engineering print specifies, which results in overwelding. If a groove weld

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contains an unspecified or larger than specified gap, or has an included angle


greater than specified, overwelding will occur.

The welding supervisor does not have control over Design Engineering, but
does exercise supervision over the welders and, to a degree, the fitup. There-
fore, the welding supervisor can effect how large a weld is being made.

Figure 10.6 illustrates the effect that overwelding can have on costs. The
examples use a fillet weld for ease of comparison.

The comparison of one fillet weld size to another to calculate savings is


the result of obtaining the difference between the two fillet weld volumes
and dividing that amount by the smaller fillet weld volume.

A 3/16 in. fillet weld volume per inch length is 0.0175 cubic inches, a 1/4 in.
fillet weld volume per inch of length is 0.031 cubic inches. The subtraction of
0.0175 from 0.031 = 0.0135 cubic inches of deposited metal savings. The
0.0135 when divided by the small fillet weld volume will show the percentage
of savings, 0.0135 divided by 0.0175 = 78% volume savings when making a
fillet weld to engineering size that is 3/16 in. instead of overwelding the fillet
weld 1/4 in.

As shown in Figure 10.6, the difference in filler metal volume can range from a
43% to a 124% increase if the weld leg size is larger than the size required by
just 1/16 in. This difference can be even greater if the leg size is oversized by
more than a 1/16 in.

As shown in Figure 10.7, having just one leg of the fillet weld oversized can
lead to significant overwelding. A further example is the effect on cost of mak-
ing a 1/4 in. fillet weld with one leg oversized. This overwelding example
results in a fillet with one leg 1/4 in. and the other leg 5/16 in. This increases
weld metal volume by almost 26%. If the oversized leg is 3/8 in., which can
happen with horizontal fillet welds, the increase in weld metal volume will be
almost 52%. This results in a cost of overwelding of more than 50% in both
filler metal and welder arc time.

At the same time, overwelding can also occur when doing intermittent or partial
length fillet welds where the length of fillet weld is specified by the design engi-
neer. If the welder fails to make a fillet weld of this length, but instead makes
the weld longer, the additional weld length is also considered as overwelding.

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- -
- - -

The same logic for overwelding can be applied to groove welding where
excessive increase in the groove angle, gap opening, or depth of penetration
above what is specified in the design requirements results in additional filler
metal. This additional filler metal requirement consumes more pounds of filler
metal material, as well as taking additional welder time.

If the Design Engineer specified a 3/16 in. fillet weld leg size on an engineer-
ing drawing, and the welder made a 5/16 in. weld, this would result in an
increase in weld metal volume and therefore deposited filler metal weight of
177%. The result, independent of the deposition rate used, would require 177%

320

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-
-
-

-

I
I

-

I
I

-

I
I
I

- -
-- - -
-

more arc time per weldment to complete. For example, the welder making a 3/
16 in. fillet weld one foot long would require 36 seconds, the same weld with a
5/16 in. fillet weld using the same welding parameters would require 1 minute
and 39 seconds to complete. A welder could complete approximately three
feet of weld using a 3/16 in. fillet in the same time that would be required to
make a 5/16 in. fillet one foot long.

It is obvious that a major reduction in the amount of arc time required to make
a length of weld is greatly impacted by the size of the weld being made.

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A welding supervisor can do little to impact the weld size designed for the part,
except to be aware of its impact and alert the Designer Engineer whenever a
change in weld size is warranted. Overwelding occurring due to welder perfor-
mance and joint fitup is to a degree controllable by the welding supervisor. The
supervisor can ensure that the welders periodically check their welds using a
fillet weld or weld reinforcement gage to verify that the welds are made to size
(see Figure 10.8). This practice not only prevents overwelding, but also guards
against undersized welds that could lead to weld failures or repairs. The super-
visor should periodically check the welders joint fitups to verify that welds are
being made to the specified size and length. This type of monitoring can dem-
onstrate the importance of weld sizes if the welders supervisor takes the time
to check them.

-
- - -

An overlooked benefit of reducing overwelding is the effect that using less


weld metal has on distortion. One of the hidden problems in welding is the
effect that distortion has on the outcome of a finished weldment. Distortion can
lead to an unsightly appearance of the part, can cause assembly problems, and
can also interfere with the operation of the welded assembly in service. All of

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these conditions will result in time-consuming, costly delays to rework or


replace a part that is rendered unusable because of distortion from overwelding.

- The Arc Time Per Weldment is the amount of time the welding arc is main-
tained while making a specific length of weld.

The Arc Time Per Weldment should not be confused with Total Arc Time.
Total Arc Time is the amount of time a welder is able to weld out of each labor
hour. Total Arc Time is used to calculate the Operating Factor.

Once the supervisor has established that welds are being made to specified size
and length, the next Dos Goal is to Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment. To
accomplish this, the supervisor must understand the importance of welding
procedures and the wire feed speed/amperage and arc voltage essential weld-
ing variables that the procedure specifies. In all welding processes, the ability
of the welder to obtain the lowest arc time per weldment is the result of using
the highest wire feed speed/amperage and corresponding arc voltage possible
to achieve the maximum Deposition Rate (pounds of deposit) (see Figure 10.9).

-
- -

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The Deposition Rate is the amount of filler metal wire/electrode that a welder
can deposit in one hour using specified amperage or wire feed speed with
100% Operating Factor.

The highest possible Deposition Rate allows the welder to produce the maxi-
mum amount of weld footage in a given period of time. Maximum weld foot-
age is achieved by making welds of the proper size and length (Dos Goal 1)
and depositing the greatest amount of filler metal in accordance with the
specified wire feed speed/amperage contained in the welding procedure (Dos
Goal 2).

Examples of Welding Processes, Amperages, Voltages, and Deposition Rates


are given in Tables 10.110.5.

--
-

- -

-
-
-
-

- --

-
-
-
-
-

- --
-

-
-
-
-

324

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--

-
-
-
-

--
-

As is evident in these welding process charts, the higher the amperage used
during the arc-on welding time, the greater the Deposition Rate will be. The
welder should be trained to use the highest amperage specified by the welding
procedure. The welding procedure should be qualified or tested to identify the
highest amperage value that can be used in a specific welding application.

Additional graphs of Welding Current v. Deposition rates can be found in


Chapter 12 of the AWS Welding Handbook on Economics of Welding
and Cutting.

Examples of this are the following comparisons:

A welder using the Gas Metal Arc Welding Process (GMAW) is using 0.045 in.
diameter solid wire at 260 amperes (300 ipm) depositing 8 lbs./hr. making a
1/4 in. fillet weld. If the same welder is able to use 340 amperes (500 ipm) and
deposit 13 lbs./hr. how much more welding will be done at the higher amper-
age in 1 minute of welding arc time?

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At 260 amperes the welder deposits 0.133 lbs. of wire in one minute. This
amount of metal used to make the 1/4 in. fillet weld with no overwelding
results in 15.1 in. of fillet weld length per minute (the 15.1 in. is the result of
dividing the 0.133 lbs. of wire by the weight of one inch of 1/4 in. fillet weld
which is 0.0088 lbs./in.). The same welder welding at 340 amperes depositing
13 lbs./hr. and welding 1/4 in. fillet for one minute will make 25 in. of weld.
From this example it is easy to see that welding using the highest permissible
amperage (wire feed speed) for a given application will result in the lowest arc
time per weldment. In this example the increase in productivity is 63% by just
the reduction of Arc Time Per Weldment though the use of higher amperages.

A welder must weld 120 inches of 1/4 in. fillet weld in a welded assembly. If
the welder uses the GMAW process with 0.035 in. wire and 205 amperes, the
deposit rate is 6.4 lbs./hr. The metal is carbon steel with a metal density of
0.283 cu. in. How much time in arc minutes will it take to weld the assembly?

Deposited Volume = 3.75 cu. in.

Deposited Weight = 1.05 lbs. of deposited weld metal

Deposition Rate = 6.4 lbs./hr.

Arc time = Deposited Weight Deposition Rate

Arc time = 1.05 6.4

Arc time = 0.16 of a hour or 9.8 minutes

If the same welder used 230 amperes with a Deposition Rate of 7.5 lbs./hr. and
all other variables remained the same, how many arc time minutes would be
required to weld one assembly?

Deposited Volume = 3.75 cu. in.

Deposited Weight = 1.05 lbs. of deposited weld metal

Deposition Rate = 7.5 lbs./hr.

Arc time = Deposited Weight Deposition Rate

Arc time = 1.05 7.5

Arc time = 0.14 of a hour or 8.4 minutes

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The savings in arc welding time minutes per unit length is 9.8 minutes 8.4
minutes or 1.4 minutes for each welded assembly. 1.4 9.8 shows a savings of
14% of arc welding time per assembly. If the company was to weld 200 of
these assemblies each day and each welder used the higher amperage, the sav-
ings would amount to 4.6 man-hours per day. This savings resulted from just a
25-ampere higher setting.

Once the deposited weight of weld metal is known, it is easy to calculate how
much filler metal has been used.

Filler Metal Bought represents the amount of filler metal needed to make a par-
ticular weld. It is calculated by taking the Deposited Metal (pounds) and divid-
ing it by the Deposition Efficiency. Deposition Efficiency is the value for each
weld process that represents how much filler metal of weld wire or electrode is
actually deposited. This amount is different for each welding process and is
always less than 100%.

Typical Deposition Efficiencies are shown in Table 10.6.

- -

-- -

Filler Metal Bought = Deposited Metal Deposition Efficiency

From previous example:

Filler Metal Bought = 1.05 lbs. 0.9 (GMAW Deposition Efficiency of


90% converted to a decimal)

Filler Metal Bought = 1.16 pounds

It should be clear to the welding supervisor that Dos Goals 1 and 2, when
applied, Reduce The Arc Time Per Length of weld.

When Dos Goals 1 and 2 have been used to Reduce The Arc Time Per Weld-
ment, the arc time per labor hour is also reduced. This occurs because the
welding arc time is less. Up to this point, no reduction in the Non-Arc Time
has occurred. With Dos Goals 1 and 2, the amount of time the welder spends

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each labor hour in welding is reduced because the Arc Time Per Weldment is
reducedwhich requires less time to do the same amount of welding.

Total Labor Time = Arc Time/Hr. + Non-Arc Time/Hr.

As the arc time decreases, the non-arc time minutes remain the same; there-
fore, the labor time will decrease by the same amount of time that the arc time
decreases.

Another very powerful method of cost reduction that the supervisor should
know is the reduction in the number of welds. When a weld is eliminated, both
the Arc Time and Non-Arc Time are reduced, which can have a significant
effect. A typical example would be an increase in the pitch for intermittent
welds or the use of staggered welds. Although these are design responsibilities,
the supervisors can contribute though their knowledge of weld economics.

s (Refer to Chapter 2, Requirements of a Weld.)


-
In a welding economic sense, Dos Goal 3 defines the cost of quality for a
companys welding operations. In many companies, a conflict has existed
between quality and productivity. It was felt that if either quality or productiv-
ity were emphasized, the other would suffer.

The belief was that if quality, expressed by the need to make welded compo-
nents to the engineered quality standard was emphasized, then productivity
would suffer. Conversely, if productivity or schedule was emphasized, espe-
cially in the end of the month shipping frenzy, then quality would suffer. Dos
Goal 3 will actually show that not only are quality and productivity not in con-
flict, they compliment each other, because meeting quality standards helps
improve productivity.

The Reduction of Rejects, Rework, and Scrap can affect both Welding Arc
Time and Non-Arc Time. If a reject is found and the weld is to be repaired,
then removal of the defect will require Non-Arc Time. Rewelding of the
repaired area will require additional arc time over the time to make the original
weld. In this case, the Non-Arc Time to remove the defect and the arc time to
reweld the repaired area will add to the original labor time and increase the
overall cost of the part.

If the defective weld requires the part to be scrapped, then the entire setup,
fitup, and welding operation will have to be repeated. The amount of work to
make two production parts is invested to make one good part. The arc and
Non-Arc Time to make the replacement part is additional cost without any pro-
ductive benefit.

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An additional reason for achieving Dos Goal 3 of weld defects is to ensure


that all defects are detected before product is shipped. If defects are either dis-
covered by the customer or lead to a weld failure in service, the economic cost
of correction is much higher and the consequences can be more serious.

The welding supervisor can do a great deal to effect the quality and workman-
ship of the welders. The supervisor is the one individual that observes the
welders more than any other person in management. The supervisor is respon-
sible for giving orders and work instructions to the welders. Both the welders
and management look to the supervisor for leadership. Many supervisors see
this as a difficult assignment to fulfill, and lack the confidence necessary to
meet this responsibility, especially when it comes to quality issues. To meet
this challenge, the supervisor needs both to instruct and to monitor the welders.

- -

All welders should be instructed in the essential welding variables for the
welding process they are using. Refer to Chapters 36 (SMAW, GMAW,
FCAW, and SAW).

All welding processes have essential welding variables that if followed


consistently will always lead to quality welding; and to the degree that they
are adhered to, these processes will produce the lowest possible defect rate.
Most of the essential welding variables are contained in standard welding
procedures, however, some are not. Some variables contained in the proce-
dures are intermixed with other information, so that they may not be singled
out for the kind of attention that is needed. welding supervisors must not only
know the essential welding variables, they must also ensure that the welders
consistently follow them. This practice will result in quality conformance to
specification.

Axiom: It takes no longer to make a quality weld then it takes to make


a defective weld.

-- -

With some variation, the essential welding variables for all arc-welding
processes are the same. These variables for the more common arc welding
processes are contained in Chapters 36 (SMAW, GMAW, FCAW, and SAW).
For the sake of continuity, the seven essential welding variables will be briefly
reviewed here.

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Amperage/Wire Feed Speed and Arc Voltage

The first two essential welding variables are taken together, because within
limits, they must always be in balance. As seen in Dos Goal 2, the desire is to
always maximize amperage within acceptable limits of the welding procedure
for the weld joint application. From a weld quality standpoint, an arc voltage
that will support a given amperage is needed to avoid welding defects such as
undercut and cold lap. A good welding procedure reflects a narrow range of
amperage and arc voltages that will support the need for these two variables to
maintain an acceptable balance.

Travel Speed

The third essential welding variable, travel speed, is determined by weld size
as defined in Dos Goal 1. Once the welder has set the amperage and arc volt-
age, he will achieve the correct travel speed by making a weld of the correct
size in accordance with Dos Goal 1. The welder that is tasked with making a
1/4 in. fillet weld where the amperage and arc voltage have been set, will move
the electrode at a speed so that the deposited filler metal deposits a 1/4 in. fillet
weld. This movement rate results in a specific travel speed. If the travel speed
is too slow the weld will be oversized and miss meeting the Dos Goal 1, or it
will have rollover resulting in cold lap and not meet Dos Goal 3. If the travel
speed is too fast, the weld will be undersized and therefore defective and not
meet Dos Goal 3. This variable normally appears in welding procedures

Electrode Extension (Contact-Tube-to-Work-Distance)

Electrode extension applies to arc-welding processes with continuous wire


feed. This fourth essential welding variable refers to that portion of the contact-
tube-to-work-distance between the end of the contact tip and the welding arc
(an example of this can be seen in Chapter 2.) If the welder uses too long an
extension during welding, the resistance heating of the wire will cause the
overall amperage for the wire feed speed to decrease. Although this will not
decrease the deposition rate, it will result in a reduction in the temperature of
the base metal and possibly reduce penetration to an unacceptable level or
cause lack of fusion. Both of these conditions could result in weld defects.

If the electrode extension is too short, excessive heat for the wire feed speed
will go into the base metal and possibly result in excessive melting and even
burn through of the base metal.

Electrode extension is another essential welding variable that is normally con-


tained in the welding procedure. Welding in accordance with this parameter
value will prevent defects.

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Transverse Gun Angle

The fifth essential welding variable, transverse gun angle, is the angle trans-
verse to the axis of weld and the direction of the travel of the welding elec-
trode. This angle affects the balance between the fillet weld legs as well as the
arc force. These variables control bead shape, fillet weld leg size, and weld
bead tie-in. Improper transverse angle control can lead to defective weld condi-
tions requiring rework. This essential welding variable is not normally speci-
fied in a welding procedure, however, it is as important as those included and
should be addressed by both the supervisor and the welder to make sure that
the proper transverse angle is used.

Travel Angle

Travel angle, the sixth essential welding variable, is defined as the angle that
lies in the direction of the weld axis and the travel of the welding electrode.
This angle is defined by whether a weld is made in the push forehand position,
or the pull backhand position. Bead shape, penetration, and weld bead fusion
are affected by this essential welding variable. Maintaining control over this
variable will contribute to making a quality weld. This variable also does not
normally appear in a standard welding procedure; however, it should be under-
stood, observed, and followed consistently if Dos Goal 3 is to be achieved.

Electrode Position

This seventh essential welding variable controls where the electrode impinges
on the surface of the base metal. For a fillet weld of only one weld bead the
electrode will, in general, be aimed by the welder at the root or junction of the
mating base metal plates being joined. This may be altered somewhat by weld-
ing processes such as FCAW, where a large weld using a large diameter wire is
used to make a horizontal fillet. If it is other than a single or root pass, the elec-
trode position will be in accordance with good bead placement for multipass
welding. This variable is sometimes specified in the welding procedure. It is
essential that the welder control this essential welding variable to prevent roll-
over, undercut, slag entrapment, incomplete fusion, and incomplete penetration
(see Figure 10.10).

Control of these seven variables leads to consistent quality results. The super-
visor must ensure that the welder knows and understands how to follow these
variables, and has mastered the skills to follow them under diverse welding
conditions. Where welders cannot follow these variables, due to accessibility
problems because of component assembly or welding fixtures, the supervisor
must resolve the situation by working with engineering.

After the welders have been adequately instructed in the seven essential
welding variables, the welding supervisor must monitor each welder daily to

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assure that the specified variables are being followed, thus ensuring long-term
sustainability of welding quality.

Welding supervisors must monitor the welders each day to ensure that the
welders are following the welding procedures, instructions, and are welding in
accordance with the essential welding variables (see Chapter 12, Welding
Inspection).

Monitoring can take many forms, but should achieve the following results:

that welders are welding in accordance with the essential welding variables
for the welding process they are using.

that after a weld is completed, the welder visually inspects the weld to
ensure there are no defects.

that the welder knows the acceptance criteria for visual inspection and
applies them correctly.

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In all cases, if the welder is unable to perform the required process or proce-
dure to the required degree of proficiency, additional training and or instruc-
tion may be required.

Following the completion of welds and visual inspection by the welders, the
supervisor should perform random samplings of all welds made during that
work shift to ensure that only quality product is being made and sent on to the
next operation or to the customer.

Some of the factors that negatively affect Dos Goal 3 are:

1. Insufficient training of welders

2. Lack of welder qualification requirements

3. Lack of Workmanship Standards

4. Non-adherence to existing Workmanship Standards

5. Lack of proper shop surveillance by welders and supervisors

a. No inspection of work by welder and supervisor

b. No monitoring of welders and essential welding variables by supervisor

6. Lack understanding by welders and supervisors of the essential welding


variables and their effect on weld quality

7. Lack of properly developed welding procedures

8. Inadequate welder skills

9. Poor weld joint fitup

10. Poor welding accessibility (see Figure 10.11)

- Dos Goal 4 encompasses the adage of Work Smarter, Not Harder. The
effort to meet Dos Goal 4 will result in a decrease in the amount of Non-Arc
Time that the welder spends each hour during the work shift. It is important
that the supervisor recognizes that the welder is asked to perform a number of
non-arc welding tasks. Some of the tasks are necessary, such as assembling
parts into a fixture for welding. However, no matter how necessary a task is,
the amount of effort required by the welder should always be minimized. If the
supervisor is sensitive to the importance of making improvements to reduce
work effort, many opportunities can be found. Some of these opportunities
include the following:

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Alignment of Subassemblies and Parts. The more time the welder spends
trying to get parts properly oriented, especially without proper welding
fixtures or alignment tools, the more time is wasted in unnecessary work
effort.

Ease of Use of Welding Fixtures. Bring the work to the welder properly,
and adjust the height of the fixture to allow the welder to work in a less
strenuous position.

Weld Accessibility. For good weld accessibility, important considerations


are: interference by other parts, parts spaced too closely together, and prop-
erly sized electrode holder or gun.

Weld Position. Improved weld position allows more welds to be made


in the flat or horizontal position instead of the vertical or overhead posi-
tion, which, in turn, decreases arm weariness and improves quality and
productivity.

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As the welding supervisor becomes more aware of these causes of excessive


work effort, improvements can be made to address welding fixture problems as
well as accessibility and weld position problems. As a result, the welder will be
able to work the entire shift with less fatigue and neither consciously nor
unconsciously slow down and increase Non-Arc Time.

Returning to the basic economic welding formula of

Total Labor Time = Arc Time Non Arc Time

it is easy to see that a decrease in work effort and the welders fatigue results in
a decrease in Non-Arc Time. Therefore, a given number or welds or parts can
be completed in a shorter period of time. By decreasing the Non-Arc Time, the
Operating Factor is also improved. The formula is:

Operating Factor = Arc Time I 100


Total Labor Time

Since Total Labor Time is decreased as Non-Arc Time decreases and the Arc
Time/Hr. remains the same, the value of the Operating Factor increases. When-
ever the Operating Factor increases by virtue of a decrease in the Non-Arc
Time, the productivity of the welding operation improves. Conversely, when-
ever the arc time/unit length is reduced by an increase in the deposition rate or
making welds to size, the Operating Factor will decrease. Hence, both an
increase and reduction in the Operating Factor can increase productivity as
long as the Labor Time is decreasing. The effect this productivity has on the
Operating Factor depends on whether the Arc Time or the Non-Arc Time is
reduced.

Arc Time/hr. = 1.5 hrs.

Non-Arc Time = 6 hrs.

Total Labor Time = 1.5 hrs. + 6 hrs.

Total Labor Time = 7.5 hrs.

Operating Factor = 1.5 hrs. I 100


7.5 hrs.

Operating Factor = 20%

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If the operator is able to reduce Non-Arc Time by one hour by reducing the
work effort through fixture improvement or repositioning the welds, the new
Total Labor Time and Operating Factor will be as follows:

Non-Arc Time = 6 hrs. 1 hr. (savings) = 5 hrs.

Total Labor Time = 1.5 hrs. + 5 hrs.

Total Labor Time = 6.5 hrs.

Operating Factor = 1.5 hrs. I 100


6.5 hrs.

Operating Factor = 23%

- Welder Motion and Delay Time is affected by work area layout, weld fixturing
and tooling, equipment downtime, and any hand, foot or body movement that
is required to complete the welding task. These activities comprise the Non-
Arc Time of the welder. Any project that decreases the time for these activities
will reduce the Non-Arc Time and thereby increase the Operating Factor (see
Figure 10.12).

When looking at Reduction of Motion and Delay Time, the supervisor needs to
differentiate between the Non-Arc Time tasks that are necessary and those that
are unnecessary. The objective for the supervisor in meeting Dos Goal 5 is to
reduce all Non-Arc Time as much as possible. Necessary Non-Arc Time tasks
can never be completely eliminated but their times can be reduced. Non-Arc
Time steps that are unnecessary can be completely eliminated.

Non-Arc Time tasks that are necessary are as follows:

Initial equipment setup

Layout

Alignment and fitting of parts

Tacking of parts (if parts are positioned in a fixture, this task may be elimi-
nated)

Setup prior to the deposition of each weld pass

Time between passes

Cleaning during welding (although deslagging is unnecessary for non-flux


welding processes)

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Movement between arcing segments

Grindinginterpass and final

Preheating (when required)

All of the above tasks are necessary as part of welding. The supervisor can
influence and control the amount of time that is used in performing these tasks.
For example, if the parts needed to be loaded into a weld fixture are properly
placed around the fixture, the welder can save a lot of hand, foot, and body
movements. Without proper parts positioning the welder can spend an inordi-
nate amount of time walking or reaching to pick up parts.

As another example, the amount of grinding that the welder does can be greatly
influenced by the size and shape of the weld bead. A properly shaped weld
bead that is made to size can be ground in a fraction of the time of an oversized
weld. Too often when welders know they are going to grind a weld they will
not put the proper care into that weld to control weld size. This leads to addi-
tional grinding by the welder to produce an acceptable finished weld surface.

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It is evident from these examples that both the welder and the welding super-
visor affect the time required for non-arc necessary tasks that the welder must
perform. One of the most valuable activities for the supervisor is to spend time
in the workstations with the welders to observe, monitor, and support their
daily activities. The amount of savings that can be realized by observing and
thereby reducing necessary non-arc welding time can be significant.

The elimination of non-arc welding time for unnecessary tasks should not
be neglected. A problem with these tasks is that in some cases they have
been occurring for so long that they have taken on the appearance of necessary
tasks. The following examples are unnecessary tasks that can sometimes seem
necessary:

Locating missing parts

Reworking parts not made to print

Using welding fixtures that are not in good working order

Delays caused by welding equipment breakdowns

Waiting for clarification of instructions

Compensating for engineering drawing errors

Delaying caused by filler metals and consumable parts not readily available

The problem with the above list is that too often many of these issues seem
unfixable. The belief is that since they have been happening for so long that
nothing can be done about them. Or they only happen occasionally and there-
fore are not a big deal. Both of these beliefs are not true.

Much of what causes the welders to perform unnecessary tasks are little things
that keep happening throughout the course of the shift. The fact that they are
just little things and many do not take up a considerable amount of time is not
really the issue. The real issue is that these tasks happen repeatedly to many
welders and on most shifts. These types of issues are systemic problems that,
when traced back to their source and solved, will yield significant reductions in
wasted motion and delay time.

For the welding supervisor it is important not that they solve all of these prob-
lems, but that they consistently monitor and report occurrences without becom-
ing complacent. The following example serves to illustrate this point.

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A company has a 15% Operating Factor, and a welding component cycle time
of 60 minutes. This equates to an arc time per hour of:

Arc Time = Labor Time I Operating Factor

Labor Time = 60 minutes

Operating Factor = 15% 100 = 0.15 (decimal form)

Arc Time = 60 minutes I 0.15

Arc Time = 9 minutes

Non-Arc Time = Labor Time Arc Time

Non-Arc Time = 60 minutes 9 minutes

Non-Arc Time = 51 minutes

If the company were able to save, through the elimination of some Non-Arc
Time unnecessary tasks, and reduce the time duration of some necessary Non-
Arc Time tasks, a total of 10 minutes out of 51 Non-Arc Time minutes, the
new Non-Arc Time will be 51 10 = 41 minutes.

With this reduction of non arc time by 10 minutes, what would the Total Labor
Time, Operating Factor and productivity improvement be?

As previously shown:

Labor Time = Arc Time + Non-Arc Time

Labor Time = 9 minutes + 41 minutes

Labor Time = 50 minutes

Operating Factor = Arc Time Labor Time

Operating Factor = 9 minutes 50 minutes

Operating Factor = 0.176 or I 100 = 18%

Productivity Improvement = Old Labor Time New Labor Time I 100


Old Labor Time

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Productivity Improvement = 60 50 I 100


60

Productivity Improvement = 16.6%

Several important arguments can be made from this example. The most com-
pelling is that a 10-minute savings achieved from reducing Non-Arc Time
tasks results in a 16.6% productivity improvement. To achieve the same
amount of productivity improvement from Arc Time would mean completely
eliminating all the welding time and 1 minute more. This of course is a physi-
cal impossibility. Since Non-Arc Time is a much greater percentage of the
welders Total Labor Time than Arc Time, the potential for improvement is
greatest with Non-Arc Time.

The opportunity for productivity improvements from Dos Goals 4 and 5 is


even greater than can be achieved from Dos Goals 1 and 2. This will begin to
change as the Operating Factor begins to reach 50%. Once the percentage of
Arc and Non-Arc Time approaches 50%, the amount of savings that can be
achieved in either Arc or Non-Arc Time reductions will have the same effect
on welding productivity.

A method can be used to determine the present Operating Factor for any
company, either by department, section, or company-wide by the following
steps:

1. Take the number of welders using the same process for a given department,
section, or company-wide and calculate how many hours they have worked
over a specific period of time such as one year, one month or one week.

2. Survey the welding machines that these welders are using and establish a
good representative average welding current or wire feed speed. From this
number a filler metal deposition rate can be determined.

3. For the same period of time, determine how many pounds of wire or elec-
trodes have been issued and used by the welders in the area under consider-
ation. Take this weight of filler metal or electrodes and multiple it by the
deposition efficiency factor to get the amount of deposited filler metal.

If a company issued 10,000 pounds of weld metal (obtain from company


records) and the deposition efficiency factor is 90% (0.90 decimal form),
then the amount of deposited filler metal is Deposited Metal = Filler
Metal Bought I Deposition Efficiency or

Deposited Metal = 10,000 pounds I 0.90 = 9,000 pounds

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4. Take this deposited filler metal figure and divide it by the filler metal
deposition rate. The result will be the arc time in hours at 100% Operating
Factor that it would take to deposit all of the filler metal consumed.

If the companys filler metal deposition rate is 9 pounds/hr. and the


amount of Deposited Metal is 9,000 pounds, then the Arc Time = Deposited
Metal Deposition Rate or

Arc Time = 9,000 pounds 9 pounds/hr. = 1000 arc hours

5. Take this arc time and divide it by the number of welder hours from Step 1
and this will give a rough Operating Factor. The accuracy of this approach
will depend on how accurate the quantity of filler metal used is, the accu-
racy of the amperage or wire feed speed of the welding, and the accuracy of
the number of actual welder hours for doing welding.

If the companys Total Labor Time for welders was 5000 man-hours, then
the Operating Factor = Arc Time Total Labor Time or

Operating Factor = 1000 arc hours 5000 total hours = 20%

A company has 150 welders using the Flux Cored Arc Welding process, using
0.052 in. diameter wire at an average of 200 amperes. Over a one-year period
these welders consumed 350,000 pounds of Flux Core Arc wire. Over this one-
year period what was their Operating Factor?

Step 1. 150 welders I 1700 hrs./year = 255,000 Hours used by the Flux Core
Arc Welders.

Step 2. 200 amperes using 0.052 in. wire would yield 6.0 pounds/hr. of
welder deposition rate at a 100% Operating Factor.

Step 3. Company records showed that 350,000 pounds of Flux Core Wire
were consumed by the welders during the one-year period.

350,000 pounds I 0.85 (deposition efficiency for Flux Cored Wire) =


297,000 pounds of deposited filler metal

Step 4. 297,000 pounds 6.0 pounds/hr. = 49,583 hrs. of arc time to weld this
quantity of wire if welding at 100% Operating Factor.

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Step 5. Operating Factor = Arc Time Total Labor Hours

Operating Factor = 49,583 arc time hrs. 255,000 Total Labor Hours.

Operating Factor = 0.194 I 100 = 19.4%

Lets take a real life example to help demonstrate how the welding econom-
ics work and what the benefits can be from following the five Dos Goals.

The welding supervisor has a crew with ten welders. The supervisor does an
initial review of the welding of these ten welders and finds the following:

Although the average size of the fillet welds shown on the engineering
drawings is 1/4 in., the welders are depositing a 5/16 in. fillet weld by mea-
surement. From the comparison chart in Figure 10.6, the supervisor real-
izes that the welders are overwelding by 57% by volume and weight of
filler metal. Since, the welding arc time is 2,968 man-hours, correcting the
welding sizes and making 1/4 in. size fillet welds would result in a gain in
welding footage equivalent to 1,692 additional arc-welding hours.

The supervisor then checks each welders weld parameters. They are using
Gas Metal Arc Welding Process with a 0.045 in. diameter wire in the spray
mode with an average wire feed speed of 300 inches per minute, which has
a deposition rate from the chart of 8.0 lbs./hr. The supervisor also knows
that with a little retraining the welders could learn to weld at 500 inches per
minute with a new deposition rate of 13.0 lbs./hr. This change in deposition
rate would result in a reduction of arc time per weldment of 38%. Using the
new deposition rate would be the equivalent increase in welding footage of
1,127 additional arc-welding hours.

The supervisor also looks at the welders rework and repair rate. In this
example, almost all defect conditions in the welding department are
resolved by rework and repair, not by scrapping the defective parts. The
supervisor, by closely monitoring the welders, finds that 10% of the welds
made require either rework or repair and that most is due to the welders not
following the welding procedures and essential welding variables. The
supervisor soon realizes that by correcting this situation by having the
welders work in accordance with the essential welding variables, results in
the rework and repair rate being reduced by 50%. The rework and repair
was found to consume 890 man-hours a year. A reduction of 50% would
result in a savings of 445 man-hours a year.

After gathering the above information, the supervisor calculates an operat-


ing factor as follows:

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Step 1. 10 welders I 1,700 man-hours/year = 17,000 man-hours used by


the Gas Metal Arc welders.

Step 2. 300 amperes using 0.045 in. wire would yield 8.0 lbs./hr. of
welder deposition rate at a 100% operating factor.

Step 3. Records showed that the welders consumed 25,000 pounds of Gas
Metal Arc Solid Wire during the one-year period.

25,000 lbs. I 0.95 (deposition efficiency for Gas Metal Arc Wire)
= 23,750 lbs. of deposited filler metal

Step 4. 23,750 lbs. 8.0 lbs./hr. = 2,968 hrs. of arc time to weld this quan-
tity of wire if welding at 100% Operating Factor.

Step 5. Operating Factor = Arc Time Total Labor Time

Operating Factor = 2,968 Arc Time hrs. 17,000 Total Labor


Hours.

Operating Factor = 0.175 I 100 = 17.5%

This operating factor means that 82.5% of the welders time is spent in Non-
Arc Time activities. In other words, of the 17,000 hours spent by the ten weld-
ers and only 2,968 Arc Time hours the other 14,032 hours were spent doing
Non-Arc Time (necessary and unnecessary) things as previously discussed.
However, some of this time was used either doing rework and repair, or as
work effort and was lost and wasted time. The supervisor found that by identi-
fying the unnecessary time losses and reducing the necessary tasks to more
efficient times, a savings of 20% in Non-Arc Time could be achieved. Since
the Non-Arc Time is 14,032 hours this would result in a labor-hour savings of
approximately 2,800 hours per year.

After the welding supervisor made these improvements, the results achieved
were quantified for productivity and dollar cost improvement.

Reduced Overwelding 1,692 hours

Reduced Arc Time per Weld Length 1,127 hours

Reduced Rejects, Rework, and Scrap 445 hours

Reduced Work Effort, Wasted and Lost Time 2,800 hours

Total Productivity Increase 6,064 hours

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These total savings represent slightly over 35% overall productivity improvement.

The total cost benefit of these improvements can be calculated by obtaining the
companys labor rate + benefits + overhead fixed costs. This figure for most
companies is available from the accountant or comptroller of the company. For
the sake of this example, a rate of $45.00/hr. will be used.

6,064 labor hours (productivity improvement) I $45.00/hr. = $272,880 per year.

With this example it is easy to see that the welding supervisor can make a
significant productivity and cost savings impact for his company by using the
information available in this manual and making improvements in his own
department.

The introduction of so many terms and concepts may appear overwhelming


when first encountered, however, when they are all put together in some exam-
ple problems, it will be somewhat clearer. To aid in the effort of connecting
these economic concepts together, the following examples should prove to be
helpful.

Lets take a look at another real life, everyday situation in the environment that
we all work in every day.

We pay welders to weld. Therefore a foreman entering a workstation or depart-


ment can typically find 3 welders welding or performing some welding-related
function. All seems well; after all, the welders seem to be doing what they
were hired and paid to do. But are they really?

Assume the following:

1. Labor: $42.00 an hour

2. Flux-core wire: $1.25 per pound

3. Flux core has an 85% deposition efficiency (from Table 10.6)

4. An 8 hour work day is performed

All 3 welders have been asked to weld 500 feet of 3/16 in. fillet weld at
250 amps with a 45% arc time. Carbon steel that has a density of 0.283 pounds
per cubic inch is being welded.

NOTE: 45% arc time is 27 minutes of every hour, or 3 hours and 36 minutes
of the work day.

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There is also a reason why 500 feet was chosen: this will become evident
momentarily.

WELDER A

Welder A gives us exactly what we asked for. Lets do the math.

0.1875 I 0.1875 I 0.5 I 12 I 0.283 = 0.0596 pounds per foot.

500 feet I 0.0596 = 29.8 pounds of weld metal deposited into the joint.

At 85% deposition efficiency, 35.05 pounds of wire will have to be purchased.

At 250 amps, depositing 8.2 pounds an hour, the welder can weld 137.6 feet an
hour at 100% arc time.

In an 8 hour day, he can weld 1100 feet. Now with a 45% arc time, he can weld
495.3 feet a day. Rounded off, that is 500 feet and the reason why I chose it as
our baseline.

So 35.05 pounds of wire times $1.25 a pound equals $43.82 for consumable
cost.

8 hours labor times $42.00 an hour equals $336.00.

Welder A: Cost equals $379.82 to weld 500 feet of 3/16 in. fillet weld at
250 amps.

WELDER B

Welder B slightly overwelds and gives us a 1/4 in. fillet instead of the 3/16 in.
we asked for. He also only welds at 225 amps and with an arc time of 35%.
Lets do the math.

0.250 I 0.250 I 0.5 I 12 I 0.283 = 0.106 pounds per foot.

500 feet I 0.106 = 53.06 pounds of weld metal deposited into the joint.

At 85% deposition efficiency, 62.4 pounds of wire will have to be purchased.

Now at 225 amps, he will be depositing 7.0 pounds per hour.

53.06 ) 7.0 = 7.58 hours at 100% arc time. At 35% arc time, labor hours will
be 21.65.

So 62.4 pounds of wire at $1.25 pound = $78.00.

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Labor at $42.00 I 21.65 hours would cost $909.30.

Welder B: The direct cost for this weld is $987.30 to weld the 500 feet. The
resulting weld is 1/16 in. larger than specified and the total assembly
weighs almost 27 lbs. more than the engineer wanted. Welder B also took
more than 13 extra hours to deliver this out-of-spec weld.

WELDER C

Now returning to our original premisewe are looking at a real life, everyday
situation. So lets use Welder C as our realistic welder.

His foreman is not checking his weld size, nor his amperage and never
instructed him as to any kind of footage expectancy. So what do you get from
Welder C?

He overwelds a 3/16 in. fillet and gives us a 5/16 in. fillet. His amperage is 180
and at the end of the day he had a 20% arc time. Lets do the math.

0.3125 I 0.3125 I 0.5 I 12 I 0.283 = 0.165 pounds per foot.

500 feet I 0.165 = 82.9 pounds of weld metal deposited into the joint.

At 85% deposition efficiency, 97.5 pounds of wire will have to be purchased.

Now at 180 amps, he will be depositing 5.08 pounds per hour.

82.9 ) 5.08 = 16.31 hours at 100% arc time. At 20% arc time, labor hours will
be 81.6.

So 97.5 pounds of wire at $1.25 pound = $121.86.

Labor at $42.00 I 81.6 = $3,477.2

Welder C: The direct cost for this weld is $3,599.06 to weld 500 feet. The
resulting weld is 1/8 in. larger than specified and the total assembly weighs
almost 62.45 lbs. more than the engineer required. Welder C also took
more than 73.6 extra hours to deliver this out-of-spec weld.

Compare Welders A, B, and C

Welder A: $379.82

Welder B: $987.30 (Almost 3 times more than A)

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Welder C: $3,599.06 (Almost 10 times more than A)

- Based upon the examples used in this chapter, you are now aware that actual
Operating Factors are lower than what you might have expected. Many super-
visors think that their welders are making welds the majority of the time the
welders are at their workstations. Experience and surveys have shown that this
is not the casewhich is why so much improvement is possible when sound
principals are used to achieve the Five Welding Dos Goals.

As shown, the supervisor can affect every facet of welding economics and
productivity through the use of the Five Welding Dos Goals.

A quick review of the actions that the welding supervisor can take related to
each of the Five Welding Dos Goals to improve welding quality and
productivity the summary for each Dos Goal are:

Make sure that welders check their fillet welds and reinforcement weld
sizes with weld gages and weld length for intermittent welds.

Monitor the weld sizes and take corrective action when over or undersized.

Make sure that welders know the correct weld sizes.

Verify fitups to help prevent oversized welding.

Make sure welders use the highest amperage (wire feed speed) value
allowed in the welding procedure.

Monitor the amperages or wire feed speeds against quality requirements to


assure that quality is maintained.

Verify that the welding process with the greatest deposition rate is being
used.

Look for opportunities to use automatic welding that can use much higher
deposition rates.

- -

Verify that all welders are capable of inspecting their own work.

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Monitor welding before it leaves your area to ensure that it meets the appli-
cable acceptance criteria.

Ensure that welders understand the essential welding variables for the
welding processes they are using and monitor them periodically to ensure
that the essential welding variables are followed.

Check weld assembly for accessibility.

Weld joints in flat or horizontal position whenever possible.

Make sure welds are positioned at a comfortable height whenever possible.

Make sure welding equipment and fixtures are in good working order.

Make sure parts are available when needed

Improve positioning and handling parts before and after assembly.

Look for unnecessary hand, foot and body movements.

Bring the work to the welder, when possible.

The Key Concepts discussed in this chapter are summarized in Table 10.7.
-

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Economics of Welding and Cutting, Chapter 12, AWS Welding Handbook,


Vol. 1, Ninth Edition.

-- 1. A welder using the FCAW process welds for 15 minutes out of every
hour. What is the welders Operating Factor?
A. 10%
B. 15%
C. 25%
D. 30%
E. 35%

2. A welder using the SMAW process welds for 12 minutes out of every
hour. What is the welders Operating Factor?
A. 5%
B. 10%
C. 15%
D. 20%
E. 25%

3. A welder using the SAW process welds for 30 minutes out of every hour.
What is the welders Operating Factor?
A. 10%
B. 25%
C. 50%
D. 80%
E. 90%

4. A welding job requires 25 feet of 1/4 in. carbon steel fillet weld. The
FCAW welding process used has an 85% deposition efficiency. Approxi-
mately how much filler metal will be required to weld this job? Assume
the density of carbon steel is 0.283 lbs./cu. in.
A. 2.0 pounds
B. 3.0 pounds
C. 6.0 pounds
D. 7.0 pounds
E. 7.5 pounds

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5. A welding job requires 120 feet of full penetration square groove welds in
a 1/4 in. carbon steel plate with 1/8 in. gap and a backing strip. The SAW
welding process used has a 95% deposition efficiency. Carbon steel has a
density of 0.283 lbs./ cu. in. Approximately how much filler metal will be
required, assuming no reinforcement?

A. 9.0 pounds
B. 10.0 pounds
C. 11.0 pounds
D. 12.0 pounds
E. 13.0 pounds

6. A welding job requires 30 feet of full penetration weld in a 3/16 in. carbon
steel plate with 1/16 in. gap, welded from both sides. The SMAW welding
process used has a 6% deposition efficiency. Carbon steel has a density of
0.283 lbs./cu. in. Approximately how much filler metal will be required,
assuming no reinforcement?

A. 2.0 pounds
B. 3.0 pounds
C. 4.0 pounds
D. 5.5 pounds
E. 6.0 pounds

7. If the labor time to perform a welding task is 3 hours and 30 minutes and
the Total Arc Time is 1 hour, how much of the time is Non-Arc Time?

A. 1 hour and 45 minutes


B. 1 hour and 30 minutes
C. 2 hours and 30 minutes
D. 1 hour and 15 minutes
E. None of the above.

8. If the labor time to perform a welding task is 2 hours and 45 minutes and
the Total Arc Time is 30 minutes, how much of the time is Non-Arc
Time?

A. 2 hours and 15 minutes


B. 1 hour and 30 minutes
C. 1 hour and 15 minutes
D. 1 hour
E. None of the above.

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9. A welding task requires 1 hour and 30 minutes of Arc Time, using a weld-
ing process that has a 35% Operating Factor. Approximately how many
labor hours will it take the welder to complete this task?
A. 2 hours and 48 minutes
B. 3 hours and 10 minutes
C. 1 hours and 15 minutes
D. 30 minutes
E. 4 hours and 30 minutes

10. A welding task that requires 10 lbs. of deposited filler metal is being done
using the SMAW process. E-7018 electrode with a deposition rate of 4 lbs./
hour is being used. If the welding process is changed to use FCAW, E-70T-
4 electrode with a deposition rate of 10 lbs./hr., approximately how much
Total Arc Time will be saved?
A. 90 minutes
B. 75 minutes
C. 150 minutes
D. 50 minutes
E. 200 minutes

11. A welder using FCAW process and E70T-1 electrode can weld up a job in
30 minutes of Arc Time with a 7 lbs./hr. deposition rate. Another welder
does the same job using SAW process with a single electrode and a depo-
sition rate of 15 lbs./hr. Approximately how much time will the second
welder require to do the same job?
A. 6 minutes
B. 10 minutes
C. 14 minutes
D. 18 minutes
E. 24 minutes

12. A welder using the SMAW process and E-7018 electrode is making a ver-
tical weld using 180 amperes and the job takes 30 Total Arc Time minutes
with a deposition rate of 4 lbs./hr. The job is repositioned so that the
welder can weld it in the flat position using 250 amperes with a deposition
rate of 6 lbs./hr. Approximately how many arc time minutes will be saved
with this new method?
A. 2 minutes
B. 4 minutes
C. 7 minutes
D. 10 minutes
E. 13 minutes

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13. A welding job using GMAW process in the short circuit mode on out of
position fillet welds using 150 amperes with a deposition rate of 4 lbs./hr.
requires 75 minutes of Arc Time to weld. The out of position fillet welds
are repositioned so that they can be done in the flat position using GMAW
in the spray mode at 260 amps with a deposition rate of 9 lbs./hr. Approx-
imately how much time will it take to weld the fillets in the new weld
position?
A. 22 minutes
B. 33 minutes
C. 38 minutes
D. 18 minutes
E. 44 minutes

14. The engineering drawings call out for 1/4 in. fillet welds totaling 75 linear
feet of welds. The welder makes welds that are consistently 5/16 in. fillet
welds. Approximately how much weld metal volume should have been
used and how much weld metal volume did the welder actually use?
A. 65 cu. in. and 100 cu. in.
B. 35 cu. in. and 50 cu. in.
C. 56 cu. in. and 88 cu. in.
D. 28 cu. in. and 44 cu. in.
E. None of the above.

15. Using the example below approximately how much filler metal will be
required to make the 1/4 in. fillet welds?
A. 2.0 pounds
B. 2-1/2 pounds
C. 3-1/4 pounds
D. 3-3/4 pounds
E. 4-1/2 pounds

A welding job requires 20 linear feet of 1/4 in. fillet welds, 45 linear feet
of 1/8 in. fillet welds and 30 linear feet of 5/16 in. fillet welds. The job is
to be welded using FCAW process and 250 amperes with a deposition
rate of 7.5 lbs./hr. on all fillet weld sizes. The non-arc welding time
including set-up, loading and unloading of fixtures and welders move-
ments is 2 hours and 40 minutes. The deposition efficiency for FCAW is
85%. The weld metal density is 0.283 lbs./cu. in.

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16. Using the same example above, approximately how much filler metal will
be required to make the 1/8 in. fillet welds?
A. 1/2 pounds
B. 1 pounds
C. 1-1/2 pounds
D. 2 pounds
E. 2-1/2 pounds

17. Using the same example above, approximately how much filler metal will
be required to make the 5/16 in. fillet welds?
A. 4 pounds
B. 4-5/8 pounds
C. 5-1/4 pounds
D. 5-7/8 pounds
E. 6-1/4 pounds

18. From the same example above, what is the approximate amount of filler
metal required to make all three sizes of fillet welds?
A. 8-1/2 pounds
B. 7-1/4 pounds
C. 9-3/4 pounds
D. 6-1/2 pounds
E. 9 pounds

19. Based on the information from the same example above, approximately
how much arc time will be required to make all of the fillet welds?
A. 60 minutes
B. 70 minutes
C. 80 minutes
D. 90 minutes
E. 100 minutes

20. Using the same example above, approximately how much labor time will
be needed to complete this job?
A. 4 hours and 00 minutes
B. 3 hours and 30 minutes
C. 3 hours and 10 minutes
D. 2 hours and 30 minutes
E. 1 hours and 20 minutes

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-- 1. C
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. E
6. A
7. C
8. A
9. E
10. A
11. C
12. D
13. B
14. D
15. B
16. C
17. D
18. E
19. C
20. A

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The application of welding standards and codes is not well understood by most
welding supervisors. This is usually the result of the lack of formal training in
the use of standards and codes as they apply to welding.

Very often supervisors are not told about contract welding standard require-
ments because the individual responsible for negotiating the contract is not
very knowledgeable about welding standards and codes. As a result, the super-
visor becomes aware of a specific standard or code requirement only after it is
missed, which then requires rework to correct. With proper understanding and
communication, most of these situations can be avoided. The use of standards
and codes as they apply to welding is not difficult for the supervisor to under-
stand. Even though there are many standards and codes, there are just a few
that are widely used.

-
-
- 1. AWS D1.1, Structural Welding CodeSteel
2. AWS D1.2, Structural Welding CodeAluminum
3. AWS D1.3, Structural Welding CodeSheet Steel
4. AWS D1.6, Structural Welding CodeStainless Steel

1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sections I, III, IV, VIII, and IX,
ASME Piping CodeSections

1. Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels

1. API 650, Welded Tanks for Oil Storage


2. API 1104, Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities

1. MIL-STD 1689, Fabrication Welding and Inspection of Ship Structures


2. MIL-STD 22, Welded Joint Design

This is not a complete list of standards and codes, but provides some idea of
how many different types of standards and codes are available for industries to
choose from for a given welding application. In many cases, standards are

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written to provide specific welding technical data, as well as instructions for


welding a product. Often the owner, prime contractor, or government body,
with jurisdiction as a requirement of the contract, adopts a specific standard or
code. Where public safety is an issue, the use of a specific standard may be
required by governmental legislation. When reviewing the various codes and
standards for welding requirements, it is interesting to note that they all address
welding in the same way. This is expected because welding is a science. To
ensure weld quality, welding codes contain few differences.

An important aspect to remember when using standards and codes is their


use of terminology. As an example, when they use the word shall, this
means the provision of the code is mandatory. When the verb should is
used, it is to recommend a practice that is beneficial but not mandatory.
When the verb may is used, it refers to some option that is available to
supplement the standard or code requirement.

The basic format or structure used in codes and standards is as follows:

This section of the standard or code usually states what the scope and limita-
tions of the particular standard or code is. Examples include which types of
structures, components, equipment, or parts are covered by the requirements
contained in the standard.

- -

This information is contained in a particular standard, or if not, in a standard


that is referenced where these design requirements are found. These design
requirements cover what types of weld joints to use, and how the strength of
these different weld joints is calculated. Following the design requirements is
reflected in the welding symbol that appears on the engineering drawing show-
ing which welded connection (weld joint) the designer has selected.

In standards and codes, there is always someone responsible for specify-


ing the welding requirements. The Designer or Engineer of Record is that
person.

This designer or engineer is responsible for providing the following:

Full documentation including engineering drawings with weld symbols for


use on the contract.

The code or standard with the year or edition the document was issued.

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Nondestructive Testing used on the contract.

The acceptance criteria by which the Nondestructive Testing is evaluated.

Special requirements for welding, if any, and any additional requirements


not identified in the code or standard. These special requirements may
include static vs. cyclic structures, seismic provisions, fracture critical for
bridges, etc. Sometimes these special situations can turn the normal code
requirements on their heads. We could include this explanation in the last
bullet item as examples.

This requirement in the standards and codes is usually covered in two ways:
prequalified and qualification by testing. Not all standards and codes include
the prequalification option. Where prequalification is allowed, the require-
ments are very rigid, because of the need to follow all of the essential welding
variables without exception. In many cases, a company may find this too
restrictive and may decide instead to qualify their own procedure using essen-
tial welding variables that are more in line with their own practices and needs.

The prequalified option contains some codes and standards used where
the WPS that is needed is so commonplace and has been qualified so
many times in the past that the welding parameters and specific infor-
mation needed to qualify the WPS are well-established and unquestioned.
Under those circumstances, a particular code will allow a company to use
a WPS that contains all of the welding parameters and specific infor-
mation required for that weld without requiring the company to perform a
PQR.

Welder qualifications are handled in a similar way in all codes and standards.
Welders are required to take a test that has specific welding variables, such as
thickness of test coupon, weld position, and welding process, and need to
follow an already approved welding procedure.

These are the rules and requirements for the preparation, assembly, and
workmanship of the welded structure, equipment, or component covered by
the standard or code.

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The welding supervisor is the person most involved from the fabricator or
contractor side and is responsible for helping create and use the Welding
Procedure Specification. The supervisor is also responsible for making
sure only qualified welders use the procedures. With inspection responsi-
bility falling more on the welders, the supervisor is responsible for verify-
ing that all work done by their welders meets the standard or code
welding acceptance requirements.

This section contains the inspection requirements for the welded connections
specified, and the acceptance criteria for each type of inspection method, espe-
cially visual and nondestructive testing. In addition, it contains the criteria for
the qualifications and responsibilities of inspectors or refers to another com-
panion standard where the information can be found.

In some cases, the Designer or Engineer of Record may require a verifica-


tion inspection. This inspection is most often done by outside inspectors.
The use of outside inspectors is not a reflection on the welders or super-
visors, but is in most cases a requirement of the contract or owner, who
specifies third party involvement. In this case, the supervisor contacts the
outside inspector when the weld is ready for inspection. Many supervisors
consider this an inconvenience because of the disruption to the workflow.
However, it is also an opportunity for the supervisor that is verifying the
quality of the weld to gain valuable information. When the outside inspec-
tors have completed their inspection, if they have found no visual defects,
then it is an indication to the supervisor that their own inspections are
thorough. If the weld does not pass, the supervisor can see what was
missed and then improve his own and the welders performance for the
next weld inspection. If the weld is inspected with subsurface inspection
methods such an Ultrasonic or Radiograph Inspection, the results of this
test will reveal to the supervisor how well the Welding Procedure Specifi-
cation (WPS) is working and how proficient the welders were on those
welds.

Of the fabrication requirements covered by the standards and codes, the ones
that are the most important to the welding supervisor are qualification of weld-
ing procedures, welder qualification, fabrication, and visual inspection. This
chapter will cover these areas in more detail.

An important point to remember is that even though there is a great deal of


similarity in welding requirements in each standard and code, there are still

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-

differences. It is important that welding supervisors do not take their knowl-


edge of one welding standard for granted, and therefore assume that another
standard handles a particular welding issue the same way. Whenever the super-
visor begins working with a new standard, the referenced standard that will be
used must be checked to prevent a mistake from occurring.

Welders and welding supervisors consistently use welding procedures on any


job that has a requirement for the adherence to a particular standard. All weld-
- ing on a job that is covered by a standard is done following an approved weld-
ing procedure. The welding supervisor is responsible for assuring that welders
assigned to them are following all of the essential welding variables contained
in the procedures for that job.

A qualified welding procedure, also referred to as a Welding Procedure Speci-


fication (WPS), can either be prequalified if the standard allows, or qualified
by test. A Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) is generated if the qualifica-
tion is by test. The WPS is written to record the essential welding variables that
will be used in the qualification test and in production. Then a PQR is created
to record the essential welding variables that are used in the test. This is neces-
sary because the WPS has established ranges for many of the essential welding
variables and the PQR records the actual value for an essential welding vari-
able used during the test. A WPS will also record other nonessential welding
variables for information only, such as gas cup size. The actual values of these
variables are not required for the PQR. The PQR will also contain the results of
the qualification test, such as the tensile test results and the bend tests. The
qualification of other type WPSs, such as fillet welds, may require other tests,
such as break tests or macro etching, for determining the amount of fusion.

Welding supervisors sometimes administer qualification tests to welders. This


- test requires the welder to make a weld on test coupons following the approved
WPS. The size of the test coupon is determined by how many test specimens
must be removed from the coupon. All this information is specified in the
welding standard or code for which the test is run.

For the supervisor, the administration of this test is no different than produc-
tion, as the welders are required to follow an approved WPS during the test. In
production, the welder is required to follow the approved WPS to make welds.
The only difference is that the test coupon will be destructively and possibly
nondestructively tested. The production weld may only be nondestructively
tested. Upon successful completion of the destructive test, the welders test
papers or test record is written, containing the essential welding variables to
which they qualified and the results of the destructive tests are recorded.

- Table 11.1 contains a comparison of three well used, but somewhat different
standards. This table shows that many similarities exist between the qualifica-
- tion of welders from one standard to another.

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-

--
- --- --


- -


- - - -
-

-- -- - --

-

-



-
--
- - - -
-- -- --

Below is a summary of the types of information generally contained in each


section of the most commonly used standards.

The fabrication requirements in different welding standards contain many of


the elements that have already been discussed in this manual. The following
are some of the typical points that are addressed in the fabrication section of a
standard.

Welding Consumables and Electrode Requirements. This section


includes the selection, storage and control of electrodes on the job site or
factory floor.

Welding Procedures Specifications. This section addresses the need to fol-


low all welding variables contained in the WPS during welding, including
any preheat, heat input, and stress relief requirements contained in the WPS.

Welding and Cutting Equipment. This section concerns the need to


maintain the equipment in good working order.

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-

Welding Environment. This section includes factors that could affect weld
quality such as maximum wind velocity and minimum ambient temperatures.

Preparation of Base Metals. This section usually concerns the edge


preparation or surface where a weld is required to insure that no defects in
the base metal are present.

Temporary and Tack Welds. The treatment of these temporary welds and
their removal, and the tack welds that are either incorporated into a finished
weld and those that are not, is covered here.

Control of Distortion and Shrinkage. This section usually addresses the


sequencing, weld progression, restraint and temperature limitations that
can affect distortion after welding.

Repairs. In the event that a repair becomes necessary, this section covers
how the repairs are to be made and what approvals are necessary.

This section of any standard is designed to do the following:

Identifies what inspections and nondestructive tests will be required. This


is determined by the design engineer specifying what types of structures
will require inspection and then the type and degree of inspection that is to
be applied. Included are the acceptance criteria for each type of non-
destructive inspection.

Identifies the level of training, experience, and testing that the inspector
must undergo to be qualified for working with the welding standard.

Specifies what other items need to be inspected in addition to the nonde-


structive inspection, such as WPS, welder qualifications, and the need to
keep detailed reports on the results of these inspections.

One of the two most common types of certified inspectors the welding
supervisor encounters is the Certified Welding Inspector (CWI). This
inspectors qualifications and responsibilities are covered by the AWS
QC1, Standard for Certification of Welding Inspectors, previously dis-
cussed in this manual. The CWI is a Q.A. function, the CWI besides
visual inspection they will also audit many of the before, during, and after
welding activities. The other is the American Society of Nondestructive
Testing (ASNT) Inspector, which is covered under SNT-TC-1A. This cer-
tification covers all of the nondestructive testing methods. The most com-
mon are Visual, Liquid Penetrant, Magnetic Particle, Ultrasonic, and
Radiographic (see Chapter 12, Welding Inspection). The (ASNT) Inspec-
tor is a Q.C. function with no auditing responsibilities.

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Inspectors using the ASNT SNT-TC-1A Certification are classified as either


Level I, Level II, or Level III:

Level I. Individuals holding this level of qualification can conduct tests, set
up equipment and evaluate the results, but only under supervision from a
certified NDT Level II or Level III.

Level II. This individual is able to set up equipment, perform, interpret,


and evaluate results to any of the applicable codes, standards, or specifica-
tions. Level II must also to able to provide on-the-job training and guidance
for trainees and NDT Level I personnel.

Level III. This individual is capable of establishing techniques and


procedures; interpreting codes, standards, specifications, and procedures.
Level IIIs are responsible for creating inspection procedures and training, as
well as testing NDT, Level I, and Level II personnel. They are required to
administer the NDT inspection programs to meet all codes, standards, and
specifications.

Welding supervisors will most frequently come in contact with the NDT Level
II inspectors as they carry out specific NDT testing of welds, such as Visual,
Magnetic Particle or one of the other inspection methods. The job of the Level
II inspector is to conduct the specific test and interpret the results. If the welds
are acceptable, the supervisor knows that the welders have followed instruc-
tions and achieved the desired results. If weld defects are detected, the NDT
Level II inspector can explain the nature and type of these defects to the weld-
ing supervisor. He then can address corrective actions with the welders for
those defective welds, and thus prevent the occurrence of such defects in the
future.

- Most welding supervisors will come in contact with welding codes and stan-
dards in carrying out their responsibilities for welding. In many cases, this con-
tact is incomplete and after the fact, since companies have a tendency to isolate
or provide only partial information to the welding supervisor. Sometimes this
is the result of the management not understanding how many of the require-
ments in the code or standard affect welding. In other cases, the welding super-
visor, due to lack of training or instruction, feels overwhelmed by how to meet
the requirements of the standards and codes.

The welding supervisor can now see that there is no great mystery to the struc-
ture and content of welding standards and codes. The information presented in
this manual better prepares the supervisor to handle any requirement contained
in these standards and codes.

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-- 1. A PQR is used to qualify which of the following?


A. A pre-qualified procedure
B. A welder qualification
C. A visual inspection procedure
D. A WPS by test
E. A workmanship procedure

2. Which of the following individuals is involved in the use of a WPS on the


job?
A. Management Consultant
B. Inspector
C. Welder
D. Break press operator
E. A and C only

3. Which of the following is not normally a part of the fabrication require-


ments for a standard or code?
A. Welding procedure specification
B. Magnetic particle test
C. Welder Environment
D. Control of Distortion and Shrinkage
E. Tack welds

4. Which of the following is not normally a part of the inspection section of a


standard?
A. NDT requirement
B. Specific welds to be inspected
C. Inspector qualifications
D. Preparation of base metals
E. Welder qualifications

5. When using standards and codes, which of the following is the Design
Engineers responsibility?
A. NDT used on the contract
B. Qualification of the WPS
C. Qualification of the welders
D. Qualification of the inspectors
E. All of the above

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-

-- 1. D
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. A

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In Chapter 9, Welding Instruction, the four company management metrics
- were identified as quality, cost, throughput, and safety. The welding supervisor
must be able to understand and verify the quality of welding to assure that the
quality metric is met. To do this, the supervisor must first understand what a
quality weld is.

The designer must either develop or adopt a welding quality standard that
defines quality in both visual and measurable ways for each component part,
assembly, or structure being built. This quality standard answers the question
often asked, What is the welding quality required for this job? Without a
clearly defined welding quality standard, there is no way to get all of the indi-
viduals involved in welding to agree on what is required. This is demonstrated
when welding is completed, passed on by the welder as good, reviewed by the
supervisor as acceptable, and then rejected by the inspector, customer repre-
sentative, or someone else in authority over final product acceptance.

Without clearly defined and communicated welding quality standards, super-


visors feel powerless and resign themselves to doing the best they can. The super-
visors who understand the system of inspection and how they and their welders
fit in can take control of the quality of welding and prevent inspection rejects. The
first step for the welding supervisor is to understand all the various types of
inspections and their acceptance criteria. The common types are:

Visual Testing (VT)

Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)

Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)

Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Radiographic Testing (RT)

Some terms that a supervisor should be familiar with:

Relevant and non-relevant indicationterms sometimes used to


differentiate indications discovered during inspections, the relevant
ones are those that by their size, shape, and number may be defects.
The non-relevant ones are known to not be defects and disregarded.

Artifactthis term is used most often when discussing radiographic


film. It is an imperfection that shows up on the film which is related to
the film and not the weld being inspected. Unless the artifact ends up
masking the weld on the film so that it cannot be inspected, the artifact
is disregarded.

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Flaw and imperfectionthese are slang terms in welding denoting


the presence of a discontinuity in a weld.

Discontinuityinterruption of the typical expected weld structure of


the material, such as a lack of homogeneity in the mechanical, metal-
lurgical, or physical characteristics. A discontinuity is not necessarily
a defect.

Defectis a discontinuity that by its size, shape, or number exceeds


the acceptance criteria of the design engineer or specification. Defects
are always unacceptable. All defects are discontinuities, but not all
discontinuities are defects.

Acceptance criteria is the standard against which the person doing the inspec-
tion evaluates a weld. A supervisor and welder can visually inspect a weld the
same as a Certified Welding Inspector if they understand the acceptance crite-
ria used for that weld. Acceptance criteria contain information such as whether
undercut is allowed, and if so, how much, or the presence of overlap. The crite-
ria also defines how much porosity, if any, a weld bead can have. It may also
define the need to fill weld crater cross sections.

When the acceptance criteria is known and clearly defined, a welder and super-
visor can visually inspect their welds before any required inspections are
performed, and have a high degree of confidence that the welds will pass.
Visual inspection is the most common type of nondestructive welding inspec-
tion used.

Quality issues usually arise when a company fails to define what inspection
method and acceptance criteria will be used on a particular job. Without the
answer to this question, most welding inspections are more subjective. Every
welding supervisor has the responsibility to know what inspection method and
acceptance criteria will be used on each job.

One concern supervisors have is how to handle situations where no inspection


method or acceptance criteria has been defined. In some companies, this fre-
quently occurs. This situation can occur if the designer of the product is reluc-
tant to designate acceptance criteria, and specifies the use of an inspection
method that has been used before. Designers can also be reluctant to specify
acceptance criteria when they have not received training in inspection methods
and acceptance criteria. In all cases where inspection methods and acceptance
criteria are not defined, the supervisor must request that they be defined and
agreed to before welding begins. This will ensure acceptable quality welding
by allowing the welders to inspect their own work and the supervisor to moni-
tor the welding.

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-

Besides having access to visual acceptance criteria and knowing how to


use them, the supervisor must also have an understanding of the common
nondestructive inspection methods that are used to evaluate production welds.

- Before a welding supervisor can be expected to assist or perform a visual


-- inspection, he must understand what the discontinuities are that may be present
in a weld. The following is a list and description of visual discontinuities that
may be defects.

1. Porosity. This is in most cases a spherical cavity formed by gas entrap-


ment, resulting from contamination during welding. There are several
types of porosity:

Scattered porosity (see Figure 12.1)

Piping porosity (see Figure 12.2)

Elongated porosity (see Figure 12.3)

2. Incomplete Fusion. This is a discontinuity where, during a welding pass,


the surfaces of the base metal or the weld metal of a previous pass was not
melted by the arc, resulting in the new filler metal not fusing with the base
metal or weld metal (see Figure 12.4). Some of the causes are:

Improper welding technique

Improper joint design

Insufficient welding heat

Lack of access to fusion surfaces

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-

3. Incomplete Joint Penetration. This discontinuity occurs when the weld


metal fails to penetrate to the depth required by the weld symbol on the
engineering drawing (see Figures 12.5 and 12.6). Some common causes of
incomplete penetration are:

Insufficient welding heat

Improper joint design (weld process not capable of penetration


requirement)

Improper electrode travel angle

- -

4. Undercut. This is a groove melted into the toe or root of a weld that is not
subsequently filled by weld metal (see Figure 12.7). This groove results in a
mechanical notch that is a stress riser. Some potential causes of undercut are:

Improper transverse welding electrode angle

Excessive voltage

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-

5. Underfill. This is a condition where either the face or the root of the weld
is below the adjacent surface of the base material (see Figure 12.8). This
discontinuity is the result of a welder not completely filling the weld joint
to at least flush with the base material.

6. Overlap. This discontinuity is a protrusion of unfused weld metal beyond


the toe or root of the weld (see Figure 12.9). The discontinuity will also
result in a mechanical notch that is a stress riser. The formation of this
potential defect is the result of insufficient travel speed or incorrect trans-
verse electrode angle.

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-

7. Cracks. This is the most serious discontinuity that can occur and is always
considered a defect (see Figure 12.10). In appearance, cracks are sharp
tipped with a length-to-width ratio that is high. There are a number of
different orientations and types of cracks.

Longitudinal cracks (see Figure 12.11)

Transverse cracks

Throat cracks (see Figure 12.12)

Crater cracks

Face cracks

Heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracks

Root cracks

Toe cracks

Underbead crack

Cracks are the result of localized stresses from causes such as other discon-
tinuities, notches, or high restraint areas. Welding cracks exhibit little sign
of stretching. This is do to localized hardening of the cracked material.
(See Chapter 7, Steel Metallurgy, for more a detailed discussion on
cracking.)

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LEGEND:

1 CRATER CRACK
2 FACE CRACK
3 HEAT-AFFECTED-ZONE CRACK
4 LAMELLAR TEAR
5 LONGITUDINAL CRACK
6 ROOT CRACK
7 ROOT SURFACE CRACK
8 THROAT CRACK
9 TOE CRACK
10 TRANSVERSE CRACK
11 UNDERBEAD CRACK
12 WELD INTERFACE CRACK
13 WELD METAL CRACK

- -

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8. Metallic and Nonmetallic Inclusions. Metallic inclusion such as tungsten


in the weld can only result from the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process
(see Figure 12.13). While nonmetallic inclusions are usually slag from a
flux bearing process that has become entrapped in the molten weld metal,
slag inclusion are most likely the result of:

Improper welding techniques

Lack of adequate access to the weld joint

Improper cleaning of the weld between passes

- - Visual inspection is the most common inspection method used for evaluating
welds. It is always the first inspection method to be used, and in many cases,
the only one.

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--

In todays manufacturing and construction environment, the requirement to


make acceptable quality welds without a formal inspection has lead to welders
and supervisors performing visual inspections. The intent of the welders
visual inspection and the supervisors monitoring of the welds is to prevent
passing on defective welds that would be rejected by the Certified Welding
Inspector or customer representative, when outside inspection is required.
Where no additional inspection takes place except a random statistical inspec-
tion for auditing purposes, the need for welders to pass on only acceptable
quality welds is even more critical.

The purpose of any nondestructive testing should not be to find defects.


Instead, it should be used to verify that the process control for making the
welds being tested has worked. Defects that are discovered should be
investigated to put in place a corrective action that will improve the
process control and not just to repair the defective weld.

It is even more critical that the initial visual inspection be completed properly
when a second nondestructive inspection method follows the visual inspection.
It is important to ensure that all necessary steps before, during, and after weld-
ing, including the visual inspection, are done properly to obtain an acceptable
result in subsequent inspections.

For visual inspections, the welder and the supervisor both play critical roles. The
supervisors responsibility is to ensure that all the welders follow all the proce-
dures and instructions for the work they are doing. In addition, the supervisor must
monitor the welders during these steps to assure that they are being done properly.
To complete a weld successfully and pass visual inspection a welder must:

Before welding: have an acceptable weld fitup, including the correct bevel,
root face, and gap for butt joints, as required. In fillet welds, the proper

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angle of fitup with no gap over 1/16 in. Larger gaps will require an adjust-
ment to the fillet weld size or the need to refit the weld joint.

During welding: follow the essential welding variables and other parame-
ters in the approved welding procedure during welding.

After welding: visually inspect the weld following the approved accep-
tance criteria after the completion of the weld.

The role of the Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) is often misunderstood


by the welding supervisor. As a result, instead of a mutually supportive
relationship between the CWI and welding supervisor, in many cases it is
adversarial. This may be the result of the welding supervisor not under-
standing the responsibility of the CWI before, during, and after the weld-
ing is completed. If viewed properly, the CWI can provide much needed
feedback to the welding supervisor.

In addition, the supervisor must monitor the welders progress at each of these
points to assure that the welders are successfully following procedures and
instructions, and to assist in correcting any of the parts, parameters, values, or
results that are not as specified. To do this, the supervisor must be able to
spend sufficient time in the welders workstation. The subjects of proper parts
fitup and the essential welding variables have been covered in earlier chapters
of this manual. The subject of the how to conduct the visual inspection will be
addressed below.

Besides performing and administering NDT after the welding, the CWI has
additional responsibilities that must be carried out before welding begins.

Some of these responsibilities include:

Reviewing the engineering drawings

Checking base metals and filler metals to see that they match the engi-
neering drawings

Checking the condition of the filler metals

Checking the welding procedures and welder qualifications

Checking the weld joint edge geometries and joint fitup

Checking to see the joints are clean and that the preheat temperature, if
required, is correct per the welding procedure

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During the time the CWI is carrying out these responsibilities, he is in essence
an extra set of eyes that the welding supervisor can rely on, as the CWI is
checking many of the things that the supervisor must verify.

Every welder should visually inspect 100% of the welds they make. Monitor-
ing by the supervisor should be sufficient to assure that each welder is properly
performing the work assigned in the proper way. More monitoring time is
required for a new welder or a welder performing weld tasks that are different
than previously successfully done. All visual inspection is done using the spec-
ified acceptance criteria.

The following is an example of a typical acceptance criteria adapted from


AWS D1.1:2004, Table 6.1. Other welding standards have acceptance criteria.
Weld designers may also define their own acceptance criteria for their
welds. All visual inspection acceptance criteria should contain the following
information:

- -

1. Crack Prohibition. Any crack shall be unacceptable, regardless of size or


location.

2. Weld/Base-Metal Fusion. Through fusion shall exist between adjacent


layers of weld metal and between weld metal and base metal.

3. Crater Cross Section. All craters shall be filled to provide the specified
weld size, except for the ends of intermittent fillet welds outside of their
length.

4. Weld Profiles. Weld profiles shall be in conformance with AWS


D1.1:2004, Subsection 5.24 (see Figure 12.14).

5. Undersized Welds. The size of a fillet weld in any continuous weld may
be less than the specified nominal size without correction by the following
amounts as shown in the Table 12.1 However, the length of this undersized
fillet cannot exceed 10% of the total length of the weld.

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{A) DESIRABLE FILLET WELD PROFILES (B) ACCEPTABLE FILLET WELD PROFILES

Note 1. Convexity, C, of a weld or individual surface bead with dimension W shall not exceed the value of the following table:

WIDTH OF WELD FACE OR


INDIVIDUAL SURFACE BEAD, W MAX CONVEXITY, C
W s 5116 in. [8 mm] 1/16 in. [2 mm]
W > 5/16 in. [8 mm] TOW< 1 in. [25 mm] 1/8 in. [3 mm]
W ~ 1 in. [25 mm] 3/16 in. [5 mm]

I
1', :
1/
'>,
- --~~~--

~ SIZE --1 ~ SIZE --1

s
UNDERSIZE EXCESSIVE EXCESSIVE OVERLAP UNDERSIZE INCOMPLETE
WELD CONVEXITY UNDERCUT WELD FUSION

(C) UNACCEPTABLE FILLET WELD PROFILES ./' (Note 2)

[R(Note2) ~

~. . . -----4..8.1-::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::f~1~1 ~.-------(c:; )
[ R (Note 2)
BUTT JOINT- BUTT JOINT (TRANSITION)-
EQUAL THICKNESS PLATE UNEQUAL THICKNESS PLATE

Note 2. Reinforcement R shall not exceed 1/8 in. [3 mm] (see 5.24.4).
(D) ACCEPTABLE GROOVE WELD PROFILE IN BUTT JOINT

EXCESSIVE WELD UNDERFILL EXCESSIVE OVERLAP


REINFORCEMENT UNDERCUT
{E) UNACCEPTABLE GROOVE WELD PROFILES IN BUTT JOINTS

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-

6. Undercut. For material less than 1 in. thick, undercut shall not exceed
1/32 in. with the following exception: undercut shall not exceed 1/16 in.
for any accumulated length up to 2 in. in any 12 in. length. For material
equal to or greater than 1 in. thick, undercut shall not exceed 1/16 in. for
any length of weld.

7. Porosity. Complete joint penetration welds in butt joints transverse to the


direction of computed tensile stress should have no visible piping porosity.
For all other groove welds and for fillet welds, the sum of the visible piping
porosity of 1/32 in. or greater in diameter shall not exceed 3/8 in. in any
linear inch of weld and shall not exceed 3/4 in. in any 12 in. length of weld.

In addition to the responsibilities that a CWI has before welding begins,


there are additional responsibilities that he must perform during the weld-
ing operations.

Some of these responsibilities include:

Check welding parameters and techniques for compliance with the


welding procedure

Verify the visual quality of the welding

Check the interpasses for the cleaning of the slag

Verify that the preheat and interpass temperature is in accordance with


the WPS

Verify any in-process NDE that may be required

Many supervisors consider all of this work by the CWI while the welder is
making welds to be a distraction and interference. However, all of the
things the CWI is doing are the same checks the welding supervisor
should be making as part of their monitoring activities. In essence, the
CWI is reinforcing and at times supplementing the work of the welding
supervisor.

When welders and supervisors understand acceptance criteria, the art is


removed from weld inspection and objective evaluation of welds by all
interested parties can be done. In this way, welders and supervisor can ensure
that the competed welds are acceptable before they ever leave the welders
workstation.

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Welding supervisors most likely will not use nondestructive inspection


methods other than visual inspection. However, they need to know the other
methods to understand the results and interpretations of the inspector/welders.

After the CWI has completed his preweld and in-process responsibilities,
he then must perform the after welding responsibilities. These are the
activities the welding supervisor is most familiar seeing the CWI do.
These activities often frustrate both the welders and the welding super-
visor. The source of the frustration is that the welders and the welding
supervisor have a different understanding of the weld quality require-
ments than that of the CWI.

The following are the responsibilities the CWI has after the welding is
complete.

Check inspect finish weld against visual acceptance criteria

Check weld sizes and lengths

Check critical weld dimensions

Verify additional NDE, if required

Verify test results

Verify post-weld heat treatment was done correctly, if required

Prepare and maintain inspection reports

As the welding supervisor begins to follow the CWS training in this manual, he
will find that the objectives of both the CWI and the CWS are the same in
ensuring the quality of the welding.

Next to visual inspection, liquid penetrant is the least expensive and easiest
- nondestructive welding process to use. This process does, however, require
someone with experience in preparation, application, and interpretation of the
results for the method to have any value. An incorrect interpretation of results
can lead to an assessment that an indication is present where none exists, or a
missed indication where one exists. Both can be just as damaging as no liquid
penetrant testing at all. The liquid penetrant testing method is still the most
commonly used method after visual inspection for both quality information as
well as required inspections. The reason for this is that the materials used for
this process are inexpensive, and the procedure can be performed in a manner
that causes limited interference with the workflow.

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Liquid penetrant testing is primarily used on nonmagnetic materials where


Magnetic Particle testing does not work. It can also be used on magnetic mate-
rials.

Liquid penetrant testing is divided into two typesfluorescent penetrate and


visible dye. Visible dye is the most widely used. It can be performed on loca-
tion using a cleaner, penetrant, and developer to indicate the presence or
absence of defects. Visible dye gives very good results. Fluorescent penetrate
uses a fluorescent penetrant and a black light to indicate the presence of
defects, and therefore is more difficult to use. Fluorescent penetrate, when
done correctly, gives better results than visible dye.

The method of applying the two types of penetrant tests consists of seven
steps:

1. Clean the surface to be inspected of scale, slag, grease, oil, paint, and
water. Then apply a spray cleaning solution that is available with the liquid
penetrant materials.

2. Apply penetrant. This penetrant can be either a liquid red spray or a


fluorescent that is applied by dipping, brushing, or spraying.

3. Allow sufficient penetrate dwell time. This time, which is specified by the
manufacturer of the penetrant, is used to allow time for the penetrant, by
capillary action, to enter into any indication that is exposed to the surface.

4. Remove excess penetrant. This is done using various techniques, but in all
cases care must be taken not to flush the area and remove penetrant that has
collect in surface indications. The most common technique for visible liq-
uid penetrant is to spray a clean cloth with the same cleaner that was used
in the cleaning of the surface, and then gently wipe off the weld surface
without flushing or rinsing the area of inspection.

5. Apply developer to indicate retained penetrant. This is normally done by


spraying. The process, as the name implies, is used to develop or bring out
indications of penetrant so that an examination can be made. Usually, the
manufacturer of the penetrant materials specifies a prescribed amount of
time for this development to take place.

6. Examine and inspect. This is the hard part, because there can be shallow
indication from surface anomalies that can give false readings, and these
must be segregated from the indications that are discontinuities. At this
time, the interpreter must use the acceptance criteria for the liquid pene-

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trant testing to determine whether a defect exists. This acceptance criteria


is different from the visual inspection criteria, but is based on finding many
of the same types of discontinuities.

7. Clean part, if required, after the inspection is complete.

Advantages:

Penetrant materials are inexpensive

The test is relatively easy to learn and use

Interpretation of test results are not difficult to learn (similar to visual


testing)

Can be used without disrupting manufacturing operations

Disadvantages:

Will only reveal discontinuities open to the surface

Clean up can be time consuming

Difficult to make a permanent record of results (digital color photographs


may work best)

Magnetic particle testing is used on magnetic materials as a nondestructive


- inspection method to detect the presence of discontinuities. This method is
considered the second easiest nondestructive method to use. This is based on
the cost of equipment, which next to liquid penetrant is the least costly of the
nondestructive testing methods. Magnetic particle testing can also be per-
formed with minimum disruption to the workflow. Magnetic particle testing in
welding is beneficial when performed after the root pass of a weld is deposited,
and at intermittent steps during welding. This provides quality evaluation
before completion of the weld. If a problem is discovered, it can be corrected
while the defect still lies relatively close to the surface. If the problem is not
discovered until after the weld is completed, the removal of the defect and
repair requires more weld metal removal and replacement.

Magnetic particle testing is the use of a magnetic field in ferromagnetic materi-


als to detect discontinuities. This magnetic field is disrupted when it encoun-
ters any flaw or imperfection on the surface or near surface of the material

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being tested. Depending on the type of testing equipment used, the amount and
depth of subsurface discontinuities that can be detected will vary.

The magnetic particle testing equipment used in most applications in the field
is a machine that transforms electricity into high amperage, low voltage for
application to welds through either a yoke or a set of prods (see Figure 12.15).

The yoke is a U-shaped device with adjustable legs. The operator grips the
insulated center of the U-shaped yoke and touches the legs of the yoke to the
part where the test is performed (see Figure 12.16).

The prods are used in sets of two. They resemble cylindrical rods with tapered
ends that touch the work surface. The other end of the rods has an insulated
handle for the operator to grip. The operator applies the prods to the work in
much the same manner as the yoke. The operator activates the yoke or prods
when they are in contact with the part being inspected. This allows current to
flow through them and into the part creating a magnetic field. This circular
magnetic field is what allows detection of any discontinuities in the material
between the contact points of the yoke or prods. This detection is made possi-
ble in field or shop applications by the use of dry magnetic particles being
applied while the yoke or prods are energized. This dry magnetic powder is
applied by means of a dusting bag, atomizer, or spray gun. When the magnetic
field lies parallel to the direction of the discontinuity, the indication from the
powder will be light and may be difficult to interpret. When the magnetic field
lies transverse to the discontinuity, the accumulation of dry powder is much

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- -

heavier. For this reason, any given length of weld must be checked by orient-
ing the yoke or prods in two directions with the second 90 to the first. This
will prevent the missing of a discontinuity.

The current used for the magnetic dry particle testing can be either alternating
or direct current. Alternating current is used for surface inspection and will not
detect subsurface discontinuities. In this respect, it is similar to liquid penetrant
testing in that if the discontinuity is not exposed to the surface, the alternating
current magnetic particle testing will not detect it.

With direct current magnetic particle testing, a magnetic field is produced that
penetrates into the part, and is therefore capable of detecting subsurface dis-
continuities. For small fillet and groove welds with sufficient direct current and
the proper inspection procedure, such defects as subsurface cracks and incom-
plete fusion that cannot be detected by visual, liquid penetrant, or alternating
current magnetic particle are detectable.

The following steps are required to ensure that the results of the magnetic par-
ticle testing are accurate. For the interpretation and evaluation of the results to
be accurate, a trained and experienced technician is necessary. Any mis-
interpretation of results could lead to missed defects or unnecessary repairs.

1. Clean the part. As with any inspection, the surface of the part being
inspected must be clean from dirt, oil, rust, moisture, or other contaminates
that could prevent the powder from moving freely with the magnetic field

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-

or prevent good electrical contact between the yoke legs or the prods and
the material surface.

2. Contact with yoke or prods and material surface. With welds, this will need
to be done twice at 90 angles for a given inspection area.

3. While the yoke or prods are in contact with the material surface and the
current is flowing, the magnetic particles are applied. The current should
still be flowing when a stream of air that is just strong enough to carry
away the excess powder is used.

4. The indications left by the remaining powder can then be interpreted by a


trained inspector according to the shape, sharpness of outline, width, and
height that the particles have built up. This interpretation is made using the
acceptance criteria for magnetic particle testing. Again, as with all inspec-
tion processes, no interpretation is possible without an approved accep-
tance criteria (see Figure 12.17).

-
--

--

1. Surface Cracks. Cracks are one of the easiest discontinuities to identify


because the powder indication is sharpest and heavily built up. The deeper
the crack, the more pronounced the indication of powder.

2. Subsurface Discontinuity. Powder will have a little fuzzier or less defined


appearance then does a crack.

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-

3. Crater Cracks. These cracks are recognized by their location in an


unfilled crater of a weld stop, and by their small size, which may be either a
single line or a star-shaped pattern.

4. Incomplete Fusion. In most cases, the identification of incomplete fusion


will be along the edge of the weld where, depending on the extent and near-
ness to the surface, the pattern of the powder will be sharper.

5. Subsurface Porosity and Slag Inclusion. These two discontinuities are


very similar in the type of powder indication that occurs when either is
present. They tend to be neither strong nor pronounced, even when a high
magnetizing field is used.

6. Undercut. This discontinuity leaves a pattern of powder that is less identi-


fiable than incomplete fusion; however, in most cases, undercut is detect-
able by visual examination.

In general, unless the magnetizing field is high or the discontinuity is exposed


to the surface and very pronounced, it can be extremely difficult to separate an
irrelevant indication from a discontinuity.

Advantages:

Can be used to test both surface and to a limited degree subsurface of weld

Is less difficult than Ultrasonic or Radiographic Testing to apply

Equipment less expensive than Ultrasonic or Radiographic Testing

Requires less experience and skill to interpret the results than Ultrasonic or
Radiographic Testing

Disadvantages:

Equipment is more expensive than Penetrant Testing

Can only be used on materials that have magnetic properties

Difficult to make a permanent record of the test results (digital pictures or


adhesive tape impressions of the power indications could be used)

- Ultrasonic testing will detect, locate, and when evaluated against established
- acceptance criteria, determine if defects are present in a weld. This inspection
method uses a high-frequency sound beam projected into the material being
inspected. A reflection of the sound beam occurs if any interruption within the
material is encountered. If this interruption occurs in the weld, its most likely

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-

cause is the presence of a discontinuity, which, depending on the limits of the


acceptance criteria, maybe a defect.

The advantages of ultrasonic testing are:

1. Discontinuities in thick sections are detectable.

2. The inspection method is sensitive enough to identify small discontinuities.

3. The locations of internal discontinuities are locatable by ultrasonic testing.

4. One-sided inspection of welds is possible with ultrasonic testing.

5. Modern ultrasonic equipment is light and very portable for moving around
a job site.

6. Inspection of welds, using ultrasonic testing will not interfere with other
welding work in the near vicinity.

The disadvantages of ultrasonic testing are:

1. The amount of set-up and training of inspectors is more expensive, and


the equipment is more costly than liquid penetrant and magnetic particle
testing.

2. Fillet welds and especially groove welds that are irregular in shape or
geometric configuration are ultrasonically difficult to inspect.

3. When discontinuities lie close to the surface, the reflection from the surface
of the material makes them difficult to detect.

4. To use ultrasonic testing, a coupler is needed to transmit the energy


between the transducer and the test material.

5. Test blocks and workmanship samples are needed to calibrate the equip-
ment before testing can begin.

6. Different test blocks and workmanship samples are required if the mate-
rials or metallurgical conditions vary.

Ultrasonic testing uses a piece of equipment called a pulse-echo flaw


detector (see Figure 12.18). This equipment allows a pulsed sound beam in

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-

- -

the 16 MHz frequency range to be emitted. The most commonly used fre-
quency for welding application is 2.25 MHz. Between pulses, the echoes from
any interruption are received back by the detector and displayed on a screen.
This screen display is most commonly shown as an A scan that is capable of
showing both the size and location of interruptions. The pulse signal and echo
are introduced and retrieved from the material being tested by a transducer that
converts the electrical signal from the equipment into the sound wave and then
converts the echoing sound wave back into an electrical signal. In order to pre-
vent this signal from being weakened at the interface between the transducer
and the material, a coupling is used. This coupling can be water, light oil, or
cellulose gum powder mixed with water. The most common coupling is a form
of glycerin.

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-

Before testing of a weld can begin, the equipment with transducer must be
calibrated using a test block with known notches and drilled holes to simulate
defects. The equipment is calibrated against these known defects so that an
indication of their presence is shown on the equipment screen display with the
right location and the correct size. In this way, when an indication appears in
the actual test, the inspector will be able to tell where it is located and its
approximate size based on the calibration settings.

Once the operator has calibrated the equipment and has assured that the
material surface is clean, the testing may began. Since the test is interpreted
as the transducer sends back signals, the operator must be aware of the accep-
tance criteria for the particular weld application to render an accurate inspec-
tion. The inspection can be performed in one of two modes, by using either a
longitudinal or shear wave. Shear wave mode is the more commonly used
because it does not require the removal of the weld reinforcement (see Figure
12.19).

-
- - - - -
-
- -- - - --

- - - -

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-

1. Shear Wave Mode. This mode requires using a 70, 60, or 45 angle on
the transducer, allowing the sound wave to enter the material at one of the
three angles. The angle of this path can be closely calculated, and since the
speed of the sound wave is constant through a given material, the location
of any discontinuity can be found and the size and type evaluated.

2. Interpretation. When the inspection is correctly set up, the equipment


calibrated and the inspection procedure followed, the ultrasonic testing is
capable of locating:

Cracks

Incomplete fusion

Incomplete penetration

Slag

Porosity

The identification and determination of defects using ultrasonic testing is


based on pre-established criteria. Cracks are always defects. Slag and
porosity are indicated by the amount of echo that is received from the
equipment. The larger the discontinuity, the greater the echo. This is indi-
cated on the screen display as a larger amplitude signal. If the size of the
signal exceeds the allowable amplitude for the type of inspection, then it is
interpreted as a defect and requires repair.

Radiographic testing uses a radiant energy source, which can be either X-ray,
- gamma rays, or high-energy neutrons. These radiant energy sources are placed
on one side of the weld. An industrial radiographic film is placed on the oppo-
site side. This radiographic film is a thin, transparent, flexible plastic base that
has been coated with gelatin containing microscopic crystals of silver bromide.
When this film is exposed to a radiation source, the parts of the weld that have
the highest density will appear the lightest in the film. This is because for the
time of the exposure, these areas of the film had the least amount of radiation
strike the surface of the film. In those areas of the weld where the density is
reduced because of the presence of discontinuities (discontinuities are for the
most part voids and therefore do not block radiation energy), the film will be
darker, showing the presence, size, and shape of the discontinuity (see Figure
12.20).

Radiographic testing has, like all of the nondestructive inspection methods,


both advantages and disadvantages.

389

-

--

The advantages of radiographic testing are:

1. Radiography can detect subsurface discontinuities in any material that can


be welded.

2. Film used in the radiographic processes is used as a permanent record of


the test, if properly stored away from excessive heat and light.

390

-

The disadvantages of radiographic testing are:

1. The radiation used during the test poses a hazard to humans through exces-
sive exposure.

2. A great deal of training and experience in safety and proper testing using
the radiographic testing method is required.

3. When the radiation source is operating, the area used must be evacuated,
which can result in lost production hours.

4. Radiographic testing equipment is very expensive. The training time for


competent operators and interpreters is very lengthy. Accurate interpreta-
tion requires personnel that are qualified to either AWS Radiographic
Interpreter or ASNTs SNT TC-1A. With the high costs of RT and the
consequences of weld repair or rework, the supervisor should be acutely
interested in the qualifications of the interpreter.

5. In some limited applications, the radiographic testing may not detect


defects such as cracks or incomplete fusion unless the radiation source is
oriented correctly with respect to the direction of the defect. Radiographic
testing is usually not done on fillet welds because of the difficulty of ori-
enting the radiation source with the film.

6. Radiographic testing requires access to both sides of the part. This is the
only inspection method of the five discussed in the chapter that requires
this level of access.

-- -

1. Source of radiation from either X-rays or radioactive isotope (Cobalt 60,


Iridium 192, or Cesium 137).

2. Either the weld being radiographed must be prepared with the weld
reinforcement removed or with the weld reinforcement properly contoured,
preventing the obscuring of a potential discontinuity.

3. A recording device such as radiographic (X-ray) film enclosed in a light-


proof holder must be placed on the opposite side of the object being
radiographed.

4. A qualified radiographer (Level 1 ASNT TC-1A) trained to produce satis-


factory exposures. These exposures must meet a stringent set of require-
ments that establish the film density, sharpness, and sensitivity. If any of

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-

these film quality requirements are not met, the film cannot be used for
inspection purposes.

5. The film, after having been exposed, must be developed much like a pic-
ture. This requires a laboratory and the proper developing equipment or an
automated developer.

6. Finally, a person skilled in interpretation is required. This person would


either be AWS Radiographic Interpreter or ASNT, TC-1A Level II certi-
fied to read and interpret film.

Once the film has been properly exposed and developed, the job of interpreting
the content of the film begins. A radiographic film is capable of being used to
identify the following discontinuities and defects.

1. Porosity. In radiographic film, porosity usually will appear as small black


circular spots.

2. Inclusions. Slag will appear in the film as large and irregularly shaped
shadows. It will be somewhat linear in appearance, and may run parallel to
the sidewall of the joint. Tungsten inclusions are one of the exceptions to
the fact that inclusions appear darker on film. Since tungsten is denser than
carbon or stainless steel, if any tungsten is broken off into the weld, it will
appear lighter than the surrounding film surface.

3. Cracks. One of the most troublesome discontinuities is cracks that will


appear as dark lines in the weld. Shrinkage cracks formed during the weld-
ing process will appear irregular, while stress cracks are regular and well
defined.

4. Incomplete Fusion and Incomplete Joint Penetration. These two defect


conditions will appear in the film as thin lines or cracks with the incom-
plete fusion along the sidewall and the incomplete penetration more in the
center of the weld.

- A welding supervisor is expected to understand how nondestructive inspection


processes work. However, he will not be required to administer them except
for visual inspection. The important thing for the supervisor to remember is
that all the inspection methods and their results can be used as informational
as well as for required inspections for welding. In order for Liquid Penetrant,
Magnetic Particle, Ultrasonic, and Radiographic Testing to work properly,
they require the following.

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-

The inspector conducting the test, with the proper equipment, must follow a
procedure on how the inspection will be conducted. The inspector must be
properly trained and tested in accordance with a recognized standard or code to
perform a specific inspection. In all cases, nondestructive inspections require
interpretation, either during the inspection, or in the case of radiographic
testing, after the film is developed. To do this interpretation properly, the
inspector must be trained and have demonstrated the required interpretative
skills through testing before being assigned to a weldment. In addition, the
responsible designer engineer must designate which acceptance criteria will be
used during the interpretation. This allows the inspector to distinguish between
flaws and imperfections that are discontinuities, and those that are defects.
Without all of these elements in place and followed through the inspection
sequence, the results from nondestructive testing may be either false or
misleading, resulting in unnecessary rework or undiscovered defects.

- AWS B1.11:2000, Guide for the Visual Examination of Welds

AWS B1.10:1999 Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds

-- 1. A weld acceptance criteria can only be used by:


A. Anyone making a visual inspection of welds
B. A CWI
C. A welding supervisor
D. A welder
E. None of the above

2. Porosity can be identified visually by which of the following descrip-


tions?
A. Sharp tipped linear shapes
B. Mechanical notch
C. Nonmetallic substance
D. Spherical void
E. Protrusion of unfused metal

3. Undercut is a discontinuity that can be identified by which of the follow-


ing descriptions?
A. Weld metal that fails to penetrate
B. Mechanical notch
C. Sharp tipped linear shape
D. Tungsten inclusion
E. None of the above

393

-

4. Undercut can be caused by:


A. Improper transverse welding angle
B. Insufficient weld heat
C. Improper joint design
D. Insufficient travel speed
E. Hardened weld metal

5. Under the sample acceptance criteria on page 378, how much total
porosity is allowed in any 12 in. of weld length?
A. 1/32 in.
B. 1/4 in.
C. 3/8 in.
D. 1/2 in.
E. 3/4 in.

6. Which of the following is an item that both the CWI and welding super-
visor should check before welding begins?
A. Joint fitup
B. Correct shade of welding lens
C. Welding gloves
D. Welder is following the essential welding variables
E. All welds were visually inspected

7. Which is the least expensive NDT method other than visual testing?
A. Eddy Current
B. Radiography
C. Liquid Penetrant
D. Magnetic Particle
E. Ultrasonic

8. When performing an NDT examination on a nonferrous material such as


aluminum or nickel alloy, which of the following is not used?
A. Visual
B. Liquid Penetrant
C. Magnetic Particle
D. Ultrasonic
E. Radiographic

9. When a welding inspection using a through-the-weld inspection method,


which NDT method may be used?
A. Visual
B. Liquid Penetrant
C. Magnetic Particle
D. Ultrasonic
E. None of the above

394

-

10. Which NDT examination method uses a thin, transparent flexible plastic
base panel coated with gelatin containing silver bromide?
A. Ultrasonic
B. Radiographic
C. Visual
D. Magnetic Particle
E. Liquid Penetrant

395

-

-- 1. A
2. D
3. B
4. A
5. E
6. A
7. C
8. C
9. D
10. B

396


Most industrial operations have potential risks to health and safety. Welding
and associated activities expose workers to certain hazards, ranging from fire
and explosion to fumes and gases. It is the joint responsibility of the employer
and worker to minimize these hazards and provide a safe working environ-
ment. Some general rules for providing a safe working environment are as
follows:

Follow all safety methods and procedures; ask, if in doubt

Use protective clothing and equipment as required for the job in hand

Maintain all equipment and report unsafe conditions

Do not bypass the safety features of the equipment you are using

Know the hazards of the materials and processes you are using

Keep work areas clean and organized

Training on hazard identification and control is an important part of creating a


safe working environment.

Many hazards in the shop are rather obvious. These can be called apparent
hazards, one of which is shown in Figure 13.1. However, workers still need
training on methods and procedures to control these types of hazards.

397

Less obvious hazards (which can be called hidden hazards) can be just as
important, but without training, workers may not even be aware of them. For
welding operations, these types of hazards include:

Fumes and gases

Radiation from the arc

Electrical hazards

Confined space

This training program only provides a refresher and overview of welding


- health and safety. It is not intended as an in-depth presentation of all safety
considerations, and assumes that participants have already had basic health and
safety training. For more thorough information on this subject, refer to the
following resources:

ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes

CAN/CSA W117.2-01, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes

AWS F4.1, Recommended Safe Practices for the Preparation for Welding
and Cutting of Containers and Piping

Precautionary information on the welding product and Material Safety Data


Sheets (MSDSs)

- Table 13.1 shows the primary hazards for different welding processes.

- -






---
-
--

398

Electric shock and even electrocution are possible hazards with all types of
electric arc welding. A typical electric circuit indicating how current and volt-
age are measured is shown in Figure 13.2.

The amperage in an electric circuit is related to the voltage and resistance by


the equation:

I = V/R

Electricity is a hazard in welding because the body can become part of the
electric circuit. Electric shock or electrocution can occur when the body has a
critical level of amperage flowing through it (see Figure 13.3).

399

A critical level of current can be developed under different conditions. When


dry, relatively high voltages are dangerous. If the body is wet, even low volt-
ages can be a hazard (see Figure 13.4).

--

- -

Any source of water, including sweat, will reduce resistance and increase the
electrical hazard (see Figure 13.5).

-- -

400

Higher voltages will always increase the electrical hazard. The primary side of
a welding power source is connected to a high voltage supply, usually 460 or
575 volts. Keep the primary side cables out of the work area. Any servicing on
the primary side must be done by a qualified electrician (see Figure 13.6).

- -

The welders first line of defense is to be properly insulated from the source of
electricity (see Figure 13.7).Table 13.2 provides recommendations for electri-
cal safety in welding.

--
--

-
-

The work lead and ground are not the same. Figure 13.8 shows the work table
connected to ground or earth.

Improper grounding of the workpiece (see Figure 13.9) can lead to:

Welding current in the wire connecting the power source enclosure to


ground, thereby burning it out

401

- -
- -
-

-
- -
- -

- -
- - -
- -
- - -
-

-
- -
-
-

Stray welding current in the building or grounded structure which can lead
to overheating, sparking, fires, or damage to bearings and other electrical
equipment

If electric shock occurs:

If possible, disconnect and turn off the power immediately

Do not try and pull the victim free while in contact with the electrical power

If you must move a victim in contact with a live wire, insulate yourself

If the victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration (AR)

If the victims heart has stopped, and you have been trained, give cardio-
pulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Keep the victim warm and horizontal

Call for medical help

402




-
-

- -
-

-- -

403

The electric arc emits three types of radiation (see Figure 13.10).

Skin exposed to welding UV radiation will burn much like a sun burn. You will
not know it is occurring at the time of exposure, but hours later a burning sensa-
tion and redness will appear. Higher amperages and argon-based gases will
increase the radiation intensity making the hazard more severe. It is important
to protect the skin with clothing that is heavy enough to prevent the passing of
radiation. Take special precautions when welding reflective material such as
stainless steel or aluminum, as reflected radiation can make the problem worse.

The eye is sensitive to all three types of radiation (see Figure 13.11).

Arc eye or welders flash is the most common injury from radiation. Several
hours after the exposure a painful effect that feels like sand in your eye can
occur. Additional symptoms can include swelling and fluid excretion. The
symptoms can last for several hours or longer. Occasional and minor welders
flash has no lasting effects. However, intense exposure can cause eye damage
over a period of time and must be avoided. Some clear plastic lenses can offer
protection from arc eye caused by short wave UV but not the other types of
light describe above. Therefore, it is important to use shaded lenses with the
correct shade number at all times (see Table 13.3).

- Because of the very high temperatures associated with arc welding processes,
burns and fires are a potential safety hazard. Most arc welding produces sparks
and spatter which can travel considerable distances from the welder (see
Figure 13.12).

Fires can start immediately in highly combustible substances or some time


later from smoldering materials. ANSI Z49.1 requires a fire watch for a mini-
mum of 1/2 hr. after completion of welding or cutting operations.

404


--
- -


-
--

-
-
-- -

Keep combustibles away from welding work areas. This would include but not
be limited to:

Wood

Paper products

Plastics

Rags and other cloth materials

Chemicals, cleaning fluids, etc.

Oils, greases, etc.

Proper protective clothing is important for welders to avoid serious burns (see
Figures 13.13 and 13.14). Clothing should be heat and fire resistant. Avoid
wearing synthetic or frayed materials. Never carry a cigarette lighter in your
clothing while welding.

405

-

-

-- -- --




--




--


--
-

- - ---

-- -- -

406

--

- -

--

-
- --

- -

-
- -

- -- The fume or smoke that is seen coming off a welding operation is composed of
very small particles that come from the electrode, flux, or base metal. Gases
used for shielding or produced by the arc will also be present (see Figure
13.15).

407

--

- --

Breathing the fumes and gases may present health hazards ranging from
discomfort to long-term illness depending on the amount of exposure and con-
stituents in the fume (see Figure 13.16).

- --

- - - -
- -- -- - -
-- - --

-

- -

-
-

-
-

-






-

-- -
- -

Coatings on the base metal can also be an important sources of welding fumes
(see Figure 13.17).

408

- - - -

Some coatings that welders might encounter are listed in Table 13.4.

- - - -
-
-- -
- - -
- -
- - -
- - --

Harmful coatings should be removed from the weld area to minimize the fume.
It should be noted that further precautions regarding coating removal may be
necessary, as simple grinding may produce harmful dusts. Seek expert advice
for proper methods of coating removal (see Figure 13.18).

The level of fume in the welders breathing zone will depend on:

Fume generation rate of the process

General ventilation

Head position with respect to the welding plume

Different welding processes produce different amounts of fume (see Figure


13.19).

409

- -

-
--- --

Natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation, or local exhaust are methods of


reducing fumes to acceptable levels. The method needed for a particular appli-
cation will depend on variety of factors (see Figure 13.20).

Keep the head and breathing zone out of the plume, and take special precau-
tions when welding in confined space (see Figure 13.21).

Allowable levels of exposure to welding fumes have been set by several orga-
nizations, such as the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),
and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH). The most widely used are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) pub-
lished by the ACGIH (see Table 13.5).

410

- -

In some situations, ventilation and local exhaust may not be practical or ade-
quate to control exposure. In these circumstances, personal protection devices
such as a respirator may be necessary. Generally, expert advice is required in
the use of respirators. Some jurisdictions require training and a pulmonary
function test prior to the use of respirators. Two different types of respirators
are shown in Figure 13.22. Note that a dusk mask does not provide adequate
safety in hazardous fume situations.

411

- - -

- - -

- -

- - -

- -

- - -

- - -

- - -


- -

- -

- --

412

-- The UV radiation from the welding arc can produce hazardous gases.

Phosgene gas is produced from the action of UV light on the vapor of a chlori-
nated hydrocarbon solvent. Containers of cleaning solvents should be kept
capped and removed from the welding area. Solvents should be removed from
the workplace and welding gloves should not be allowed to become contami-
nated with solvents (see Figure 13.23).

- -

- -

Ozone can be a major problem with GMAW of aluminum. Exposure can pro-
duce headaches, chest pain, shortage of breath, and in high doses, can produce
fluid in the lungs or even death. Ozone levels will depend on the filler metals
and shielding gases used. Because ozone can form at some distance from the
arc, local extraction may not be effective (see Figure 13.24).

Explosion and asphyxiation are two of the most common hazards when work-
ing with industrial gases. The properties of the individual gases determines
-- their hazard potential (see Figure 13.25). Argon and CO2 are two commonly
used shielding gases that are heavier than air and can act as an asphyxiant in a
confined space.

413

-


- --


-
-


-

- - --

All flammable gases and vapors have a range of mixture with air where they
are dangerous (see Figure 13.26).

- -

Flammable ranges for different gases are shown in Figure 13.27. Acetylene has
a relatively large flammable range and is considered to be more hazardous than
the other gases shown.

The fire triangle shows that fuel, oxygen, and a source of heat or ignition are
needed to start a fire. When working with pure oxygen, just about anything can
be a fueleven your own clothing (see Figure 13.28).

414

- --

Never substitute oxygen for air

Do not let your cloths become filled with oxygen

Never use lubricants on any oxyfuel equipment

Never handle oxygen cylinders with greasy or oily hands and gloves

Keep oxyfuel systems free from oil, grease, dust, or any other combustible
material

- Here are important things to remember when storing, handling, and using
cylinders.

415

(see Figure 13.29)

Store in a secure and well ventilated area

Protect cylinders from ice, snow, water, etc.

Store in an upright position

Store oxygen and fuel gases separately.


See standards for distance or fire wall
requirements.

Mark empty cylinders and store them


separately

Store with valve caps on

Store cylinders and fittings away from grease


and oil

When in use, always secure cylinders with a



suitable chain

(see Figure 13.30)

Do not move cylinders with regulators


attached.

Make sure valve cap is in place before moving


a cylinder

Use appropriate racks or trolleys for moving


cylinders

Do not sling with ropes or chains

For short distances, cylinders can be tilted


slightly and rolled on the base

- (see Figure 13.31)

Be sure contents are clearly identified before


using

Use only in an upright and chained position

416

Crack the cylinder momentarily to blow out any dirt before attaching a
regulator. Stand to one side when performing this operation

Never strike an arc on a cylinder

Keep welding cables and the welding circuit away from cylinders

Store with valve caps on

Always leave some gas (50 psi) in the cylinder to prevent contamination or
mixing of gases.

-- -

Because high pressure gas cylinders store a tremendously high level of energy,
serious injury can result (see Figure 13.32). See page 410 for storage and
handling recommendations.

417

-- - - -

Confined spaces present greater hazards to the worker. Almost all of the previ-
ously mention hazards are magnified in a confined space situation. Typical
confined spaces are pressure vessels, bins, pipelines, ship compartments, etc.
(see Figure 13.33).

- - -

418

In confined space, special safety measures are required to ensure:

Minimal risk of fire or explosion

Adequate breathing air

The provision of a rescue system

Containers that have held hazardous materials present the risk of fire or explo-
- sion during cutting or welding operations. Workers sometimes make the mis-
take of assuming that no danger is present if the container seems empty.
- However, it is the vapors from the contents that present the real hazard and
- gaseous materials generally cannot be seen. Vapors can also be released from
the heat produced during the welding or cutting process. Special procedures
are needed to clean containers prior to welding (see Figure 13.34). AWS F4.1,
Recommended Safe Practices for the Preparation for Welding and Cutting of
Containers and Piping, should be used as a guide for these types of operations.

-

-

- - -

ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes

419

- To obtain maximum benefit from this program, it is recommended that you


-- follow this guide and complete the exercises. It is important that you thor-
oughly study each section carefully before moving to the next section. The
exercises are designed to give you an indication of whether you understand the
material presented. If you get a question wrong, go back and read that section
again.

1. Information on the potential hazards of welding can be found in:


A. Product labeling
B. Material safety data sheets (MSDSs)
C. Manufacturers information
D. ANSI Z49.1
E. A and B
F. All of the above

2. True or False?
Welding can be hazardous to your health unless proper safety rules are
followed. True False

3. True or False?
The output of a welding power source is never dangerous because of the
low welding voltages used. True False

4. True or False?
It is good practice to always attach the work return clamp as close as
possible to the point of welding. True False

5. True or False?
AC is more dangerous than DC. True False

6. True or False?
The ground and work lead are the same thing in a welding circuit.
True False

7. True or False?
Attachment of the work return cable is not critical when welding on a
structure supported with a chain-type lifting device. True False

8. True or False?
Arc radiation burns on the skin are similar to sunburn. True False

420

9. True or False?
Reflection of arc radiation off surrounding surfaces is not a problem.
True False

10. True or False?


Welding causes premature eye failure even with the proper protective
equipment. True False

11. Clear plastic lens can offer protection from:


A. All types of arc radiation
B. Cataract formation
C. Retinal lesions
D. Visible light
E. None of the above

12. Which of the following are required for fire watch duties?
A. Shall be maintained for at least 1/2 hour after welding and cutting
operations are complete
B. Personnel shall be properly trained in the use of fire extinguishing
equipment
C. Can be terminated after welding operations are complete
D. A and B
E. All of the above

13. What is the minimum recommended shade number for a welders helmet
when using GMAW at 250 amps?
__________________________________________________________
14. True or False?
A dust mask provides adequate safety in hazardous fume situations.
True False

15. Metal fume fever is caused by exposure to fume produced by welding on:
A. Carbon steel
B. Carbon steel coated with zinc or copper
C. Stainless steel
D. Manganese compounds

16. True or False?


Coatings on base metals are not an important source of welding fume.
True False

421

17. Which of the following is important regarding welding fume health and
safety?
A. Total fume generation
B. The concentration of each type of fume chemical or component
C. The welding travel speed
D. A and B

18. True or False?


The UV radiation from the welding arc can produce hazardous gases.
True False

19. True or False?


Argon is noncombustible and nonexplosive so it is completely safe.
True False

20. True or False?


Containers that have held flammable liquids just need a water rinse before
welding or cutting on them. True False

21. The following shielding gases used in GMAW are heavier than air and are
dangerous as simple asphyxiants:
A. Argon
B. Carbon dioxide
C. Nitrogen
D. Helium
E. A and B
F. A and B and C

22. Oxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated from fuel gas cylinders by:
A. 15 ft
B. A noncombustible partition (5 ft high) having a fire resistance of at
least 1/2 hour
C. 20 ft
D. A wall of any type
E. B or C

23. True or False?


Working in confined space is no different than working in an open room.
True False

422

24. What three things are needed to start a fire?


__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

25. True or False?


Once the regulator is installed, it is not necessary to chain a compressed
gas cylinder. True False

26. True or False?


Acetylene has the highest explosion limit of commonly used fuel gases.
True False

423

-- 1. F
2. True
3. False
4. True
5. True
6. False
7. False
8. True
9. False
10. False
11. E
12. D
13. #10
14. False
15. B
16. False
17. D
19. True
19. False
20. False
21. E
22. E
23. False
24. Heat, Fuel, and Oxygen
25. False
26. True

424

- -


As detailed in previous chapters of this manual, the welding supervisors pri-
mary roles are to support, monitor, and evaluate the welders quality and pro-
ductivity throughout each day.

Welding Quality/Productivity reports should be generated on a timely basis to


permit the supervisor and management to be proactive in addressing issues that
affect the welders quality and productivity. It is important that these reports
are written so they are easily understood; and the recipients can take meaning-
ful corrective action; rather then toss them aside as old or non-relevant infor-
mation. All reports should be kept for future reference so that reoccurring
patterns can be analyzed.

During the shift, welding supervisors, for accounting and production con-
trol purposes, may be required to fill out reports that record material
usage, order completions, and work completed by individual welders.
They may also have to fill out missing and defective parts reports and
inventories. This recorded data can be used as the input for the daily
report to supervisors and managers, which is called the Welding Quality/
Productivity Report.

The most important information that a welding supervisor must have and
understand is the engineering specifications as how they relate to the welders
qualifications and the Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) that are used
for the welding in their department.

Supervisors should know which welds require a specific WPS and then assure
that the welders are following them as required. The supervisor should monitor
the welders to verify they are following the required Welding Procedure
Specifications.

The supervisor should know before assigning a welder to weld a specific weld
requiring a WPS, that he is qualified to weld to that specific welding procedure
and understands the effect and control of the essential welding variables (see
Figure 14-1).

One of the major uses of the daily Welding Quality/Productivity report is to


help the supervisor or manager determine how well his welding operations are
using the Five Welding Dos Goals to improve. The following is an example of
how the information might be used for improvement.

425

- -

-
- - -- -

- -

The supervisor should monitor the quality of the parts received into each weld-
ing workstation for dimensional accuracy and proper fitup. The supervisor
must have confidence that the welders are following the work method and
welding procedures, especially the essential welding variables of the welding
process and the proper weld sequence. A portion of the report should include
the visual quality observed, including discontinuities or defects observed and
the corrective actions taken. The supervisor should also note which input parts
required grinding before use, which were unusable, and which had to be sent
back for rework. These types of occurrences should be detailed in the report.

- - -

1. Reduce Weld Metal Volume (overwelding)


2. Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment
4. Reduce Work Effort
5. Reduce Motion and Delay Time (wasted motion)

426

- -

NOTE: Welding Dos Goal 3, Reduce Rejects, Rework, and Scrap, does not
appear under the Metric of Cost because of its use in the Quality Metric.

The supervisor, throughout the course of the work shift, should monitor the
welders to assure that they are following the above listed Welding Dos Goals
to assure that the welding metric of cost is addressed (see Figure 14.2).

-
- --

The supervisor needs to ensure that the size of the welds specified on the engi-
neering print is the size being made by the welders. A random sampling of
fillet and groove weld reinforcement sizes can verify that the welders are
neither overwelding nor underwelding. The number of random samples done
during the shift and the results should be recorded to document for manage-
ment the level of compliance and to help identify cases where welders might
need to be retrained on controlling weld sizes. Recording of over welding can
also help identify fitup issues that often lead to the need for overwelding to
compensate for loss of weld strength due to gaps in weld joint fitups. This can
be done by having the welders identify the need for overwelding when it
occurs as being the result of poor fitup.

427

- -

The welding supervisor should monitor the welders each day to assure they are
welding in accordance with the approved welding procedure for a given appli-
cation and using the maximum amperage/wire feed speed and corresponding
arc voltage. The maximum deposition rate can be achieved for a particular
welding process by using the highest optimum amperage/wire feed speed
while maintaining quality welding results. A high deposition rate will reduce
the arc time and thereby increase productivity. To assist in this effort, the
supervisor should randomly sample the amperages and arc voltages being used
by the welders to verify that the average amperages remain consistently high as
planned. This awareness will permit the supervisor to identify situations where
the amperages may be decreasing. The supervisor can then take steps to
address the situations that are causing the decrease in deposition rate.

To support the welders and increase productivity, supervisors should always


be aware of the activities performed by the welders that have a high level of
difficulty. Difficult activities or work conditions include such things as:

Difficult to reach welds that cause the welder to get into awkward welding
positions,

Grinding of parts to achieve correct material fitup before welding,

Pounding and hammering parts into correct orientation before welding,

Excessive difficulty in removing slag after welding is completed,

Repetitious raising and lowering of the face-shield while making weld


tacks or intermittent welds.

In cases where the supervisor identifies the above conditions the corrective
actions may be as follows:

Changing equipment,

Correcting defective welding fixtures,

Changing portions of the engineering design,

Improving input component parts,

Using auto-darkening lenses.

428

- -

When the corrective action is taken, the result will be a reduction of work
effort. The actions will not only reduce cycle time, but also result in welders
experiencing less fatigue during their work shift from having to perform diffi-
cult tasks.

Welding supervisors can have a great impact on welder productivity by work-


ing with their welders to reduce motion and delay time. From our experience,
the average welder has an arc time per hour of as low as 12% in very low
efficiency work sites to a high of 40%, and in some cases 60%, where mecha-
nization or automation is used. In most welding operations this leaves a consid-
erable amount of non-arc time in the welders workday. This non-arc time
portion of the day consists of a significant amount of unnecessary motion and
delay time. Non-arc time may include such things as:

Waiting for parts or assemblies,

Positioning parts,

Waiting for crane service,

Changing wire/electrode/gun parts,

Availability and condition of equipment,

Delays in receiving work instructions or specifications,

Moving or handling parts,

Excessive hand, foot, and body movements during the weld cycle,

Poorly designed welding fixtures,

Incoming and outgoing parts placement and handling,

Poor work methods,

Improper weld bead axis position.

As a welding supervisor becomes aware that one or more of the conditions


listed above has occurred, he needs to see that they are corrected in a timely
manner. Some of these conditions can be addressed directly by the supervisor.
Others must dealt with by support functions within other areas of the company.
This is one of the reasons that the daily reports are important as they bring
to managements attention conditions that must be corrected by other func-
tional areas to support the welding supervisor in improving welding quality
and productivity.

429

- -

As explained in Chapter 1 of this manual, Management Systems for welding


supervisors, each of the conditions that cannot be corrected by the welding
supervisor becomes the responsibility of one of the Four Critical Functions of
Design Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Manufacturing Operations,
or Quality Assurance. The daily report that the supervisor submits detailing
these conditions with the data collected and recorded relative to Welding Dos
Goals 1 and 2, will allow other areas of the company to participate in taking
corrective action. The report will also keep management advised of the
progress being made in the welding operations to achieve quality and produc-
tivity improvement.

Figure 14.3, Supervisor Report for Quality and Productivity, provides a


format for the welding supervisor to use to record the data to carry out the daily
reporting and recording.

This report format outlines the type of information that should be collected
daily by the welding supervisor. Once he records the data, it can serve as a
report to management and other departments on the progress that is occurring
in the welding operations. Also, the data in the report can serve as a record of
what occurred during a particular work shift.

The first part of the form, Monitoring Weld Size and Deposition Rate, allows
the supervisor to record the weld sizes and the amperages/wire feed speed
along with other essential welding variables data. This data will serve as an
indication of how well the first and second Welding Dos Goals are being met.

The second part, Visual Inspection of Welds, is one of the most difficult
things for welding supervisors to become accustomed to doing. Throughout
most of their careers, welding supervisors have not been present in the work-
station when welding was being done. As a result, this responsibility will take
some time for most supervisors to get used to doing. It cannot be ignored as it
pays big rewards in quality and productivity improvement. It gets the welding
supervisor involved in what is going on in his department.

If the welding supervisor uses a hand face-shield and checks the weld perfor-
mance against the essential welding variables, this will help him measure the
conformance of the welders in making welds in accordance with the required
welding visual acceptance criteria. It will also tell the supervisor how well each
welder is inspecting his own work before the supervisor checks.

The third part of the report, Delay, Lost Time, or Excessive Work Effort
During the Work Shift, requires the welding supervisor to record for action
any occurrences affecting Welding Dos Goals 4 and 5. This includes any item
that resulted in lost production or delay time in the output of welded compo-
nents and assemblies during the work shift. This report section serves two pur-
poses, to document how much time was lost in unproductive activities, thus

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allowing for an objective evaluation of the non-arc time of the welders, and. to
alert management to problems that are occurring for the welders that are origi-
nating outside of the supervisors scope of responsibility. Corrective action can
then be taken to control or eliminate these occurrences in the future.

- Most welding supervisors find paperwork an unpleasant and unnecessary task.


In many cases, this is the result of filling out reports in the past that did not
result in any constructive corrective action and no measurable improvement.
What has been presented in this chapter should give the supervisor some real
direction on how to use reporting to effect change to improve the quality, cost,
throughput and safety of welding. Once the welding supervisor begins to use
and see the results from the reporting outlined here, he will wonder how he
supervised his welders in the past without this information.

-- 1. Which of the following Welding Dos Goals will affect the Quality Metric?
A. Reduce Motion and Delay Time
B. Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment
C. Reduce Weld Metal Volume
D. Reduce Rejects, Rework, and Scrap
E. Reduce Work Effort

2. Which of the following is associated with the Cost Metric?


A. Reduce Work Effort
B. Reduce Weld Metal Volume
C. Reduce Arc Time Per Weldment
D. Reduce Rejects, Rework, and Scrap
E. A, B, and C only

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3. When the welding supervisor monitors the deposition rate for productivity,
which of the following should the supervisor pay particular attention to?
A. The size of welds
B. Positioning of parts
C. Amperage/Wire Feed Speed and Arc Voltage
D. Moving and handling parts
E. Poorly design weld fixtures.

4. When monitoring, a welding supervisor should look for the following in


order to improve on lost time and waste?
A. Waiting for parts and assemblies
B. Pounding and hammering parts
C. Weld Sizes
D. Amperage/Wire Feed Speed and Arc Voltage
E. B and C only

5. What is one of the hardest things for the welding supervisor to learn when
doing monitoring of the welders?
A. Pick up a pen and fill out a report
B. Watch the welders, while they are welding
C. Hunt for missing parts
D. Drink coffee during the shift
E. Compliment the welders when they do good work

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-- 1. D
2. E
3. C
4. A
5. B

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