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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

To Calibrate Optical Misalignment Its Measurement & Control


Raval Apurv
Professor
Vadodara Institute of Engineering, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
Abstract Normally, space borne telescopes are subjected to
orbital loads like temperature variations, absence of gravity, II. A BRIEF OVER VIEW OF TYPICAL SATELLITE TELESCOPE
moisture delivered from CFRP structure, which is linked to Pleiades HR telescope is successfully launched in year 2008-
the to the importance of coefficient of thermal expansion 2009. Its optical performance is checked in year 2011. The
(CTE) and coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the images are taken by Pleiades HR telescope is very fine. In
CFRP structure. Due to this, there is a change in focal length this telescope thermally driven refocusing mechanism is
and & misalignment of optical system which reduces image implemented first time. This thermally driven refocusing
quality. This can be re corrected by providing some kind of mechanism has ability to re correct the misalignment between
mechanism. Optical misalignment can be found out with the primary mirror [P1] and secondary [S1] mirror with few
help of Wave front sensors. Measurement should be done by micro meter.
checking spot position on detector array. Different ways for
controlling or reset original position and here modified
concept of thermally driven refocusing mechanism is
discussed.
Key words: Co-efficient of moisture expansion (CME), Co-
efficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE), Focusing length,
Primary Mirror, Secondary Mirror, Thermal Actuator

I. INTRODUCTION
Satellite telescope is one of the most important payloads.
Here shown generalized ray diagram of optics for cassegrain
focus type telescope.
As given below fig cassegrain focus type telescope.
In this type telescope light rays first enters in to telescopic
structure, travels up to primary mirror than reflect backs
Fig. 2: Mechanical architecture of Pleiades & its ray
toward the secondary mirror and again re-reflected and
diagram
passed through the centrally provided hole in primary mirror.
In above figure mechanical architecture of
Hence forth generating a focus point at the back side of
PLEIADES-HR camera is shown & ray diagram of the same
primary mirror. This focus point is responsible for image
also presented.
quality and resolution of capturing picture.

Fig. 3: Location of Secondary Mirror


Fig. 1: Generalized Ray Diagram of Optics Secondary Mirror is mounted at entry of incoming
A. Cassegrain Telescope: light rays. It is connected with thermally driven refocusing
This type of telescope has a parabolic primary mirror and a mechanism and mounted with MFD (Mirror Fixation
hyperbolic secondary mirror that reflects the light back down Device). Whole assembly is directly connected with 3 spider
through a hole in the primary mirror. Folding and diverging blades at one end of metering structure.
effect of the secondary creates a telescope with a long focal
length while having a short tube length. III. LITERATURE REVIEW
According to, Paul Greenway, Ian Tosh, Nigel Morris, [1]
they worked on development of the topsat camera. In this

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To Calibrate Optical Misalignment Its Measurement & Control
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/334)

paper they show the misalignment problem arises due to According to, Jean-Luc Lamard, et al, [3] they
coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and coefficient of represent design of the high resolution optical instrument for
moisture expansion (CME) with variation in temperature the Pleiades HR earth observation satellite. In this paper due
during orbital working. to temperature difference deviation between Mirror 1 and
Mirror 2 within few micron is presented. This can be re-
aligning by using thermal refocalization device included with
Mirror during flight mission. Aluminum ring is provided with
MFD for actuation of Mirror 2 for re-aligning. This design is
based on the temperature controlling of an aluminum ring
located between mirror and structure. The functioning
temperature range is (17C; 34.5C).

Fig. 4: Ray diagram of telescope & misalignment


According to, Daniel R. Neal, Justine Mansell, [2]
they worked on Application of Shack Hartmann Wave front
Sensors to optical system calibration and alignment. In this
by using SHWFS alignment and measurement of the
performance of 24 inch diameter cassegrain telescope is
carried out. By checking position of spot we can measure
misalignment.

Fig. 7: Thermally Actuation Device

IV. WORKING CONCEPT OF THERMAL ACTUATOR


Initial concept of thermally driven mechanism

Fig. 5: Focal Spots Generates When Rays Passing through


the Lenslet array On Detector

Fig. 8: Initial concept of thermally driven mechanism


In earlier concept of thermally driven mechanism a
single aluminum ring is used for realignment. The working of
mechanism is dependent on heating and cooling of aluminum
ring by heater and radiator respectively. When heat is given
to ring length is increases and mirror moves up-side. On the
other side when ring is cooled by means of radiator it contract
and mirror moves down ward side or mirror takes it initial
position.
Fig. 6: Focal Spots Position

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To Calibrate Optical Misalignment Its Measurement & Control
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/334)

V. MODIFIED CONCEPT OBSERVATION SATELLITES Proceedings Of The


Modified concept of thermally Driven Mechanism ICSO (International Conference On Space Optics) 2008.
[5] C.LABORDE, HIGH RESOLUTION EARTH
OBSERVATION INSTRUMENTS- HOW TO REACH
THE BEST PERFORMANCE, Proceedings Of The
ICSO 2014.
[6] G.Lin, C-J.Kim, S.Konishi And H.Fujita Design,
Fabrication, And Testing Of A C-Shape Actuator The
8th International Conference On Solid State Sensors
And Actuators, And Eurosensors IX. Stockholm,
Sweden, June 25-29, 1995.
[7] Patrice Damilano, Pleiades High Resolution Satellite: A
Solution For Military And Civilian Needs In Metric-
Class Optical Observation 15th Annual/USU
Conference On Small Satellite.
[8] Compliant Mechanisms, Design Of Flexure Hinges By
Nicolae Lobontiu , CRC Publication (Year 2002), Page
No. 394
Fig. 9: Modified concept of thermally operated mechanism
In the modification of above concept two aluminum
rings can be provided and by maintaining of this two ring
temperature, mirror up-down movement can be possible
without need of radiator. In this concept insulation ring is
provided (indicated by green) in between two aluminum rings
which having very low thermal conductivity (made from FR4
material having conductivity of 0.23 W/mK). When Inner
expansion ring (indicated by red color) is heated mirror side
moves downward. When outer expansion ring (Indicated by
pink) is heated, mirror can be moves upside.

VI. CONCLUSION
From the literature survey it has been concluded that a
thermally operated mechanism can be used for re alignment
of the optical structure. A thermally driven refocusing
mechanism is already used in Pleiades HR telescope for
solving the problem of misalignment. A single aluminum ring
is used for changing the position of secondary mirror. It can
be possible to provide two aluminum ring for changing the
position of mirror without need of radiator. Also such a kind
of thermally operated mechanism can be used for micro
positioning of other application, which requires precise and
accurate micron movement.

VII. REFERENCES
[1] Paul Greenway, Ian Tosh, Nigel Morris, Development
Of The Topsat Camera Proceedings Of The ICSO
(International Conference On Space Optics) 2004.
[2] Daniel R. Neal, Justine Mansell, APPLICATION OF
SHACK-HARTMANN WAVEFRONT SENSORS TO
OPTICAL SYSTEM CALIBRATION AND
ALIGNMENT Proceedings Of The SPIE Vol.4779,
Pp.234, 2002.
[3] Jean-Luc Lamard, Catherine Gaudin-Delrieu, David
Valentini, Christophe Renard, DESIGN OF THE HIGH
RESOLUTION OPTICAL INSTRUMENT FOR THE
PLEIADES HR EARTH OBSERVATION
SATELLITES Proceedings Of The ICSO 2004.
[4] Catherine Gaudin-Delrieu, Jean-Luc LAMARD,
Philippe Cheroutre, Bruno Bailly, Pierre Dhuicq, Olivier
Puig, THE HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL
INSTRUMENTS FOR THE PLEIADES HR EARTH

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