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ABOUT PIPING

ABOUT PIPING

WHAT IS PIPING ABOUT?

We can say PIPING is about designing, fabricating and constructing lines conveying FLUIDS.

What is a FLUID?

It can be any of the following

a GAS

a LIQUID

a mixture of GAS and LIQUID

a SUSPENSION of small SOLID PARTICLES inside a LIQUID.

Basic properties of conveyed FLUIDS

FLUID TYPE

with particular attention to

the CORROSION characteristics

the DANGER for HEALTH and the ENVIRONMENT

FLOW RATE

PRESSURE

TEMPERATURE

What is a PIPELINE?

A PIPELINE conveys a fluid from one given point of the plant usually called INLET point of the line, to another part of the plant usually called OUTLET point of the line.

A PIPELINE can also connect one PIPELINE to another PIPELINE.

PIPELINES can also discharge the conveyed fluid into the environment (VENTS and DRAIN)

Basic characteristics of a PIPELINE

SIZE (or DIAMETER)

WALL THICKNESS

TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES

welded joints (butt welding / socket welding)

threaded joints

flanged joints

EXTERNAL FINISHING

Painting

Insulation

QUALITY CHECKS

Hydraulic Testing

Non Destructive Examination of Joints

Other characteristics of a PIPELINE

ROUTING

The routing is how the Pipeline is developed into the space.

There are rules and regulations to route a Pipeline according the “Good Engineering Practice”

Cold Pipelines connecting static objects (something that does not move like Tanks, Vessels, other Pipelines, Headers) can be straightly routed between the inlet and the outlet point.

Cold Pipelines connecting MACHINES that vibrate or rotate may need a flexible part between the inlet and the outlet point.

Hot Pipelines must be flexible enough to adsorb the thermal expansion of the Pipeline from cold to hot condition

SUPPORTING SYSTEM

Every Pipeline must be supported. Not all Pipelines are supported in the same way

Cold Pipelines can be supported everywhere with FIXED POINTS

Hot Pipelines cannot be supported only with fixed points, but certain points must be only GUIDED, meaning that in those points the Pipeline retains a certain numbers of degree of freedom in certain directions, while are constrained in certain other directions

PIPING DESIGN

Specification of Lines

It is a document that summarizes all the characteristics of a PIPELINE. Starting from the PROPERTIES of the CONVEYED FLUID, the document specifies all the CHARACTERISTICS of the PIPELINE

FLUID TYPE

Choice of material

Non corrosive fluids Services where impurities are accepted industrial water lines (cooling water) steam lube oil return / before filter lines air lines vents and drains

Carbon Steel Low Alloy Steel (High T)

Corrosive fluids Services where impurities are not accepted demineralized water lube oil after filters fuel gas / oil sea water (water containing Chlorine)

Stainless Steel

No Iron (Fe) Copper/Nikel Alloys (Cu-Ni)

Agressive Chemicals Strong Acids / Bases

Plastic:

PVC – TEFLON – PE

Rubber:

 

Composites:

NBR, Viton RESIN GLASS

FLUID TYPE

Choice of CORROSION ALLOWANCE

Thickness increasing taking into account CORROSION Typical corrosion allowance for water is 3 mm that affects THICKNESS

Choice of joints.

DANGEROUS fluids are conveyed in fully welded pipes, were leaks cannot occur.

Choice of NDE

For Dangerous Fluids 100% of joints are likely to be X-Ray examined

FLOW RATE

Choice of Diameter

For a given flowrate

- SMALL DIAMETER means HIGHER VELOCITY of the conveyed fluid

- BIG DIAMETER means SLOWER VELOCITY of the conveyed fluid

Velocity of fluids in Pipelines affects

- Pressure Losses along the Pipeline Pressure Losses are PROPORTIONAL to the square velocity (v 2 )

- Vibration of the Pipeline

Usual Velocity of Fluids inside pipelines are:

Gas:

20 m/s - max. 40 / 50 m/sec

Liquid:

2 to 4 m/s - max. 10 m/sec

TEMPERATURE

Choice of MATERIAL

- Steel for High Temperature (Low Alloy Steel Creep Resistant)

Calculation of wall THICKNESS

Routing Design and calculation of SUPPORTS (STRESS ANALYSIS)

- Hot Lines must be routed properly. Provisions shall be taken so that when temperature rises from ambient to Operating Temperature the thermal expansion of Pipelines does not generate stresses too high for the pipes to withstand.

Application of Thermal Insulation

- T>60°C Insulation for Personnel Protection is mandatory for all pipeline parts that can be reached by hands.

PRESSURE

Calculation of Wall Thickness

Choice of the Joint

- Low pressure pipelines can be threaded or socket welded

- High Pressure pipelines are Butt Welded

Extension of NDE of the joints

- Non process Pipelines (For Example Vents and drain lines) may even have no tests at all

- Low Pressure Pipelines can undergo only the Hydraulic Test

- For intermediate pressures a 10% to 50% of joints must be examined with X-rays

- High Pressure Pipelines are usually 100% X-ray examined.

AMERICAN STANDARDS FOR PIPING DESIGN

ANSI =

ASME =

AMERICAN

NATIONAL

STANDARDIZATION

INSTITUTE

AMERICAN SOCIETY of MECHANICAL ENGINEERS

ANSI/ASME B31.1: POWER PIPING

ANSI/ASME B31.3: PROCESS PIPING

THESE STANDARDS GIVE TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGNING PIPING SYSTEM FOR POWER PLANTS AND CHEMICAL PLANTS

THEY CONTAINS FORMULAS TO CALCULATE THE MINIMUM THICKNESS OF PIPELINES

THEY CONTAINS FORMULAS TO CALCULATE THE EXTRA THICKNESS THAT A PIPE MUST HAVE WHEN A BRANCH IS CUT INTO IT.

THEY CONTAINS REGULATIONS FOR STRESS ANALYSIS

THEY CONTAINS TABLES THAT GIVE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS FOR METALLIC MATERIALS ACCEPTED BY ANSI FOR PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION DEPENDING ON TEMPERATURES.

STANDARD MATERIALS FOR PIPING

ASTM =

AMERICAN SOCIETY for TESTING MATERIALS

ASTM developed a collection of documents called MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS for standardising materials of large use in the INDUSTRY. Specifications starting with “A” are for STEEL. Specifications starting with “B” are for non-ferrous alloys (Bronze, Brass, Copper Nickel alloys, Aluminium alloys and so on). Specifications starting with “D” are for plastic material, as PVC.

An ASTM Specification does not only specify the basic CHEMICAL COMPOSITION of material, but also the PROCESS through which the material is shaped into the final product.

This is why for a given base material SEAMLESS PIPE have a specification, WELDED PIPE have another specification WROUGHT FITTINGS have another specification, FORGED FITTINGS have another specification, large VALVE bodies (normally CAST) have another specification

CARBON STEEL

Steel is basically a solution of carbon (C) into iron (Fe). The presences of carbon into the crystal structure of the iron improve very much the mechanical caracteristics of the iron alone. Carbon steel is a conventional denomination for steel that has almost no other metallic elements added into it.

ASTM most employed carbon steel for pipes are ASTM A53 Grade A and B and ASTM A106 Grade A and B. A53 used to be cheaper than A106 and Grade A cheaper than Grade B. Today the difference is not so big, so that for small quantities ASTM A106 Gr. B is usually choosen.

ASTM Specifications belonging to same family of Carbon Steel

SEAMLESS PIPES

WELDED PIPES

WROUGHT FITTINGS

FORGED FITTINGS

CAST PARTS

ASTM A53 (Gr. A / B) or A106 (Gr. A / B) ASTM A134 / A135 / A139 ASTM A234 (WPA / WPB)

A105

A216 (WCB)

API Standards

For Oil and Gas Industry, another American Standardization Institute is common and important. This Institute is

API =

AMERICAN

PETROLEUM

INSTITUTE

Rules, Practices and Standards for Oil and Gas Industry are issued by this Institute and followed by almost all Oil and Gas Companies in the world. Among the many Standards issued by the Institute there is also a Standard for design of Pipelines: API STANDARD 5L Within this Standard Materials for Oil and Gas transportation pipelines are specified, with denomination API 5L This is a family of Carbon Steels almost equivalent to ASTM A53 /

A106.

LOW ALLOY STEEL

The introduction of other elements into steel can change very much its mechanical characteristics.

Steel is subject to a process called “creep” at high temperatures (T > 540 °C) Creep is a reduction of strength over time due to high temperature. It means that if today the steel can withstand a certain pressure, after a long time at high temperature same steel can withstand much lower pressures, since its resistance is decreasing with time due to the high temperature.

Steel becomes also particurarly fragile if submitted to sudden impacts at low temperatures (< - 20 °C).

The introduction of small percentages of chromium (Cr), nichel (Ni), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), proves to improve the strength of the steel and its resistance to corrosion also at high temperatures (>500 °C) or at low temperaturea (< -20 °C).

Low Alloy Steel is a conventional denomination for steels where there are small percentages of elements, usually metallic, other than carbon only.

Alloy steels are usually identified with denominations that recall composition. As for example following high temperature resistant steels:

Denomination

Alloy percentage

Grade

Grade for Castings

5Cr-½Mo

(5% Cr – 0.5% Mo )

P5

C5

1¼Cr-½Mo-Si

(1.25%Cr – 0.5% Mo – Si)

P11

(WC5)

1Cr-½Mo

(1% Cr – 0.5 Mo)

P12

(WC5)

2¼Cr-1Mo

(2.25 Cr – 1% Mo)

P22

WC9

ASTM Specifications belonging to same families of Low Alloy Steels

SEAMLESS PIPE

WELDED PIPE

WROUGHT FITTINGS

FORGED FITTINGS

CAST PARTS

A335 (P5 – P11 – P12 – P22) ASTM A358 ASTM A234 (WP5 – WP11 – WP12 – WP22) A182 (F5 – F11 – F12 – F 22) A217 (C5 – WC5 – WC9)

STAINLESS STEEL

One of most important problems with carbon and low alloy steels, is that the iron exposed to air and water combines with oxygene (O 2 ) and generates rust (di-iron tri-oxyde Fe 2 O 3 ) that peels out from the surface. High percentages of chromium (Cr) and nichel (Ni) added into the steel stop this problem.

Stainless Steel is conventional generic denomination for steels with high percentages of chromium (minimum 16%) and nichel (minimum 8 %). Traditional denomination for stainless steel was given first from AISI (American Institute for Steel and Iron) and is still in the tradition and retained in the Grade of ASTM Specifications. But as usual for alloy steels, a more precise denomination can refer to composition.

AISI

Denomination

Alloy Percentage

Grade for Castings CF3 / CF8 CF3M / CF8M Not Available

304

/ 304L

18Cr-8Ni

(18%Cr – 8%Ni)

316

/ 316L

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

(16%Cr – 12%Ni – 2%Mo)

321

18Cr-10Ni-Ti

(18%Cr – 10%Ni – Ti)

The “L” suffix stands for “Low Carbon”. In fact the presence of high percentages of Cr and Ni improves the resistance of steel against rust, but at one cost: stainless steel is very difficult to weld. Welding of stainless steel can be improved by reducing the content of carbon in it.

ASTM Specifications belonging to same family of Stainless Steel

SEAMLESS PIPE

WELDED PIPE

WROUGHT FITTINGS

FORGED FITTINGS

CAST PARTS

A312 TP304 – 304L - 316 - 316L - 321 ASTM A249 TP304 - 304L - 316 - 316L - 321 ASTM A403 WP304 - 304L - 316 - 316L - 321 A182 F304 – 304L - 316 - 316L - 321 A351 (CF3 – CF3M / CF8 – CF8M)

How Pipeline CHARACTERISTICS are

How Pipeline CHARACTERISTICS are defined by the Standards.

defined by the Standards.

SIZE

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE : NPS

It is a conventional size expressed solely in INCHES, related to the cross section diameter of the pipeline. For smaller sizes the NPS is not usually exactly equal to any real diameter, but bigger. This comes from the fact that for uniformity, pipelines must have same Outside Diameter, and change Inside Diameter with different thickness. But in fluid transportation the internal diameter is more significant, so if the Outside Diameter is bigger of the NPS, taking away the thickness, the NPS gives more an idea of the internal diameter.

NOMINAL DIAMETER : DN

Same as NPS, but in mm. It is the usual denomination of Size in Europe where S.I. is adopted. All external diameters pipes according EUROPEAN Standards (DIN - Germany, UNI - Italy, AFNOR – France) are exactly equal of the equivalent NPS Sizes according AMERICAN and BRITISH Standars (BS) EXCEPT 5” (DN125)

WALL THICKNESS

(1)

1. For PIPES and WROUGHT BW FITTINGS, wall thickness is given in INCHES or mm. Some series of thicknesses are standardized. There are two series of systems of standardized thicknesses.

Schedule

Carbon Steel ANSI B16.10

5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 160.

Stainless Steel ANSI B16.19

5S, 10S, 20S, 30S, 40S, 60S, 80S.

Weight Series

Std

Standard

XS

Extra Strong

 

XXS

Extra Extra Strong

It happens that for a given diameter the thickess of one Schedule is equal to the thickness of one Weight Series. For example for small diameters, Sch. 40 is equal to Std Weight. THIS IS NOT A RULE, and this idea is one of the most common mistakes in piping design.

WALL THICKNESS

(2)

For FLANGES, VALVES and FORGED FITTINGS, a different system of

indicating the wall thickness is used. This is called PRESSURE RATING. It is a NUMBER expressed in POUNDS per SQUARE INCH (PSI symbol #) that refers to the maximum internal pressure acceptable for normal operation inside that part.

2.

125#

150#

300#

400#

600#

Cast Iron

Flanges & Valves

(Not in NP Standards)

Fl. & Valves

900#

1500#

2500#

3000#

6000#

Flanges

&

Valves

Forged Fittings

800#

Forged Small Valves (≤≤≤≤ 2”)

9000#

This conventional number is not exactly the actual maximum pressure acceptable inside the part. The maximum pressure allowed for a given rating is tabulated in the ANSI standards and depends on

Temperature

ASTM Material

TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES

(1)

1. BUTT-WELDING ENDS

The end is machined to allow head to head full penetrating welding

OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (1) 1. BUTT-WELDING ENDS The end is machined to allow head to
OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (1) 1. BUTT-WELDING ENDS The end is machined to allow head to
OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (1) 1. BUTT-WELDING ENDS The end is machined to allow head to
OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (1) 1. BUTT-WELDING ENDS The end is machined to allow head to
OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (1) 1. BUTT-WELDING ENDS The end is machined to allow head to

TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES

(2)

2. SOCKET WELDING ENDS

A socket is provided where pipe can be inserted

TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (2) 2. SOCKET WELDING ENDS A socket is provided where pipe

TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES

(3)

3. THREADED ENDS

Parts to be connected are threaded. For services where leaks are strongly undesired, a light weld is carried out at the surface, this is called “Seal Weld”.

“Seal” weld
“Seal” weld
are strongly undesired, a light weld is carried out at the surface, this is called “Seal

STANDARDIZED PIPING OBJECTS

PIPES

   

FITTINGS

 

FLANGES

FLANGES

VALVES

VALVES

GASKETS BOLTS AND NUTS

GASKETS BOLTS AND NUTS
PIPES: ANSI B36.10 CS / B36.19 SS Seamless Electric Resistance Welded No material is added

PIPES: ANSI B36.10 CS / B36.19 SS

PIPES: ANSI B36.10 CS / B36.19 SS Seamless Electric Resistance Welded No material is added during
PIPES: ANSI B36.10 CS / B36.19 SS Seamless Electric Resistance Welded No material is added during

Seamless Electric Resistance Welded

No material is added during welding process

Electric Fusion Welded

Material (Filler Metal) is added during the process of welding

HOW TO IDENTIFY A

SIZE

(DIAMETER)

WALL THICKNESS

MATERIAL

PIPE

NPS 12” (DN 300) Sch. 40 ASTM A106 Gr. B

BW FITTINGS

: ANSI B16.9

BW FITTINGS : ANSI B16.9 Bends 30° - 45 ° - 60° - 90° Long Radius
BW FITTINGS : ANSI B16.9 Bends 30° - 45 ° - 60° - 90° Long Radius

Bends

30° - 45 ° - 60° - 90° Long Radius R=1.5 D Short Radius R=D

Tees

Straight Full Tees Reducing Tees

Reducers

Concentric Reducers Eccentric Reducers

Caps

HOW TO IDENTIFY A 1. Straight Fittings

TYPE

SIZE

(DIAMETER)

WALL THICKNESS

MATERIAL

BW FITTING

BEND 90° LR

NPS 12”

(DN 300)

Std

ASTM A234 WPB

2. Reducing Fittings

TYPE

SIZE

(DIAMETER)

WALL THICKNESS

MATERIAL

REDUCING TEE NPS 12”x8” (DN 300x200) Sch. 30x20 ASTM A234 WPB

FORGED FITTINGS

ANSI B16.11

FORGED FITTINGS ANSI B16.11

HOW TO IDENTIFY A

TYPE

SIZE

(DIAMETER)

WALL THICKNESS

JOINT

MATERIAL

FORGED FITTING

ELBOW 90° NPS 1” (DN 25) Rating 3000# NPT ASTM A105

PIPE NIPPLES

They are standardized short pieces of pipe usually 50 mm or 100 mm long normally used between two close fittings. They can come in straight size or in reducing size and can have one end machined in a different way than the other. Such a variety of combinations is summarized using abbreviations

B

P

= Bevelled

= Plain

T = Threaded

T = Threaded

L = Large S = Small

L = Large S = Small
L = Large S = Small

E = End

Pipe nipples can be used to change among joint types. For example a PExBE Pipe Nipple changes a Socket Welding Line into a Buttwelding Line

Beveled End

Plain End

a PExBE Pipe Nipple changes a Socket Welding Line into a Buttwelding Line Beveled End P

BW

SW

FLANGES

ANSI B16.5

FLANGES ANSI B16.5 1. Pipe Connection Welding Neck Slip On Lap Joint Socket Welding Threaded 2.

1. Pipe Connection

Welding Neck Slip On Lap Joint Socket Welding Threaded

2. Mating

Flat Face Raised Face Ring Joint

WELDING NECK Used for all sizes, they allow full penetration weld between pipe and flange.

WELDING NECK Used for all sizes, they allow full penetration weld between pipe and flange. For this reason they are used for severe applications where failure of welda cannot be accepted. This does not come free of cost, since the shape of the flange obliges to start from a heavy forging and waste a lot of material from machining. SLIP ON Used for all sizes, they are very much economical because they are flat and can be obtained from sheets or plates with minimum waste of material from machining. But they do not allow full penetration weld, so that they are use for low ratings (usually 150# only) and unsevere applications

THREADED Can be used for all sized, but are preferably used for small sizes (<

THREADED Can be used for all sized, but are preferably used for small sizes (< or equal to 2”). Cheap manufacturing, cheap installation (no weld is required) but limited to threadel lines, that means unsevere applications where leaks are not a major issue

LAP JOINT A Stub End is welded on the pipe after the flange insertion of it. This solution is used for Stainless Steel lines at low pressure, since the heavy flange does not come in contact with the conveyed fluid and can be provided in much cheaper Carbon Steel material. Moreover no weld is required, also a good thing for Stainless Steel lines.

SOCKET WELDING Used for small sizes (< or equal to 2”) for unsevere services on
SOCKET WELDING Used for small sizes (< or equal to 2”) for unsevere services on

SOCKET WELDING Used for small sizes (< or equal to 2”) for unsevere services on Socket Welding lines.

Flat Face Gasket: Full Face Flat It covers the entire surface of the flange Raised

Flat Face

Gasket:

Full Face Flat

It covers the entire surface of the flange

Raised Face

Gasket:

Flat

It covers the raised surface of the flange

Spiral Wound

Also known as Spirometallic, or Spirotallic, its a wounded spiral of Stainless Steel and Graphite to withstand high temperatures or severely aggressive fluids

Ring Joint Gasket: Metallic Ring It is normally made up of Steel. It deforms inside

Ring Joint

Gasket:

Metallic Ring

It is normally made up of Steel. It deforms inside the ring joint grooves assuring sealing at very high pressures.

Surface Finishing of Flanges To improve the sealing effect of plane gaskets, the surface of a flange can be machined. A set of circular scares is machined in the surface. When the gasket is tightenly squeezed between the flanges, it penetrates into the scares improving sealing.

HOW TO IDENTIFY A

JOINT TYPE

SIZE

(DIAMETER)

WALL THICKNESS

MATING - FINISH

MATERIAL

FLANGE

SLIP ON NPS 6” (DN 150) Rating 300# RF – R9 ASTM A105

VALVES: CAST STEEL

Globe

Gate

VALVES: CAST STEEL Globe Gate Check
VALVES: CAST STEEL Globe Gate Check

Check

VALVES: CAST STEEL Globe Gate Check

VALVES: FORGED STEEL

Globe

Gate

VALVES: FORGED STEEL Globe Gate Check
VALVES: FORGED STEEL Globe Gate Check

Check

VALVES: FORGED STEEL Globe Gate Check
VALVES: FORGED STEEL Globe Gate Check
Ball
Ball

Butterfly

Ball Butterfly

ACTUATION OF VALVES

To open and close a valve, you can use

in which case you need a valve provided with

Hands

Handwheel

Electric Power

Electric Actuator

Compressed Air

Pneumatic Actuator

High Pressure Oil

Hydraulic Actuator

and the valve is called

Manual

Electric

Pneumatic

Hydraulic

CONTROL VALVES

These valves are used to CONTROL one or more of the PROPERTIES of the conveyed fluid in order to mantain the VALUES of the controlled property within a specific range. The internal parts of these valves are specially designed tu suit the particular control task and are non subject to particular Standards. Anyway, the majority of Control Valve Manufacturers try to respect at least the end to end dimensions given in ANSIB16.25. Also connections follows the recognized international standards.

SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES

These valves are installed on pipelines where pressure can exceed by accident the DESIGN PRESSURE of the pipeline. These valves are designed to open and discharge the conveyed fluid when the pressure in the pipeline becomes greater than a specified value called SET.

RELIEF

SAFETY

The valve opens when the pressure goes over the SET, but close again when the pressure returns under the SET

The valve opens when the pressure goes over the SET, but never closes again. Personnel intervention is required on the pipeline to check the event and the condition of the area, before re-arming the valve and starting operation again

TUBING A TUBE is a circular section of given DIAMETER and THICKNESS. It is normally specified giving the Ouside Diameter (OD) and the thickness. But it can also be specified giving the Inside Diameter (ID) and the thickness. The given numbers correspond exactly to the geometrical dimension they refer. So A 2” OD TUBE has exactly a 2” Outside Diameters.

Dimensionally, there are two big families of tubing

1. FRACTIONAL TUBES

The INCH is the unit of measure, and since tubes for piping purpose (REMEMBER: CONVEYING FLUIDS!) are small, usually less than 1”, FRACTIONS of inch are used, hence the name FRACTIONAL

2. METRIC TUBES

As per SI requirements, mm is the unit of measure. Again the value in mm is the actual ouside diameter of the tube, so that a DN15 pipe has a rather different OD then a 15 mm tube.

TUBES in PIPING DESIGN. Tubes are not usually used in PIPING DESIGN except for some very particular services.

In typical Oil and Gas Machinery installations, like Nuovo Pignone’s, TUBES are basically used for:

1. Parts of HP Hydraulic Lines

2. Instrument connecting Lines

3. Pneumatic Lines

These Lines are small size (usually less than 1”).

COMPRESSION FITTINGS Tubing is usually BENT.

A large variety of fittings are available for

1. detachment of BRANCHES (Tees)

2. Passing through steel walls (Bulk Unions)

3. Unite tube to tube (tubing is not welded)

4. Connecting Tubing to PIPES (Connectors)

5. Connecting Tubes to Flexible Hoses

Connection of TUBING with the fitting is achieved through a particular locking system where a RING (“FERRULE”) is forced to COMPRESS the Tube walls for sealing and joining.

These fittings are not STANDARDIZED, but are branding based and patented. Most popular manufacturers of compression fittings are PARKER SWAGELOCK GARILOCK