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P.O BOX 04
FROM 18APRIL 2012 TO 19 JUN 2012

REG: 097101019









CHAPTER ONE:ROAD WORKS:.....................................8 -7


CHAPTER THREE: DRAINAGE WORKS:.................................34-63






This report has been organized into various chapters some of which are abstract which
gives a brief s The report is about nine weeks for my first practical training taking place at

Declaration chapter to certicify and to declare my participatory in the IPTR.

Acknowledgement chapter to thank those who have assisted me in one way or another to
carry out my field study in successes way.
Under introduction chapter the company structure and activities where I perform my
IPTR,aim,goal and scope of this industrial practical training are clearly elaborated out
including the approach used in carrying out the field
The project was on rehabilitation of Kaengesa-Mwimbi District (Sumbawanga Region).
According to work programme the work starts from Monday up to Friday and on Saturday
and Sunday there were no work unless otherwise needed to do so.


There are so many people who contribute a lot to enable me to carry out my Industrial
Training Practical in successful way and as result to improve my professional carrier.
Among of the them is Engr Flrrian Kabaka the Reginal Manager of TANROADS RUKWA
who accepted me to do my practical training in her company. Eng MOHAMED NTUNDA
the Head of Engineering(HE) who was my Industrial supervisor for arranging good
curriculum of study, providing enough transport for me to visit different sites, and I
appreciate his advices .Also I would like to thank Engr Mohamed Mfaringund,Techn
Mteleke,techn Kindole, techn Damas & for showing me were to start.
All members of staff at TANROADS RUKWA deserve a special thanks for their cooperation
and advice also.
I would also like to thank the staff member of St. Joseph College of Engineering and
Technology especially department of civil for arranging good module of studying,
Especially Mr. KOMBE.
My dictionary lacks words to describe the cooperation and help rendered by my classmates
and friends who provided me with the help that was needed at the right time.
Finally, I would like to thank and dedicate this Industrial Practical Training to the important
persons in my life, my parents, brothers and sisters; this Industrial Practical Training offered
me a Real time Industrial work experience of their motivation and support


I hereby declare that this report has been prepared by myself to fulfill the curricular
requirements of B.E in civil offered by St.Joseph college of engineering and Technology.

Candidates signature.. DATE...............



History of the Agency

The Tanzania National Roads Agency (TANROADS) is an Agency under the Ministry of
Infrastructure Development (MOID) established under section 3(1) of the Executive Agencies
(The Tanzania Roads Agency) (Establishment) Order No. 30 of 2000 to manage Trunk and
Regional Roads Network of the Tanzania Mainland, and shall be the road authority for Trunk
and Regional Roads.
To be leading Road Agency in Africa, dedicated to providing a well developed all weather
road network to support to support the economic and social development of Tanzania.
To develop, maintain and manage the Trunk and Regional Roads in an efficient manner for a
sustainable and safe network, consistent with the Poverty Reduction Strategy and other
Government policies





At signing the contract document, the contractor has agreed to the respective quantities in the
BOQ in order to achieve certain standards of work.

The Engineer of the company should assist the company technician in setting out the centre
line of the road, to ensure that the alignment, as it was designed by the design engineer, will
be followed. The design engineer left centre pegs behind at 25 meters interval, which should
be used by the supervisor to reestablish the centre line. After re - establishment of centre line,
ranging rods or strings must be used to check for the straightness and smoothness of curves.

Tools Used:
Level instrument,
Ranging poles,
Tape measures (30m and 50m),
Measuring wheel,
Bush pegs,
Bush knife
And water proof marker.

Picture 1: Timber chainage peg placed at 50m interval, and clearly marked with marker
It is very important that an accurate correlation is established and maintained between the
design in the contract document and the actual site in the field. This can only be established
by placement of permanent chainage pegs along the road at the same intervals as used in the
document. Works quantities include placing of 1x2 timber pegs, bedded in a concrete
footing at 100m interval. Intermediate bush pegs are placed at 25m interval. It was the task of
the company to maintain the chainage pegs throughout the construction period. In the
construction area, people tended to vandalize the pegs, because they didt understand their
use and importance. Therefore, it was essential to sensitize the workers and the local
community on this.
As loss of some pegs may be unavoidable, we established additional natural occurring
chainage benchmarks such as rocks, big trees, walls of houses, fences, etc.

The Site Agent must check the following issues to ensure that the placement of chainage
pegs is carried out to the required standards:
- The permanent 25m spaced pegs should be made of timber
(at least 1x 2), treated against ants and placed in a concrete

footing as specified in the contract.
- The pegs were placed firmly in the ground and the readings
were consistent without jumping figures.
- All chainage pegs were placed at one side of the road.
- Oil paint or marker pen were used to write the chainages, preferably black or blue letters on
a white background, to ensure good visibility and readability at 5 to 10 meters distance.

Tools used:
Tape measures (30m and 50m)
Timber pegs(1 x 2)

Site clearance consists of the following activities:
Bush Clearance
Grass cutting, stripping and grubbing
Tree and stump removal
Boulder removal

Bush clearing:
This activity is normally carried out over the width of rehabilitation plus one-two
meters on either side.

Bush clearing consists of cutting and removing all bushes and shrubs within this area and
disposing of the cuttings outside of the cleared area. A bush knife and stick are required to
cut, control and discard the vegetation. If it is necessary to burn the material, this should be
carried out after, and in the area of, stripping and grubbing. The material should be burned in
controlled heaps to reduce the danger of fire spreading to adjoining land

Bush Clearing Width:

(Running Surface Width) CENTRELINE (M)
(5.5m) 13.0 6.5
(6.5m) 14.0 7.0
(4.5m) 11.0
(4.5m) 11.0 5.5
(5.5m) 13.0 6.5
(6.5m) 14.0 7.0
(4.5m) 11m + (2 x EMBANKMENT VARIES (SEE FIG.
(5.5m) SLOPE) G11.3)
(6.5m) 12m + (2 x EMBANKMENT VARIES (SEE FIG.
SLOPE) G11.3)
SLOPE) G11.3)
(4.5m) 13.0 7.0
(5.5m) 15.0

Tool Used:
Bush knife


This activity includes the removal of all grass, upper roots and other vegetation remaining
after bush clearing (except trees) over the width that earthworks will take place. All top soil

should also be removed from the grubbing width as this would weaken the road if discarded
outside of the grubbed width preferably on the lower side of the road.

Tool Used:


This activity includes the felling of trees within the area previously bush cleared. The stumps
must also be up-rooted and all material disposed of outside of the cleared width. Burning may
be necessary with the precautions described under Bush Clearing. However the labourers
will normally wish to use the wood for their own fuel.

Great care must be taken in feeling trees to avoid injuries; sufficient ropes should be fixed to
the tree to achieve a controlled felling. Most trees can be felled complete with roots using
ropes if topes he soil is s excavated from around the main roots and these are then severed
with axe or saw. Hoes, shovels, mattocks, axes, crowbars, bow saw/two man crosscut saw
and ropes are required for this activity. Draft animals (oxen or donkeys) can sometimes be
used to help remove stubborn stumps.

The holes remaining after stump removal should be filled with good quality soil, compacted
with a hand rammer in layers of not more than 15cm.
Tree shading of the road surface retards sun and wind drying after rain. Such trees within the
road margin should normally be removed. Trees cash crops and other vegetation on private
land should not be removed without consultation and the agreement of the owner.

If trees have to be felled, efforts should be made to replace them with saplings planted in a
location causing no obstruction to the road or to landowners. The saplings may usually be
obtained from the local forestry department nursery.

Tool Used:
Dozer D6

Bow saw/two man crosscut saw

Boulder and rock are encountered in limited sections of some roads carefully consideration
should be given to minimising the work involved in crossing these areas. There are a number
of methods for dealing with these problems.
Modify Alignment
Remove boulders from road
Bury boulders
Split boulders using fire and water
Split boulders using hand tools
Spilt boulders using explosives


The horizontal alignment can sometimes be modified to avoid short sections with rock and
boulder problems. The vertical alignment may also be raised using good fill material. Often
stones are available in the areas of boulders and rock. These can be used to construct a hand
packed stone pavement over the boulders or rock thus overcoming the problem and avoiding
the need to gravel that section of road


This is applicable for boulder of volume less than about 0.5 cubic meter. The boulder is
moved using crowbars as levers once a path has been excavated to allow this. Lengths of
track rail can be use

ful for rolling the boulders along. Holes created during the removal of boulders should ne
backfill and compacted in layers not thicker than 15cm.


If the boulder is larger than 0.5 cubic meter or lying deep in soil, it is often most effective to
dig a hole next to the stone and bury it. Care must be taken when excavating alongside the
boulder that labours are working in safety. If the boulder is lying on the centerline, it may be
left if the camber formation works will cover it by at least 0.2m.


An individual boulder or a rock surface may be cracked by building a substantial fire
around/over it. The vegetation arising from previous activities may be used for this purpose.
The fire will usually need to be continuously fuelled for a long period (more than 6 hours) to
heat up and expand the rock sufficiently. The boulder/surface should then be dowsed with
cold water to encourage rapid shrinkage, and struck with sledgehammers.
Cracks should develop along weak planes allowing the rock to be broken into pieces


If the boulders or rock are weathered or cracked it is often possible to break it into smaller
pieces using pickaxes, sledgehammers and chisels/wedges, or plugs and feathers. Hole can
even be drilled in rock using hand quarry drills and sledgehammers. These are then used for
the splitting tools.


If there is a large number of a boulder or a solid rock face to be removed then the use of
explosive may be justified. Care must be taken in drilling the holes for the explosives (using
hand tools) in the correct location and orientation. Handling of explosives and blasting must
be carried out by a licensed blaster. The blaster will also advise on the location and
orientation of holes for the explosives.

It is essential that safety of labourers is given high priority in any work with trees, rock or


Form up road formation to light re shaping

Reshaping is used on sections of road, where the road embankment has a reasonable shape
and where side drains exist, but need to be desilted.
Formation of the road
After Excavation to Level completed, we started building up the road formation.
Five different cross-section types can be distinguished:
Cross section Type I: level terrain
Cross section Type II: One side long terrain
Cross section type III: Hilly terrain
Cross section type IV: Fill section.

Each of the cross sections has their own design measurements, and under each category there
are sub-designs, to take account of different traffic volume conditions.

For example;
Cross section Type I: level terrain
Carriage width: 5.0 meters
Shoulders: 1.25 meters
Ditch: 2.4meters
Camber: 6% compacted
Minimum gravel: 10 cm compacted

In road construction, using a motor grader, Water bowser and a vibrating roller, the formation
of the road is built up in six steps, which were all to be carried out separately as mentioned
a) Ditch to ditch measurement and pegging.
b) Watering using a water browser
c) Ditching and spreading using a motor grader
d) Back sloping and spreading using a motor grader.
e) Camber formation and final shaping using a motor grader.
f) Compacting using a Vibrating roller

The task of the Reshaping and Quarry preparation gangs is to reshape the road if necessary.
Prepare the quarry access road, prepare the quarries for excavation, and stockpile quantity of
gravel immediately after arriving on site.

Picture 2: water bowser spreading water on the road section

Picture 3: Road formation works with mortar grader

A. Ditch to ditch measurement and pegging
Of the six steps listed above, the first step Ditch to ditch measurement and pegging is the
most important one and was carried out and checked by the Site agent on a regular basis. The
reason why is, that the operator of the grader could not know the exact size of the road by just
looking at it. For instance the road cross section of level terrain the ditch to was measured to

B. Watering using a water bowser

During dry seasons it is advised that during construction the soil should be moist enough in
order to achieve maximum compaction therefore the soil were made moist using the water
bowser, and this were done regularly during the entire road formation time.

C. Ditching and spreading using a motor grader

Before ditching can start, the Engineer needs to set out the extents of the ditch as per standard
cross-section with ropes as explained above. Ditching is a hard job, especially in the dry
season. The Engineer should always advise and encourage watering the ditch area in the
evening, before the ditching is carried out. During the night, the water will penetrate in the
soil beneath to make it softer. Many contractors will argue that this will cost extra money, but
with this extra effort, the soil will also have sufficient moisture for compaction after it has
been spread to form the plug, and hence less watering is needed for the compaction activity.
The excavated ditch material were placed in the central of the road formation, spread out and
compacted as a flat platform.
The ditching activity also includes spreading of the soil. The soil taken from the ditch was
spread carefully at the top of the road and if it happened that the soil is very hard the rippers
of the grader were used to loosen the soil prior to ditching.
The Company Engineer role in relation to the Ditching activity, following aspects were as
Check that ditches have been set out properly to the required
Sizes with pegs properly placed.
Check that strings and ditch templates are used during excavation
of the drains. These would guide the Motor grader operator
Check with the ditch template that the ditches have been excavated to the required
width and depth.

Check that all material is placed at the centre third of the road width and uniformly
spread, watered and properly compacted.

D. Back sloping and spreading using a motor grader.

Sloping of the side drain is done in 2 steps. In most cases, first the back slope is cut, and then
the fore slope. The reason for this following order is that in road rehabilitation, the best
material from the old road surface such as laterite was most likely to be found closer to the
centre line, and this were the material, which should preferably be placed back in the top
layer of the new formation.

After ditching is completed, the back slopes were cut. The loose materials were thrown out of
the road using the blade of the grader. The back slopes were cut to the required slope 1:4.
Where the cut face behind the side ditch were more than 1.0 meter
high, it may be easier to carry out the back sloping operation even
before the ditching operation.

E. Camber formation and final shaping using a motor grader.

Camber formation was the final touch to the formation of the road embankment. The
materials cut from the ditch were evenly distributed at the top of the road in order to get the
required camber. The supervising officer must make sure that the workers are properly guided
by ropes, set out along the centre line and the edge of the road at the correct level

The camber is checked with a Camber-board, an example of which is shown on two

pictures above. It is very important for the contractor to carry out the camber formation
accurately and without major defects BEFORE the starting of the graveling operation,
because making corrections with gravel is much more expensive than to correct them using
earth. Regarding the formation of camber, the supervising officer had to check the following
Check that the material is spread uniformly to specified width and forms a cross fall
from the centre line to the edge of both sides of the road (camber) by the specified
percentage, so that water is allowed to flow freely to the side drains on either side.
Check longitudinal gradients that they are gentle and not bumpy. If bumpy, the
depressions was filled or cut to balance with depressions.

Check for proper use of strings and camber board during camber formation.
Check for proper compaction.

After completion of the ditching, sloping and camber formation operations, the Site Agent
carried out a summary check on the quality and shape of the road formation. This check was
carried out before the graveling start, so that required corrections can be carried out before
the graveling operation.

Check road formation in earth.

Who: Site Agent (Engineer).
Why: To ensure that the overall road formation has been
constructed to the specified standards.
When: Before the start of the graveling operation.
What: Site Agent carried out the following checks:

1. Level difference between bottom of left and right side drain is nil.
2. Width of road is as specified.
3. Cross-fall of camber is as specified.
4. Shape and size of side drains are as specified.
5. Level difference between centre line and bottom of both side drains (left and right) is as
6. Formation is compacted to specified standards.

Tools used:
Camber board,
25m tape measure
Ditch template
Boning rods

F. Compacting using a Vibrating roller
Compaction was carried out using a caterpillar made Vibrating roller of 12500kg.
Compaction is required to improve the properties of the soil, because it: reduces hollow
spaces in the soil increases bearing capacity of the soil reduces settlement of the soil reduces
permeability of the soil, and increases the shearing strength. A road which has been
compacted can stand erosion and traffic better than a loose embankment. Compaction results
in a dense surface which can carry substantial loads without getting depressions. It also helps
to ensure that rainwater cannot penetrate the layer and soften the gravel or the base. In simple
terms, compaction is pressing soil together to make it denser, by getting the air out. In this
way the soil becomes stronger and more particles touch each other. Soil consists of three
components, solid particles, water and air. The air does not contribute to strength and must be
removed by compaction. Water acts as a lubricant to pack the soil particles and allow them to
settle in a dense mass. However, water should not be too much, and also not too little. Each
soil has a certain Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), which varies between 8% and 10%
of the total volume. If the soil has already some moisture, less water need to be added. If the
soil is wet, e.g. after a heavy rain, the soil needs to be left to dry before compaction starts.

The requirements regarding the moisture content of soil at the time of compaction are
described in the specifications as follows:
The moisture content at the time of compaction shall be within the range of +/- 2 % of the
optimum moisture content. If necessary the moisture content of the material shall be adjusted
by either drying up or mixing in water.
A simple field test can give a fair indication whether the soil has the correct optimum
moisture content for compaction:
Take a sample of the soil to be compacted and squeeze it as tightly as possible in the hand.
After opening your hand, one of 3 possible results should be visible:
1. The material disintegrates easily and collapses into small pieces: The soil is too dry.
2. The material sticks together, with no visible sign of free water on the surface of the lump:
The soil has the correct moisture content.
3. The material sticks to the hand or free water is ejected:

The soil is too wet



Where possible gravel quarries in the road reserve and adjacent to the road should be used.
They avoid the need for access roads and additional turning areas for equipment. However
care should be taken to ensure stability of side slopes and continuity of drainage both during
and after the quarry operations.
Where quarries are located away from the road, access tracks will normally need to be
improved before trucks can use them. At the quarry site there should be ample turning space
for the hauling equipment.
Careful planning of the exploitation of a quarry is required if efficiency of the gravelling
operation is to be attained.
The quarry should be planned so that:
It can be exploited fully with removal of the maximum amount of gravel.
Environmental damage by drainage and erosion is minimised both during and after
exploitation of the quarry. The quarry should be developed so that it drains effectively
during the works.
Any topsoil and the overburden is stockpiled separately so that it will not hinder future
extension, and that it can be eventually used to reinstate the quarry.
The best materials are taken wh
ere gravel quality is variable within the quarry.

Normally the earth road will be compacted with a dead weight roller or vibrating roller prior
to gravelling.
Gravelling should commence from where the quarry access road joins the road to be
gravelled. Initially the road should be gravelled away from the quarry access in both
directions simultaneously. With the short hauls this 1 km, gravelling should continue only in
one direction at a time to ease supervision and utilize as much as possible.
This method has the following advantages:-

Damage to earth road camber is minimised
Gravelling traffic does not interfere with reshaping activities
Gravelling can recommence sooner after rainfall


Each day gravel will have to be excavated and stockpiled at the quarry. The quantity
stockpiled at the end of a day should be equal to or exceed the amount to be hauled the
following day. Gravel excavation is suitable for gang tasks, this cut down the amount of
setting out and monitoring work required by the foreman. Particular attention should be given
to the development of the quarry so that work proceeds efficiently. Where possible bays
should be excavated and the gravel stockpiled alongside. The bays can be used for parking
the truck and loading.

Picture showing excavation of gravel using excavator

In this way the gravel is cast down into, or from the same height as, the trucks. Situation
where the gravel is stockpiled below the equipment should be avoided as this makes loading
Multiple handling of gravel in which it is moved from excavation to loading areas and
restock piled should also be avoided. Trucks should be loaded from both sides whenever
Sufficient room must be allowed for turning trucks.
Ramps out of loading bays must not be too steps for trucks or tractors hauling loaded trailers.
Plant must have enough room to work safely and comfortably. The standard loading bay
allows this. Plant must not b allowed to work at unstable quarry faces. Hillside quarries are
more difficult to exploit. The face on a hillside quarry may also need to be stepped if there is
a risk of falling materials or slips.

This is a combined activity. It is important that the trucks are off-loaded in the shortest
possible time. The truck should turn, if possible, before unloading. The material is then
dumped on a wet road surface at specified intervals such that when material is spread it will
give the required material thickness.
Once enough material is dumped, the material is then spread by mortar grader, watered by
water bowser, mixed by a mortar grader and worked to the required profile and camber by a
mortar grader ready for compaction.

Picture show gravel material on the road section


In the construction of highway embankments, earth dams, and many other engineering
projects, loose soils must be compacted to increase their unit weight.
Once the material is attained optimum moisture content (omc) a vibrating roller shall
compact the material to the required density. Field density test is then carried out to ascertain

Compaction improves characteristics of soils:

1- Increases Strength

2- Decreases permeability

3- Reduces settlement of foundation

4- Increases slope stability of embankments

Soil Compaction can be achieved either by static or dynamic loading:

1- Smooth-wheel rollers

2- Sheepfoot rollers

3- Rubber-tired rollers

4- Vibratory Rollers

5- Vibroflotation

General Principles:

The degree of compaction of soil is measured by its unit weight, , and optimum moisture
content, wc.

The process of soil compaction is simply expelling the air from the voids. Or reducing air

Picture show gravel material on the road section


Levelling is the process of finding levels of different points. Here Levelling was done in
order to maintain the camber.
Also after dumping the materials, spreading, and compact it, the process of leveling followed
in order to know the thickness of compacted material.
For those purpose, it is required to take readings after road formation and also after spreading
and compacting gravel. The thickness of compacted gravel is obtained by taking difference
between reading obtained after road formation (formation level) and reading taken after
spreading and compacting gravel. Usually three reading are taken at each chainage i.e. left
hand side, right hand side and centre line of the road.

Dump levels
Staff reading
Tape measure
Sprit level
Trainee students-

To a given reference point (reducing levels )RL as Bench mark setting a dump
levels a distance from the bench mark
Taking the staff to the bench mark
Reading of the staff-height and noted as back sight(BS)
Summing the reducing level (RL) to that height of staff to get the height of
instrument (HI)
Transferring of the staff to another point or reducing level (RL)
While the dump level is at original position and reading as back sight (BS)
Subtracting from the height of instrument (HI),the staff reading to get the new
reducing level (R.L)
Then changing of the dump level position and setting it again, again another bench
mark (reducing level) R.L is used and the above procedures is used.


3.150 103.15 100.00 100.00 TBM

2.250 103.15 100.900 LHS at ch 1 + 000

2.385 103.15 100.765 C/L Of the road at ch 1 + 000

2.248 103.15 100.902 RHS at ch 1 + 000

3.124 103.15 100.026 LHS at ch 1 + 50

3.259 103.15 99.891 C/L of the road at ch 1 + 50

3.123 103.15 100.027 RHS at ch 1 + 50

3.094 103.15 100.056 LHS at ch 1 + 100

3.228 103.15 99.922 C/L at ch 1 + 100

3.095 103.15 100.055 RHS at ch 1 + 100

3.075 103.15 100.075 LHS at ch 1 + 150

3.209 103.15 99.941 C/L at ch 1 + 150

3.077 100.062 RHS at ch 1 + 150


3.131 103.131 100.00 100.00 TBM

2.081 103.131 101.050 LHS at ch 1 + 000

2.235 103.131 100.895 C/L Of the road at ch 1 + 000

2.098 103.131 101.033 RHS at ch 1 + 000

2.954 103.131 100.177 LHS at ch 1 + 50

3.109 103.131 100.022 C/L of the road at ch 1 + 50

2.963 103.131 100.168 RHS at ch 1 + 50

2.954 103.131 100..177 LHS at ch 1 + 100

3.068 103.131 100.063 C/L at ch 1 + 100

2.395 103.131 100.736 RHS at ch 1 + 100

2.915 103.131 100.216 LHS at ch 1 + 150

2.879 103.131 100.252 C/L at ch 1 + 150

2.927 100.204 RHS at ch 1 + 150

100.900 101.050 0.15 LHS at ch 1 + 000

100.765 100.895 0.13 C/L Of the road at ch 1 +

100.902 101.033 0.13 RHS at ch 1 + 000

100.026 100.177 0.15 LHS at ch 1 + 50

99.891 100.022 0.13 C/L of the road at ch 1 + 50

100.027 100.168 0.14 RHS at ch 1 + 50

100.056 100.177 0.135 LHS at ch 1 + 100

99.922 100.063 0.14 C/L at ch 1 + 100

100.055 100.736 0.15 RHS at ch 1 + 100

100.075 100.216 0.16 LHS at ch 1 + 150

99.941 100.252 0.15 C/L at ch 1 + 150

100.062 100.204 0.14 RHS at ch 1 + 150


Rain water is the biggest enemy of a road and should be led away from the road at regular
intervals and at any appropriate location. Drainage worxks should be regarded as important as
the actual road formation itself. Without a properly designed and constructed drainage
system, the earth or gravel road is bound to fail very soon, which is also part of the drainage

Good drainage is vital for the performance of any road. Drainage consists of camber, side
drains, mitre (or turn out) drains, cross drains, catch water drains and scour checks. Cross
drains are culverts, drifts, vented drifts, fords or bridges.

During the construction process, it is essential that the drainage features was constructed at
the same time as the road formation itself or preferably (if possible) ahead of formation
works but should be before gravelling. Especially when works are carried out during the
rainy season, it is important that the drainage system is functional to avoid completed road
formation work from being damaged or washed away. Mitre and discharge drains will lead
away unexpected rain water, and a catch water drain may prevent it from reaching the road at
all. These include:
Excavation of drainages other than side drains
Construction of scour checks in steep areas
Supply and installation of culvert pipes
Masonry works
Stone pitching and gabion works
Concrete works


Excavation of open drains comprises the excavation of other drainages,
and it is subdivided in excavation of drains outside road formation:
Mitre drains
Catch water drains
Culvert discharge drains
and excavation of drains within road formation:
Culvert trenches
Excavation for culvert inlets and outlets
Excavation for side access drifts or culverts
Excavation for drift and brid

The side drains extend along the road and collect the water from the carriageway and
adjoining land and transport it to a suitable point of disposal.

Mitre drains (or turn-out drains) lead the water out of the side drains and carefully
disperse it on adjoining land. Mitre drains should be provided as often as possible so that
the accumulated water volume in each drain is not too high and does not cause erosion to
the adjoining land.


Where the road is situated on a hillside a significant amount of rain water may flow down
the hill towards the road. This may cause damage to the cut face (back slope) of the road
and may even cause landslides. Catch water drains intercept or catch surface water
flowing towards the road from adjacent land, and lead it safety away.

Scour checks prevent erosion in side drains on steep gradient by slowing down the water
through a series of steps. Scour checks are usually built using locally-available material,
such as stones or wooden pegs.

The culvert is the most common form of cross drainage. It is built under the road and its
function is to lead water from the upper, uphill side of the road to the lower, valley side.
In tropical countries with high rainfalls three or four culverts are normally required per
kilometre. Culverts can consist of a line of rings made of concrete or prefabricated
corrugated steel. Culverts can also be arched or rectangular in a cross section and
constructed of masonry brick or preserved timber.

Culverts and larger structures will usually have a number of important components.


Retaining wall at the entry or exit of the culvert to retain and protect the embankment or
retained soil.

Retaining wall at the side of the culvert or larger structure to retain and protect the
embankment or retained soil.

The flat paved area at the culvert inlet or outlet to prevent erosion.
A vertical wall under the headwall to prevent water seeping under the structure and
undermining it.

As presented before, excavation of drains within road formation consist

Culvert trenches
Excavation for culvert inlets and outlets
Excavation for side access drifts or culverts
Excavation for drift and bridge works.
The excavation of culvert trenches and culvert in- and outlets were the most common under
this item, however, quantities for excavation differ, depending on the height of installation of
the culvert pipe, which in turn depends on where the discharge point of the outfall is
projected. The correct sequence of work is excavation of discharge drain, excavation of
trench and installation of the culvert pipes.

Picture: Culvert trench and in- and outlet excavation

The correct sequence is very important, especially in rather flat terrain where the length of the
discharge drain should be set to a maximum of 20 to 40 metres. It is best to start excavation at
the predetermined discharge point, and work towards the trench. In this way, the danger of
installing the culvert too deep will be avoided. Also the risk of flooding of the trench during
rains will be eliminated.
The Engineer must check that the trench is excavated wide enough to allow for
compaction of the backfill by a vibrating plate compactor, if the contractor so wishes.
The Engineer must also check that the foundations of head- and wing walls are
accurately excavated below the level of the apron bottom, as per specifications,

because in most cases, concrete for foundation of head- and wing walls and concrete
for apron are poured together.




Soil is an important construction material for any engineering project; it acts as the base for
the structure.

For road construction soil is tested its strength, compressibility, shear stress, permeability,
and its particle size distribution.

Soil tests are divided into;

I. Classification tests

II. Compaction tests


Laboratory classification of soil is based on the grain (particle) size distribution, plasticity
(Unterberg limits) and grading and organic content.

The grain size distribution expresses the sizes of the particles in terms of the percentages of
mass of individual sizes.

Table for particle sizes:

Name and range of particle Range of particle

size(group) Size in (mm)
Boulders, stones >200

Cobbles 60-200

Gravel 2.0-60

Sand 0.06-2.0

Silt 0.002-0.06

Clay <0.002

Determination of particles of particle-size distribution is based on sieve analysis (dry and wet
sieving for grain for grains with diameter greater than 0.063).


Sieving is done using special sieves with known aperture or diameter.

Methods of sieving are:

I. Dry sieving

II. Wet sieving

Dry sieving

The material should be sufficiently dried so that it can be sieved 0.425mm without clogging
the sieve. First material should be riffled or quartered and dried in oven at temperature not
exceeding 100 c.

Material is weighted and sieved through 425mm sieve. material retained on a sieve should be
crushed in mortar to obtain finer material which will be sieved again to obtain much soil
sample .fine sample is transferred on paper bag and placed in a oven at a temperature of 105-
110 c.

Wet sieving
For particles between 10 and 0.063mm wet sieving is necessary unless the whole sample has
been washed (removal of particles<0.063mm) prior drying. In this method, water is flushed
through the sieves during sieving. Here the clear particles are obtained and no errors are
involved during weighting however the disadvantage of this method is that the material
obtained in each sieve has first to be dried before weighting.

Procedures explained bellow combines both wet sieving (to remove dust, sand and silt seized
particles) followed by dry sieving, this is mostly adopted in the laboratory.


Test sieves;75mm, 63mm,50mm, 37.5mm, 28mm,14mm,6.3mm, 3.35mm,

1.18mm,425m,300m,150m, 75m,

Lid and receiver

Riffle box

A balance readable and accurate to 0.5g

A drying oven capable of maintaining temperature up to 100c

Metal trays, about 250mm square


Sieve brushes

Evaporating dishes

Tank of distilled water

A sensitive balance

Canes, scoop and squire tray


Amount of sample required depend on soil fines but it should have about 0.5kg.to obtain
appropriate ratio of aggregates and soil fines, riffling or quartering methods are adopted.


The sample is empted from sample bag into one or more of the riffler pans. The material is
then poured through the riffler by slowly tilting the pan so that the material flows in an even
stream over the width of the pan. At the same time the pan is moved to and fro along the full
length of the riffler ensuring an even flow of material. The process is repeated until the
material of the required size is obtained.

The test sample should, of course, be the representative of the field sample and it is
important to ensure a free flow of material through the openings of the riffler .there is no need
of dry material unless material is so wet.

A prepared soil sample for sieving


i. Weight the air-dried (or oven dried) test sample 0.1% of its total mass (M1).

ii. Place the sample and sieve through 20mm sieve size, brush any particles too coarse
to pass through the sieve with wire brush until the individual particles are clean of
any fine material.

iii. Sieve the fraction retained on 20mm sieve on the appropriate large test sieves on
each test sieve.

iv. Weight the material pass through 20mm sieve size (m2).

v. Riffle the sample to get the convenient of about 0.5kg and weight the fraction (m3).

vi. Spread the riffled material in the square tray and cover with distilled water.

vii. Soak material into distilled water for 24 hours to allow soil to loosen from

viii. Wash material through 75m sieve, allowing material passing sieve 75m to run to
dust. If possible work it with hand to remove small particles from large particles.

ix. Transfer all the material retained on the sieve into tray or evaporating dish and dry
in an oven at 105c to 110c.allow it to cool and weight (m4).

x. Sieve the dried fractions through the appropriate sieves down to 75m test sieve.
Weigh the amount retained in each sieve and any fines passing the 75m and record.

Washing of soil sample

Drying of soil sample


i. For a sample containing particles larger than 20mm size, calculate the proportion by
mass of material retained on each sieves as a percentage (m1).

For example:

Percentage retained on 28mm sieve

= m (28mm) 100
ii. Calculate the corrected mass of the material retained on each of the sieves between
20mm and 70m multiplying by m2/m3, then calculate this mass as percentage

For example:

= m (10mm) ( m2 ) (100)
m3 m1

iii. Calculate the cumulative percentage by mass of the sample passing each of the sieve,
from the general relationship :

(%passing this sieve) = (%passing previous sieve) = (%retained on this sieve)

iv. Calculate the fraction passing the 75m test sieve by difference. The mass of the fines
lost by washing equals (m3=m4). To this is added the mass of any fine material(mf)
passing the 75m when dry sieved, and the percentage finer than 75m is equal to:

{(m3-m4) +mF} (m2) 100

m3 M1
v. Plot the grading as a curve on a semi-logarithmic chart.


The test report shall include the following information

a) Type the material and sample identification.

b) Reference to this procedure.
c) The particle distribution curve.

Practical considerations
Take care to ensure that sieving is complete; the minimum period of shaking should be 10
Never put a sieve in the drying oven for drying material, as this will destroy the sieve.
The sieves should be inspected for defects before each use. A more detailed examination
should made at regular intervals to discover signs of wear, warping, splits holes, blockages
and any other defects in the mesh.

The method covers the determination of in situ dry density of natural or compacted fine
and medium grained soils for which a 100mm to 150mm diameter sand pouring cone is
used. The method is also applicable to layers not exceeding 150mm thickness. Course
grained soil may require larger diameter of pouring cones.
- Tools suitable for excavating hole in the soil.
- A balance readable to 1g.
- A pouring cylinder with required dimensions
- A cylindrical calibrating metal container with internal diameter of 100mm and internal
depth of 150mm.
- Metal trays with holes at the centre equal to the diameter of the pouring cone.
- BS sieves 600m and 300m.
- Apparatus for moisture content determination.
- A pouring cone 100mm to 150mm diameter

Sand replacement
(a) Obtain a clean river sand passing the 600m and retained on 300m sieve. The sand must
be oven dried and stored with enough period to achieve equilibrium with the atmosphere.

Apparatus calibration
(b) Determine the internal diameter and internal depth of the calibrating cylinder.
(c) Fill the sand into the pouring cylinder fixed with a cone while the shutter is closed.
Determine the mass of sand in pouring cylinder as m1.
(d) Place the pouring cylinder full of sand with cone attached at the bottom to the top of the
calibrating cylinder. Note that the diameter of the calibrating cylinder must be equal to the
diameter of the mouth of the cone.
(e) Allow the sand to run into the calibrating cylinder by opening the shutter. Do not tap or
vibrate the pouring and calibrating cylinders. Allow the sand to run into the calibrating
cylinder until no movement of sand is observed.
(f) Close the shutter, remove the pouring cylinder with a cone and determine the mass of
sand remaining in the pouring cylinder as m2.

(g) Without vibrating or tapping the calibrating cylinder, scrap off the excess sand on the
surface of calibrating cylinder. Determine the mass of sand required to fill only the
calibrating cylinder as m3.
Note: The excess sand on the surface of calibrating cylinder is the amount of sand in the cone of
pouring cylinder.
(h) The volume of the calibrating cylinder is given as ;
V (cc) = 3.14D^2h/4
Where ;
D = Internal diameter of the calibrating cylinder (cm)
h = Internal depth of the calibrating cylinder (cm)
(h) The mass of sand in the calibrating cylinder only is m3 as measured in step (f). Therefore
the bulk density of sand is given as;
bs = m3/v (g/cm^3)
(i) The mass of sand in calibrating cylinder and that required to fill the cone of the pouring
cylinder is given as;
Mcc = m1 m2
Where; Mcc = mass of sand in calibrating cylinder and pouring cone.
M1 = mass of sand in pouring cylinder while the shutter is closed and before
M2 = mass of sand remaining in pouring cylinder while the shutter is closed
and after pouring sand in calibrating cylinder.
Therefore the mass of sand in the pouring cone only is given by;
Mpc = Mcc - m3
= m1 - m2 - m3

The field test;

(e) Having known the bulk density of sand (b) and the mass of sand required to fill the
pouring cone (Mpc), obtain the mass of sand (m4) about to fill the pouring cylinder while
the shutter is closed.
(f) In the field a flat area of approximately 450mm squire of the soil to be tested if natural is
exposed and trimmed to a level surface. For flat compacted area a reasonably flat and level
surface is selected.
(g) The metal tray with a hole at its centre is laid on a prepared surface, fixed using nails or
other wise such that no movement is allowed. Through a hole of a tray approximately

100mm diameter a hole about 150mm deep is dug into the soil layer to be tested. All the soil
from the hole is to be collected and no loose materials left in the hole. The excavated soil is
weighed to the nearest 1g as m5. A representative soil sample from the soil excavated about
200g is an airtight bag for moisture content determination.
(h) The pouring cylinder fixed with the pouring cone filled with sand of mass m4 is placed on
top so that the cone of pouring cylinder covers concentrically the excavated hole. The
shutter is then opened, the sand allowed to run into the hole without tapping or vibrating the
pouring cylinder. When no further movement of sand is observed the shutter is closed. The
mass of sand remaining in the pouring cylinder is determined and recorded (m6) to the
nearest 1g.

calculation of dry density of soil.

(a) The mass of sand required to fill the excavated hole and the pouring cones is given by
Mhc = m4 - m6
Mhc = mass of sand in the hole and pouring cone.
m4 = mass of sand in pouring cylinder before the test.
m6 = mass of sand in pouring cylinder remaining after the test.
(b) The mass of sand required to fill the excavated hole only is obtained by;
Mh = Mhc - Mpc
Mhc and Mpc are quantities as defined above.
(c) The volume of excavated hole in the soil being equal to the volume of the soil is obtained
Vh = Mh / bs
Vh = volume of the hole in the soil (cm^3)
bs = bulk density of sand (g/cm^3)
(d) The bulk density of excavated soil is given as;
= M5 / Vh
= (M5 x bs) / Mh

= bulk density of excavated soil.
M5 = mass of excavated soil.
(e) The dry density of excavated soil is calculated from equation;
= / 1 + w
= dry density of soil.
W = moisture content of soil (%).
(f) If the maximum density (MDD/ of soil from laboratory compaction test is known, the
degree of compaction achieved in the field is given as;
%C = ( x 100) / MDD
%C = degree of compaction achieved in the field.
MDD = maximum dry density of soil from laboratory teat.
(f) The dry density, moisture content and degree of compaction achieved shall be reported to
the nearest whole numbers.



Elongation is the means of classifying coarse aggregates.

Aggregate particle are classified as elongated when they have a length (greatest dimension)
of more than 1.8 of their mean sieve size.

For base coarse and wearing coarse the presence of elongated are considered undesirable as
may cause inherent weakness with possibilities of breaking down under heavy loads.


The Elongation Index of an aggregate sample is found by separating the elongated particles
and expressing their mass as a percentage of the mass of the sample. The test is applicable to
a material passing 50 mm sieve and retained on a 6.3 mm sieve.


A sample divider e.g. a riffle box

Drying oven with temperature of 105 5

Balance readable to 1.0. g

Test sieves

A sieve shaker(optional)

Metal tray

A metal length gauge of a pattern in below (see appendix 7a Length gauge)

Nominal aperture size

(square hole perforated plate 450 mm or 300 mm)
Table 1. Particular of sieves.

Step 1: reduce the sample to produce a test portion complying with table 2. Below.
Step 2: The test sample shall be washed if necessary and oven dried at 110 or 100
centigrade to substantially constant weight.
Step 3:allow the sample to cool and weight the sample to the nearest 1.g.
Nominal size of material Minimum mass of test portion after rejection
of oversize and undersize particles.
40 15

28 5
20 2
14 1
10 0.5
Table 2. Minimum mass of the test portion.

Step 1: carry out a sieve analysis using the sieve given in table 1.
Step 2: Discard all aggregates retained on the 50 mm sieve and all aggregates passing
the 6.3 mm sieve.
Step 3: weigh of the individual size, fractions retained on the sieves and store them in
trays with their size marked on trays.
Step 4: from the sums of masses of the fraction in the trays (M1), calculate the
individual percentage retained on each of various sieves. Discard any fractions whose
mass is 5% or less of mass M1. Record the mass of the remaining (M2).
Step 5: gauge each fraction using the length gauge. Select the gauge appropriate to the
size-fraction under the test (see table 3) and gauge each particle of that size- fraction
separately by hand. Elongated particles are those whose greatest dimension prevents
them from passing through the gauge, and these are placed to one side.
Step 6: Combine and weigh all the elongated particles (M3).
Aggregate size fraction Gap between pins Minimum mass for
Test sieve
of length gauge sub division
100% passing 100% retained
mm Mm mm Kg.
50 37.5 78.7 35
37.5 28 59.0 15
28 20 43.2 5
20 14 30.6 2
14 10 21.6 1
10 6.3 14.7 0.5
Table 3. Data for determination of elongation index

The value of elongation index is calculated from the expression:
Elongation index, E1=M3/M2 * 100
M2 is the sum of all masses of fraction that have a mass greater than 5% of the
total mass.
M3 is the mass of all the elongated particles.


The enclosed form shall be used (see appendix 7b)

The test report shall include the following:
a. Type of material and sample identification
b. Reference to this procedure
c. Test results i.e. the elongation index of the test sample
d. The elongation index shall be expressed to the nearest whole number.
e. Whether the material was tested in the natural state or after sieving
f. Sieve analysis obtained from this test.

.Length gauge


CBR- California Bearing Ratio

Objective The strength of the sub grade is the main factor in determining the
required thickness of flexible pavements for roads and airfields. The strength of sub grade,
sub base and base course materials are expressed in terms of their California Bearing Ratio
(CBR) value.

The CBR - value is a requirement in design for pavement materials of natural gravel.

It is a simple penetration test developed to evaluate the strength of road sub grade.


Test sieves 20mm

3 cylindrical metal moulds(Internal diameter 152mm,height 127mm) including its removable

extension and base plate

Two metal rammers(of 2.5kg and 4.5kg)

Steel rod


A balance

Filter paper(150mm)

Dial gauge

Swell plate with adjustable stem for dial gauge fitting

Tripod, mounting to support the dial gauge

A soaking tank

CBR compression machine



CBR test to be carried to material passing 20mm

The soil shall be thoroughly mixed

The soil shall be sealed and stored for at last 24 hours before compacting into the moulds

The material should be larger enough to provide 25kg

Divide the sample into 3 parts each 6000 grams


Weigh the moulds

Attach extension and cover base plate with filter

Mix the sample with amount of water obtained from Compaction Test thoroughly and rapidly
until it is evenly mixed (Proctor).

Fill the 1st mould with materials using the 4.5 kg rammer, 5 layers and 62 blows per
layer(Ensure blows are evenly distributed over the surface).

Remove the collar and trim soil flush with the top of the mould with the scraper, checking
with the steel straightedge Weigh the mould and the sample in it.

A representative sample for moisture content is taken from the mixing tray

The second mould is then tamped full of material using the 4.5 kg rammer, five layers and 30
blows per layer. The moulded material is trimmed off, weighed and another representative
sample for moisture content is taken from the mixing tray.

The third mould is then tamped full of material, but in this case only three layers are
compacted and on each layer 62 blows of the 2.5 kg rammer applied. The moulded material is
again trimmed off and weighed.


Place a filter paper on top of each sample an fit perforated base plate on top of the moulds
and invert the moulds.

Place the mould assembly in the empty soaking tank. The surface of the moulded material
which was against the baseplate should now be facing upwards. Place a filter paper on top of
the sample followed by the perforated swell plate. Fit annular surcharge discs weighing 4.5
kg around the stem on perforated swell plate.

Mount the dial gauge support on top of the extension collar, secure the dial gauge in place
and adjust the stem of perforated plate to give a convenient zero reading.

Fill the soaking tank with water to just below the top of the mould extension collar. Start the
timer when the water has just covered the base plate.

Record readings of the dial gauge each day.

After 4 days of soaking, take off the dial gauge and its support, remove the mould assembly
from the soaking tank and allow the sample to drain for 15 min


This method covers the determination of an air dried or a low temperature oven dried soil
about 50C. The liquid limit is an empirical moisture content at which the soil passes from
the plastic state to the liquid state on the addition of water .it provides the means of
classifying the soil particularly when the plastic limit of water is known. The liquid limit can
be determined by using either a cone penetrometer or a casagrende apparatus.

Liquid limit using cone penetrometer

- Cone penetrometer set
- BS test sieve 425um and with receiver
- Apparatus for determining the moisture content
- Two pellet knives
- A flat glass plate 10m 500mm square
- Wash bottle or beaker containing portable water
- Metal cup 55mm diameter and 40mm deep air tight container

Cone penetrometer for determination of liquid limit.


(a) For an air dried soil or in its natural state obtain 250g of sieve 425m. Transfer the
soil to a flat glass plate .add water and mix thoroughly with pallet knives until a
homogeneous and thick paste is achieved.

(b) Cover the soil in air or water tight container and allow the cure for 12 hours.
(c) Set the potentiometer instrument such that the spirit level is centered

(d) Remove the sample from the container and remix it for 5 minutes

(e) Push the remix into the meter cup with pellet knife .take care not to trap the air .struck
off the excess soil with a straight edge to give a smooth finish.

(f) the cone is manually lowered such that the cone tip just touches the surface of the soil
in the in the cup. note the reading on the on the scale as (i0)mm

(g) release the cone into the soil for 5+_1.sec .lower the gauge to get nee reading as (lf)
mm. then difference (lf-lo)between the second and the first reading id the cone
penetration. lift the cone from the soil ,fill the depression either wet soil and repeat the

(h) if the difference in the cone penetration for the two tests is less than 05 mm the
average of the two penetration is recoded as (li)mm. other wise carry on the third

(i) a wet soil about 10g is taken from the penetration area. for the determination of
moisture content .
(j) stage (e) and (i)are repeated at least four times. Using the same sample to which
further increment of water is made .the amount of water is made. The amount water to
be added is chosen such that the range pf penetration falls within 10 to 30mm.
(a) plot the relationship between the moisture content(w) and the cone penetration (li)on
the linear scale. The moisture content is to be plotted as horizontal and the cone penetrating
the vertical.

(b) plot the best fit strait line through the points

(c) the moisture content corresponding to the cone penetration of 30mm shall be taken as
the liquid limit for the soil expressed in the nearest whole number

Appendex2A shoes the sample for the determination of liquid limit using the cone

Liquid limit using cassagrande apparatus

- Cassagrande tool
- A grooving tool and gauge complying to the details as indicated in the standards
- a flat glass plate 10mmthick and 500mm square.
- two pellet knives.
- Apparatus for moisture content determination.
- water /air tight container.
- Sieves 2mm and 435um in size.

Cassagrande tools for determination of liquid limit


(a) inspect the cassagrande tool such that they are clean and set the leveled. set the height
to which the cup of the cassagrande .the apparatus should be lifted to the maximum
of 10mm. use the gauge such that it just passes between cup and its base
(b) obtain about250gof soil passing thought the 425um sieve size. Place it on a glass plate
mix it with portable water using pellet water for about 10min until a tick homogenous
mixture is achieved
(c) allow the paste to cure in air / eater tight container for 12 hours remix the soil after
curing it for at least 1 minute.

RUKWA regional engineers office

Laboratory test results
Liquid limit using the cassagrande apparatus
Road name ________________________
Location(km) ________________________
Soil condition;air dried/ oven dried
test no unity 1 2 3 4 5

No of blows

Tin no

Mass of tin and wet g

Mass of tin and dry g
Mass of water g

Mass of empty tin g

Mass of dry soil g

Moisture content %

(d) place a portion of the soil in the cup with the cup resting on the base.
Level the soil off parallel to the base with maximum depth of 10mm.
Divide the soil using a grooving tool with the chamfered edge facing
the direction of movement.
(e) Turn the crack or the machine at an approximately 2 revolution per second so that
the cup is lifted and dropped until the two parts come into contact at the bottom of
the grove for a length of 10mm.Record the number of blows at which this occurs.

(f) Return the soil to the mixing glass plate and remix. Clean and dry the cup and the
grooving tool.
(g) Repeat steps (d),(e) and (f) until number of blows between consecutive tests is not
greater than 1. Remove about 10g of soil from the groove for moisture content
determination. Note: If the soils slides rather than flows, discard the results and
repeat the test with added water. If sliding always occurs, the test is not applicable.
(h) Repeat steps (d) to (f) at least four times using the same sample to which water has
been added and mixed , proceed from the drier to the wetter state to obtain four
evenly spaced points between 40 and 15 blows.
(i) Plot the points of moisture content vertically on natural scale. The corresponding
number of blows is plotted on horizontal logarithmic scale. Draw the best fit line through all
The liquid limit is the moisture content corresponding to 25 blows and expressed to
the nearest whole number.
Appendix No.2B, gives the sample form for determination of liquid limit using a
Casagrande apparatus.
i) Curing for 24 hours is recommended for all soils. However soils with low clay
content,12 hours could be satisfactory. Silty soils can be tested immediately after mixing with

Some used references:
United Republic of Tanzania Minister of Work-Laboratory testing Manual
Internet (www.tanroads.org/) cited at RUKWA region on 9th june 2011.
British standards institute (BS 1377: 1


Appendix: a

Appendix :b

Appendix :c