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Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

STEAM TURBINES

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees.
Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public
domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third
parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission
of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : General Engineering For additional information on this subject, contact


File Reference: AGE-102.06 PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556
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Steam Turbines

Section Page

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 3
COMMON TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES IN USE AT SAUDI ARAMCO ..................... 4
Principle of Operation ................................................................................................ 4
Curtis Stage.......................................................................................................... 5
Other Types of Stages.......................................................................................... 6
Turbine Classification................................................................................................. 7
Classifications of Mechanical Drive Turbines ....................................................... 7
Turbine and Cycle Efficiency...................................................................................... 8
Types of Steam Turbines......................................................................................... 10
Backpressure or Non-Condensing Turbines....................................................... 10
Condensing Steam Turbines .............................................................................. 14
Extraction Turbines............................................................................................. 16
MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS .......................................... 18
Trip and Throttle Valve............................................................................................. 18
Governor Valve ........................................................................................................ 18
Steam Chest ............................................................................................................ 19
Hand Valve .............................................................................................................. 19
Nozzles .................................................................................................................... 19
Blades...................................................................................................................... 19
CALCULATIONS........................................................................................................... 20
Example Calculation - Theoretical Steam Rate, Actual Steam Rate and
Outlet Temperature.................................................................................................. 20
Example Calculation - Efficiency of an Operating Turbine ....................................... 25
Turbines With Saturated Exhaust Steam............................................................ 29
Efficiencies of Steam Turbines for Use in Calculations ...................................... 29
Use of Hand Valves to Maximize Efficiency........................................................ 30
THEORETICAL STEAM RATE TABLES....................................................................... 31
Performance Curves ................................................................................................ 31
COMMON OPERATING PROBLEMS........................................................................... 33
WORK AID 1: CALCULATION OF THEORETICAL AND ACTUAL STEAM
RATES AND OUTLET TEMPERATURE....................................................................... 34
WORK AID 2: CALCULATION OF TURBINE EFFICIENCY AND
HORSEPOWER FROM STEAM CONDITIONS............................................................ 36
WORK AID 3: CALCULATION OF EFFICIENCY FROM INLET STEAM
CONDITION AND BRAKE HORSEPOWER ................................................................. 38
WORK AID 4: ESTIMATING EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR SINGLE-STAGE
NON-CONDENSING TURBINES.................................................................................. 40

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WORK AID 5: COMMON OPERATING PROBLEMS................................................... 41


GLOSSARY .................................................................................................................. 42
REFERENCES.............................................................................................................. 44

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Steam Turbine - Principle of Operation ------------------------------------------------ 4


Figure 2. Nozzles and Blades ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
Figure 2a. Steam Turbine Blade Types------------------------------------------------------------- 6
Figure 3. Turbine Isentropic Efficiency-------------------------------------------------------------- 8
Figure 4. Cycle Efficiency ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9
Figure 5. Backpressure (Non-Condensing) Turbine------------------------------------------- 10
Figure 5a. Typical Multistage Backpressure Steam Turbine -------------------------------- 12
Figure 5b. Typical Single Stage Backpressure Steam Turbine ----------------------------- 13
Figure 6. Condensing Turbines --------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
Figure 6a. Typical Condensing Steam Turbine ------------------------------------------------- 15
Figure 7. Extraction/Condensing Turbines------------------------------------------------------- 16
Figure 7a. Typical Extraction/Condensing Steam Turbine ----------------------------------- 17
Figure 8. Steam Path Through Turbine----------------------------------------------------------- 19
Figure 9. Use of Mollier Diagram for Steam Turbine Calculations ------------------------- 22
Figure 10. Efficiency of an Operating Turbine -------------------------------------------------- 27
Figure 11. Typical Turbine Performance Curve ------------------------------------------------ 31
Figure 12. Typical Performance Curve - Extraction Turbine -------------------------------- 32
Figure 13. Typical Efficiencies, Single Stage Turbines, Non-Condensing
"Normal Efficiency" Type ------------------------------------------------------------ 40

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INTRODUCTION

Steam turbines are used by Saudi Aramco to drive electric


generators, gas compressors and certain critical pumps. Steam
turbines are prime movers. They are used extensively in gas
plant and refinery applications because the processes that are
used in these plants are exothermic and generate high-pressure
steam (600 psig) as a by-product. Steam turbines convert the
pressure and heat energy of steam to mechanical energy
(work).

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COMMON TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES IN USE AT SAUDI ARAMCO

Principle of Operation

The two major components of a steam turbine are nozzles and


blades. The blades are sometimes called buckets. Nozzles are
stationary; blades rotate.

Steam contains energy in the form of pressure and temperature.


Nozzles convert this energy into velocity energy. In a nozzle,
the pressure drops and the velocity increases (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Steam Turbine - Principle of Operation

The high-velocity jets from the nozzles strike the blades and
cause them to move. In the moving blades, velocity energy is
converted to mechanical work, or power.

Blades are located in rows on rotating wheels. Nozzles are


arranged on stationary wheels, between the rotating wheels.

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A stage contains one row of nozzles, followed by one row of


blades (Figure 2). Turbines may be single-stage or multistage.

Figure 2. Nozzles and Blades


Curtis Stage
A Curtis stage is a special kind of stage that takes a relatively
high pressure drop. It is used for single-stage turbines and as
the first stage in most older design multistage turbines. Present
day multistage turbine design uses a Rateau stage since
material and blade attachment methods allow higher blade
operating stresses. However, present day single-stage turbines
still utilize a single Curtis stage. Although a Curtis stage is
approximately 10% less efficient than a single Rateau stage, it
is cost effective to retain the Curtis stage in this application
because the base efficiency of a single-stage turbine is in the
35-40% range.
A Curtis stage has one row of nozzles, followed by three rows of
buckets. The sequence is as follows:
1. Nozzles
2. Rotating buckets that develop power
3. Fixed buckets that turn the direction of the steam
4. A second row of rotating buckets, that develop more
power.
All of the pressure drop takes place in the nozzles. Only
velocity changes in the three rows of buckets.

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Other Types of
Stages
In a multistage turbine, each stage after the first one has one
row of nozzles (stationary) and one row of blades (rotating).
These stages may be the "Rateau" type, also known as impulse
type, or the "reaction" type. Refer to Figure 2A for the definition
of impulse and reaction blading.

Figure 2a. Steam Turbine Blade Types

Present day multistage turbines are of a hybrid design in that


they utilize impulse blading for the initial stages and higher
efficiency reaction blading in the final stages, where the volume
flow is the greatest.

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Turbine Classification

Turbines are divided into two classes, power generation and


mechanical drive.

Power Generationturbines drive electric generators at constant


speed because the frequency of the generated power must be
constant. Because the turbine runs at constant speed, features
can be designed to give a very high efficiency. Tolerances
between the moving and stationary parts are very close.
Complex staging can be used.

Mechanical Drive turbines are used for driving machinery such


as compressors and pumps, where variable speed is usually
required. Some efficiency is sacrificed in order to increase
mechanical strength. Tolerances are larger, and fewer stages
are used.

Classifications of
Mechanical Drive
Turbines
Mechanical drive turbines may be General Purpose or Special
Purpose.

General Purpose Turbines are used for low power


applications. They are covered by API Standard 611 and 32-
SAMSS-009 and are mass produced without regard to specific
customer requirements. They are limited to steam supply
conditions of less than 600 psig and 750F. They also operate
at speeds less than 6000 rpm.

General purpose turbines are usually single-stage turbines that


may exhaust to a low pressure steam circuit, a condensing
system or to the atmosphere. Since they may be less reliable
than other turbines, their applications are limited to non-critical
equipment. They are used as drivers for equipment that has a
spare, such as pumps and fans. Such equipment is "spared;"
that is, it always has a backup. Steam turbine driven pumps in
Saudi Aramco gas plants and refineries utilize general purpose
turbines.

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Special Purpose Turbines are used for large power loads.


The specifications are covered by API Standard 612 and 32-
SAMSS-010. They are manufactured to specific customer
orders and requirements. These services are usually not
spared; therefore, the turbine must be highly reliable. Because
these turbines are large machines, efficiency is important, and
multistage designs are used. The most common applications
are gas compressors and large pumps. Steam turbines that
drive centrifugal and axial compressors in Saudi Aramco gas
plants and refineries are special purpose turbines.

Turbine and Cycle Efficiency

Turbine isentropic efficiency is the efficiency of the turbine. It is


the actual work produced by the turbine divided by the ideal or
isentropic work that is expected for the given steam conditions
(Figure 3).

Actual Work
Turbine Isentropic Efficiency =
Ideal (Isentropic) Work

For Given Steam Conditions, P1, T1, and P2

Figure 3. Turbine Isentropic Efficiency

This efficiency is commonly called "thermodynamic," "engine,"


or "turbine" efficiency.

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Cycle Efficiency involves more than the steam turbine. A steam


cycle includes a steam generator, the turbine and a means of
disposing of the exhaust steam (Figure 4). Exhaust steam that
will be used by another process is useful heat output. If exhaust
steam is condensed, the heat of condensation is lost. Cycle
efficiency is defined as work output plus any useful heat output
divided by the fuel fired in the steam generator.

Work + Useful Heat


Cycle Efficiency =
Fuel Fired

Figure 4. Cycle Efficiency

This efficiency is commonly called thermal efficiency.

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Types of Steam Turbines

Steam turbines are used in several ways depending on the


needs for process steam in the plant. The three major types
are backpressure, condensing, and extraction.

Backpressure or
Non-Condensing
Turbines
Backpressure or non-condensing turbines are used when there
is a need for shaft work and a requirement for steam for
process heating (Figure 5). High-pressure steam is fed to the
turbine. The turbine produces work. The steam leaving the
turbine is at medium to low pressure, between 225 and 15 psig.
This remaining steam is then distributed to those parts of the
plant that need the steam energy to produce heat or as inlet
steam to steam turbines having a lower inlet steam pressure
design.

Figure 5. Backpressure (Non-Condensing) Turbine

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The backpressure arrangement has a high cycle efficiency. No


energy is lost. All of the energy in the incoming steam is used
to make work or for process heat. This assumes that there is a
use for the medium to low pressure steam and that it will not be
vented to the atmosphere.

Turbines for backpressure service are simple and relatively low


cost. They also have relatively high turbine efficiencies,
typically 60% to 80%. On the other hand, a large rate of steam
is required for each horsepower produced, because only part of
the pressure energy in each pound of steam is used.

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Figure 5A shows a typical multistage backpressure steam


turbine.

Figure 5a. Typical Multistage Backpressure Steam Turbine

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Figure 5B shows a typical single-stage backpressure steam


turbine.

Figure 5b. Typical Single Stage Backpressure Steam Turbine

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Condensing
Steam Turbines
Condensing turbines are employed where there is no suitable
use for the exhaust steam (Figure 6). Exhaust steam is
condensed by means of cooling water or air-cooled fin
condensers. The condensate is recovered and pumped back to
the steam generating system.

Figure 6. Condensing Turbines

The outlet pressure from a condensing turbine is very low,


usually between 4 and 6 inches Hg absolute, or 2 to 3 psia.
Because of the low exhaust pressure, maximum pressure
energy is extracted from each pound of steam. The theoretical
steam rate (lb/hp-hr) is lower than for a backpressure machine.
Because of the large pressure drop, droplets of water form at
the exhaust end of the turbine.

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Figure 6A shows a typical condensing steam turbine.

Figure 6a. Typical Condensing Steam Turbine

Condensing turbines cost more than backpressure turbines,


because they have more stages and larger diameters at the
exhaust end of the turbine and the cost must include the
condenser. Blades are longer and have complex shapes. The
turbine efficiency is lower because high velocities exist in the
final stages and because wet steam has a higher viscosity than
dry steam. It is also necessary to protect against erosion of the
blades in a condensing turbine.

The condensing turbine also has a relatively low cycle


efficiency, because only a portion of the steam energy is
converted to work. A large part is lost in the condenser. In fact,
more heat is transferred to cooling water or air than is
converted to work. However, condensing turbines are
necessary if power is required and there is no use for the
exhaust steam.

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Extraction
Turbines
Frequently there is a use for part of the steam from a turbine
but not all of it. In this case, an extraction/condensing turbine
can be used (Figure 7).

Figure 7. Extraction/Condensing Turbines

High-pressure steam is fed to the inlet of the turbine. After one


or more stages, medium or low-pressure steam is extracted
from the turbine. The remainder of the steam proceeds through
the low-pressure stages of the turbine and exits at normal
condensing pressure, 2 to 3 psia. This portion of the steam is
condensed and returned to the steam generator.

The extraction/condensing turbine is used to balance steam


requirements of a plant with power requirements. Maximum
power is extracted from the steam that is used in processes.
The low efficiency condensing part of the cycle uses only the
surplus steam.

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This type of turbine is more complex and therefore more


expensive than either of the other two types. Figure 7a shows
a typical extraction/condensing steam turbine.

Figure 7a. Typical Extraction/Condensing Steam Turbine

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MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

The steam path through a turbine is outlined in Figure 8.

Trip and Throttle Valve

The trip and throttle valve is a manual (start up) valve and a
safety device that shuts off the supply of steam in case of a
malfunction or an Emergency Shutdown Signal (ESD). The
usual malfunctions are:

Overspeed of the machine

Loss of oil pressure

High vibration

An abnormal process condition

The inlet steam takes a minimum pressure drop when the trip
valve is open. The trip valve is sometimes combined with the
governor valve.

Governor Valve

The governor valve is the main control for the rate of steam flow
into the turbine. It acts with the governor to maintain the speed
of the turbine. The governor valve may be a single valve, or for
more complex machines, it may be multiple valves. It may be
operated mechanically or hydraulically.

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Steam Chest

The steam chest is a chamber between the governor valve and


the nozzles; in the steam chest, the steam pressure and
temperature are at their highest values in the turbine.

Steam Turbine
Supply Exhaust
Trip and Governor Steam Nozzles
Throttle Valve Chest and
Valve Blades

Hand Nozzles
Valve and
Blades

(Single Valve
Turbines Only)

Figure 8. Steam Path Through Turbine

Hand Valve

Hand valves are usually provided on turbines that have a single


governor valve. When the turbine is not operating at full load,
the efficiency will be improved if some of the nozzles are closed
off. Hand valves are used for this purpose. Note: If a turbine
that is supplied with hand valves is used in an auto start or
critical service (lube/seal oil pump), all hand valves should be
open to ensure that maximum power will be available if
required.

Nozzles

Nozzles convert the pressure energy of the steam to kinetic or


velocity energy.

Blades

Blades convert steam velocity to mechanical energy.

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CALCULATIONS

Theoretical Steam Rate is the amount of steam required to


produce the horsepower if the turbine were an ideal machine.
The units are pounds of steam per horsepower hour (lb/hp-hr).

Actual Steam Rate (also called water rate) is the pounds of


steam per horsepower hour that is required in a real (non-ideal)
turbine.

Condition of Exhaust Steam - The temperature and pressure of


the inlet steam are known. The exhaust pressure is usually
known, however the enthalpy of the exhaust steam must be
calculated. The enthalpy determines the temperature of the
exhaust if the exhaust steam is superheated. If the exhaust is
saturated, the enthalpy determines the percent moisture.

Efficiency of an Operating Turbine - To monitor the


performance of an operating turbine, the efficiency is
calculated. The inlet steam temperature and pressure and the
outlet steam temperature and pressure are known.

Example Calculation - Theoretical Steam Rate, Actual Steam Rate and


Outlet Temperature

The method used for predicting turbine conditions uses the


Mollier Chart for steam. Work Aid 1 is a calculation form for this
type of problem. The following example illustrates the
calculation.

Given:

Inlet steam pressure 600 psia

Inlet steam temperature 700F

Outlet steam pressure 2 psia

Turbine efficiency 75%

Brake horsepower required 1000 hp

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Calculate:

Theoretical steam rate

Actual steam rate (water rate)

Steam outlet condition

temperature

% moisture

Solution:

Use the Mollier chart for steam (Elliot Bulletin H-37B, inside
back cover); see Figure 9 for a graphic illustration of this
problem.

1. Locate the Inlet Steam Temperature and Pressure on the


Mollier diagram.

Read inlet enthalpy, h1 1350 Btu/lb

2. Move vertically downward, along a line of constant entropy,


to the outlet pressure of 2 psia.

Read the outlet enthalpy, h2 923 Btu/lb

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Figure 9. Use of Mollier Diagram for Steam Turbine Calculations

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3. Calculate the isentropic (ideal) h

his = h1 - h2

= 1350 923

= 427 Btu/lb

4. The conversion factor from heat to work is:

Btu
2545
hp hr

Therefore,

2545
Theoretical Steam Rate, TSR =
Isentropic h

Btu
2545
hp hr
TSR =
Btu
427
lb

lb
= 5.96
hp hr

5. Actual Steam Rate, ASR (Water Rate)

TSR
ASR =
Turbine Efficiency

5.96 lb hp hr
=
0.75

= 7.95 lb/hp/hr

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6. Calculate Steam Flow Rate

Steam Flow Rate = hp x Actual Steam Rate

lb
= 1000 hp 7.95
hp hr

lb
= 7950
hr

7. Outlet Steam Condition:

Calculate actual outlet enthalpy

Actual h = his x Turbine Efficiency

= 427 Btu/lb x 0.75

= 320 Btu/lb

Actual h2 = h1 Actual h

= 1350 320

= 1030 Btu/lb

Locate the outlet steam condition on the Mollier chart,


at

h = 1030 Btu/lb and 2 psia

Read Outlet
Moisture Content = 8.4%

Read Outlet
Temperature = 130F

NOTE: Since the outlet steam is saturated, and the pressure is


known, you can also obtain the temperature from a
steam table.

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Example Calculation - Efficiency of an Operating Turbine

This type of problem is also solved using the Mollier Chart. The
method is illustrated by the following sample problem:

Given, from plant operating data:

Inlet Steam Pressure 400 psia

Outlet Steam Pressure 40 psia

Inlet Steam Temperature 650F

Outlet Steam Temperature 320F

Steam Flow Rate 28,000 lb/hr

Calculate:

Turbine Thermodynamic Efficiency

Brake Horsepower, bhp

Procedure:

Work Aid 2 is a calculation form for this type of problem.

See Figure 10 for a graphic illustration of this problem.

Actual Enthalpy Drop


Turbine Efficiency
Isentropic Enthalpy Drop

1. Locate steam inlet condition on the Mollier


chart at 400 psia and 650F. Read h1. 1335 Btu/lb

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2. Calculate isentropic h from P1 to P2.


Follow a constant entropy line
vertically downward to P2, 40 psia.
Read h2 is 1127 Btu/lb

his = h1 h2 is

= 1335 1127

= 208 Btu/lb

3. Calculate Actual hact. On the Mollier


chart, locate the actual outlet condition
at P2 = 40 psia, T2 = 320F.
Read h2 act 1196 Btu/lb

Calculate hact:

hact = h1 h2 act

= 1335 1196

= 139 Btu/lb

4. Calculate Turbine Efficiency.

hact
Efficiency =
his

139
=
208

= 0.67

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Figure 10. Efficiency of an Operating Turbine

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5. Calculate Brake Horsepower

2545
Water Rate =
hact

Btu
2545
hp hr
=
Btu
139
lb

= 18.3 lb/hphr

Steam Flow Rate


bhp =
Water Rate

28,000 lb hr
=
18.3 lb hp hr

= 1530 hp

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Turbines With
Saturated Exhaust
Steam
Note that the five-step method above cannot be used if the
exhaust gas is saturated, because it is not possible to measure
the moisture content of the exhaust steam.

In this case, the turbine efficiency can be calculated only if the


brake horsepower of the driven machine, for example, the
compressor, is known.

The procedure is as follows:

Calculate his as above, using P1, T1, and P2.

2545
TSR =
his

Actual Steam Flow, lb hr


ASR =
Actual bhp

TSR
Efficiency =
ASR

Efficiencies of
Steam Turbines
for Use in
Calculations
Use efficiency curves provided by manufacturers, if they are
available. If they are not available, estimates can be made from
references. For multistage turbines, GPSA Figures 15-12, 15-
13, and 15-17 give the basic efficiency of turbines operating at
full power.

For factors to estimate the efficiency at less than full power, use
GPSA Figure 15-11. For single-stage non-condensing turbines,
efficiencies can be obtained from Work Aid 4.

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Use of Hand
Valves to
Maximize
Efficiency
Turbines should always be operated at maximum efficiency to
reduce the amount of steam required. If a turbine is operating
at full power, the efficiency is determined only by the turbine
design. At reduced power, there are other ways to improve the
efficiency.

At reduced power, the main steam valve, called the governor


valve, is partially closed. This means that a steam pressure
drop will be taken through the governor valve. This pressure
drop does not provide any power; therefore, it reduces the
efficiency of the turbine.

Downstream of the governor, the steam passes through several


nozzles. Most turbines have a means of closing off some
nozzles when the turbine is not fully loaded. This increases the
steam flow through the nozzles that remain open. The result is
a higher pressure drop through the nozzles. The steam
governor valve will then have to open. The net result is a shift
of pressure drop from the governor valve to nozzles, which
increases efficiency.

On large turbines, the multiple valves that block off some of the
nozzles are all controlled by the governor mechanism. They
open and close automatically at the proper time. On smaller
turbines, only a single main valve is controlled by the governor.
The others are hand valves. The hand valve must be operated
manually in order to achieve maximum efficiency. It must be
either fully open or fully closed; it is not designed to be a throttle
valve. Note: If hand valves are supplied on steam turbines in
auto start or critical applications (lube/seal oil pumps), all hand
valves should be open to ensure that maximum power will be
available if required.

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THEORETICAL STEAM RATE TABLES


Theoretical steam rate tables are an alternative method to
calculate steam rates without using the Mollier diagram. The
GPSA Manual Figure 15-15 is such a table. Using a table of
this type, you can calculate the steam rate required for a given
horsepower, if the steam inlet conditions and the outlet pressure
are known. Interpolation is required.

With steam rate tables, you cannot calculate the outlet steam
temperature or steam quality. Also, it is not possible to
calculate the efficiency of an operating turbine from plant data.
Mollier charts must be used for these two calculations.

Performance Curves
Figure 11 is a typical performance curve for a condensing
turbine. The curves for backpressure turbines are similar in
format.

Steam Conditions:

Inlet 600 psig, 750F


Exhaust 4 in Hg Absolute

Figure 11. Typical Turbine Performance Curve

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Figure 12 is a performance curve for an extraction turbine. This


is a family of curves to cover the variable of extraction rate.
Curves for extraction turbines are usually plotted for one speed
only.

Steam Conditions:

Inlet 600 psig, 750F


Exhaust 4 in Hg Absolute
Extraction 250 psig

Figure 12. Typical Performance Curve - Extraction Turbine

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COMMON OPERATING PROBLEMS

Work Aid 5 summarizes the major process operating problems


such as:

Insufficient power developed

Low efficiency

Erosion of blades

Exhaust too hot

Vibration

Failure to start quickly on automatic cut-in

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WORK AID 1: CALCULATION OF THEORETICAL AND ACTUAL


STEAM RATES AND OUTLET TEMPERATURE

Steam Conditions:

P1: psia

T1: F

P2: psia

Turbine Efficiency (from manufacturer's curve or


GPSA, Figures 15-11, 12, 13,
and 17)

bhp required hp

1. h1 (from Mollier) Btu/lb

2. Move vertically on Mollier from


P1, T1 to P2 h2 is (from Mollier). Btu/lb

3. his = h1 - h2

= ( )( )

4. Theoretical Steam Rate:

2545 2545 lb
= = =
his ( ) hp hr

5. Actual Steam Rate:

ASR =
TSR
=
( )= lb
Turbine Eff . ( ) hp hr

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6. Steam Flow Rate = hp ASR

= ( )( )

OUTLET STEAM CONDITIONS

Actual h = his Turbine Eff.

= ( )( )

= Btu/lb

Actual h2 = h1 Actual h

= ( )( )

= Btu/lb

On Mollier, locate P2, Actual h2, and read

T2 = F

% Moisture =

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WORK AID 2: CALCULATION OF TURBINE EFFICIENCY AND


HORSEPOWER FROM STEAM CONDITIONS

P1: psia

T1: F

P2: psia

T2: F

Steam Flow Rate: lb/hr

1. h1 (from Mollier at P1T1) Btu/lb

2. Move vertically on Mollier from P1T1 to P2.

h2 isentropic = Btu/lb

3. h2 actual (from Mollier at P2T2) = Btu/lb

4. h is = h1 h2 is

= ( )( )

= Btu/lb

5. h act = h1 h2 act

= ( )( )

= Btu/lb

h act
6. Turbine Efficiency =
h is

=
( )=
( )

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Engineering Encyclopedia Rotating Equipment

Steam Turbines

2545
7. Water Rate =
h act

2545
= = lb/hp-hr
( )

Steam Flow Rate


bhp =
Water Rate

=
( ) lb / hr = hp
( ) lb / hp hr

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Steam Turbines

WORK AID 3: CALCULATION OF EFFICIENCY FROM INLET STEAM


CONDITION AND BRAKE HORSEPOWER

P1: psia

T1: F

P2: psia

bhp: hp

Steam Flow Rate: lb/hr

1. h1 (from Mollier) Btu/lb

2. Move vertically on Mollier from P1T1 to P2

h2 isentropic = Btu/lb

3. h isentropic = h1 h2 isentropic = (____) (____)

Btu
=
lb

4. TSR =
2545 2545 lb
= =
his ( ) hp hr

Steam Flow Rate


5. ASR =
bhp

=
( ) lb hr =
lb
( ) hp hp hr

6. Turbine Efficiency =
TSR
=
( )=
ASR ( )

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7. Outlet Steam Condition:

hActual = hIsentropic Turbine Efficiency

= ( )( ) =________ Btu/lb

h2Actual = h1 h actual

= ( )( ) = ________ Btu/lb

8. On Mollier, locate point at P2,h2 actual.

Read % Moisture %

T2 F

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WORK AID 4: ESTIMATING EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR SINGLE-


STAGE NON-CONDENSING TURBINES

Correction Factors

Condition Efficiency Multiplier

P1 = 600 psig = 0.80


P2 = 50 psig = 1.12
P2 = 0 psig = 0.90
N = 1,800 rpm = 0.68

Figure 13. Typical Efficiencies, Single Stage Turbines,


Non-Condensing "Normal Efficiency" Type

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Steam Turbines

WORK AID 5: COMMON OPERATING PROBLEMS

Steam Turbines
Common Operating Problems

Problem Possible Cause

Insufficient Power Developed Steam pressure too low.

Backpressure too high.

Supply temperature too low.

Deposits in steam path.

Low Efficiency Deposits in steam path.

Erosion of nozzles or blades.

Hand valves open at reduced power.

Erosion of Blades Too much moisture in turbine; inlet temperature


too low or outlet pressure too low.

Exhaust Too Hot Low efficiency

Low steam flow rate

Vibration Deposits

Erosion

Broken blades

Damaged bearings

Misalignment of piping

Failure to Start Quickly on Water in supply line; traps not working.


Automatic Cut-In

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Steam Turbines

GLOSSARY

Actual Steam Rate See Water Rate.


(ASR)

Backpressure Turbine A steam turbine that does not exhaust into a


condenser. The exhaust pressure will typically be
15 psig or higher. The exhaust nozzle can be
vented to atmosphere or piped to a steam header.

Blade A component of a steam turbine that converts


steam energy to mechanical energy. Blades are
mounted on rotating wheels.

Buckets Another name for blades. Usually, the blades of a


Curtis stage.

Curtis Stage A type of steam turbine stage with one row of


nozzles and one or more rows of buckets. The
usual sequence of components is: nozzles, rotating
buckets, stationary turning buckets, rotating
buckets.

Cycle Efficiency In a steam turbine cycle, the sum of power output


plus useful heat divided by fuel input.

Extraction The process of removing medium pressure steam


between the inlet and exhaust of a steam turbine.

Governor A device that regulates the speed of a steam


turbine. It may be mechanical or electronic.

Governor Valve The primary valve controlling the steam flow to a


turbine.

Hand Valve A valve used to shut off the steam supply to a


portion of the inlet nozzles.

Impulse Blades Rotating turbine blades in which only velocity


decreases; pressure does not decrease.

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Mechanical Drive A steam turbine used to drive process machinery.


Turbine

Nozzle The component of a steam turbine that converts


pressure energy to velocity energy.

Overspeed Trip A protection device that senses excessive turbine


speed and shuts off the steam supply.

Rateau Stage A steam turbine stage with one row of nozzles and
one row of blades. A relatively small pressure drop
is taken in the rotating blade of a Rateau stage.

Stage A section of a steam turbine containing one set of


nozzles and one or more row of blades.

Reaction Blades Rotating turbine blades in which pressure drop


takes place.

Steam Chest A chamber upstream of the first stage nozzles of


a steam turbine. The area of highest steam
temperature and pressure in a turbine.

Theoretical Steam Rate The flow rate of steam in pounds per hour required
(TSR) to produce 1 horsepower in an ideal turbine. TSR is
determined by steam inlet temperature and
pressure and outlet pressure.

Turbine Efficiency The theoretical steam rate divided by the actual


steam rate. Also, the actual work output divided by
the theoretical work output for a given pressure
range.

Water Rate The actual steam rate required per unit of power.
(Pounds per horsepower-hour.)

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REFERENCES

Supplementary Text

Gas Processors Suppliers Association

Engineering Data Book, Section 15

Vendor's Bulletins

Elliot Bulletin H-37B, Multivalve Turbines

Elliot Bulletin H-31K, Single-stage Turbines

Industry Standards

API 611, General Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery


Services

API 612, Special Purpose Turbines for Refinery Services

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications


32-SAMSS-009 General Purpose Steam Turbines

32-SAMSS-010 Special Purpose Steam Turbines

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards

SAES-K-501 Steam Turbines

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