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Physics

Book 3:

Moving About

Jocelyn McRae

TITAN EDUCATION

First edition published 2007 by Titan Education Pty Ltd

PO Box 628 Gymea, NSW 2227

ISBN 978-1-921349-11-9

ISBN 978-1-921349-14-0

Copyright J. McRae

Cover design by Clint Ralph - Nitrous Graphics

Type setting by April de Haan and Airi Nakayama

Parts of this book may be freely copied by educational institutions for non-commercial

educational purposes. It must not be copied for any other purpose without prior written

permission from the publisher.

Acknowledgements

The author and publisher acknowledge and thank the following organisations for granting

permission to reproduce copyright material in this resource:

Images BigStockPhoto.com.

Every care has been taken to trace and acknowledge copyright material. The author and

publisher tender their apologies for accidental infringement of copyright.

Disclaimer

It should be noted that all worksheets and investigations outlined in this resource are meant

only as a guide. While all due care has been taken by the author and publisher, it remains the

teachers responsibility to scrutinise any learning activities outlined in this resource guide for

appropriateness and safety of students.

CONTENTS

Program outline 2

Speed 8

Graphing motion 20

Relative velocity 28

Acceleration 31

Combining forces 49

Kinetic energy 53

Force-time graphs 59

Conservation of momentum 62

Revision questions 66

Assessment task 72

PROGRAM OUTLINE

1. Vehicles doto:

not typicallyStudents:

travel at a constant speed Teaching & Learning

Students learn

Strategies

identify that a plan, choose

identify thatjourney

typical a plan, choose

equipment or Represent

Represent speed speed as the gradient

as the gradient of a distance-time

typical journey

involves speed equipment

resources for, and or of a distance-time graph where

graph where a straight line represents constant a

involves

changesspeed resources

perform a first- for, and straight line represents constant

speed and a curved line represents changing speed.

changes perform a first-

hand investigation speed and

Differentiate betweena curved line represents

instantaneous speed and

distinguish

distinguish hand investigation

to measure the changing speed. Differentiate

average speed using graphical illustrations.

betweenbetweenthe the to measure

average speed theof between

Calculate speedinstantaneous speed and

in a variety of situations and

ts learn to: Students:

instantaneous and Teaching

average & Learning Strategies

instantaneous and an objectspeed or a average

complete speed using graphical

worksheet.

average

les do not typically travel speed

at

average aspeed of of speed

constant of an object or a

vehicle illustrations. Calculate speed in a

vehicles andand other

other vehicle variety of situations and complete

y that a plan, vehicles

choose solve problems In small groups perform one of six practical

bodies bodiesor solve problems

and analyse and worksheet.

activities to determine the average speed and

journey equipment Represent speed as the gradient of a distance-time

es speed distinguish

resources for, and analyse

information information

using

report In

graph where a straight line represents constant small

back to groups

the class.perform one of six

es between scalar andspeedusing

distinguish

perform a first- the a the

andformula

curved formula:

: line represents practical

changingactivities

speed. to determine the

vector quantities

between

hand investigation scalarin v

Differentiate = r

' r average

Complete speed

worksheet and report

designed back practical

to refine to

vav between instantaneous speed and

av

uish equations

to and vector

measure the

average speed tt graphicaltechniques

'

using the class.

illustrations. used to record and interpret motion.

en the comparequantities

average speed of in wherewherer = r =

The

Calculate speed in a variety of situations andComplete

activities worksheet

simulate designed

practical to

investigations as

aneous and an equations

instantaneous

object or a and complete displacement

displacement

worksheet. follows:

refineusing a ticker techniques

practical timer, releasinguseda marble in a

e speed of average speed with present information

vehicle present jar ofto record and interpret motion.regular

liquid and using photography at

es and other solve compare

instantaneous

problems and In small graphically

information

groups perform of: oneintervals.

of sixThe Calculations and interpretation

activities simulate

practical practical of motion

average

and instantaneous

analyse and

velocity activities graphically

todisplacement of: follow.

determine the averageinvestigationsStudents

speed and complete related questions.

as follows: using a

average

information

define averagespeed

using displacement

vs time

report back to the class. vs ticker timer, releasing a marble in a

uish with

velocity

the formula as:: time

velocity vs Interpret

jar of liquid and using photographyand

displacement-time, velocity-time

en scalar vavinstantaneous

r

= 'r and

Complete velocity

time

worksheet vs time acceleration-time

designed toat regular

refine graphs. Complete

intervals.

practical Calculationsworksheet.

vavaverage velocity for objects with

ector 't

t for objects

techniques used towith and interpretation

record and interpret motion. of motion

ties in uniform and

uniformsimulate

The activities and non-non- Define the terms

follow. Students

practical investigations scalar

as and vector.

complete Discuss

related

where r =

define average uniform linear distance (scalar), displacement (vector), speed

ons displacement uniform

follows: using alinearticker timer, releasingquestions.

a marble in a

velocity as: velocity (scalar) and velocity (vector) in more detail and

present 'r jar of velocity

liquid and using photography Interpret

at regular displacement-time,

are vav categorise

intervals. Calculations and interpretation other quantities.

of motion Answer questions on

information velocity-time and acceleration-time

't average speed and average velocity.

aneous and graphically of: follow. Students complete related questions.

graphs. Complete worksheet.

e speed displacement vs Define the terms scalar and

Interpret displacement-time, Study and interpret

velocity-time and graphs of motion. Answer

time vector. Discuss distance (scalar),

aneous and acceleration-time graphs. Complete questions on worksheet.

worksheet. (vector), speed

velocity vs time displacement

e velocity for objects with (scalar) and velocity (vector) in

uniform and non- Define the terms scalar and vector. more Discuss

detail and categorise other

average uniform linear distance (scalar), displacement (vector), speed

quantities. Answer questions

y as: (scalar) and velocity (vector) in more

'r

velocity on detail

average andspeed and average

categorise other quantities. Answer questions on

velocity.

't average speed and average velocity. Study and interpret graphs of

2. An analysis of the external forces on vehicles helps to understand the effects of acceleration

motion. Answer questions on

and deceleration Study and interpret graphs of motion. Answer

worksheet.

describe the questions on worksheet.

analyse the effects Work with vectors to describe the resultant

motion of one of external forces vector from combinations of two or more

body relative to operating on a vectors. Determine the resultant both

another vehicle mathematically and by scale drawing.

Perform both addition and subtraction of

identify the gather first-hand vectors.

2 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource

alysis of the external forces on vehicles helps to understand the effects of acceleration

eceleration

PROGRAM OUTLINE

effects of acceleration and deceleration.

Students learn to: Students:

Strategies

describe the analyse the effects Work with vectors to describe the

motion of one body of external forces resultant vector from combinations

relative to another operating on a of two or more vectors. Determine

identify the vehicle the resultant both mathematically

usefulness of using gather first-hand and by scale drawing. Perform both

vector diagrams information about addition and subtraction of vectors.

to assist solvinglearn to: different

Students situations

Discuss Teaching

Students: the concept of relative

& Learning Strategies

problems where acceleration velocity as velocity relative to

usefulness of using information about

explain Students

the need learn to: is positive Students:

or an observer. Teaching & Learning

Calculate Strategies

relative

vector diagrams to Discuss the concept of relative velocity as velocity

different situations

for a netusefulness

external of usingnegative information about velocity for a variety of situations

assist solving where relative to an observer. Calculate relative velocity

force to vector

act in diagrams to plan,different choosesituations by completing

Discuss

for the of conceptthe ofworksheet.

relative velocity the as velocity

problems acceleration isa variety situations by completing

order to assistchange solving equipment

where or

positive or

Use vector diagrams to assist

worksheet. Use vector diagrams to assist velocity

relative to an observer. Calculate relative

the velocity problems

explain of an the need resources for and

acceleration

negative calculations.

for isa variety of situations by completing the

calculations.

object for a net external perform a first-

positive worksheet.

or Describe Use acceleration

vector diagramsas a change

to assist

describe force the to the

explain act in need hand investigation

negative

plan, choose in velocity.

calculations.

Describe Note thatasitacan

acceleration changeonlyin velocity. Note

actions orderthat

for a mustnet external

to change to demonstrate

equipment or occur if there is a net

that it can only occur if there is a net external force

external force

nts: be takenTeaching

the forvelocity

force ato

& actLearning

of vector

in an Strategies

plan,addition

resources choose for and

that overcomes

Describe

whichand acceleration inertia.

as a Discuss

change

overcomes inertia. Discuss the meaning inthe

velocity. of

Note

ion about vehicle to

order

objectchange to change subtraction

equipment

perform a meaning

that

or it can of

only average

occur if acceleration.

there

average acceleration. Complete problems on

first- is a net external force

direction,

situations Discuss thespeed

the concept velocity ofup of

an velocity

relative solve resources

handproblems

velocitywhich

for and

Complete

worksheet

asinvestigation overcomes

toproblems inertia.

calculate onDiscuss

various worksheetthe meaning

quantities of

using the

andtoslow

relative object

down the

andescribe

observer. Calculateusing perform

to vector

relative a

demonstrate

velocity average

first- acceleration.

to calculate various Complete

'v v quantities

u problems

using on

hand formula aav .

ion is adescribe

for variety of the

actions typical

situationsthat must diagrams

by completing vector to worksheet

theinvestigation

addition the formula: to calculate various

'u t

quantities using the

or worksheet.

effectsUse ofdescribe

beexternal

taken

vectorfor the a

diagrams to

determine demonstrate

and subtraction

to assist aav = 'v v =v vu- u

formula aav .

forces on actions

bodies

calculations. vehicle to change that must vectorvelocity,

resultant addition u

' u t t

including: be taken for a

direction, speed acceleration and subtraction

solve problems and

Perform

Performaapractical practical investigation

investigation to

to illustrate that

oose - friction

Describe vehicle

up and

accelerationbetween to

slow change

as adown force

change inusing vector

velocity. illustrate

when

Note three that forces when

are inthree forces that

equilibrium are the

nt or surfaces direction, speed

plan,

that it can only occur if there is a net external force solve

choose

diagrams problems

to Perform

resultant

in equilibrium a practical

force investigation

the resultant

is zero. Use 5N spring force to balances

illustrate that

in

s for and which- overcomes up and

air resistance

describe slow downequipment

the Discuss

inertia. using

thedetermine

meaningvector

or ofwhen

is zero.

equilibrium three Use forces

and 5N are in equilibrium

spring

complete real sizethat

balances

the the

invector

a first- define average

typical effects of

average acceleration. Complete problems on velocity, diagrams

resources

resultant and toresultant

equilibrium

diagram toforce is zero.

and

determine Useresultant.

complete

the 5Nthe spring

real balances in

Discuss

describe

toexternal the determine equilibrium

estigation acceleration

worksheet calculate as:forces

various onquantities

performacceleration

first-hand

using size vectorand

and

findings.

the complete

diagram to the real size vector

determine

typical effects of resultant velocity,

diagram

nstrate a = v bodies'v v uincluding: force

investigations to the resultant. Discuss findings. Discuss

to determine the resultant.

formula avaav -external forces . on acceleration and

ddition friction

'uu between

t gather data and findings.

Describemotion

Describe motion involving

involving constant

constant acceleration

bodies including: force choose

raction therefore surfaces plan,

use available using the equations

acceleration using the equations:

-- air

friction

resistancebetween equipment or Describe motion involving constant acceleration

v

aav = surfaces

v-u u evidence to show

oblems a = plan,

resourceschoose

illustrate and using the equations

v=v uu+ at at

Perform ava practicalt t investigation thetorelationship that

- air

defineare resistance

average equipment

perform or

first-hand

ctor when three forces in equilibrium

between that the

force, s = ut + 1at 1 22

define the terms

acceleration resources and sv u

ut at at

to resultant force is zero. Useas: 5N spring

mass investigations

balances

and in to 22

mass and weight

define average 'v the real perform

gather first-hand

data and 2 2 1

ne equilibrium and complete size

accelerationvector using v2vs=2 uut

u+2as2at

as

2

with reference aav

acceleration as: investigations

use available to 2

velocity, diagram to determine 't the resultant.

suitableDiscussapparatus Solve a wide variety of problems to

ion and to the effects of 'v

therefore gather

evidence data

to and

show v 2 of 2

u quantities.

2as

findings. aav Solve

calculatea variety

unknown problems to

Complete

gravity v 'tu use relationship

the available Solve

atherefore evidence to show calculate unknown quantities.to

a wide

worksheets. variety of problems

Describe motion involving av

t constant between

acceleration force, calculate

Complete unknown

worksheets.quantities. Complete

oose v u mass and the relationship

worksheets.

define

using the equationsaav the terms between force,

nt or mass and t acceleration using Use vector diagrams to combine forces by

s and define

v u the

weight terms

atwith mass and

suitable apparatus

first-hand mass and acceleration using performing a practical investigation.

Use vector diagrams to combine forces by

reference1 to 2the

tions to s ut ofwith

weight at suitable

Preliminary

solve apparatus

Physics

problems Teacher Resource

performing a practical investigation. 3

effects 2gravity

ata and reference

outline to the

2the forces and analyse

v 2

u 2 as solve problems

information Examine Newtons First Law of Motion. Complete

able effects ofingravity

involved using:

PROGRAM OUTLINE

Students learn to: Students:

Strategies

outline the forces solve problems and Use vector diagrams to combine

involved in causing analyse information forces by performing a practical

a change in the using: investigation.

velocity of a vehicle Examine Newtons First Law of

when:

F = ma Motion. Complete worksheet.

- coasting with no for a range of Examine Newtons Second Law of

pressure on the situations involving Motion. Solve a variety of problems

Students learn to: Students:

accelerator modes of transport using Teaching & Learning Strategies

the formula.

- pressing on the solve

accelerator problems and Newtons

and analyse Perform a practical

Second investigation

Law. Using a constant force and

- pressing on the

accelerator information

analyse information mass, toacceleration is determined.

confirm Newtons Second Interpret

Law. results

brakes

- pressing on the involving

involving Using a 1

by plotting onconstant force and

an acceleration mass,

versus graph.

- passing over an

brakes F = mv2

2

determine acceleration. Interpret mass

- passing icy patch

overonanthe F rr results by plotting on an acceleration

road

icy patch on the for

forvehicles

vehicles versus time graph.

- climbing and

road travelling around

travelling around Examine

ExamineNewtons

NewtonsThird Third

Law ofLaw

motion.

of Complete

descending

- climbing and hills curves

curves worksheet.

motion. Complete worksheet.

- following

descending hills a curve Research individually, or discuss

in the a

- following road

curve in groups, the forces involved in

in the road causing a change in velocity in the

interpret

interpret Newtons following situations: coasting with no

Newtons Second

Second Law of pressure on the accelerator, pushing

Law of Motion Research

Motion and relate it down individually, or discuss

the accelerator, in groups,

applying the to

and relate it to the outline forces involved in causing a change in

to the equation: brakes, hitting an icy road, driving up

equation: velocity in the following situations: coasting with no

F= ma F ma

a hill, travelling down a hill, driving

pressure on the accelerator, pushing down the

around a bend.

identify the net accelerator, applying the brakes, hitting an icy road,

Complete mixed questions on force,

force in a wide

identify the net driving up a hill, travelling down a hill, driving

mass, acceleration and travelling

variety

forceof situations

in a wide around a bend.

around a curve.

involving

variety modes

of

Combine forces to identify the

of transport

situations

net force in a variety of situations.

and explain

involvingthe modes

Resolve

Complete vectors

mixed into components

questions on force, mass,in

consequences

of transport of and

some cases.

acceleration Complete

and travelling worksheet.

around a curve.

the application

explain the of

that net force in of

consequences

termsthe of application

Newtons of

SecondthatLawnet force

of in

Motionterms of Newtons Combine forces to identify the net force in a

Second Law of variety of situations. Resolve vectors into

Motion components in some cases. Complete worksheet.

PROGRAM OUTLINE

important

Students learnaspect

to: in understanding

Students: motion. Teaching & Learning Strategies

3. Moving vehicles have kinetic energy and energy transformations are an important aspect in

understanding Teaching & Learning

Students learn to:motion Students:

Strategies

identify that a solve problems

identify

moving that a

object and

solve problems and

analyse Examine

Examine the concepts

the concepts of kineticof kinetic

energy and work.

moving object

possesses kinetic analyse information

information to energy and work. Complete

Complete worksheet to perform calculations and

possesses

energy and kinetic

that to determine

determine the the solve problems.

worksheet to perform calculations

energy

work and

donethat

on that kineticenergy

kinetic energy of aof and solve problems.

work done

object canon that a vehicle

vehicle and and

the the Distinguish between an

object can increase

increase that work done

work done using using energy

Distinguish transfer

between an and

energyantransfer

energyand an

thatenergy

energy theformulae:

the formulae: energy transformation.

transformation.

describe 1

Ek = 1mv mv 2

2

Discuss the law of conservation of

Ek

the energy the

describe 22 energy.

transformations

energy and

and Discuss the Law of Conservation of Energy.

thattransformations

occur in W=Fs

W = Fs

collisions

that occur in analyse information

collisions

define the law of analyse

to trace the energy

conservation of information

transfers and to

define the law of

energy trace the energy in

transformation

conservation of transfers andleading

collisions

energy transformation

to irreversible in

collisions leading

distortions

to irreversible

distortions

4. Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on the vehicle or the driver

define solve problems Examine the connection between the three

momentum as: and analyse formulae for momentum, impulse and change in

p mv secondary data momentum:

using:

define impulse as p mv p mv

the product of and I Ft

force and time Impulse Ft Ft mv mu

PROGRAM OUTLINE

driver.

vehicle & or Learning

the driver

Students learn to: Students:

4. Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on theStrategies vehicle or the driver

define solve problems Examine the connection between the three

define momentum

define as:

momentum solve

and problems

solve problems

analyse and formulae

Examine

Examine the

the connection

connection

for momentum, between

between

impulse and the threein

change

as: p mv

momentum as: analyse secondary

and analyse

secondary data the three

formulae

momentum: forformulae

momentum, for impulse

momentum,

and change in

p = mv p mv data using:

secondary

using: data impulse

momentum: and change in momentum:

define impulse

define impulseas as pp =mv

using:mv p mv

the product of impulse

define

product

the force

of as p mv

and I pFtp mv

= mv

and

timethe

and force product

and time of Impulse =FtFt

Impulseand Imv

Ft I = FtFt

mu

force

explain why and time Impulse

perform first-hand Ft FtFt= mvmv-mu mu

momentum is investigations to

conserved in gather data and Perform calculations and solve

collisions in terms analyse the change problems using the three mentioned

of Newtons Third in momentum formulae. Complete worksheet.

Law of motion during collisions Examine a series of force-time

solve problems that graphs and recognise that the

apply the principle area under the curve or straight

of conservation line represents impulse. Complete

of momentum to exercises on worksheet to reinforce

qualitatively and this idea.

quantitatively Consider conservation of

describe the momentum as a direct result of

collision of a Newtons Third Law of Motion.

moving vehicle Solve problems and complete

with: mathematical calculations relating

a stationary to conservation of momentum in a

vehicle variety of collision situations.

an immoveable Conduct a practical investigation

object using a linear air track to confirm the

another vehicle Law of Conservation of Momentum.

moving in

the opposite

direction

another vehicle

moving in the

same direction

PROGRAM OUTLINE

momentum.

Students learn to: Students:

Strategies

define the inertia gather and process Review the definition of inertia

of a vehicle as its first-hand data and discuss Newtons First Law

tendency to remain and/or secondary of Motion. Brainstorm, as a class,

in uniform motion information to real life examples of both of the

or at rest analyse the above concepts. Revisit previous

discuss reasons potential danger worksheet on Newtons First Law.

why Newtons First presented by loose Complete assessment task to

Law of Motion is objects in a vehicle gather, process, analyse and

not apparent in identify data present secondary information to

many real world sources, gather, assess the benefits of technologies

situations process, analyse, currently used as safety devices in

assess the present secondary vehicles. Evaluate the effectiveness

reasons for the information and of these technologies in reducing

introduction of low use the available injury and saving lives.

speed zones in evidence to

built-up areas and assess benefits

the addition of air of technologies

bags and crumple for avoiding or

zones to vehicles reducing the effect

with respect to of a collision

the concepts

of impulse and

momentum

evaluate the

effectiveness

of some safety

features of motor

vehicles

MOVING ABOUT

SPEED

Speed is the rate of change of distance and equals the distance travelled divided by the time

d

taken i.e. s = .

t

A typical journey involves speed changes.

In the distance-time graphs below, the gradient at any instant of the journey represents the speed

at that instant.

Graph A

Graph A represents a bike rider travelling at a constant speed.

distance

(km)

the constant speed throughout the entire journey is 10kmh-1

instantaneous speed at t = 4 is 10kmh-1

average speed is 10kmh-1

Graph B

Graph B represents a 40km trip along the coastline, stopping along the way, and a quick trip

home.

distance

(km)

section 2 - speed is 0kmh-1

section 3 - speed is 20kmh-1

section 4 - speed is 0kmh-1

section 5 - speed is 40kmh-1

instantaneous speed at t = 3.5 hours is 0kmh-1

average speed is 80 = 16kmh-1

5

MOVING ABOUT

SPEED - continued

Graph C

Graph C represents a journey by a cyclist who is not travelling at a constant speed.

distance

(km)

50 km

average speed is 50km = 10kmh-1 but the speed at the commencement of the journey

5h

is lower and is continually increasing throughout the journey

instantaneous speed at any given time is given by the gradient of the tangent to the curve

at that time

distance metre m

time second s

average speed is the speed one would need to travel constantly to cover the total distance

in a given time

Questions

1) The speed of light is 3 x 108ms-1. How long will it take for light to travel from the sun

to the Earth (a distance of 1.5 x 108km):

a. In seconds?

b. In minutes and seconds?

2) What is the average speed for a journey of 70km in 40 minutes? (give answer in ms-1)

3) A sprinter runs 100m in 9.8 seconds. What is his average speed in:

a. Metres per second?

b. Kilometres per hour?

4) Calculate the average speed of a car travelling for 8km if the journey takes 25 minutes.

MOVING ABOUT

SPEED - continued

5) Calculate the average speed of a plane travelling from Sydney to Brisbane (1000km) if it

takes 1 hour and 45 minutes. Give answer in:

a. kmh-1

b. ms-1

6) If a rocket is launched and is travelling at 40000kmh-1, how far will it travel if it continues

at this speed for 1 minute?

7) The graph below shows the journeys of Sean and Tina as they travel between two towns,

A and B, situated 100km apart. Find:

b. Seans average speed.

8am to 9am: travel at a constant speed of 90kmh-1 away from home

9am to 9:30am: stop for petrol and drinks

9:30am to 11:30am: travel 60km away from home at a constant speed

11:30am to 1pm: stop for lunch

1pm to 2:30pm: travel at a constant speed of 80kmh-1 towards home

2:30pm to 3:30pm: stop for afternoon tea

3:30pm to 4pm: return home at a constant speed

MOVING ABOUT

SPEED

ANSWERS

1) a. 500 seconds

b. 8 minutes 20 seconds

2) 29.17ms-1

3) a. 10.2ms-1

b. 36.7kmh-1

4) 19.2kmh-1

5) a. 571kmh-1

b. 159ms-1

6) 667km

7) a. 40kmh-1

b. 50kmh-1

8)

MOVING ABOUT

AND INTERPRETING MOTION

A ticker timer is used to record the total time it takes for an object starting from rest

to slide down an incline plane. A strip of paper attached to the object is pulled

through the ticker timer as the object slides down and the striker hits the paper

every 0.02 seconds. Carbon paper placed at the position of the striker help to

record a series of dots on the strip of paper.

In this example, the distance recorded between the first and second dots is 5mm

and the distance between each of the following pairs of dots is 5mm more than the

previous gap.

each time interval

distance covered in each time interval

the time elapsed between each pair of recorded dots

the total distance covered at each recorded dot

a. From the information recorded in the table calculate:

i. the average velocity over each interval

ii. the average velocity over the whole trial

b. Plot a displacement-time graph of the motion recorded.

c. Plot a velocity-time graph and use the gradient of the graph to obtain the

acceleration of the motion.

d. Plot an acceleration-time graph.

e. Comment about both the velocity and the

acceleration in this example.

A marble is released in liquid and allowed to fall to the

bottom of the jar. Strobe photography is used to obtain a

picture as shown in the diagram.

In this example the distance between the first and second

marble in the photograph is 4mm. Each subsequent

distance between marble images is 4mm more than the

previous distance. The position of the marble is recorded

every 0.2 seconds.

time between each marble image

distance between each image

MOVING ABOUT

INTERPRETING MOTION - continued

the total distance covered at each recorded image

i. the average velocity over each interval

ii. the average velocity over the whole trial

b. Plot a displacement-time graph of the motion recorded.

c. Plot a velocity-time graph and use the gradient of the graph to obtain the

acceleration of the motion.

d. Plot an acceleration-time graph.

e. Comment about both the velocity and the acceleration in this example.

A car moving along a straight level road is photographed at 0.5 second intervals.

When the photographs are linked together the following continuous picture is obtained

and it becomes apparent that every 0.5 seconds the car images are 2.0 cm apart on

the actual photograph. The front of the car is represented by arrows. The scale of the

photograph is 5mm = 5m.

time between each car image

distance between each image

the total time elapsed at each recorded image

the total distance covered at each recorded image

i. the average velocity over each interval

ii. the average velocity over the whole trial

b. Plot a displacement-time graph and use the gradient of the graph to obtain the

velocity of the motion recorded.

c. Plot a velocity-time graph and use the gradient of the graph to obtain the

acceleration of the motion.

d. Plot an acceleration-time graph.

e. Comment about both the velocity and the acceleration in this example.

MOVING ABOUT

AND INTERPRETING MOTION

ANSWERS

1)

Time Time between Distance Average velocity for Accumulated

interval (s) dots (s) travelled (m) each interval (ms-1) displacement (m)

0.00-0.02 0.02 0.005 0.25 0.005

0.02-0.04 0.02 0.010 0.50 0.015

0.04-0.06 0.02 0.020 1.00 0.035

0.06-0.08 0.02 0.035 1.75 0.070

0.08-0.10 0.02 0.055 2.75 0.125

0.10-0.12 0.02 0.080 4.00 0.205

a. i. Refer to table

ii. 1.70ms-1

b. c. 25ms-2

d.

e. The velocity is changing at a constant rate which means that the acceleration

is constant.

2)

Time Time between Distance Average velocity for Accumulated

interval (s) images (s) travelled (m) each interval (ms-1) displacement (m)

0.0-0.2 0.2 0.004 0.002 0.004

0.2-0.4 0.2 0.008 0.004 0.012

0.4-0.6 0.2 0.012 0.006 0.024

0.6-0.8 0.2 0.016 0.008 0.040

0.8-1.0 0.2 0.020 0.010 0.060

1.0-1.2 0.2 0.024 0.012 0.084

MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES

- OBSERVING RECORDING AND INTERPRETING MOTION

ANSWERS - continued

a. i. Refer to table

ii. 0.07ms-1

b. c. 0.01ms-2 d. 0.4 0.8 1.2

0.4 1.2

e. The velocity is changing at a constant rate which means that the acceleration is

constant.

3)

interval (s) 0.4

images (s)

0.8 1.2

travelled (m)

0.4 0.8

each interval (ms-1)

1.2

displacement (m)

0.0-0.5 0.5 20 40 20

0.5-1.0 0.5 20 40 40

1.0-1.5 0.5 20 40 60

1.5-2.0 0.5 20 40 80

2.0-2.5 0.5 20 40 100

2.5-3.0 0.4

0.5

0.8 1.2

20 40 120

3.0-3.5 0.5 20 40 140

3.5-4.0 0.5 20 40 160

a. i. Refer to table

ii. 40ms-1

b. 40ms-1 c. 0ms-2 d.

e. The velocity is constant which means that there is no acceleration i.e. acceleration

equals zero.

MOVING ABOUT

The following activities investigate the speed of various moving objects. For each of the suggested

activities, take a suitable number of readings to ensure the validity of the results. Record and

graph your results on a distance-time graph in each case.

Practical activity 1

Time a 30m run.

Practical activity 2

Time a 30m walk.

Practical activity 3

Time a 100m bicycle ride.

Practical activity 4

Use a ticker timer to determine the speed of a moving object.

Practical activity 5

Use a multi-flash/strobe light and a camera with a time lapse function to record the positions of

an object by rolling or sliding it in front of a ruler.

Practical activity 6

Use a video camera to record the movement of an object. Play the video back frame by frame to

record both the position of the object and the time the frame was taken.

MOVING ABOUT

A scalar quantity has size only.

A vector quantity has both size and direction.

Distance and displacement are similar as they are both lengths and are both measured in metres.

However, there is a difference between the two. Distance is a scalar quantity as it has magnitude

only. Displacement is a vector quantity as it has both magnitude and direction.

The displacement of a body is defined as its distance from its original starting point (origin).

Example 1: One dimensional motion, defining right to be positive and left to be negative.

A body starting at 0, moves 2 metres to the right and then 5 metres to the left:

The displacement of the body is + 2 5 = -3 metres (size and direction).

Example 2: A person walks 12km north then due east for 16km. Calculate:

a. the distance travelled

b. the displacement at the conclusion of the journey

MOVING ABOUT

Solution:

a. 12 + 16 = 28km

b. Using Pythagoras theorem:

x 2 = 16162 2++12 12

2 2

x 2 = 256 + 144

x 2 = 400

x = 400

x = 2020

16

= 16

tan q

2

22 Therefore displacement is 20m in the direction 053T.

q== 538

53 8' 5353

2. Speed and Velocity

Speed and velocity are both measured in metres per second. However, speed is a scalar and

velocity is a vector.

d

speed = where d = distance travelled

t

s r

velocity = oror where s = r = displacement

t t

Questions

1) A scalar quantity has ____________ but no ____________.

3) Classify as scalar or vector and give the correct symbol for each (include the

vector symbol for vectors).

a. Time

b. Displacement

c. Velocity

4) The Earth orbits the Sun in an elliptical path (which has an average radius of

1.5 x 108km) in 1 year (365.25 days). Calculate the:

a. Distance covered in one day.

b. Total distance in one orbit.

c. Total displacement in one orbit.

d. Average speed for one complete orbit.

e. Average velocity for one complete orbit.

5) The fastest animal on earth (the cheetah) can reach speeds exceeding 100kmh-1

for short periods. If a cheetah is chasing its prey and runs at 100kmh-1 for 10 seconds,

does it catch its prey, which is 250m away? Explain your answer.

MOVING ABOUT

ANSWERS

3) a. Scalar ( t )

b. Vector ( s or r )

c. Vector ( v )

4) a. 2.58 106km

b. 9.42 108km

c. 0km

d. 1.08 105kmh-1

e. 0kmh-1

Therefore, the cheetah will catch its prey.

MOVING ABOUT

GRAPHING MOTION

1. Displacement-Time (s-t) Graphs

instantaneous velocity is given by the gradient of the tangent at that point

average velocity is given by the formula:

s 2 s1

vav = where vav = average velocity

av t 2 t1 av

s1 = initial displacement

s 2 = final displacement

t1 = initial time

t 2 = final time

area under the curve represents displacement

displacement at 5 seconds is 20m

displacement at 7 seconds is 24m

Velocity (m/s)

MOVING ABOUT

Questions

1) At the athletics carnival, Adrian runs along the 100 metre running track. There are 10

people equally spaced along the track at 10 metre intervals who are recording the time

it takes Adrian to reach each position. The displacements and corresponding times are

recorded in the table below.

Displacement

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

in metres

Time in

3.12 4.56 9.00 20.00 24.24 25.36 28.79 32.6 35.19 36.5

seconds

a. Graph the results on a displacement versus time graph, connecting each pair of points

with a straight line (do not draw the line of best fit).

b. Mark on the graph the section of highest velocity, giving reasons for your choice.

Calculate the average velocity for this section.

c. Which section of the graph has the lowest gradient and what does this mean? Calculate

the average velocity for this section.

d. Calculate the average velocity for the whole 100 metre run.

e. Does the graph you have drawn using straight lines accurately describe the 100m run?

Give reasons.

2) The following results are recorded while performing an experiment using a ticker timer.

The results show the distances from a starting point after each given time.

Displacement (m) 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 4.2

a. Graph the results and draw the line (curve) of best fit.

i. t = 0.1s

ii. t = 0.3s

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 21

MOVING ABOUT

represents the motion of a vehicle

along a straight race track.

a. What is the approximate

displacement at the instant

t = 1?

b. State the displacement over

the first three seconds.

c. What is the displacement after

six seconds?

d. Determine the instantaneous velocity at t = 2s.

e. Find the velocity at t = 5s.

4) a. What distance is travelled between time t = 1 and t = 4 seconds?

b. How long does it take to travel from displacement 4m to displacement 16m?

c. Estimate the instantaneous velocity at t = 2 seconds.

16

12

5) Describe the motion represented by this graph. Identify the section of the graph

representing the greatest speed.

MOVING ABOUT

b. What is the displacement when t = 5s?

c. What is the average speed over the first

25 seconds?

b. Shade the area that represents the

displacement from t = 0s to t = 3s.

i. t = 7s and t = 12s

ii. t = 0s and t = 3s

iii. t = 3s and t = 7s

b. Calculate the displacement during the following time intervals:

i. t = 0s and t = 7s

ii. t = 9.5s and t = 12s

MOVING ABOUT

GRAPHING MOTION

ANSWERS

c. Lowest gradient between 30 and 40 metre positions. This means this is

the section with the lowest average velocity. Average velocity = 0.91ms-1.

d. 2.74ms-1.

e. No. It does not show continuous changes in velocity that occur in real life.

It only shows average velocities for each 10m section.

2) c. 10.5ms-1

3) a. 90m

b. 180m

c. 0m

d. approximately 30ms-1

e. -60ms-1

4) a. 16m

b. 2s

c. approximately 4ms-1

5) A body travels at a uniform velocity of 15ms-1 for the first 2 seconds, stops for

1 second then travels at 20ms-1 for 1 second. The body stops again for 1

second then travels back toward the starting point at 10ms-1 for 1 second,

stops for another 1 second then travels away from the starting point at a

constant velocity of 6.7ms-1 for 3 seconds. Greatest speed between times t = 3

and t = 4 seconds.

6) a. 0ms-1

b. 100m

c. 8ms-1

7) a. approximately 4ms-2

b. Shade between curve and time axis between t = 0 and t = 3.

b. (i) -33m (ii) 7.5m

MOVING ABOUT

Vectors are useful tools to solve problems involving quantities such as displacement, velocity,

acceleration and force. By approaching problems using vector diagrams, resultant quantities can

be simply obtained. The following are some techniques necessary to solve problems using vector

geometry.

Drawing Vectors

The length of the vector represents its magnitude and is drawn to scale while the direction is

denoted by the arrowhead. Note that a vector of twice the magnitude is twice as long. Also a

represents a vector of equal magnitude but opposite in direction to a (see diagram).

Vector Addition

Vector addition is used to show the combined effect of two or more vector quantities. The

resultant vector is the single vector that represents the combined effect of the original vectors.

When adding vectors they must be placed tip-to-tail with the resultant vector going between the

first tip and the final tail as shown in the following diagrams.

The polygon is used when dealing with more than two vectors.

MOVING ABOUT

Vector Subtraction

Vector subtraction is carried out in the same way as vector addition. Simply add the negative of

the vector you wish to subtract.

In the following example V1 represents a velocity of 10ms-1 to the right and V2 represents a

velocity of 15ms-1 to the right. To obtain the vector representing

V1 - V2 first draw the negative of V2 (15ms-1 to the left) then add V1 to V2 to achieve the resultant

vector V1 - V2 which is 5ms-1 to the left.

Questions

For each question draw suitable vector diagrams and calculate the resultant quantities.

1) A car moves at 15ms-1 south on a road. The road is wet and very slippery and

the car is hit by a gust of wind from the west that pushes it sideways at 6ms-1.

Calculate the cars resultant velocity.

2) An aircraft is flying west at 600kmh-1. Calculate the resultant velocity of the aircraft if:

a. there is a tailwind of 100kmh-1.

b. there is a headwind of 100kmh-1.

c. there is a crosswind of 100kmh-1 from the south.

3) A cross-country runner runs 3km due east, 5km due south and 8km south-

west. What is the runners final displacement?

4) In a tug-of-war team A pulls in one direction with a force of 100N to the east.

Team B pulls with a force of 120N towards the west. What is the resultant force on the

rope? (Give magnitude and direction as force is a vector)

5) Two ropes are connected to an object. One if pulled to the east and the other to the

north as shown in the diagram.

a. Draw a scale vector diagram and use it to find the magnitude and direction of

the resultant force on the object.

b. Calculate the force mathematically and compare this result to the answer in

part a.

MOVING ABOUT

ANSWERS

1) 16.2ms in the direction S21.8E

-1

2)

a. 700kmh-1 West

c. 608kmh-1 N80.5W

b. 500kmh-1 West

3) 11.0km S14W

4) 20N West

5)

a.

x = 100 N

80

80

tan q =

tan =

6060

q 553

3

MOVING ABOUT

RELATIVE VELOCITY

When a driver is travelling in a car at 60kmh-1 the velocity of the driver relative to the road is

60kmh-1, but the velocity of the driver relative to the car is 0kmh-1, because the driver is sitting

still in the car. If a second car is travelling in the opposite direction the driver of the second car

would perceive the first car to be travelling faster than 60kmh-1.

The velocity of A relative to B is given by the expression VA - vb.

Example:

Car X is moving east at 15ms-1 and car Y at 12ms-1 west. If the observer is in car Y calculate the

velocity of car X relative to car Y.

Solution: If east is the positive direction then west is the negative direction.

Therefore velocity of X relative to Y = VX - VY

= +15 - (-12)

= +27ms-1

i.e. 27 metres per second to the east.

Questions

Use vector diagrams to assist in obtaining solutions.

1) In still water a boat travels at 6kmh-1.

a. A stream is flowing south at 4kmh-1. Calculate the time it would take for the boat

to travel 1.5km upstream and 1.5km back.

b. The boat heads east, directly across the same flowing stream. At what bearing

(to the nearest degree) would the boat have to be pointed in order to travel

straight across at right angles to the bank? Note that for the boat to travel directly

east it needs to be directed diagonally upstream.

c. Calculate the time it would take for the boat to travel directly across the stream

and back if the stream is 1.5km wide.

d. Compare the answers from parts a. and c.

MOVING ABOUT

2) A plane is originally travelling north at 500kmh-1. It is then hit by a 40kmh-1 gust of wind

from the west.

a. Find the speed of the plane relative to the ground when hit by the gust of wind.

b. In what direction is the plane now travelling?

80kmh-1. Calculate the velocity of:

a. the truck relative to the car.

b. the car relative to the truck.

the velocity of the truck relative to the car?

5) The hare and the tortoise are racing. At the start, the hare has a velocity of 10ms-1 to the

east, and the tortoise a velocity of 0.01ms-1 to the east. Some time later the hare is asleep

under a tree and the tortoise puts on a spurt and is now travelling at 0.02ms-1. Find:

a. the speed of the hare relative to the tortoise at the start of the race.

b. the speed of the hare relative to the tortoise at the point the tortoise passes the

sleeping hare.

6) A jet flies east at 180ms-1. Find its velocity relative to a single engine aircraft flying north

at 100ms-1.

7) Car A travels along a freeway at 110kmh-1 going east. Car B, travelling west at

120kmh-1 spins out of control and veers towards Car A (across the median strip) at an

angle 30 off course.

a. What is the velocity of Car B relative to Car A?

b. If Car B is 25 metres away when it starts to veer towards Car A, how long will it

take for the cars to collide if no evasive action is taken?

MOVING ABOUT

RELATIVE VELOCITY

ANSWERS

b. 048T

c. 40 minutes 15 seconds

d. Although travelling the same distance in each case, it takes longer to travel

upstream and downstream than to travel across and back.

2) a. 501.6kmh-1

b. N434E (or 005T to nearest degree)

3) a. -30kmh-1

b. +30kmh-1

4) 180kmh-1

5) a. 9.99ms-1 east

b. -0.02ms-1 west

b. 0.4 seconds

MOVING ABOUT

ACCELERATION

Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and is a vector quantity.

The direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of its change in velocity.

aaavav = v = v u

Average Acceleration of an Object t t

final velocity v metres per second ms-1

initial velocity u metres per second ms-1

time t seconds s

Inertia is the tendency of a body to remain at constant velocity or at rest. Acceleration occurs

when a force is sufficient to upset this state of inertia.

Questions

1) A skate board rider is travelling at 12ms-1 and falls off, skidding and eventually

coming to a halt on the ground after 2.4 seconds. Find the acceleration of

the rider.

2) A car travelling due west at 15ms-1 increases its velocity to 30ms-1 over a period of

30 seconds. Find the acceleration of the car.

3) A boat sails along at a constant velocity of 20ms-1. It suddenly hits a sandbar and

grinds to a halt in 2.5 seconds.

a. What is the acceleration of the boat?

b. What is its deceleration?

4) A car travelling at 30ms-1 collides with a large tree and comes to rest in 0.2 seconds.

What is its deceleration?

5) A spacecraft moving at 600ms-1 accelerates for 20 seconds at 20ms-2. Assuming the

acceleration is forwards, find the velocity after 20 seconds.

6) The brakes of a new car travelling at 24ms-1 cause a negative acceleration of 6ms-2

a. How long will it take for the car to stop?

b. Convert the original velocity of the car to kmh-1.

7) A car travelling at 22ms-1 brakes to a halt in 2.2 seconds. Calculate the deceleration

of the vehicle.

8) A vehicle moving at 40kmh-1 brakes suddenly to avoid a pedestrian, losing half its

speed in 2 seconds. Calculate the deceleration of the car.

9) The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8ms-2. A parachutist free falls for 14 seconds

before opening the parachute. What is the velocity of the parachutist when he opens

the chute?

10) A child rebounds on a trampoline at 4.9ms-1. Assuming acceleration due to gravity

is 9.8ms-2, calculate how long it takes the child to reach maximum height.

11) How long can a skydiver freefall from rest before reaching the speed of sound?

Assume speed of sound to be 340ms-1.

12) How long does it take a plane to accelerate from rest to the speed of sound if

the acceleration is 100ms-2 ?

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 31

MOVING ABOUT

ACCELERATION

ANSWERS

1) -5ms-2

2) 0.5ms-2

3) a. -8ms-2

b. 8ms-2 (deceleration is negative acceleration)

4) 150ms-2

5) 1000ms-2

6) a. 4s

b. 86.4kmh-1

7) 10ms-2

8) 2.8ms-2

9) 137.2ms-1

10) 0.5s

11) 34.7s

12) 3.4s

MOVING ABOUT

UNIFORM ACCELERATION -

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

The following equations of motion describe the relationships between acceleration, initial velocity,

final velocity, displacement and time. They apply only to situations where there is uniform

acceleration.

vv==uu++

at at

1 2

s s==utut ++ atat2

2

v 2 = u 2 + 22as

as

The quantities and units described in the above three formulae are summarised in the table

below.

Quantity Formula Symbol Basic SI Unit Unit Symbol

acceleration a metre per second per second ms-2

initial velocity u metre per second ms-1

final velocity v metre per second ms-1

displacement s metre m

time t second s

Example 1

A car is travelling at 60kmh-1. The brakes are applied and it takes 3 seconds for the car to stop.

Ignoring the friction of the tyres on the road, determine the acceleration of the car and the

distance required for the car to stop.

Solution: Note: Convert 60kmh-1 to ms-1 first.

Firstly v = u + atat

v u 1616.67

67 - 0

acceleration

acceleration = = = 55.56ms

s -22

5 m

t 3

1

Secondly s = utut + atat22

2

1

s = 0 3 + 55.56

5 32 = 2425.02 25 0m so distance required to stop is 25.0m.

975 25.0m

2

Questions

Assume that acceleration due to gravity (g) is 9.8ms-2 for the following questions where applicable.

Also assume the speed of sound to be 340ms-1.

1) A car is travelling at 60kmh-1.The car brakes and it takes 3 seconds to come to rest. Ignoring

friction, find the acceleration of the car and the distance required for the car to stop.

2) A stone dropped from the top of a cliff takes 5 seconds to reach the ground. How high is

the cliff?

3) A spacecraft moving at 550ms-1 accelerates at 30ms-2 for 30 seconds. Find the new velocity

MOVING ABOUT

OF MOTION - continued

if the acceleration is forwards.

4) A spacecraft moving at 600ms-1 uses its reverse thrust rockets at 15ms-2 for 50 seconds. Find

the new velocity of the spacecraft.

5) How long will it take a car to stop if its brakes cause a negative acceleration of 5ms-2 when

it is travelling:

a. 50kmh-1

b. 100kmh-1

6) A fighter pilot accelerates the aircraft from a cruising speed of 200ms-1 to the speed of

sound. The pilot will black out when the acceleration exceeds 100ms-2. What is the least

amount of time the pilot needs to reach Mach I to avoid blacking out and crashing the

aircraft?

7) A skydiver free falls from a plane. How long will it take to reach a speed of 170 metres per

second?

8) An archer shoots an arrow vertically into the air. It leaves the bow at a velocity of 15ms-1.

How long will the arrow take to reach its maximum height?

9) A car travelling at 72kmh-1 skids to a halt in 3 seconds.

a. Calculate the acceleration

b. Find the length of the skid marks.

10) a. Find the acceleration experienced by the driver of a car travelling at 50kmh-1 if the

car hits a pole and crumples 50cm.

b. Repeat part a. for a car travelling at 100kmh-1.

11) A stone is dropped over a 50 metre cliff.

a. How long will the stone take to reach the base of the cliff?

b. What is the velocity of the stone when it reaches the bottom of the cliff?

12) A child on a pogo stick bounds vertically upwards at an initial velocity of 4.9ms-1.

a. How high will the child bounce?

b. How long will it take to reach the maximum height?

13) A vehicle is travelling at 20ms-1. What acceleration is required to double the speed of the

vehicle in 100m on a flat straight stretch of road?

14) What is the deceleration of a car travelling at 30ms-1 which stops in 0.2 seconds when it is

involved in a collision?

15) A stone dropped from the top of a building takes 2.5 seconds to reach the ground.

a. How high is the building?

b. How long would it take a stone three times as heavy to fall to the ground?

16) A high jumper clears 2.0 metres.

a. What vertical velocity is required by the high jumper to achieve this?

b. How long is the athlete in the air?

17) A body is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 25ms-1. When will it be 20m

above the point of projection?

18) A stone is dropped into a mine shaft and reaches the bottom in 4 seconds. How deep is

the shaft?

MOVING ABOUT

OF MOTION - continued

19) At one particular instant a body has a speed of 20cms-1 and a constant acceleration of

60cms-2.

a. What is its velocity 10 seconds later?

b. How far will it travel in 10 seconds?

20) An object is dropped from rest at a height of 20m. Determine:

a. its acceleration.

b. its velocity before landing.

c. the time taken to fall.

21) A cyclist rides at 3ms-1 then increases her velocity to 11ms-1 in 30 seconds. Find:

a. her acceleration.

b. the distance travelled in 30 seconds.

22) A model rocket accelerates upwards from rest for 2 seconds at a net acceleration (including

acceleration due to gravity) of 1.5ms-2. What total height will the rocket travel? Ignore air

resistance.

23) An object is dropped from rest. What is its velocity after 2 seconds of freefall under the

influence of gravity?

24) If a car accelerates from 60kmh-1 to 120kmh-1 in 3 seconds what is its acceleration?

25) A cannon is fired vertically into the air with an initial velocity of 200ms-1. Find:

a. its height after 10 seconds.

b. the time taken to reach its maximum height.

c. the time it takes to return from the maximum height to the ground.

26) A ball is dropped off a high building. How far does it fall in 2 seconds?

27) How high is a cliff if an object dropped from the top takes 2 seconds to reach the base?

Neglect air resistance.

28) Complete the table below by rearranging to change the subject of the formula in each case.

The boxes containing dashes need not be completed.

v u a t s

uu +

+ atat -

- - 1

ut + atat2

ut

2

uu22 ++22as

as -

s - -

t

MOVING ABOUT

UNIFORM ACCELERATION

EQUATIONS OF MOTION -

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

ANSWERS

1) -5.6ms-2 16) a. 6.26ms-1

2) 122.5m b. 1.28s (0.64 up then 0.64

3) 1450ms -1 down)

way down.

5) a. 2.8s

18) 78.4m

b. 5.6s

19) a. 6.2ms-2

6) 1.4s

b. 32m

7) 17.3s

20) a. 9.8ms-2

8) 1.53s

b. 19.8ms-2

9) a. -6.7ms-2

c. 2.02s

b. 30m

21) a. 0.27ms-2

10) a. -193ms -2

b. 210m

b. -772ms-2

22) 3m

11) a. 3.2s

23) 19.6ms-1

b. 31.3ms-1

24) 5.6ms-2

12) a. 1.23m

25) a. 1510m

b. 0.5s

b. 20.4s

13) 6ms-2

c. 20.4s

14) 150ms-2

26) 19.6m

15) a. 30.6m

27) 19.6m

b. The same time as in part a.

28)

v u a t s

u + atat vv - atat v u v u -

t a

- 1 1 2( s ut

ut ) - 1

( s atat2 ) 2

t + atat22

uut

t 2 t 2

v2 u 2 - v2 u2

uu22 ++22as

as v 2 2as

2as

2s 2a

s - - s vtvt

t v

MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION

COMBINING FORCES USING VECTORS

The following practical investigation is designed to demonstrate how vector diagrams and vector

components can be utilised to interpret a net or resultant force. This is an effective method to

use when there is more than one force involved and when the forces are pulling in multiple

directions.

Theoretical background

When a point is in equilibrium or stationary, then the sum of all forces is zero.

If the net force at a point is zero, then the sum of the horizontal components is zero.

Similarly, the sum of the vertical components is also zero.

F = ma

The force of F Newtons at an angle of to the horizontal can be resolved into its

horizontal and vertical components. Note in the diagram below, that the horizontal

component of force is Fcos, and the vertical component of force is Fsin.

Fsin

F

Fsin

F

Aims Fcos

To show that the net force is the vector sum of the individual forces acting on an

object.

To analyse the forces by resolving each force into horizontal and vertical components.

Protractor

Sheet of white A4 paper

Marker pen

Masking tape

Slotted masses (total 0.5kg)

Three 5N spring balances B

Method

1) Zero the spring balances.

2) Apply three forces (labelled A, B and C) as shown in the diagram so that point P is

stationary (in equilibrium).

B A

P

A

P

MOVING ABOUT

FORCES USING VECTORS - continued

3) Use tape to secure the ends once the equilibrium position has been found.

4) Place white paper underneath. Draw x-y axes on the paper if desired.

5) Measure angle using a protractor.

6) Use the marker pen to mark accurately the endpoints.

7) Measure each of the distances for each of the three forces.

8) Draw an accurate scaled diagram of the situation on grid paper, labelling points P, A, B, C

and .

Analysis of results

Analysis 1 Vector Addition

Using your scaled vector diagram, draw the resultant vector showing its magnitude and

direction.

1) What is the resultant force?

2) What was the expected resultant force?

3) Account for any differences between the expected resultant force and the resultant force

obtained from the graph.

1) For each of the three original forces, complete the table below to show the horizontal and

vertical components for each separate force and the sums of each set of components.

Force, F

A B C A+B+C

(Newtons)

Horizontal

component, Fx

Vertical

component, Fy

2) Compare the sum of the horizontal components of A + B + C with the expected theoretical

result.

Conclusion

Write a valid conclusion for this investigation.

MOVING ABOUT

unbalanced force.

This is often referred to as the Law of Inertia.

Inertia is the property of an object, which keeps it in its rest state or moving at constant velocity.

The inertia of an object depends only on its mass. It is easier to roll a tennis ball on a smooth

surface than it is to move a tenpin bowling ball along the same surface as the tenpin bowling ball

has greater inertia.

Although inertia is often difficult to observe in many real life situations, the following examples,

relating to people travelling in cars, are cases where inertia can be observed.

Passengers and the driver in a car have the sensation of being pushed back against

the seat when the car suddenly accelerates. In actual fact, they are continuing to

travel at the same velocity as they were before the acceleration occurred (inertia),

while the car is travelling faster.

Passengers and the driver are thrown forward if a car slows down suddenly, or

comes to an abrupt halt. They are simply travelling at the same velocity as they

were before the car started decelerating (inertia).

When a car negotiates a sharp bend the passengers tend to continue in a straight

line (inertia) and have the sensation of being flung towards one side of the car.

Questions

1) Describe the extent of the danger to passengers in a car caused by the inertia of an object

lying loose in a car:

a. If the car is travelling at constant velocity.

b. If the car accelerates quickly.

c. If the car comes to a fairly abrupt halt.

d. If the car is involved in a high speed collision.

2) Describe the effect on a passenger riding in the front seat without a seatbelt in each of the

four situations in question 1.

3) Define the word inertia.

4) State Newtons First Law of Motion.

5) Give an example of a practical situation that illustrates Newtons First Law of Motion.

6) When you throw a ball it moves forward because of the force applied by your hand.

a. Why does the ball continue to move forward?

b. What external forces affect the velocity?

7) Explain, in terms of inertia, how a motorist can lose control of their car while driving:

a. on an icy road.

b. over a patch of oil on the freeway.

8) Give an example, which illustrates that the inertia of an object depends on its mass.

9) Give examples of two safety features in cars that protect drivers or passengers from the

harmful effects of inertia.

10) Why is Newtons First Law of Motion not obvious in many real life situations?

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 39

MOVING ABOUT

ANSWERS

1) a. Minimal danger. There is no acceleration (so no external force) to disturb the state

of inertia of the loose object.

b. Moderate danger. The object would move rapidly towards the rear of the car. If the

object was initially at the front of the car, the likelihood of it striking someone

would be high.

c. Moderate to high danger. The loose object would move rapidly towards the front

of the car and could easily strike a person on the back of the head. This would be

quite dangerous if the object was rigid.

d. Extreme danger. The object would be catapulted at high speed towards the front

of the car and would prove to be a significant hazard because of the extreme

deceleration.

2) a. Remain in one spot.

b. Press back into the front seat.

c. Move rapidly forwards and may hit head on the dashboard.

d. Whole body would be thrown forwards at high speed, possibly even through the

windscreen.

4) A body remains in a state of inertia unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force.

5) A ball resting on a pool table remains at rest until a force is applied to it by striking it with a

cue.

6) a. Inertia

b. Air resistance, weight (force due to gravity)

7) a. Ice reduces friction, thus eliminating or reducing the ability to combat inertia.

b. Oil creates reduced friction. This means the ability to overcome the inertia of

the car is reduced.

8) Lifting a feather is much easier than lifting a 10kg bag of potatoes. The bag of potatoes has

greater inertia due to its greater mass.

10) It is difficult to judge the amount of inertia an object actually has until the amount of force

required to produce acceleration is observed.

MOVING ABOUT

MOVING ABOUT

The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the applied force.

or

The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the force applied and inversely proportional

to its mass.

This law can be expressed in equation form as follows:

vmv - mu

m m

u v u

F= = m( ama

)=m

t t

Note that in the above mathematical formula:

F is the force applied to the body in Newtons

m is the mass of the body in kilograms

v is the final velocity in metres per second

u is the initial velocity in metres per second

t is the time in seconds

mv is the final momentum in kilogram metres per second

mu is the initial momentum in kilogram metres per second

mv - mu is the change in momentum in kilogram metres per second

a is the acceleration of the body in metres per second per second

Questions

The following activity involving Newtons Second Law illustrates the connection between the force applied

to a body, its rate of change of momentum and its acceleration.

In a car race, three different cars (A, B, C) each conduct three time trials to determine their ability to

accelerate. The following table contains data for each car, giving the mass of the car, its initial and final

velocities over a period of acceleration and the time period for this acceleration.

1) Complete the following table.

Give acceleration values in the table correct to two significant figures. However, use the

unrounded values of acceleration to calculate the force.

Car A Car B Car C

Trial 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Mass (kg) 980 980 980 1100 1100 1100 1000 1000 1000

Time (s) 3.50 4.20 2.95 3.24 2.88 4.12 4.56 4.00 3.22

Initial

3.2 7.8 30.6 0.0 2.8 3.0 4.8 2.9 10.2

Velocity (ms-1)

Final Velocity

25.2 29.6 50.6 19.2 23.0 28.4 32.7 30.6 38.4

(ms-1)

Acceleration

(ms-2)

Change in

Momentum

(kgms-1)

Force -

F =m

ama

Force -

vmv - m

m umu

F=

t

2) Do both methods of calculating the force give the same value?

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 41

MOVING ABOUT

ANSWERS

1)

Car A Car B Car C

Trial 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Mass (kg) 980 980 980 1100 1100 1100 1000 1000 1000

Time (s) 3.50 4.20 2.95 3.24 2.88 4.12 4.56 4.00 3.22

Initial

Velocity 3.2 7.8 30.6 0.0 2.8 3.0 4.8 2.9 10.2

(ms-1)

Final

Velocity 25.2 29.6 50.6 19.2 23.0 28.4 32.7 30.6 38.4

(ms-1)

Acceleration

6.3 5.2 6.8 5.9 7.0 6.2 6.1 6.9 8.8

(ms-2)

Change in

Momentum 21560 21364 19600 21120 22220 27940 27900 27700 28200

(kgms-1)

Force -

6160 5087 6644 6519 7715 6782 6118 6925 8758

F==mama

Force -

vmv - mu

m m

u 6160 5087 6644 6519 7715 6782 6118 6925 8758

F=

t

2) Yes

MOVING ABOUT

- PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION

Aim

To determine the relationship between mass and acceleration of a body when the force is kept

constant and hence to confirm Newtons Second Law of Motion.

Equipment Required

12V power supply and leads

Ticker timer

Dynamics trolley and masses

Scales (preferably electronic balance)

Smooth runway

Method

Set up equipment as illustrated in the diagram. Attach mass M1 to the string and run

several tests to ascertain the best mass to obtain a slow steady speed for the dynamics

trolley.

By using a pulley, the force pulling on the trolley is constant for all trials.

MOVING ABOUT

- PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION - continued

Measure the mass of the trolley.

Attach the ticker timer to the trolley and run several trials, varying the size of mass M2

in each case.

Mark the total mass of the dynamics trolley and the added masses on the tape for each

trial.

Results

1) Record your results from the tickertape in a table as follows to determine the

acceleration.Use a computer spreadsheet if desired.

Change in

Distance Average Speed Acceleration

Interval speed

(m) (ms-1) (ms-2)

(ms-1)

1 N/A

interval of interval

t

speed interval 2

length of distance/length v u

2 speed interval

second interval of interval

1 t

3

4

5

6

etc.

Acceleration (from

Tape M2 (kg) 1/M2 (kg)

table above ms-2)

A

B

C

D

E

3) Plot an acceleration versus mass graph for the trolley mass combinations. What does

this graph indicate?

4) Plot an acceleration versus 1/mass graph. Draw a line of best fit and calculate its

gradient. What is the significance of the gradient value?

5) Compare the findings in 4) with the force acting on M1 (use F = mg).

Conclusion

Write a valid conclusion for this investigation.

MOVING ABOUT

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

This means that when an object, A, applies a force to an object, B, then object B applies an equal

and opposite force back to object A. The equal and opposite force is known as the reaction

force.

A rower uses oars to push on the water in one direction in order to propel the boat

forward in the other.

A swimmer starting a race from the blocks pushes backwards with their feet to propel

them forwards.

A person pushing against a wall exerts the same amount of force on the wall as the

wall exerts on the person.

Questions

1) Describe the applied force and the equal and opposite reaction force which occur when

a person is sitting on a chair.

2) Use Newtons Third Law to give reasons for faster record times for a 100m freestyle race

than a 100m breaststroke race.

3) a. What is the net force on the masses in the diagram below?

b. What is the net force on the 300 gram mass?

Acceleration (3m/s-2)

600g 300g

b. What is the net force on the 60kg mass?

c. What force does the 60kg mass exert on the 30kg mass?

d. What force does the 30kg mass exert on the 60kg mass?

b. What is the acceleration of the 2kg mass?

c. What is the net force on the 2kg mass?

MOVING ABOUT

ANSWERS

1) The person applies their weight force to the chair when they sit on it. The chair therefore

applies an equal and opposite reaction force upwards on the person.

2) In freestyle the swimmer moves their arms backwards through the water then forwards

through the air. In breaststroke, however, the swimmer moves their arms both backwards

and forwards through the water. Moving the arms forwards through the air has a lesser

reaction force (i.e. less resistance) to the forward motion of the freestyle swimmer. This can

explain faster swimming times for the freestyle swimmer.

3) a. 2.7N

b. 0.9N

4) a. 5ms-2

b. 300N

c. 150N

d. 150N

5) a. 3.75ms-2

b. 3.75ms-2

c. 7.5N

MOVING ABOUT

Force

Force = mass acceleration

Force is the product of mass and acceleration.

This can be expressed in the following formula:

ama

F =m

The acceleration due to gravity or g which has a value of 9.8ms-2 on the Earth.

W =mgmg

Quantity Symbol SI Unit Unit Abbreviation

force F Newton N

weight W Newton N

mass m kilogram kg

acceleration a metres per second squared ms-2

acceleration due to gravity g metres per second squared ms-2

Questions

By research or calculation, answer the following questions involving force, mass and acceleration.

1) Use a diagram to show the external forces acting on a car when:

a. the car is coasting with no pressure applied to the accelerator.

b. the accelerator is applied.

c. the brakes are applied.

d. the car hits an icy patch.

e. the car climbs a hill.

f. the car descends a hill.

g. the car follows a bend in the road.

2) What is inertia and to what is it directly related?

3) State Newtons First Law of Motion.

4) State Newtons Second Law of Motion, relating it to the equation F = m ama .

5) How can a car be accelerating when it turns a corner at constant speed?

6) Describe the typical effects of an external force on a body if the external force is:

a. friction between surfaces

b. air resistance

7) Newtons Law states that all acceleration requires an external force. What is the external

force when a car turns?

8) When a car accelerates forward, why do the passengers get pushed backwards?

9) Find the weight of an 80kg person on:

a. Earth

b. Mercury, if the acceleration due to gravity on Mercury is 3.7ms-2.

10) Find the weight of a 2000kg truck:

a. on Earth

b. on the moon (acceleration due to gravity on the moon is 1.6ms-2).

11) Calculate the mass of the truck in question 10 on the moon.

12) Find the mass of an object which accelerates from a velocity of +15ms-1 to +20ms-2 in 5

seconds when undergoing a force of 2.5N.

13) What force needs to be applied to a mass of 2 tonnes to cause an acceleration of 20ms-1?

14) What acceleration is produced by a force of 5kN on a mass of 500 tonnes?

MOVING ABOUT

ANSWERS

1) In all cases the car is travelling to the right.

2) Inertia is the tendency of a body to remain at constant velocity or at rest and is directly

related to the mass.

3) Newtons First Law of Motion is often referred to as the Law of Inertia. Inertia is the property

of an object that gives it the tendency to resist changes to its motion.

4) The acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to

5) Change in velocity (acceleration) can be a change in magnitude, direction or both. When

turning a corner at constant speed, there is a change in direction, which amounts

to acceleration.

6) a. Causes the body to decelerate.

b. Causes the body to decelerate.

7) Friction

8) The Law of Inertia means that the passengers (loose objects in the car) resist the change

in motion caused by the acceleration forwards. This resistance to the forward motion

causes passengers to feel as though they are travelling backwards.

9) a. 784N

b. 296N

10) a. 19600N

b. 3200N

11) 2000kg

12) 2.5kg

13) 40000N

14) 0.01ms-2

48 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource

MOVING ABOUT

COMBINING FORCES

Forces in Straight Lines

When there are multiple forces, vector diagrams may be used to solve the resultant force. The

sum of all the forces involved is the total mass x the acceleration.

F = mama

The diagram below illustrates how to resolve a resultant force into its separate horizontal and

vertical components.

When motion is around a bend or curve (assumed circular), a centripetal force acts towards the

centre of the circle. This force is given by the formula below where m is the mass (kg), v is the

tangential velocity (ms-1) and r is the radius (r) of the circle.

vmv22

m

F=

r

The diagram illustrated below shows the direction of the force, F, which causes the object to

travel in circular motion. This force, called the centripetal force, is directed towards the centre of

the circle as shown in the diagram.

f

MOVING ABOUT

Questions

1) Find the acceleration caused by a net force of:

a. 30N west acting on a 6kg mass.

b. 0.3N north acting on a 200g mass.

2) What is the net force required to cause an acceleration of:

a. 5ms-2 east on a mass of 3kg?

b. 20cms-2 east on a mass of 500g?

3) A student performed three experiments pulling paper tape through a vibrating

ticker timer. In each case at equal time periods the dots appeared at the

following distances (cm) apart:

Tape A: 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4.

Tape B: 1, 3, 4, 7, 6, 4, 2.

Tape C: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.

a. Which tapes show uniform speed?

b. Which tapes has a constant acceleration?

c. In which section of tape appears the highest acceleration?

4) A ticker timer connected to a frequency of 50Hz produced distances between the

dots on paper as follows:

Section A - Each of the five distances is 4mm.

Section B - The five distances are 5mm, 7mm, 9mm, 11mm and 13mm.

Section C - The five distances are 12.5mm, 11.5mm, 10.5mm, 9.5mm and 8.5mm.

a. State the speed in section A.

b. State the acceleration in section B.

c. Describe the speed of the motion in section C.

d. If a mass of 25g is attached to the ticker timer to pull it through, what is the

force required to cause the acceleration shown in section B?

5) A net force of 0.064N acts on a body at rest and causes it to reach a speed of 16ms-1

in 4 seconds. Calculate the mass of the body.

6) A cricket ball of mass 0.15kg is bowled down the pitch and is moving horizontally to

the batsman at 25ms-1. The batter hits the ball straight back down the pitch at a

speed of 15ms-1. If contact with the bat lasts 4.0 x 10-2 seconds, find the average

force exerted by the bat on the ball.

7) Forces of 10N and 24N, at right angles to each other, act on a mass of 20kg.

a. What is the resultant force?

b. Determine the magnitude of the acceleration they produce.

c. If there is a frictional force of 1N opposing the motion, what is the magnitude

of the acceleration produced?

d. How much is the acceleration affected by the frictional force?

8) For the diagram shown:

a. Find the resultant force.

b. Find the acceleration produced if the mass of the

moving object is 15kg.

MOVING ABOUT

9) Point x in the diagram is at rest under the action of the three forces illustrated. Find:

a. The resultant of F2 and F3.

b. The magnitude of F2.

c. The resultant of the forces if F2 and F3 are

doubled in size.

11) A rally driver needs to drive due north. The road he is able to take is on a bearing

of 030 and the average speed he travels along that road is 25ms-1. Determine

the drivers average velocity due north in km/h.

12) A box slides down a chute. What is the component of gravity acting:

a. down the chute?

b. normal to the chute?

13) A car starts from rest and rolls down a hill inclined at 10 to the horizontal.

a. Determine the acceleration of the car down the hill.

b. If the car has a mass of 1.2 tonnes, find the net force acting down the hill.

c. If friction is acting up the slope with a magnitude of 1kN, find the net force

down the hill.

14) A car is driven at constant speed of 10ms-1 around a curve with radius 5m.

Including passengers and luggage, the mass of the car is 1800kg. Calculate:

a. the net force on the loaded car.

b. the acceleration of the loaded car.

c. the net force acting on an 80kg passenger.

15) A racing car with a mass of 850kg is speeding around a circular banked track at

220km/h. The centripetal acceleration is measured as 5ms-2.

a. What is the centripetal force acting on the racing car?

b. Calculate the radius of the circular track.

c. Why can the car travel faster on a banked track than on a flat track?

MOVING ABOUT

COMBINING FORCES

ANSWERS

1) a. 5ms-2 west

b. 1.5ms-2 north

2) a. 15N

b. 0.1N

3) a. Tape A

b. Tape A (no acceleration) and Tape C

c. Tape B in the section between 4 and 7

4) a. 0.2ms-1

b. 0.1ms-2

c. Constantly decelerating

d. 0.0025N

5) 16g

6) 150N

7) a. 26N

b. 1.3ms-2

c. 1.25ms-2

d. By 0.05ms-2

10 2 N at bearing 045

8) a. 10

b. 0.94ms-2

9) a. 100 2 N in the direction opposite F1

b. 100N

c. Net force on x is 100 2 N in the direction opposite to F1.

10) 0N (the resultant of 4.5N and 6N forces is 7.5N and acts in exactly the opposite direction).

11) 78kmh-1

12) a. 4.9ms-2

b. 8.5ms-2

13) a. 1.7ms-2

b. 12kN

c. 11kN down the hill

14) a. 36kN

b. 20ms-2

c. 1.6kN

15) a. 4.3kN

b. 750m

c. A component of gravity acts on the car towards the centre of the banked tracks curve,

adding to its centripetal acceleration. The vehicle can then maintain the same line on

the track (i.e. same radius) at a greater velocity.

MOVING ABOUT

KINETIC ENERGY

Kinetic Energy

Moving objects possess kinetic energy. If work is done on the moving object then the kinetic

energy it possesses can be increased. For example, accelerating a vehicle to a higher speed

increases its kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy is proportional to the mass and the square of the velocity of an object, and is

measured in joules.

The formula used to calculate the kinetic energy of a body is:

1 22

Ek = mvmv

2

Work

Work done is measured in joules and represents the gain in kinetic energy obtained by that work.

It can also be calculated if the force applied and the distance over which it is applied are both

known.

The formula used to calculate the work done on an object is:

sFs

W =F

Note that 1 joule = 1 newton metre.

kinetic energy Ek joule J

mass m kilogram kg

velocity v metres per second ms-1

work W joule J

force F newton N

distance s metre m

When collisions occur kinetic energy (energy of movement) is transformed into heat and sound.

It also causes distortions to the physical bodies involved in the collision (mechanical energy).

Kinetic energy is also transferred from one body to another in the form of movement or velocity

change.

MOVING ABOUT

Questions

1) Explain the meaning of the concept of work in physics.

3) A car of mass 1 tonne changes its speed from 10ms-1 to 25ms-1 in 30 seconds.

a. Find the increase in kinetic energy.

b. If power is calculated by dividing the amount of work done by the time,

determine the power of the engine.

5) What is the mass of a vehicle that has kinetic energy of 1.2MJ and a speed of 30ms-1?

6) A man of mass 90kg spins around a circular ride in a fun park. If the circle of

rotation has a radius of 10 metres, determine:

a. the speed of rotation if it takes one minute to rotate 10 times.

b. the mans kinetic energy due to the rotation.

7) The engine from a racing car set does work of 2.4kJ on a car of mass 300g.

Find the speed of the car.

9) How much work is done when a 5kg object is lifted to a height of 10 metres?

10) What is the kinetic energy of a motorbike and its rider when it is travelling at

90kmh-1, if the mass of the rider is 70kg and the bike 200kg?

11)

A parked car starts rolling down a hill because the handbrake fails. After it has

rolled 40 metres the 1200kg car has reached a speed of 20ms-1. Calculate:

a. the gain in kinetic energy of the car.

b. the net force acting on the car while it is rolling down the hill assuming no

air resistance or friction.

12) How much work is done in changing the speed of a 20 tonne mass from 20ms-1 to

40ms-1?

MOVING ABOUT

KINETIC ENERGY

ANSWERS

given amount of energy.

2) Energy of movement.

3) a. 262.5kJ

b. 8750W

4) 19.3MJ

5) 2667kg

6) a. 10.5ms-1

b. 4935J

7) 126ms-1

energy transformation is when energy changes from one form to another. For

example, kinetic energy to heat energy.

9) 490J

10) 84.4kJ

11) a. 240kJ

b. 6kN

12) 12MJ

MOVING ABOUT

What is Momentum?

Momentum is mass times velocity.

The symbol for momentum is p.

Momentum is directly proportional to mass.

Momentum is directly proportional to velocity.

The formula for calculating the momentum of a moving object is

p=mvmv

Momentum is important in collisions.

This equation can be derived by starting with the formula

F =m ama

Force = mass acceleration

v u m(v u )

Since acceleration, a = then F =

t t

m

v -mu

mv m

u

F=

t

F

t =m

Ft vmv - m

umu . . . . . . The Impulse Equation

Note that in the impulse equation above:

Ft = the impulse of a force

mv = the final momentum

mu = the initial momentum

Impulse of a Force

Impulse = Force Time

The impulse of a force changes the momentum. A greater time of impact means a greater change

in momentum.

Good tennis players follow through to maximise contact between the tennis racquet and the ball.

This results in a greater change in momentum.

During a collision, the force is enormous if the impact time is small.

p

F=

t

During a car crash, when t is small, the force is enormous and can cause serious injury to the

passengers.

MOVING ABOUT

II = Ft

= Ft

F

t =

Ft =m vmv - mu

m

u

pp == mv

mv

1) Can both a 50kg and a 100kg person have the same momentum? Explain.

2) Calculate the momentum of an 80kg footballer moving at 5ms-1.

3) Find the speed of an object with momentum 80kgms-1 and mass 0.5kg.

4) Calculate the momentum of:

a. A 500kg motorbike moving at 80kmh-1.

b. A 20 tonne truck moving at 100kmh-1.

c. A 1kg packet of rice being tossed across a room at 5ms-1.

5) A car of mass 800kg moving at 20ms-1 uses its brakes, that can apply a force

of 6400N to the car. How long will it take for the car to stop?

6) In a game of snooker, a player hits a 200g ball with the cue. This exerts an average

force of 40N south on the ball for 10 milliseconds.

a. What is the impulse of the force exerted on the ball?

b. Find the change in momentum of the ball.

c. With what velocity does the ball leave the cue?

7) A railway carriage of mass 700kg is travelling at 4ms-1 due north. It comes to rest in

2.5 seconds when the engine pulling it stops.

a. Calculate the impulse.

b. Calculate the change in momentum.

c. Calculate the average force acting to stop the carriage.

8) A driver of mass 70kg could survive a force of 7700N during an impact if his vehicle

is moving at 90kmh-1.

a. For how long should the vehicle crumple after hitting a solid wall head on if he

is to survive the collision?

b. What will be his acceleration during this collision?

9) a. Find the force necessary to stop a 10t truck moving at 24ms-1 in 4s.

b. Truck brakes normally deliver the weight force of the truck, otherwise the

driver would be injured. Use the formula W = m gmg to calculate the braking force

needed for the truck.

c. Determine whether it is possible to stop the 10t truck from 24ms-1 in 4 seconds.

10) Find the frictional force to stop a 1200kg car in 6s from 40kmh-1.

MOVING ABOUT

ANSWERS

1) Yes. Momentum is mass times velocity so if the 50kg person is travelling at twice the

velocity of the 100kg person, both would have the same momentum.

2) 400kgms-1

3) 160ms-1

4) a. 11111kgms-1

b. 555556kgms-1

c. 5kgms-1

5) 2.5s

6) a. 0.4Ns

b. 0.4kgms-1

c. 2ms-1

7) a. 2800Ns

b. 2800kgms-1

c. 1120N

8) a. 0.23s

b. 110ms-2

9) a. 60kN

b. 49kN

c. No. The braking force of 49kN is less than the force of 60kN required to

stop the truck.

10) 2222N

MOVING ABOUT

FORCE-TIME GRAPHS

A force-time graph illustrates very clearly how the force of an object involved in a collision varies

with time. The graph below illustrates variation of the force over time of a ball that is dropped to

the floor and bounces back up again.

The shaded area under the curve represents the impulse of the force.

The area under a force-time curve represents the impulse or change of momentum. The standard

SI unit of impulse is the Newton second.

Example 1

What is the impulse of a constant force of 5 newtons over 5 seconds?

Mathematically, II == Ft

F

t = 5 x1010==50 50Ns

N

s

Graphically, impulse is represented by the area under the rectangle as shown in the graph. Area

of rectangle is 5 10 = 50Ns

Example 2

Given the following force-time graph, find the impulse of the force.

Graphically, the impulse is given by the shaded area that consists of a rectangle and a triangle.

Therefore impulse = 8 1 + 4 2

= 12Ns

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Questions

1) The following force-time graphs represent the force applied to an object versus time.

What is the total impulse applied to the object in each case?

a) b)

d)

c)

e)

2) Sketch a force-time graph to represent the following and calculate the impulse of the

force in each case.

a. A body moves with a constant force of 2N for 5 seconds.

b. An object moves under a constant force of 100N for 1 minute.

c. A vehicle endures a constant force of 2.7kN for 15 seconds.

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FORCE-TIME GRAPHS

ANSWERS

1) a. 800Ns

b. 150Ns

c. 112.5Ns

d. 40Ns

e. 200Ns

2) a. 10Ns

b. 6000Ns

c. 40500Ns

MOVING ABOUT

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Collisions

The Law of Conservation of Momentum allows us to predict the motion of masses after they have

been involved in a collision.

The law states:

Sum of momenta of all objects = Sum of momenta of all objects

before the collision after the collision

m1u1 + m2u2 + m3u3 + = m1v1 + m2v2 + m3v3 +

Note that units of momentum may be expressed as kilogram metres per second (kgms-1) or

Newton seconds (Ns).

Example

A car of mass 900kg travelling at a speed of 80kmh-1 runs into the back of a stationary car of

mass 750kg. After the collision the 900kg car is still moving at 15kmh-1. Calculate the speed of

the 750kg car after the collision.

Solution

Choose forward motion as positive. Convert all quantities to base SI units.

m1u1 + m2u2=m1v1 + m2v2

900 22.2 + 750 0 = 900 4.17 + 750 v2

19980 = 3753+750v2

16227 = 750v2

v2 = 21.6ms-1

The speed of the 750kg car is 21.6ms-1 or 77.9kmh-1 in the same direction as the 900kg car was

originally travelling.

MOVING ABOUT

Questions

1) Two bodies collide head on (on a linear air track). Body A has mass 125g and an

initial velocity of +1.5ms-1 and Body B has mass 150g and initial velocity of -1.0ms-1.

If the cars stick together, find:

a. initial momentum of body A.

b. initial momentum of B.

c. total initial momentum.

d. total final momentum.

e. change in momentum (impulse).

2) A car X of mass 1450kg moving at 20ms-1 collides head on with an identical car Y

travelling in the opposite direction, also at 20ms-1.

a. What is the momentum of X before the collision?

b. What is the momentum of both cars combined after the collision?

c. What is the total kinetic energy of both cars before the collision?

d. Where has this energy gone after the collision?

e. The relative speed between X and Y is 40ms-1. A single car travelling at

this speed and colliding with a rigid stationary object would experience much

greater damage than in the first collision. Explain why.

3) Two identical cars of mass 1200kg are travelling in opposite directions. Car A is travelling

at 50kmh-1 and Car B at 60kmh-1. They collide and become locked together on impact.

What is the velocity after impact?

4) A 200g ball travelling at 20ms-1 has a collision with a stationary ball. After the collision

the 200g ball joins with the stationary ball and continues to move forwards with a speed

of 15ms-1. What is the mass of the stationary ball?

5) A learner driver, reversing out of the driveway hits a stationary garbage bin that has a

mass of 30kg. The car has a mass of 1100kg and is travelling at a speed of 5ms-1. During

the collision the car loses 20% of its reversing momentum. Find the new speed of the

garbage bin.

6) A car of mass 1500kg moving at 25ms-1 collides head on with a car of mass 1000kg

moving at 30ms-1. The heavier car rebounds at 3ms-1. Find the velocity of the lighter car

after the collision.

7) Two cars of mass 1000kg and both moving at 20ms-1 collide head on and lock together.

Find:

a. the new speed of the combined mass after the collision.

b. the impulse on one of the drivers who weighs 60kg.

c. the force on the driver in part b, if the collision lasts 0.5 seconds.

8) A car of mass 0.9 tonnes and speed 9ms-1 ploughs into the back of a stationary car of

mass 750kg. After the collision the larger car is still moving at 3ms-1. Find the new speed

of the car that has been hit.

9) A rifle of mass 5kg fires a 45g bullet with muzzle velocity 1000ms-1. Find the speed of

the rifle recoil.

10) A 3kg mass moving North at 6ms-1 collides with a 4.5kg mass moving South at 7ms-1.

Find the final velocity of the combined mass.

MOVING ABOUT

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

ANSWERS

1) a. +0.1875kgms -1

b. -0.15kgms-1

c. 0.0375kgms-1

d. 0.0375kgms-1

e. 0.136ms-1

f. 0

2) a. 29000kgms-1

b. 0

c. 580000J

d. As sound energy, heat energy and to crumple the cars.

e. A single car moving at 40ms-1 towards a stationary object would have kinetic

energy of 1/2 m 402 or 800m. However, if the cars were travelling in

opposite directions at 20ms-1 (i.e. relative velocity 40ms-1) the kinetic energy

would be 1/2 m 202 + 1/2 m 202 or 400m. Note that the collision with

the stationary object has much greater kinetic energy.

4) 67g

5) 36.7ms-1

6) 12ms-1

7) a. 0

b. 1200kgms-1

c. 2400N

8) 7.2ms-1

9) 9ms-1

MOVING ABOUT

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

A PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION

Aim

To investigate conservation of momentum in a collision.

Equipment Required

Linear air track with constant air supply

Ticker timer connected to a 50Hz power supply

Strips of velcro

150g car

300g car

Method

Set up the linear air track and ticker timer as illustrated in the diagram.

Check that the ticker timer paper is attached securely to the 150g car so that it is pulling

freely through the timer.

Attach a velcro tab to each car so they stick together after the collision.

Place the 300g car stationary in the middle of the linear air track as shown.

Put the 150g car in motion towards the 300g car (using a compressed spring would be an

easy way to do this).

Once the 150g car is in motion the results will be recorded on the ticker timer

Repeat 10 times.

Note that the ticker timer operates at a frequency of 50Hz so each time interval between

1

the dots is second.

50

50

Record your results (both time and displacement) in a table.

Results

Record results in a table showing time and displacement readings.

Graph the results on a displacement-time graph.

From the gradient of the graph, calculate the velocity of the150g car both before and after

the collision.

Conclusion

Write a valid conclusion to your experimental results by considering the following questions:

1. How do the velocities before and after the collision compare?

2. What relationship is suggested between mass and velocity by your results?

3. Is momentum conserved in this collision?

4. Does this experiment support the Law of Conservation of Momentum?

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REVISION QUESTIONS

a. displacement

b. distance

c. speed

d. velocity

e. acceleration

f. force

g. energy

h. kinetic energy

i. momentum

j. mass

2) Explain the difference between mass and weight.

3) What is inertia?

4) A car travels 10km north, then 24km east in 25 minutes. Calculate:

a. the distance it has travelled.

b. its displacement.

c. its average speed.

d. its average velocity.

6) Calculate the time it takes for a cyclist to accelerate from a speed of 3ms-1 to 12ms-1 at

a constant acceleration of 1.5ms-2.

7) An aircraft moving at 250ms-1 north encounters a cross wind from the west. The cross

wind has a speed of 20kmh-1. Find the resultant velocity of the aircraft.

8) A truck is travelling north across the harbour bridge at 15ms-1. Whilst it is doing this, a

ship is moving east under the bridge at 15ms-1. Find the velocity of the truck relative to

the ship.

9) The following displacement-time graph represents the motion of a cyclist who initially

travels north. The graph is divided into sections as follows - A (0-30 seconds), B (30-40

seconds), C (40-60 seconds), D (60-100 seconds).

a. the distance travelled in one minute.

b. the displacement after one minute.

c. the velocity in section C.

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e. the average velocity over the first minute.

f. the average speed over section D.

g. the average speed for the whole jouney.

h. the average velocity for the whole journey.

b. What is the displacement after 10 seconds?

c. What is the constant acceleration in the first 5 seconds?

d. What is the average velocity over the 20 seconds?

12) What quantity is represented by the area under this acceleration-time graph? Calculate

its value and express in its correct units.

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13) A car has a mass of 750kg. The engine applies a force of 2000N forwards against friction

of 500N. Find:

a. the net force of the engine.

b. the acceleration of the car.

c. the velocity after 19 seconds if the car starts from rest.

14) A truck has a mass of 4.8 tonnes. Find the net force required to accelerate it at

2.0ms-1.

15) A car of mass 1000kg is moving at constant speed down the open highway against air

resistance of 1200N and a friction force of 550N. Find:

a. the acceleration of the car.

b. the constant force delivered by the engine.

c. the acceleration of the car if the air resistance is halved.

17) A blimp flies northeast at 50ms-1 (relative to the ground) and sights an aircraft moving

southeast at 250ms-1 (relative to the ground). Find the speed of the aircraft relative to the

blimp.

a. the weight of the car on the surface of the Earth.

b. the weight force of the car on Mercury, where the acceleration due to gravity is

approximately 3.7ms-2.

a. Draw a diagram showing all of the forces acting on the car.

b. What is the greatest force acting on the car?

c. What direction is the overall force acting on the car?

22) What mass has a speed of 35ms-1 and kinetic energy of 3.5MJ?

23) What is the speed of a 12 tonne truck with kinetic energy of 2MJ?

24) A car of mass 1350kg changes its speed from 5ms-1 to 15ms-1 in 20 seconds.

a. Determine the increase in kinetic energy.

b. Determine the power used to perform this task.

MOVING ABOUT

26) Calculate the momentum of a 90kg football player moving at 7ms-1.

27) Calculate the speed of a toy car weighing 600g with momentum 15kgms-1.

28) Calculate the impulse of a wall that applies 120kN of force on a car during a 0.3 second

collision.

a. What quantity is represented by the area under the graph.

b. Calculate the total impulse over the 15 seconds.

30) An engine applies a force of 150N for 60 seconds to a car of mass 900kg.

Find:

a. the impulse of the force.

b. the change in momentum.

c. the final velocity if the car began at 5ms-1.

31) A car of mass 1600kg moving at 20ms-1 collides head on with a car of mass 1000kg

moving at 25ms-1 in the opposite direction. The heavier car rebounds at 1.5ms-1. Find

the velocity of the second car after the collision.

32) A driver hits a stationary object of mass 50kg in a car of mass 900kg and speed 10ms-1.

The car loses 25% of its forward speed during the collision. Find the new speed of the

stationary object.

33) A car of mass 1100kg moving at 18ms-1 is stopped using brake pads that can apply a

force of 6000N to the car. How long will it take for the car to stop?

34) A driver of mass 75kg may be able to survive a force of 7500N during impact. If the

vehicle is moving at 30ms-1:

a. How long must the car be allowed to crumple if the driver is to survive the

collision with a solid brick wall?

b. What will be the drivers acceleration in this collision?

35) Give three methods used to improve the safety of cars. Describe how each method

helps to reduce serious injuries and fatalities.

MOVING ABOUT

REVISION QUESTIONS

ANSWERS

1) a. vector

b. scalar

c. scalar

d. vector

e. vector

f. vector

g. scalar

h. scalar

i. vector

j. scalar

2) Mass is the amount of substance of an object and is measured in kilograms. Weight is a

force, is measured in Newtons and is the product of the mass and the acceleration due to

gravity.

3) Inertia is the tendency of a body to remain at constant velocity or at rest and is directly

related to the mass.

4) a. 34km

b. 25km on a bearing of 067.4

c. 81.6kmh-1

d. 60kmh-1

5) Instantaneous velocity is the velocity at any given instant of time. If the velocity is constantly

changing then the instantaneous velocity will be constantly changing.

6) 6s

7) 250.1ms-1 on a bearing of 00116

8) 21.2ms-1 on a bearing of 315

9) a. 500m

b. -100m

c. -15ms-1

d. 8.3ms-1

e. -1.7ms-1

f. 7.5ms-1

g. 8ms-1

h. 2ms-1

10) a. 125m

b. 62.5m

c. 2ms-2

d. 0ms-1

11) No. As there is acceleration on the body there must be an external force acting on it. This

results in a changing velocity.

12) Velocity. Its value is 50ms-1

13) a. 1500N

b. 2ms-2

c. 38ms-1

14) 9600N

15) a. 0ms-2

MOVING ABOUT

REVISION QUESTIONS

ANSWERS - continued

b. 1750N

c. 0.6ms-2

16) 89.3kg

17) 255ms-1

18) a. 12740N

b. 4810N

19) a.

b. gravity

c. down the hill, parallel to the incline

20) energy of movement

21) 115741J

22) 5714kg

23) 18.26ms-1

24) a. 135kJ

b. 6750W

25) Momentum is the product of mass times velocity.

26) 630kgms-1

27) 25ms-1

28) 36000Ns

29) a. Impulse b. 112.5Ns

30) a. 9000Ns

b. 9000Ns or 9000kgms-1

c. 15ms-1

31) 9.4ms rebound

-1

32) 45ms-1

33) 3.3s

34) a. 0.3s

b. -100ms-2

35) Crumpling of car body during collision increases time of impact, which reduces the

impulse.

Seat belts prevents excessive forward motion of the passengers due to their

momentum.

Air bags cushions a persons impact with the interior parts of the car or steering wheel.

MOVING ABOUT

ASSESSMENT TASK

Title: Safety in Motor Vehicles

P3

physics.

P4 Describe applications of physics that affect society or the environment.

Describe the scientific principles employed in particular areas of research in

P5

physics.

P6 Describe the forces acting on an object that causes changes in its motion.

Discuss the validity and reliability of data gathered from first hand

P12

investigations and secondary sources.

Identify appropriate terminology and reporting styles to communicate

P13

information and understanding in physics.

P14 Draw valid conclusions from gathered data and information.

Implement strategies to work effectively as an individual or a member of a

P15

team.

The Task

Gather, process, analyse and present secondary information to assess the benefits of technologies

currently used as safety devices in vehicles. Evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies in

reducing injury and saving lives.

Length

The report should be about 500-1000 words in length. Use diagrams where applicable.

Task Description

a. the introduction of low speed zones in built-up areas and around schools.

b. crumple zones in vehicles.

c. seat belts.

d. air bags.

Choose any three particular safety features in vehicles and evaluate their effectiveness

in reducing injury and saving lives.

Select one hazard you consider to be dangerous and propose a safety measure that

could be introduced to reduce injury and save lives.

MOVING ABOUT

ASSESSMENT TASK

Marking Guidelines

A student will:

Demonstrate a very strong practical understanding of secondary information

and thoroughly assesses the benefits of current safety devices.

Demonstrate a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of three safety

17-20

devices.

marks

Submit a thorough written report that is complete and logically set out, that

shows a very strong understanding of concepts.

Use clearly labelled diagrams and/or graphs.

Use relevant physics terminology consistently throughout the report.

A student will:

Demonstrate an understanding of secondary information and assesses the

benefits of current safety devices.

Demonstrate an evaluation of the effectiveness of three safety devices. 13-16

Submit a written report that is complete and logically set out, that shows an marks

understanding of concepts.

Use labelled diagrams and/or graphs.

Use relevant physics terminology frequently throughout the report.

A student will:

Demonstrate some understanding of secondary information and thoroughly

assesses the benefits of current safety devices.

Demonstrate an evaluation of the effectiveness of one or two safety devices. 9-12

Submit a written report that is complete and logically set out, that shows some marks

understanding of concepts.

Use unlabelled diagrams and/or graphs.

Use relevant physics terminology occasionally throughout the report.

A student will:

Demonstrate little understanding of secondary information and assesses only a

few of the benefits of current safety devices.

Demonstrate a minimal evaluation of the effectiveness of safety devices. 0-8

Submit a written report that is incomplete, vague and illogically set out, that marks

shows little understanding of concepts.

Use no diagrams and/or graphs.

Use relevant physics terminology rarely throughout the report.