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Preliminary

Physics

Book 3:
Moving About

Jocelyn McRae

TITAN EDUCATION
First edition published 2007 by Titan Education Pty Ltd
PO Box 628 Gymea, NSW 2227

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource

Complete set (4 books)


ISBN 978-1-921349-11-9

Book 3: Moving About


ISBN 978-1-921349-14-0

Copyright J. McRae

Edited by Scott Bultitude


Cover design by Clint Ralph - Nitrous Graphics
Type setting by April de Haan and Airi Nakayama

Proudly printed and bound in Australia by Ligare Digital

Parts of this book may be freely copied by educational institutions for non-commercial
educational purposes. It must not be copied for any other purpose without prior written
permission from the publisher.

National Library of Australia cataloguing in publication data

Acknowledgements

The author and publisher acknowledge and thank the following organisations for granting
permission to reproduce copyright material in this resource:

Cover image iStockphoto.com.


Images BigStockPhoto.com.

Every care has been taken to trace and acknowledge copyright material. The author and
publisher tender their apologies for accidental infringement of copyright.

Disclaimer

It should be noted that all worksheets and investigations outlined in this resource are meant
only as a guide. While all due care has been taken by the author and publisher, it remains the
teachers responsibility to scrutinise any learning activities outlined in this resource guide for
appropriateness and safety of students.
CONTENTS

Program outline 2

Speed 8

Practical techniques - observing recording and interpreting motion 12

Practical investigation - speed 16

Scalars and vectors 17

Graphing motion 20

Working with vectors 25

Relative velocity 28

Acceleration 31

Uniform acceleration - equations of motion 33

Practical investigation - combining forces using vectors 37

Newtons first law of motion 39

Newtons second law of motion 41

Newtons second law - practical investigation 43

Newtons third law of motion 45

Force - mass - acceleration 47

Combining forces 49

Kinetic energy 53

Impulse and momentum 56

Force-time graphs 59

Conservation of momentum 62

Conservation of momentum - a practical investigation 65

Revision questions 66

Assessment task 72

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 1


PROGRAM OUTLINE

1. Vehicles do not typically travel at a constant speed.

Students learn to: Students: Teaching & Learning Strategies


1. Vehicles doto:
not typicallyStudents:
travel at a constant speed Teaching & Learning
Students learn
Strategies
identify that a plan, choose
identify thatjourney
typical a plan, choose
equipment or Represent
Represent speed speed as the gradient
as the gradient of a distance-time
typical journey
involves speed equipment
resources for, and or of a distance-time graph where
graph where a straight line represents constant a
involves
changesspeed resources
perform a first- for, and straight line represents constant
speed and a curved line represents changing speed.
changes perform a first-
hand investigation speed and
Differentiate betweena curved line represents
instantaneous speed and
distinguish
distinguish hand investigation
to measure the changing speed. Differentiate
average speed using graphical illustrations.
betweenbetweenthe the to measure
average speed theof between
Calculate speedinstantaneous speed and
in a variety of situations and
ts learn to: Students:
instantaneous and Teaching
average & Learning Strategies
instantaneous and an objectspeed or a average
complete speed using graphical
worksheet.
average
les do not typically travel speed
at
average aspeed of of speed
constant of an object or a
vehicle illustrations. Calculate speed in a
vehicles andand other
other vehicle variety of situations and complete
y that a plan, vehicles
choose solve problems In small groups perform one of six practical
bodies bodiesor solve problems
and analyse and worksheet.
activities to determine the average speed and
journey equipment Represent speed as the gradient of a distance-time
es speed distinguish
resources for, and analyse
information information
using
report In
graph where a straight line represents constant small
back to groups
the class.perform one of six
es between scalar andspeedusing
distinguish
perform a first- the a the
andformula
curved formula:
: line represents practical
changingactivities
speed. to determine the
vector quantities
between
hand investigation scalarin v
Differentiate = r
' r average
Complete speed
worksheet and report
designed back practical
to refine to
vav between instantaneous speed and
av

uish equations
to and vector
measure the
average speed tt graphicaltechniques
'
using the class.
illustrations. used to record and interpret motion.
en the comparequantities
average speed of in wherewherer = r =
The
Calculate speed in a variety of situations andComplete
activities worksheet
simulate designed
practical to
investigations as
aneous and an equations
instantaneous
object or a and complete displacement
displacement
worksheet. follows:
refineusing a ticker techniques
practical timer, releasinguseda marble in a
e speed of average speed with present information
vehicle present jar ofto record and interpret motion.regular
liquid and using photography at
es and other solve compare
instantaneous
problems and In small graphically
information
groups perform of: oneintervals.
of sixThe Calculations and interpretation
activities simulate
practical practical of motion
average
and instantaneous
analyse and
velocity activities graphically
todisplacement of: follow.
determine the averageinvestigationsStudents
speed and complete related questions.
as follows: using a
average
information
define averagespeed
using displacement
vs time
report back to the class. vs ticker timer, releasing a marble in a
uish with
velocity
the formula as:: time
velocity vs Interpret
jar of liquid and using photographyand
displacement-time, velocity-time
en scalar vavinstantaneous
r
= 'r and
Complete velocity
time
worksheet vs time acceleration-time
designed toat regular
refine graphs. Complete
intervals.
practical Calculationsworksheet.
vavaverage velocity for objects with
ector 't
t for objects
techniques used towith and interpretation
record and interpret motion. of motion
ties in uniform and
uniformsimulate
The activities and non-non- Define the terms
follow. Students
practical investigations scalar
as and vector.
complete Discuss
related
where r =
define average uniform linear distance (scalar), displacement (vector), speed
ons displacement uniform
follows: using alinearticker timer, releasingquestions.
a marble in a
velocity as: velocity (scalar) and velocity (vector) in more detail and
present 'r jar of velocity
liquid and using photography Interpret
at regular displacement-time,
are vav categorise
intervals. Calculations and interpretation other quantities.
of motion Answer questions on
information velocity-time and acceleration-time
't average speed and average velocity.
aneous and graphically of: follow. Students complete related questions.
graphs. Complete worksheet.
e speed displacement vs Define the terms scalar and
Interpret displacement-time, Study and interpret
velocity-time and graphs of motion. Answer
time vector. Discuss distance (scalar),
aneous and acceleration-time graphs. Complete questions on worksheet.
worksheet. (vector), speed
velocity vs time displacement
e velocity for objects with (scalar) and velocity (vector) in
uniform and non- Define the terms scalar and vector. more Discuss
detail and categorise other
average uniform linear distance (scalar), displacement (vector), speed
quantities. Answer questions
y as: (scalar) and velocity (vector) in more
'r
velocity on detail
average andspeed and average
categorise other quantities. Answer questions on
velocity.
't average speed and average velocity. Study and interpret graphs of
2. An analysis of the external forces on vehicles helps to understand the effects of acceleration
motion. Answer questions on
and deceleration Study and interpret graphs of motion. Answer
worksheet.
describe the questions on worksheet.
analyse the effects Work with vectors to describe the resultant
motion of one of external forces vector from combinations of two or more
body relative to operating on a vectors. Determine the resultant both
another vehicle mathematically and by scale drawing.
Perform both addition and subtraction of
identify the gather first-hand vectors.
2 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource

alysis of the external forces on vehicles helps to understand the effects of acceleration
eceleration
PROGRAM OUTLINE

2. An analysis of the external forces on vehicles helps to understand the


effects of acceleration and deceleration.

Teaching & Learning


Students learn to: Students:
Strategies
describe the analyse the effects Work with vectors to describe the
motion of one body of external forces resultant vector from combinations
relative to another operating on a of two or more vectors. Determine
identify the vehicle the resultant both mathematically
usefulness of using gather first-hand and by scale drawing. Perform both
vector diagrams information about addition and subtraction of vectors.
to assist solvinglearn to: different
Students situations
Discuss Teaching
Students: the concept of relative
& Learning Strategies
problems where acceleration velocity as velocity relative to
usefulness of using information about
explain Students
the need learn to: is positive Students:
or an observer. Teaching & Learning
Calculate Strategies
relative
vector diagrams to Discuss the concept of relative velocity as velocity
different situations
for a netusefulness
external of usingnegative information about velocity for a variety of situations
assist solving where relative to an observer. Calculate relative velocity
force to vector
act in diagrams to plan,different choosesituations by completing
Discuss
for the of conceptthe ofworksheet.
relative velocity the as velocity
problems acceleration isa variety situations by completing
order to assistchange solving equipment
where or
positive or
Use vector diagrams to assist
worksheet. Use vector diagrams to assist velocity
relative to an observer. Calculate relative
the velocity problems
explain of an the need resources for and
acceleration
negative calculations.
for isa variety of situations by completing the
calculations.
object for a net external perform a first-
positive worksheet.
or Describe Use acceleration
vector diagramsas a change
to assist
describe force the to the
explain act in need hand investigation
negative
plan, choose in velocity.
calculations.
Describe Note thatasitacan
acceleration changeonlyin velocity. Note
actions orderthat
for a mustnet external
to change to demonstrate
equipment or occur if there is a net
that it can only occur if there is a net external force
external force
nts: be takenTeaching
the forvelocity
force ato
& actLearning
of vector
in an Strategies
plan,addition
resources choose for and
that overcomes
Describe
whichand acceleration inertia.
as a Discuss
change
overcomes inertia. Discuss the meaning inthe
velocity. of
Note
ion about vehicle to
order
objectchange to change subtraction
equipment
perform a meaning
that
or it can of
only average
occur if acceleration.
there
average acceleration. Complete problems on
first- is a net external force
direction,
situations Discuss thespeed
the concept velocity ofup of
an velocity
relative solve resources
handproblems
velocitywhich
for and
Complete
worksheet
asinvestigation overcomes
toproblems inertia.
calculate onDiscuss
various worksheetthe meaning
quantities of
using the
andtoslow
relative object
down the
andescribe
observer. Calculateusing perform
to vector
relative a
demonstrate
velocity average
first- acceleration.
to calculate various Complete
'v v quantities
u problems
using on
hand formula aav .
ion is adescribe
for variety of the
actions typical
situationsthat must diagrams
by completing vector to worksheet
theinvestigation
addition the formula: to calculate various
'u t
quantities using the
or worksheet.
effectsUse ofdescribe
beexternal
taken
vectorfor the a
diagrams to
determine demonstrate
and subtraction
to assist aav = 'v v =v vu- u
formula aav .
forces on actions
bodies
calculations. vehicle to change that must vectorvelocity,
resultant addition u
' u t t
including: be taken for a
direction, speed acceleration and subtraction
solve problems and
Perform
Performaapractical practical investigation
investigation to
to illustrate that
oose - friction
Describe vehicle
up and
accelerationbetween to
slow change
as adown force
change inusing vector
velocity. illustrate
when
Note three that forces when
are inthree forces that
equilibrium are the
nt or surfaces direction, speed
plan,
that it can only occur if there is a net external force solve
choose
diagrams problems
to Perform
resultant
in equilibrium a practical
force investigation
the resultant
is zero. Use 5N spring force to balances
illustrate that
in
s for and which- overcomes up and
air resistance
describe slow downequipment
the Discuss
inertia. using
thedetermine
meaningvector
or ofwhen
is zero.
equilibrium three Use forces
and 5N are in equilibrium
spring
complete real sizethat
balances
the the
invector
a first- define average
typical effects of
average acceleration. Complete problems on velocity, diagrams
resources
resultant and toresultant
equilibrium
diagram toforce is zero.
and
determine Useresultant.
complete
the 5Nthe spring
real balances in
Discuss
describe
toexternal the determine equilibrium
estigation acceleration
worksheet calculate as:forces
various onquantities
performacceleration
first-hand
using size vectorand
and
findings.
the complete
diagram to the real size vector
determine
typical effects of resultant velocity,
diagram
nstrate a = v bodies'v v  uincluding: force
investigations to the resultant. Discuss findings. Discuss
to determine the resultant.
formula avaav -external forces . on acceleration and
ddition friction
'uu between
t gather data and findings.
Describemotion
Describe motion involving
involving constant
constant acceleration
bodies including: force choose
raction therefore surfaces plan,
use available using the equations
acceleration using the equations:
-- air
friction
resistancebetween equipment or Describe motion involving constant acceleration
v
aav = surfaces
v-u u evidence to show
oblems a = plan,
resourceschoose
illustrate and using the equations
v=v uu+ at at
Perform ava practicalt t investigation thetorelationship that
- air
defineare resistance
average equipment
perform or
first-hand
ctor when three forces in equilibrium
between that the
force, s = ut + 1at 1 22
define the terms
acceleration resources and sv u
ut  at at
to resultant force is zero. Useas: 5N spring
mass investigations
balances
and in to 22
mass and weight
define average 'v the real perform
gather first-hand
data and 2 2 1
ne equilibrium and complete size
accelerationvector using v2vs=2 uut
u+2as2at
as
2
with reference aav
acceleration as: investigations
use available to 2
velocity, diagram to determine 't the resultant.
suitableDiscussapparatus Solve a wide variety of problems to
ion and to the effects of 'v
therefore gather
evidence data
to and
show v 2 of 2
u quantities.
 2as
findings. aav Solve
calculatea variety
unknown problems to
Complete
gravity v 'tu use relationship
the available Solve
atherefore evidence to show calculate unknown quantities.to
a wide
worksheets. variety of problems
Describe motion involving av
t constant between
acceleration force, calculate
Complete unknown
worksheets.quantities. Complete
oose v u mass and the relationship
worksheets.
define
using the equationsaav the terms between force,
nt or mass and t acceleration using Use vector diagrams to combine forces by
s and define
v u the
weight terms
atwith mass and
suitable apparatus
first-hand mass and acceleration using performing a practical investigation.
Use vector diagrams to combine forces by
reference1 to 2the
tions to s ut ofwith
weight at suitable
Preliminary
solve apparatus
Physics
problems Teacher Resource
performing a practical investigation. 3
effects 2gravity
ata and reference
outline to the
2the forces and analyse
v 2
u  2 as solve problems
information Examine Newtons First Law of Motion. Complete
able effects ofingravity
involved using:
PROGRAM OUTLINE

Teaching & Learning


Students learn to: Students:
Strategies
outline the forces solve problems and Use vector diagrams to combine
involved in causing analyse information forces by performing a practical
a change in the using: investigation.
velocity of a vehicle Examine Newtons First Law of
when:
F = ma Motion. Complete worksheet.
- coasting with no for a range of Examine Newtons Second Law of
pressure on the situations involving Motion. Solve a variety of problems
Students learn to: Students:
accelerator modes of transport using Teaching & Learning Strategies
the formula.
- pressing on the solve
accelerator problems and Newtons
and analyse Perform a practical
Second investigation
Law. Using a constant force and
- pressing on the
accelerator information
analyse information mass, toacceleration is determined.
confirm Newtons Second Interpret
Law. results
brakes
- pressing on the involving
involving Using a 1
by plotting onconstant force and
an acceleration mass,
versus graph.
- passing over an
brakes F = mv2
2
determine acceleration. Interpret mass
- passing icy patch
overonanthe F rr results by plotting on an acceleration
road
icy patch on the for
forvehicles
vehicles versus time graph.
- climbing and
road travelling around
travelling around Examine
ExamineNewtons
NewtonsThird Third
Law ofLaw
motion.
of Complete
descending
- climbing and hills curves
curves worksheet.
motion. Complete worksheet.
- following
descending hills a curve Research individually, or discuss
in the a
- following road
curve in groups, the forces involved in
in the road causing a change in velocity in the
interpret
interpret Newtons following situations: coasting with no
Newtons Second
Second Law of pressure on the accelerator, pushing
Law of Motion Research
Motion and relate it down individually, or discuss
the accelerator, in groups,
applying the to
and relate it to the outline forces involved in causing a change in
to the equation: brakes, hitting an icy road, driving up
equation: velocity in the following situations: coasting with no
F= ma F ma
a hill, travelling down a hill, driving
pressure on the accelerator, pushing down the
around a bend.
identify the net accelerator, applying the brakes, hitting an icy road,
Complete mixed questions on force,
force in a wide
identify the net driving up a hill, travelling down a hill, driving
mass, acceleration and travelling
variety
forceof situations
in a wide around a bend.
around a curve.
involving
variety modes
of
Combine forces to identify the
of transport
situations
net force in a variety of situations.
and explain
involvingthe modes
Resolve
Complete vectors
mixed into components
questions on force, mass,in
consequences
of transport of and
some cases.
acceleration Complete
and travelling worksheet.
around a curve.
the application
explain the of
that net force in of
consequences
termsthe of application
Newtons of
SecondthatLawnet force
of in
Motionterms of Newtons Combine forces to identify the net force in a
Second Law of variety of situations. Resolve vectors into
Motion components in some cases. Complete worksheet.

4 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


PROGRAM OUTLINE

3. Moving vehicles have kinetic energy and energy transformations are an


important
Students learnaspect
to: in understanding
Students: motion. Teaching & Learning Strategies
3. Moving vehicles have kinetic energy and energy transformations are an important aspect in
understanding Teaching & Learning
Students learn to:motion Students:
Strategies
identify that a solve problems
identify
moving that a
object and
solve problems and
analyse Examine
Examine the concepts
the concepts of kineticof kinetic
energy and work.
moving object
possesses kinetic analyse information
information to energy and work. Complete
Complete worksheet to perform calculations and
possesses
energy and kinetic
that to determine
determine the the solve problems.
worksheet to perform calculations
energy
work and
donethat
on that kineticenergy
kinetic energy of aof and solve problems.
work done
object canon that a vehicle
vehicle and and
the the Distinguish between an
object can increase
increase that work done
work done using using energy
Distinguish transfer
between an and
energyantransfer
energyand an
thatenergy
energy theformulae:
the formulae: energy transformation.
transformation.
describe 1
Ek = 1mv mv 2
2
Discuss the law of conservation of
Ek
the energy the
describe 22 energy.
transformations
energy and
and Discuss the Law of Conservation of Energy.
thattransformations
occur in W=Fs
W = Fs
collisions
that occur in analyse information
collisions
define the law of analyse
to trace the energy
conservation of information
transfers and to
define the law of
energy trace the energy in
transformation
conservation of transfers andleading
collisions
energy transformation
to irreversible in
collisions leading
distortions
to irreversible
distortions

4. Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on the vehicle or the driver
define solve problems Examine the connection between the three
momentum as: and analyse formulae for momentum, impulse and change in
p mv secondary data momentum:
using:
define impulse as p mv p mv
the product of and I Ft
force and time Impulse Ft Ft mv  mu

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 5


PROGRAM OUTLINE

4. Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on the vehicle or the


driver.

4. Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on the Teaching


vehicle & or Learning
the driver
Students learn to: Students:
4. Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on theStrategies vehicle or the driver
define solve problems Examine the connection between the three
define momentum
define as:
momentum solve
and problems
solve problems
analyse and formulae
Examine
Examine the
the connection
connection
for momentum, between
between
impulse and the threein
change
as: p mv
momentum as: analyse secondary
and analyse
secondary data the three
formulae
momentum: forformulae
momentum, for impulse
momentum,
and change in
p = mv p mv data using:
secondary
using: data impulse
momentum: and change in momentum:
define impulse
define impulseas as pp =mv
using:mv p mv
the product of impulse
define
product
the force
of as p mv
and I pFtp mv
= mv
and
timethe
and force product
and time of Impulse =FtFt
Impulseand Imv
Ft I = FtFt
 mu
force
explain why and time Impulse
perform first-hand Ft FtFt= mvmv-mu mu
momentum is investigations to
conserved in gather data and Perform calculations and solve
collisions in terms analyse the change problems using the three mentioned
of Newtons Third in momentum formulae. Complete worksheet.
Law of motion during collisions Examine a series of force-time
solve problems that graphs and recognise that the
apply the principle area under the curve or straight
of conservation line represents impulse. Complete
of momentum to exercises on worksheet to reinforce
qualitatively and this idea.
quantitatively Consider conservation of
describe the momentum as a direct result of
collision of a Newtons Third Law of Motion.
moving vehicle Solve problems and complete
with: mathematical calculations relating
a stationary to conservation of momentum in a
vehicle variety of collision situations.
an immoveable Conduct a practical investigation
object using a linear air track to confirm the
another vehicle Law of Conservation of Momentum.
moving in
the opposite
direction
another vehicle
moving in the
same direction

6 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


PROGRAM OUTLINE

5. Safety devices are utilised to reduce the effects of changing


momentum.

Teaching & Learning


Students learn to: Students:
Strategies
define the inertia gather and process Review the definition of inertia
of a vehicle as its first-hand data and discuss Newtons First Law
tendency to remain and/or secondary of Motion. Brainstorm, as a class,
in uniform motion information to real life examples of both of the
or at rest analyse the above concepts. Revisit previous
discuss reasons potential danger worksheet on Newtons First Law.
why Newtons First presented by loose Complete assessment task to
Law of Motion is objects in a vehicle gather, process, analyse and
not apparent in identify data present secondary information to
many real world sources, gather, assess the benefits of technologies
situations process, analyse, currently used as safety devices in
assess the present secondary vehicles. Evaluate the effectiveness
reasons for the information and of these technologies in reducing
introduction of low use the available injury and saving lives.
speed zones in evidence to
built-up areas and assess benefits
the addition of air of technologies
bags and crumple for avoiding or
zones to vehicles reducing the effect
with respect to of a collision
the concepts
of impulse and
momentum
evaluate the
effectiveness
of some safety
features of motor
vehicles

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 7


MOVING ABOUT

SPEED
Speed is the rate of change of distance and equals the distance travelled divided by the time

d
taken i.e. s = .
t
A typical journey involves speed changes.
In the distance-time graphs below, the gradient at any instant of the journey represents the speed
at that instant.

Graph A
Graph A represents a bike rider travelling at a constant speed.

distance
(km)

straight line graph indicates constant speed


the constant speed throughout the entire journey is 10kmh-1
instantaneous speed at t = 4 is 10kmh-1
average speed is 10kmh-1

Graph B
Graph B represents a 40km trip along the coastline, stopping along the way, and a quick trip
home.

distance
(km)

section 1 - speed is 20kmh-1


section 2 - speed is 0kmh-1
section 3 - speed is 20kmh-1
section 4 - speed is 0kmh-1
section 5 - speed is 40kmh-1
instantaneous speed at t = 3.5 hours is 0kmh-1
average speed is 80 = 16kmh-1
5

8 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

SPEED - continued

Graph C
Graph C represents a journey by a cyclist who is not travelling at a constant speed.

distance
(km)

50 km
average speed is 50km = 10kmh-1 but the speed at the commencement of the journey
5h
is lower and is continually increasing throughout the journey
instantaneous speed at any given time is given by the gradient of the tangent to the curve
at that time

Quantity Basic SI unit Abbreviation

distance metre m

time second s

speed metres per second ms-1

instantaneous speed is the speed at any given instant


average speed is the speed one would need to travel constantly to cover the total distance
in a given time

Questions
1) The speed of light is 3 x 108ms-1. How long will it take for light to travel from the sun
to the Earth (a distance of 1.5 x 108km):
a. In seconds?
b. In minutes and seconds?

2) What is the average speed for a journey of 70km in 40 minutes? (give answer in ms-1)

3) A sprinter runs 100m in 9.8 seconds. What is his average speed in:
a. Metres per second?
b. Kilometres per hour?

4) Calculate the average speed of a car travelling for 8km if the journey takes 25 minutes.

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 9


MOVING ABOUT

SPEED - continued
5) Calculate the average speed of a plane travelling from Sydney to Brisbane (1000km) if it
takes 1 hour and 45 minutes. Give answer in:
a. kmh-1
b. ms-1

6) If a rocket is launched and is travelling at 40000kmh-1, how far will it travel if it continues
at this speed for 1 minute?

7) The graph below shows the journeys of Sean and Tina as they travel between two towns,
A and B, situated 100km apart. Find:

a. Tinas average speed.


b. Seans average speed.

8) Draw a distance-time graph to represent the following journey:


8am to 9am: travel at a constant speed of 90kmh-1 away from home
9am to 9:30am: stop for petrol and drinks
9:30am to 11:30am: travel 60km away from home at a constant speed
11:30am to 1pm: stop for lunch
1pm to 2:30pm: travel at a constant speed of 80kmh-1 towards home
2:30pm to 3:30pm: stop for afternoon tea
3:30pm to 4pm: return home at a constant speed

10 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

SPEED

ANSWERS
1) a. 500 seconds
b. 8 minutes 20 seconds

2) 29.17ms-1

3) a. 10.2ms-1
b. 36.7kmh-1

4) 19.2kmh-1

5) a. 571kmh-1
b. 159ms-1

6) 667km

7) a. 40kmh-1
b. 50kmh-1

8)

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 11


MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES - OBSERVING RECORDING


AND INTERPRETING MOTION

1. Using a Ticker Timer


A ticker timer is used to record the total time it takes for an object starting from rest
to slide down an incline plane. A strip of paper attached to the object is pulled
through the ticker timer as the object slides down and the striker hits the paper
every 0.02 seconds. Carbon paper placed at the position of the striker help to
record a series of dots on the strip of paper.
In this example, the distance recorded between the first and second dots is 5mm
and the distance between each of the following pairs of dots is 5mm more than the
previous gap.

Record this information in a table showing:


each time interval
distance covered in each time interval
the time elapsed between each pair of recorded dots
the total distance covered at each recorded dot
a. From the information recorded in the table calculate:
i. the average velocity over each interval
ii. the average velocity over the whole trial
b. Plot a displacement-time graph of the motion recorded.
c. Plot a velocity-time graph and use the gradient of the graph to obtain the
acceleration of the motion.
d. Plot an acceleration-time graph.
e. Comment about both the velocity and the
acceleration in this example.

2. Releasing a Marble in a Jar of Liquid


A marble is released in liquid and allowed to fall to the
bottom of the jar. Strobe photography is used to obtain a
picture as shown in the diagram.
In this example the distance between the first and second
marble in the photograph is 4mm. Each subsequent
distance between marble images is 4mm more than the
previous distance. The position of the marble is recorded
every 0.2 seconds.

Record this information in a table showing:


time between each marble image
distance between each image

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MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES - OBSERVING RECORDING AND


INTERPRETING MOTION - continued

the total time elapsed at each recorded image


the total distance covered at each recorded image

a. From the information recorded in the table calculate:


i. the average velocity over each interval
ii. the average velocity over the whole trial
b. Plot a displacement-time graph of the motion recorded.
c. Plot a velocity-time graph and use the gradient of the graph to obtain the
acceleration of the motion.
d. Plot an acceleration-time graph.
e. Comment about both the velocity and the acceleration in this example.

3. Photography at Regular Set Intervals


A car moving along a straight level road is photographed at 0.5 second intervals.
When the photographs are linked together the following continuous picture is obtained
and it becomes apparent that every 0.5 seconds the car images are 2.0 cm apart on
the actual photograph. The front of the car is represented by arrows. The scale of the
photograph is 5mm = 5m.

Record this information in a table showing


time between each car image
distance between each image
the total time elapsed at each recorded image
the total distance covered at each recorded image

a. From the information recorded in the table calculate:


i. the average velocity over each interval
ii. the average velocity over the whole trial
b. Plot a displacement-time graph and use the gradient of the graph to obtain the
velocity of the motion recorded.
c. Plot a velocity-time graph and use the gradient of the graph to obtain the
acceleration of the motion.
d. Plot an acceleration-time graph.
e. Comment about both the velocity and the acceleration in this example.

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 13


MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES - OBSERVING RECORDING


AND INTERPRETING MOTION

ANSWERS
1)
Time Time between Distance Average velocity for Accumulated
interval (s) dots (s) travelled (m) each interval (ms-1) displacement (m)
0.00-0.02 0.02 0.005 0.25 0.005
0.02-0.04 0.02 0.010 0.50 0.015
0.04-0.06 0.02 0.020 1.00 0.035
0.06-0.08 0.02 0.035 1.75 0.070
0.08-0.10 0.02 0.055 2.75 0.125
0.10-0.12 0.02 0.080 4.00 0.205

a. i. Refer to table
ii. 1.70ms-1
b. c. 25ms-2

d.

e. The velocity is changing at a constant rate which means that the acceleration
is constant.
2)
Time Time between Distance Average velocity for Accumulated
interval (s) images (s) travelled (m) each interval (ms-1) displacement (m)
0.0-0.2 0.2 0.004 0.002 0.004
0.2-0.4 0.2 0.008 0.004 0.012
0.4-0.6 0.2 0.012 0.006 0.024
0.6-0.8 0.2 0.016 0.008 0.040
0.8-1.0 0.2 0.020 0.010 0.060
1.0-1.2 0.2 0.024 0.012 0.084

14 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES
- OBSERVING RECORDING AND INTERPRETING MOTION

ANSWERS - continued
a. i. Refer to table
ii. 0.07ms-1
b. c. 0.01ms-2 d. 0.4 0.8 1.2

0.8 0.4 0.8 1.2


0.4 1.2

e. The velocity is changing at a constant rate which means that the acceleration is
constant.

3)

Time Time between Distance Average velocity for Accumulated


interval (s) 0.4
images (s)
0.8 1.2
travelled (m)
0.4 0.8
each interval (ms-1)
1.2
displacement (m)

0.0-0.5 0.5 20 40 20
0.5-1.0 0.5 20 40 40
1.0-1.5 0.5 20 40 60
1.5-2.0 0.5 20 40 80
2.0-2.5 0.5 20 40 100
2.5-3.0 0.4
0.5
0.8 1.2
20 40 120
3.0-3.5 0.5 20 40 140
3.5-4.0 0.5 20 40 160

a. i. Refer to table
ii. 40ms-1
b. 40ms-1 c. 0ms-2 d.

e. The velocity is constant which means that there is no acceleration i.e. acceleration
equals zero.

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 15


MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION SPEED

The following activities investigate the speed of various moving objects. For each of the suggested
activities, take a suitable number of readings to ensure the validity of the results. Record and
graph your results on a distance-time graph in each case.

Practical activity 1
Time a 30m run.

Practical activity 2
Time a 30m walk.

Practical activity 3
Time a 100m bicycle ride.

Practical activity 4
Use a ticker timer to determine the speed of a moving object.

Practical activity 5
Use a multi-flash/strobe light and a camera with a time lapse function to record the positions of
an object by rolling or sliding it in front of a ruler.

Practical activity 6
Use a video camera to record the movement of an object. Play the video back frame by frame to
record both the position of the object and the time the frame was taken.

16 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

SCALARS AND VECTORS


A scalar quantity has size only.
A vector quantity has both size and direction.

1. Distance and Displacement


Distance and displacement are similar as they are both lengths and are both measured in metres.
However, there is a difference between the two. Distance is a scalar quantity as it has magnitude
only. Displacement is a vector quantity as it has both magnitude and direction.
The displacement of a body is defined as its distance from its original starting point (origin).
Example 1: One dimensional motion, defining right to be positive and left to be negative.

A body starting at 0, moves 2 metres to the right and then 5 metres to the left:

The distance travelled is 2 + 5 = 7 metres (size but no direction).


The displacement of the body is + 2 5 = -3 metres (size and direction).

Example 2: A person walks 12km north then due east for 16km. Calculate:
a. the distance travelled
b. the displacement at the conclusion of the journey

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MOVING ABOUT

SCALARS AND VECTORS - continued

Solution:
a. 12 + 16 = 28km
b. Using Pythagoras theorem:
x 2 = 16162 2++12 12
2 2

x 2 = 256 + 144
x 2 = 400
x = 400
x = 2020

16
= 16
tan q
2
22 Therefore displacement is 20m in the direction 053T.
q== 538
53 8' 5353

2. Speed and Velocity
Speed and velocity are both measured in metres per second. However, speed is a scalar and
velocity is a vector.

d
speed = where d = distance travelled
t
s r
velocity = oror where s = r = displacement
t t
Questions
1) A scalar quantity has ____________ but no ____________.

2) A vector quantity has ____________ and ____________.

3) Classify as scalar or vector and give the correct symbol for each (include the
vector symbol for vectors).
a. Time
b. Displacement
c. Velocity

4) The Earth orbits the Sun in an elliptical path (which has an average radius of
1.5 x 108km) in 1 year (365.25 days). Calculate the:
a. Distance covered in one day.
b. Total distance in one orbit.
c. Total displacement in one orbit.
d. Average speed for one complete orbit.
e. Average velocity for one complete orbit.

5) The fastest animal on earth (the cheetah) can reach speeds exceeding 100kmh-1
for short periods. If a cheetah is chasing its prey and runs at 100kmh-1 for 10 seconds,
does it catch its prey, which is 250m away? Explain your answer.

18 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

SCALARS AND VECTORS

ANSWERS

1) A scalar quantity has size but no direction.

2) A vector quantity has size and direction.

3) a. Scalar ( t )

b. Vector ( s or r )

c. Vector ( v )

4) a. 2.58 106km
b. 9.42 108km
c. 0km
d. 1.08 105kmh-1
e. 0kmh-1

5) In 10 seconds the cheetah will run 277.8 metres.


Therefore, the cheetah will catch its prey.

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 19


MOVING ABOUT

GRAPHING MOTION
1. Displacement-Time (s-t) Graphs

gradient of the displacement-time graph represents velocity


instantaneous velocity is given by the gradient of the tangent at that point
average velocity is given by the formula:

s 2 s1
vav = where vav = average velocity
av t 2 t1 av
s1 = initial displacement
s 2 = final displacement
t1 = initial time
t 2 = final time

2. Velocity-Time (v-t) Graphs

gradient of the v-t graph represents acceleration


area under the curve represents displacement
displacement at 5 seconds is 20m
displacement at 7 seconds is 24m
Velocity (m/s)

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MOVING ABOUT

GRAPHING MOTION - continued

Questions
1) At the athletics carnival, Adrian runs along the 100 metre running track. There are 10
people equally spaced along the track at 10 metre intervals who are recording the time
it takes Adrian to reach each position. The displacements and corresponding times are
recorded in the table below.

Displacement
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
in metres
Time in
3.12 4.56 9.00 20.00 24.24 25.36 28.79 32.6 35.19 36.5
seconds

a. Graph the results on a displacement versus time graph, connecting each pair of points
with a straight line (do not draw the line of best fit).

b. Mark on the graph the section of highest velocity, giving reasons for your choice.
Calculate the average velocity for this section.

c. Which section of the graph has the lowest gradient and what does this mean? Calculate
the average velocity for this section.

d. Calculate the average velocity for the whole 100 metre run.

e. Does the graph you have drawn using straight lines accurately describe the 100m run?
Give reasons.

2) The following results are recorded while performing an experiment using a ticker timer.
The results show the distances from a starting point after each given time.

Time (s) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4


Displacement (m) 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 4.2

a. Graph the results and draw the line (curve) of best fit.

b. Use the graph to estimate the instantaneous velocity at:


i. t = 0.1s
ii. t = 0.3s

c. Calculate the average velocity for the first 0.4 seconds.


Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 21
MOVING ABOUT

GRAPHING MOTION - continued

3) The displacement-time graph


represents the motion of a vehicle
along a straight race track.
a. What is the approximate
displacement at the instant
t = 1?
b. State the displacement over
the first three seconds.
c. What is the displacement after
six seconds?
d. Determine the instantaneous velocity at t = 2s.
e. Find the velocity at t = 5s.

4) a. What distance is travelled between time t = 1 and t = 4 seconds?
b. How long does it take to travel from displacement 4m to displacement 16m?
c. Estimate the instantaneous velocity at t = 2 seconds.

16

12

5) Describe the motion represented by this graph. Identify the section of the graph
representing the greatest speed.

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MOVING ABOUT

GRAPHING MOTION - continued

6) a. What is the instantaneous speed at t = 20s?


b. What is the displacement when t = 5s?
c. What is the average speed over the first
25 seconds?

7) a. Estimate the acceleration at t = 3s.


b. Shade the area that represents the
displacement from t = 0s to t = 3s.

8) a. Calculate the acceleration between:


i. t = 7s and t = 12s
ii. t = 0s and t = 3s
iii. t = 3s and t = 7s
b. Calculate the displacement during the following time intervals:
i. t = 0s and t = 7s
ii. t = 9.5s and t = 12s

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 23


MOVING ABOUT

GRAPHING MOTION

ANSWERS

1) b. Steepest gradient between 50 and 60 metre positions. Average velocity = 8.9ms-1.


c. Lowest gradient between 30 and 40 metre positions. This means this is
the section with the lowest average velocity. Average velocity = 0.91ms-1.
d. 2.74ms-1.
e. No. It does not show continuous changes in velocity that occur in real life.
It only shows average velocities for each 10m section.

2) c. 10.5ms-1

3) a. 90m
b. 180m
c. 0m
d. approximately 30ms-1
e. -60ms-1

4) a. 16m
b. 2s
c. approximately 4ms-1

5) A body travels at a uniform velocity of 15ms-1 for the first 2 seconds, stops for
1 second then travels at 20ms-1 for 1 second. The body stops again for 1
second then travels back toward the starting point at 10ms-1 for 1 second,
stops for another 1 second then travels away from the starting point at a
constant velocity of 6.7ms-1 for 3 seconds. Greatest speed between times t = 3
and t = 4 seconds.

6) a. 0ms-1
b. 100m
c. 8ms-1

7) a. approximately 4ms-2
b. Shade between curve and time axis between t = 0 and t = 3.

8) a. (i) 2.4ms-2 (ii) -2ms-2 (iii) 0ms-2


b. (i) -33m (ii) 7.5m

24 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

WORKING WITH VECTORS


Vectors are useful tools to solve problems involving quantities such as displacement, velocity,
acceleration and force. By approaching problems using vector diagrams, resultant quantities can
be simply obtained. The following are some techniques necessary to solve problems using vector
geometry.

Drawing Vectors
The length of the vector represents its magnitude and is drawn to scale while the direction is
denoted by the arrowhead. Note that a vector of twice the magnitude is twice as long. Also a
represents a vector of equal magnitude but opposite in direction to a (see diagram).

Vector Addition
Vector addition is used to show the combined effect of two or more vector quantities. The
resultant vector is the single vector that represents the combined effect of the original vectors.
When adding vectors they must be placed tip-to-tail with the resultant vector going between the
first tip and the final tail as shown in the following diagrams.

In the triangle and parallelogram methods V1 + V2 represents the resultant vector.


The polygon is used when dealing with more than two vectors.

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MOVING ABOUT

WORKING WITH VECTORS - continued

Vector Subtraction
Vector subtraction is carried out in the same way as vector addition. Simply add the negative of
the vector you wish to subtract.
In the following example V1 represents a velocity of 10ms-1 to the right and V2 represents a
velocity of 15ms-1 to the right. To obtain the vector representing

V1 - V2 first draw the negative of V2 (15ms-1 to the left) then add V1 to V2 to achieve the resultant
vector V1 - V2 which is 5ms-1 to the left.

Questions
For each question draw suitable vector diagrams and calculate the resultant quantities.
1) A car moves at 15ms-1 south on a road. The road is wet and very slippery and
the car is hit by a gust of wind from the west that pushes it sideways at 6ms-1.
Calculate the cars resultant velocity.
2) An aircraft is flying west at 600kmh-1. Calculate the resultant velocity of the aircraft if:
a. there is a tailwind of 100kmh-1.
b. there is a headwind of 100kmh-1.
c. there is a crosswind of 100kmh-1 from the south.
3) A cross-country runner runs 3km due east, 5km due south and 8km south-
west. What is the runners final displacement?
4) In a tug-of-war team A pulls in one direction with a force of 100N to the east.
Team B pulls with a force of 120N towards the west. What is the resultant force on the
rope? (Give magnitude and direction as force is a vector)
5) Two ropes are connected to an object. One if pulled to the east and the other to the
north as shown in the diagram.
a. Draw a scale vector diagram and use it to find the magnitude and direction of
the resultant force on the object.
b. Calculate the force mathematically and compare this result to the answer in
part a.

26 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

WORKING WITH VECTORS

ANSWERS
1) 16.2ms in the direction S21.8E
-1

2)
a. 700kmh-1 West

c. 608kmh-1 N80.5W
b. 500kmh-1 West

3) 11.0km S14W

4) 20N West

5)
a.

b. By Pythagoras x 2 = 606022 + 808022 = 10000


x = 100 N
80
80
tan q =
tan =
6060
q 553
3

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 27


MOVING ABOUT

RELATIVE VELOCITY

When describing velocity it is always related to an observer.


When a driver is travelling in a car at 60kmh-1 the velocity of the driver relative to the road is
60kmh-1, but the velocity of the driver relative to the car is 0kmh-1, because the driver is sitting
still in the car. If a second car is travelling in the opposite direction the driver of the second car
would perceive the first car to be travelling faster than 60kmh-1.

Calculating Relative Velocity


The velocity of A relative to B is given by the expression VA - vb.
Example:
Car X is moving east at 15ms-1 and car Y at 12ms-1 west. If the observer is in car Y calculate the
velocity of car X relative to car Y.
Solution: If east is the positive direction then west is the negative direction.
Therefore velocity of X relative to Y = VX - VY
= +15 - (-12)
= +27ms-1
i.e. 27 metres per second to the east.

A vector diagram can be drawn to confirm this.

Questions
Use vector diagrams to assist in obtaining solutions.
1) In still water a boat travels at 6kmh-1.
a. A stream is flowing south at 4kmh-1. Calculate the time it would take for the boat
to travel 1.5km upstream and 1.5km back.
b. The boat heads east, directly across the same flowing stream. At what bearing
(to the nearest degree) would the boat have to be pointed in order to travel
straight across at right angles to the bank? Note that for the boat to travel directly
east it needs to be directed diagonally upstream.
c. Calculate the time it would take for the boat to travel directly across the stream
and back if the stream is 1.5km wide.
d. Compare the answers from parts a. and c.

28 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

RELATIVE VELOCITY - continued

2) A plane is originally travelling north at 500kmh-1. It is then hit by a 40kmh-1 gust of wind
from the west.
a. Find the speed of the plane relative to the ground when hit by the gust of wind.
b. In what direction is the plane now travelling?

3) A car travelling at 110kmh-1 on a freeway overtakes a large truck travelling at


80kmh-1. Calculate the velocity of:
a. the truck relative to the car.
b. the car relative to the truck.

4) A truck travelling at 80kmh-1 is travelling towards a car travelling at 100kmh-1. What is


the velocity of the truck relative to the car?

5) The hare and the tortoise are racing. At the start, the hare has a velocity of 10ms-1 to the
east, and the tortoise a velocity of 0.01ms-1 to the east. Some time later the hare is asleep
under a tree and the tortoise puts on a spurt and is now travelling at 0.02ms-1. Find:
a. the speed of the hare relative to the tortoise at the start of the race.
b. the speed of the hare relative to the tortoise at the point the tortoise passes the
sleeping hare.

6) A jet flies east at 180ms-1. Find its velocity relative to a single engine aircraft flying north
at 100ms-1.

7) Car A travels along a freeway at 110kmh-1 going east. Car B, travelling west at
120kmh-1 spins out of control and veers towards Car A (across the median strip) at an
angle 30 off course.
a. What is the velocity of Car B relative to Car A?
b. If Car B is 25 metres away when it starts to veer towards Car A, how long will it
take for the cars to collide if no evasive action is taken?

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 29


MOVING ABOUT

RELATIVE VELOCITY

ANSWERS

1) a. 45 minutes upstream, 9 minutes downstream (totalling 54 minutes)


b. 048T
c. 40 minutes 15 seconds
d. Although travelling the same distance in each case, it takes longer to travel
upstream and downstream than to travel across and back.

2) a. 501.6kmh-1
b. N434E (or 005T to nearest degree)

3) a. -30kmh-1
b. +30kmh-1

4) 180kmh-1

5) a. 9.99ms-1 east
b. -0.02ms-1 west

6) 205.9ms-1 at a bearing of 119T

7) a. 222kmh-1 with direction 300T


b. 0.4 seconds

30 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

ACCELERATION
Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and is a vector quantity.
The direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of its change in velocity.
aaavav = v = v u
Average Acceleration of an Object t t

Quantity Formula Symbol Basic SI Unit Unit Symbol

average acceleration aav metres per second squared ms-2


final velocity v metres per second ms-1
initial velocity u metres per second ms-1
time t seconds s
Inertia is the tendency of a body to remain at constant velocity or at rest. Acceleration occurs
when a force is sufficient to upset this state of inertia.

Questions
1) A skate board rider is travelling at 12ms-1 and falls off, skidding and eventually
coming to a halt on the ground after 2.4 seconds. Find the acceleration of
the rider.
2) A car travelling due west at 15ms-1 increases its velocity to 30ms-1 over a period of
30 seconds. Find the acceleration of the car.
3) A boat sails along at a constant velocity of 20ms-1. It suddenly hits a sandbar and
grinds to a halt in 2.5 seconds.
a. What is the acceleration of the boat?
b. What is its deceleration?
4) A car travelling at 30ms-1 collides with a large tree and comes to rest in 0.2 seconds.
What is its deceleration?
5) A spacecraft moving at 600ms-1 accelerates for 20 seconds at 20ms-2. Assuming the
acceleration is forwards, find the velocity after 20 seconds.
6) The brakes of a new car travelling at 24ms-1 cause a negative acceleration of 6ms-2
a. How long will it take for the car to stop?
b. Convert the original velocity of the car to kmh-1.
7) A car travelling at 22ms-1 brakes to a halt in 2.2 seconds. Calculate the deceleration
of the vehicle.
8) A vehicle moving at 40kmh-1 brakes suddenly to avoid a pedestrian, losing half its
speed in 2 seconds. Calculate the deceleration of the car.
9) The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8ms-2. A parachutist free falls for 14 seconds
before opening the parachute. What is the velocity of the parachutist when he opens
the chute?
10) A child rebounds on a trampoline at 4.9ms-1. Assuming acceleration due to gravity
is 9.8ms-2, calculate how long it takes the child to reach maximum height.
11) How long can a skydiver freefall from rest before reaching the speed of sound?
Assume speed of sound to be 340ms-1.
12) How long does it take a plane to accelerate from rest to the speed of sound if
the acceleration is 100ms-2 ?
Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 31
MOVING ABOUT

ACCELERATION

ANSWERS
1) -5ms-2

2) 0.5ms-2

3) a. -8ms-2
b. 8ms-2 (deceleration is negative acceleration)

4) 150ms-2

5) 1000ms-2

6) a. 4s
b. 86.4kmh-1

7) 10ms-2

8) 2.8ms-2

9) 137.2ms-1

10) 0.5s

11) 34.7s

12) 3.4s

32 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

UNIFORM ACCELERATION -
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
The following equations of motion describe the relationships between acceleration, initial velocity,
final velocity, displacement and time. They apply only to situations where there is uniform
acceleration.

vv==uu++
at at

1 2
s s==utut ++ atat2
2
v 2 = u 2 + 22as
as

The quantities and units described in the above three formulae are summarised in the table
below.
Quantity Formula Symbol Basic SI Unit Unit Symbol
acceleration a metre per second per second ms-2
initial velocity u metre per second ms-1
final velocity v metre per second ms-1
displacement s metre m
time t second s

Example 1
A car is travelling at 60kmh-1. The brakes are applied and it takes 3 seconds for the car to stop.
Ignoring the friction of the tyres on the road, determine the acceleration of the car and the
distance required for the car to stop.
Solution: Note: Convert 60kmh-1 to ms-1 first.
Firstly v = u + atat

v u 1616.67
67 - 0
acceleration
acceleration = = = 55.56ms
s -22
5 m
t 3
1
Secondly s = utut + atat22
2
1
s = 0 3 + 55.56
5 32 = 2425.02 25 0m so distance required to stop is 25.0m.
975 25.0m
2

Questions
Assume that acceleration due to gravity (g) is 9.8ms-2 for the following questions where applicable.
Also assume the speed of sound to be 340ms-1.
1) A car is travelling at 60kmh-1.The car brakes and it takes 3 seconds to come to rest. Ignoring
friction, find the acceleration of the car and the distance required for the car to stop.
2) A stone dropped from the top of a cliff takes 5 seconds to reach the ground. How high is
the cliff?
3) A spacecraft moving at 550ms-1 accelerates at 30ms-2 for 30 seconds. Find the new velocity

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 33


MOVING ABOUT

UNIFORM ACCELERATION - EQUATIONS


OF MOTION - continued
if the acceleration is forwards.
4) A spacecraft moving at 600ms-1 uses its reverse thrust rockets at 15ms-2 for 50 seconds. Find
the new velocity of the spacecraft.
5) How long will it take a car to stop if its brakes cause a negative acceleration of 5ms-2 when
it is travelling:
a. 50kmh-1
b. 100kmh-1
6) A fighter pilot accelerates the aircraft from a cruising speed of 200ms-1 to the speed of
sound. The pilot will black out when the acceleration exceeds 100ms-2. What is the least
amount of time the pilot needs to reach Mach I to avoid blacking out and crashing the
aircraft?
7) A skydiver free falls from a plane. How long will it take to reach a speed of 170 metres per
second?
8) An archer shoots an arrow vertically into the air. It leaves the bow at a velocity of 15ms-1.
How long will the arrow take to reach its maximum height?
9) A car travelling at 72kmh-1 skids to a halt in 3 seconds.
a. Calculate the acceleration
b. Find the length of the skid marks.
10) a. Find the acceleration experienced by the driver of a car travelling at 50kmh-1 if the
car hits a pole and crumples 50cm.
b. Repeat part a. for a car travelling at 100kmh-1.
11) A stone is dropped over a 50 metre cliff.
a. How long will the stone take to reach the base of the cliff?
b. What is the velocity of the stone when it reaches the bottom of the cliff?
12) A child on a pogo stick bounds vertically upwards at an initial velocity of 4.9ms-1.
a. How high will the child bounce?
b. How long will it take to reach the maximum height?
13) A vehicle is travelling at 20ms-1. What acceleration is required to double the speed of the
vehicle in 100m on a flat straight stretch of road?
14) What is the deceleration of a car travelling at 30ms-1 which stops in 0.2 seconds when it is
involved in a collision?
15) A stone dropped from the top of a building takes 2.5 seconds to reach the ground.
a. How high is the building?
b. How long would it take a stone three times as heavy to fall to the ground?
16) A high jumper clears 2.0 metres.
a. What vertical velocity is required by the high jumper to achieve this?
b. How long is the athlete in the air?
17) A body is projected vertically upwards with a velocity of 25ms-1. When will it be 20m
above the point of projection?
18) A stone is dropped into a mine shaft and reaches the bottom in 4 seconds. How deep is
the shaft?

34 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

UNIFORM ACCELERATION - EQUATIONS


OF MOTION - continued

19) At one particular instant a body has a speed of 20cms-1 and a constant acceleration of
60cms-2.
a. What is its velocity 10 seconds later?
b. How far will it travel in 10 seconds?
20) An object is dropped from rest at a height of 20m. Determine:
a. its acceleration.
b. its velocity before landing.
c. the time taken to fall.
21) A cyclist rides at 3ms-1 then increases her velocity to 11ms-1 in 30 seconds. Find:
a. her acceleration.
b. the distance travelled in 30 seconds.
22) A model rocket accelerates upwards from rest for 2 seconds at a net acceleration (including
acceleration due to gravity) of 1.5ms-2. What total height will the rocket travel? Ignore air
resistance.
23) An object is dropped from rest. What is its velocity after 2 seconds of freefall under the
influence of gravity?
24) If a car accelerates from 60kmh-1 to 120kmh-1 in 3 seconds what is its acceleration?
25) A cannon is fired vertically into the air with an initial velocity of 200ms-1. Find:
a. its height after 10 seconds.
b. the time taken to reach its maximum height.
c. the time it takes to return from the maximum height to the ground.
26) A ball is dropped off a high building. How far does it fall in 2 seconds?
27) How high is a cliff if an object dropped from the top takes 2 seconds to reach the base?
Neglect air resistance.
28) Complete the table below by rearranging to change the subject of the formula in each case.
The boxes containing dashes need not be completed.

v u a t s

uu +
+ atat -

- - 1
ut + atat2
ut
2

uu22 ++22as
as -

s - -
t

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 35


MOVING ABOUT

UNIFORM ACCELERATION
EQUATIONS OF MOTION -
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
ANSWERS
1) -5.6ms-2 16) a. 6.26ms-1
2) 122.5m b. 1.28s (0.64 up then 0.64
3) 1450ms -1 down)

4) 150ms-1 backwards 17) At 0.99s on the way up and at 4.1s on the


way down.
5) a. 2.8s
18) 78.4m
b. 5.6s
19) a. 6.2ms-2
6) 1.4s
b. 32m
7) 17.3s
20) a. 9.8ms-2
8) 1.53s
b. 19.8ms-2
9) a. -6.7ms-2
c. 2.02s
b. 30m
21) a. 0.27ms-2
10) a. -193ms -2
b. 210m
b. -772ms-2
22) 3m
11) a. 3.2s
23) 19.6ms-1
b. 31.3ms-1
24) 5.6ms-2
12) a. 1.23m
25) a. 1510m
b. 0.5s
b. 20.4s
13) 6ms-2
c. 20.4s
14) 150ms-2
26) 19.6m
15) a. 30.6m
27) 19.6m
b. The same time as in part a.

28)
v u a t s

u + atat vv - atat v u v u -
t a

- 1 1 2( s ut
ut ) - 1
( s atat2 ) 2
t + atat22
uut
t 2 t 2

v2 u 2 - v2 u2
uu22 ++22as
as v 2 2as
2as
2s 2a

s - - s vtvt
t v

36 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION
COMBINING FORCES USING VECTORS
The following practical investigation is designed to demonstrate how vector diagrams and vector
components can be utilised to interpret a net or resultant force. This is an effective method to
use when there is more than one force involved and when the forces are pulling in multiple
directions.

Theoretical background
When a point is in equilibrium or stationary, then the sum of all forces is zero.
If the net force at a point is zero, then the sum of the horizontal components is zero.
Similarly, the sum of the vertical components is also zero.
F = ma
The force of F Newtons at an angle of to the horizontal can be resolved into its
horizontal and vertical components. Note in the diagram below, that the horizontal
component of force is Fcos, and the vertical component of force is Fsin.
Fsin
F

Fsin
F
Aims Fcos
To show that the net force is the vector sum of the individual forces acting on an
object.
To analyse the forces by resolving each force into horizontal and vertical components.

Equipment Required Fcos


Protractor
Sheet of white A4 paper
Marker pen
Masking tape
Slotted masses (total 0.5kg)
Three 5N spring balances B

Method
1) Zero the spring balances.
2) Apply three forces (labelled A, B and C) as shown in the diagram so that point P is
stationary (in equilibrium).
B A
P

A
P

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 37


MOVING ABOUT

PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION - COMBINING


FORCES USING VECTORS - continued

3) Use tape to secure the ends once the equilibrium position has been found.
4) Place white paper underneath. Draw x-y axes on the paper if desired.
5) Measure angle using a protractor.
6) Use the marker pen to mark accurately the endpoints.
7) Measure each of the distances for each of the three forces.
8) Draw an accurate scaled diagram of the situation on grid paper, labelling points P, A, B, C
and .

Analysis of results
Analysis 1 Vector Addition
Using your scaled vector diagram, draw the resultant vector showing its magnitude and
direction.
1) What is the resultant force?
2) What was the expected resultant force?
3) Account for any differences between the expected resultant force and the resultant force
obtained from the graph.

Analysis 2 Component Addition


1) For each of the three original forces, complete the table below to show the horizontal and
vertical components for each separate force and the sums of each set of components.

Force, F
A B C A+B+C
(Newtons)

Horizontal
component, Fx

Vertical
component, Fy

2) Compare the sum of the horizontal components of A + B + C with the expected theoretical
result.

3) Repeat step 2 for the vertical components.

Conclusion
Write a valid conclusion for this investigation.

38 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION

A body remains in a state of rest or uniform velocity unless acted on by an external


unbalanced force.
This is often referred to as the Law of Inertia.

Inertia is the property of an object, which keeps it in its rest state or moving at constant velocity.
The inertia of an object depends only on its mass. It is easier to roll a tennis ball on a smooth
surface than it is to move a tenpin bowling ball along the same surface as the tenpin bowling ball
has greater inertia.
Although inertia is often difficult to observe in many real life situations, the following examples,
relating to people travelling in cars, are cases where inertia can be observed.
Passengers and the driver in a car have the sensation of being pushed back against
the seat when the car suddenly accelerates. In actual fact, they are continuing to
travel at the same velocity as they were before the acceleration occurred (inertia),
while the car is travelling faster.
Passengers and the driver are thrown forward if a car slows down suddenly, or
comes to an abrupt halt. They are simply travelling at the same velocity as they
were before the car started decelerating (inertia).
When a car negotiates a sharp bend the passengers tend to continue in a straight
line (inertia) and have the sensation of being flung towards one side of the car.

Questions
1) Describe the extent of the danger to passengers in a car caused by the inertia of an object
lying loose in a car:
a. If the car is travelling at constant velocity.
b. If the car accelerates quickly.
c. If the car comes to a fairly abrupt halt.
d. If the car is involved in a high speed collision.
2) Describe the effect on a passenger riding in the front seat without a seatbelt in each of the
four situations in question 1.
3) Define the word inertia.
4) State Newtons First Law of Motion.
5) Give an example of a practical situation that illustrates Newtons First Law of Motion.
6) When you throw a ball it moves forward because of the force applied by your hand.
a. Why does the ball continue to move forward?
b. What external forces affect the velocity?
7) Explain, in terms of inertia, how a motorist can lose control of their car while driving:
a. on an icy road.
b. over a patch of oil on the freeway.
8) Give an example, which illustrates that the inertia of an object depends on its mass.
9) Give examples of two safety features in cars that protect drivers or passengers from the
harmful effects of inertia.
10) Why is Newtons First Law of Motion not obvious in many real life situations?

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 39
MOVING ABOUT

NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION

ANSWERS

1) a. Minimal danger. There is no acceleration (so no external force) to disturb the state
of inertia of the loose object.
b. Moderate danger. The object would move rapidly towards the rear of the car. If the
object was initially at the front of the car, the likelihood of it striking someone
would be high.
c. Moderate to high danger. The loose object would move rapidly towards the front
of the car and could easily strike a person on the back of the head. This would be
quite dangerous if the object was rigid.
d. Extreme danger. The object would be catapulted at high speed towards the front
of the car and would prove to be a significant hazard because of the extreme
deceleration.
2) a. Remain in one spot.
b. Press back into the front seat.
c. Move rapidly forwards and may hit head on the dashboard.
d. Whole body would be thrown forwards at high speed, possibly even through the
windscreen.

3) Inertia is the tendency of a body to remain at rest or in uniform motion.

4) A body remains in a state of inertia unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force.

5) A ball resting on a pool table remains at rest until a force is applied to it by striking it with a
cue.

6) a. Inertia
b. Air resistance, weight (force due to gravity)

7) a. Ice reduces friction, thus eliminating or reducing the ability to combat inertia.
b. Oil creates reduced friction. This means the ability to overcome the inertia of
the car is reduced.

8) Lifting a feather is much easier than lifting a 10kg bag of potatoes. The bag of potatoes has
greater inertia due to its greater mass.

9) Air bags, seat belts.

10) It is difficult to judge the amount of inertia an object actually has until the amount of force
required to produce acceleration is observed.

MOVING ABOUT

40 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

NEWTONS SECOND LAW OF MOTION


The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the applied force.
or
The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the force applied and inversely proportional
to its mass.
This law can be expressed in equation form as follows:

vmv - mu
m m
u v u
F= = m( ama
)=m
t t
Note that in the above mathematical formula:
F is the force applied to the body in Newtons
m is the mass of the body in kilograms
v is the final velocity in metres per second
u is the initial velocity in metres per second
t is the time in seconds
mv is the final momentum in kilogram metres per second
mu is the initial momentum in kilogram metres per second
mv - mu is the change in momentum in kilogram metres per second
a is the acceleration of the body in metres per second per second
Questions
The following activity involving Newtons Second Law illustrates the connection between the force applied
to a body, its rate of change of momentum and its acceleration.
In a car race, three different cars (A, B, C) each conduct three time trials to determine their ability to
accelerate. The following table contains data for each car, giving the mass of the car, its initial and final
velocities over a period of acceleration and the time period for this acceleration.
1) Complete the following table.
Give acceleration values in the table correct to two significant figures. However, use the
unrounded values of acceleration to calculate the force.
Car A Car B Car C
Trial 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Mass (kg) 980 980 980 1100 1100 1100 1000 1000 1000
Time (s) 3.50 4.20 2.95 3.24 2.88 4.12 4.56 4.00 3.22

Initial
3.2 7.8 30.6 0.0 2.8 3.0 4.8 2.9 10.2
Velocity (ms-1)

Final Velocity
25.2 29.6 50.6 19.2 23.0 28.4 32.7 30.6 38.4
(ms-1)
Acceleration
(ms-2)
Change in
Momentum
(kgms-1)
Force -
F =m
ama
Force -

vmv - m
m umu
F=
t
2) Do both methods of calculating the force give the same value?
Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 41
MOVING ABOUT

NEWTONS SECOND LAW OF MOTION

ANSWERS
1)
Car A Car B Car C
Trial 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Mass (kg) 980 980 980 1100 1100 1100 1000 1000 1000
Time (s) 3.50 4.20 2.95 3.24 2.88 4.12 4.56 4.00 3.22
Initial
Velocity 3.2 7.8 30.6 0.0 2.8 3.0 4.8 2.9 10.2
(ms-1)
Final
Velocity 25.2 29.6 50.6 19.2 23.0 28.4 32.7 30.6 38.4
(ms-1)
Acceleration
6.3 5.2 6.8 5.9 7.0 6.2 6.1 6.9 8.8
(ms-2)
Change in
Momentum 21560 21364 19600 21120 22220 27940 27900 27700 28200
(kgms-1)

Force -
6160 5087 6644 6519 7715 6782 6118 6925 8758
F==mama
Force -

vmv - mu
m m
u 6160 5087 6644 6519 7715 6782 6118 6925 8758
F=
t

2) Yes

42 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

NEWTONS SECOND LAW


- PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION
Aim
To determine the relationship between mass and acceleration of a body when the force is kept
constant and hence to confirm Newtons Second Law of Motion.

Equipment Required
12V power supply and leads
Ticker timer
Dynamics trolley and masses
Scales (preferably electronic balance)
Smooth runway

Method
Set up equipment as illustrated in the diagram. Attach mass M1 to the string and run
several tests to ascertain the best mass to obtain a slow steady speed for the dynamics
trolley.
By using a pulley, the force pulling on the trolley is constant for all trials.

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 43


MOVING ABOUT

NEWTONS SECOND LAW


- PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION - continued
Measure the mass of the trolley.
Attach the ticker timer to the trolley and run several trials, varying the size of mass M2
in each case.
Mark the total mass of the dynamics trolley and the added masses on the tape for each
trial.
Results
1) Record your results from the tickertape in a table as follows to determine the
acceleration.Use a computer spreadsheet if desired.

Change in
Distance Average Speed Acceleration
Interval speed
(m) (ms-1) (ms-2)
(ms-1)

length of first distance/length v u


1 N/A
interval of interval
t

speed interval 2
length of distance/length v u
2 speed interval
second interval of interval
1 t
3
4
5
6
etc.

2) Record your experimental results in the table below.

Acceleration (from
Tape M2 (kg) 1/M2 (kg)
table above ms-2)

A
B
C
D
E

3) Plot an acceleration versus mass graph for the trolley mass combinations. What does
this graph indicate?
4) Plot an acceleration versus 1/mass graph. Draw a line of best fit and calculate its
gradient. What is the significance of the gradient value?
5) Compare the findings in 4) with the force acting on M1 (use F = mg).
Conclusion
Write a valid conclusion for this investigation.

44 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

NEWTONS THIRD LAW OF MOTION


For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

This means that when an object, A, applies a force to an object, B, then object B applies an equal
and opposite force back to object A. The equal and opposite force is known as the reaction
force.

Examples of Newtons Third Law are:


A rower uses oars to push on the water in one direction in order to propel the boat
forward in the other.
A swimmer starting a race from the blocks pushes backwards with their feet to propel
them forwards.
A person pushing against a wall exerts the same amount of force on the wall as the
wall exerts on the person.

Questions
1) Describe the applied force and the equal and opposite reaction force which occur when
a person is sitting on a chair.
2) Use Newtons Third Law to give reasons for faster record times for a 100m freestyle race
than a 100m breaststroke race.
3) a. What is the net force on the masses in the diagram below?
b. What is the net force on the 300 gram mass?
Acceleration (3m/s-2)

600g 300g

4) a. What is the acceleration of the 30kg mass?


b. What is the net force on the 60kg mass?
c. What force does the 60kg mass exert on the 30kg mass?
d. What force does the 30kg mass exert on the 60kg mass?

Force (450N) 60kg 30kg

5) a. What is the acceleration of the whole system in the diagram below?


b. What is the acceleration of the 2kg mass?
c. What is the net force on the 2kg mass?

Force (60N) 4kg 2kg 10kg

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 45


MOVING ABOUT

NEWTONS THIRD LAW OF MOTION

ANSWERS

1) The person applies their weight force to the chair when they sit on it. The chair therefore
applies an equal and opposite reaction force upwards on the person.

2) In freestyle the swimmer moves their arms backwards through the water then forwards
through the air. In breaststroke, however, the swimmer moves their arms both backwards
and forwards through the water. Moving the arms forwards through the air has a lesser
reaction force (i.e. less resistance) to the forward motion of the freestyle swimmer. This can
explain faster swimming times for the freestyle swimmer.

3) a. 2.7N
b. 0.9N

4) a. 5ms-2
b. 300N
c. 150N
d. 150N

5) a. 3.75ms-2
b. 3.75ms-2
c. 7.5N

46 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

FORCE - MASS - ACCELERATION


Force
Force = mass acceleration
Force is the product of mass and acceleration.
This can be expressed in the following formula:
ama
F =m

Weight Weight is a force.


The acceleration due to gravity or g which has a value of 9.8ms-2 on the Earth.
W =mgmg
Quantity Symbol SI Unit Unit Abbreviation
force F Newton N
weight W Newton N
mass m kilogram kg
acceleration a metres per second squared ms-2
acceleration due to gravity g metres per second squared ms-2

Questions
By research or calculation, answer the following questions involving force, mass and acceleration.
1) Use a diagram to show the external forces acting on a car when:
a. the car is coasting with no pressure applied to the accelerator.
b. the accelerator is applied.
c. the brakes are applied.
d. the car hits an icy patch.
e. the car climbs a hill.
f. the car descends a hill.
g. the car follows a bend in the road.
2) What is inertia and to what is it directly related?
3) State Newtons First Law of Motion.
4) State Newtons Second Law of Motion, relating it to the equation F = m ama .
5) How can a car be accelerating when it turns a corner at constant speed?
6) Describe the typical effects of an external force on a body if the external force is:
a. friction between surfaces
b. air resistance
7) Newtons Law states that all acceleration requires an external force. What is the external
force when a car turns?
8) When a car accelerates forward, why do the passengers get pushed backwards?
9) Find the weight of an 80kg person on:
a. Earth
b. Mercury, if the acceleration due to gravity on Mercury is 3.7ms-2.
10) Find the weight of a 2000kg truck:
a. on Earth
b. on the moon (acceleration due to gravity on the moon is 1.6ms-2).
11) Calculate the mass of the truck in question 10 on the moon.
12) Find the mass of an object which accelerates from a velocity of +15ms-1 to +20ms-2 in 5
seconds when undergoing a force of 2.5N.
13) What force needs to be applied to a mass of 2 tonnes to cause an acceleration of 20ms-1?
14) What acceleration is produced by a force of 5kN on a mass of 500 tonnes?

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 47


MOVING ABOUT

FORCE - MASS - ACCELERATION

ANSWERS
1) In all cases the car is travelling to the right.

2) Inertia is the tendency of a body to remain at constant velocity or at rest and is directly
related to the mass.
3) Newtons First Law of Motion is often referred to as the Law of Inertia. Inertia is the property
of an object that gives it the tendency to resist changes to its motion.
4) The acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to

the mass of an object. That is, F =mama


5) Change in velocity (acceleration) can be a change in magnitude, direction or both. When
turning a corner at constant speed, there is a change in direction, which amounts
to acceleration.
6) a. Causes the body to decelerate.
b. Causes the body to decelerate.
7) Friction
8) The Law of Inertia means that the passengers (loose objects in the car) resist the change
in motion caused by the acceleration forwards. This resistance to the forward motion
causes passengers to feel as though they are travelling backwards.
9) a. 784N
b. 296N
10) a. 19600N
b. 3200N
11) 2000kg
12) 2.5kg
13) 40000N
14) 0.01ms-2
48 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource
MOVING ABOUT

COMBINING FORCES
Forces in Straight Lines
When there are multiple forces, vector diagrams may be used to solve the resultant force. The
sum of all the forces involved is the total mass x the acceleration.

F = mama

The diagram below illustrates how to resolve a resultant force into its separate horizontal and
vertical components.

Forces around Curves


When motion is around a bend or curve (assumed circular), a centripetal force acts towards the
centre of the circle. This force is given by the formula below where m is the mass (kg), v is the
tangential velocity (ms-1) and r is the radius (r) of the circle.

vmv22
m
F=
r

The diagram illustrated below shows the direction of the force, F, which causes the object to
travel in circular motion. This force, called the centripetal force, is directed towards the centre of
the circle as shown in the diagram.
f

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 49


MOVING ABOUT

COMBINING FORCES - continued


Questions
1) Find the acceleration caused by a net force of:
a. 30N west acting on a 6kg mass.
b. 0.3N north acting on a 200g mass.
2) What is the net force required to cause an acceleration of:
a. 5ms-2 east on a mass of 3kg?
b. 20cms-2 east on a mass of 500g?
3) A student performed three experiments pulling paper tape through a vibrating
ticker timer. In each case at equal time periods the dots appeared at the
following distances (cm) apart:
Tape A: 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4.
Tape B: 1, 3, 4, 7, 6, 4, 2.
Tape C: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
a. Which tapes show uniform speed?
b. Which tapes has a constant acceleration?
c. In which section of tape appears the highest acceleration?
4) A ticker timer connected to a frequency of 50Hz produced distances between the
dots on paper as follows:
Section A - Each of the five distances is 4mm.
Section B - The five distances are 5mm, 7mm, 9mm, 11mm and 13mm.
Section C - The five distances are 12.5mm, 11.5mm, 10.5mm, 9.5mm and 8.5mm.
a. State the speed in section A.
b. State the acceleration in section B.
c. Describe the speed of the motion in section C.
d. If a mass of 25g is attached to the ticker timer to pull it through, what is the
force required to cause the acceleration shown in section B?
5) A net force of 0.064N acts on a body at rest and causes it to reach a speed of 16ms-1
in 4 seconds. Calculate the mass of the body.
6) A cricket ball of mass 0.15kg is bowled down the pitch and is moving horizontally to
the batsman at 25ms-1. The batter hits the ball straight back down the pitch at a
speed of 15ms-1. If contact with the bat lasts 4.0 x 10-2 seconds, find the average
force exerted by the bat on the ball.
7) Forces of 10N and 24N, at right angles to each other, act on a mass of 20kg.
a. What is the resultant force?
b. Determine the magnitude of the acceleration they produce.
c. If there is a frictional force of 1N opposing the motion, what is the magnitude
of the acceleration produced?
d. How much is the acceleration affected by the frictional force?
8) For the diagram shown:
a. Find the resultant force.
b. Find the acceleration produced if the mass of the
moving object is 15kg.

50 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

COMBINING FORCES - continued

9) Point x in the diagram is at rest under the action of the three forces illustrated. Find:
a. The resultant of F2 and F3.
b. The magnitude of F2.
c. The resultant of the forces if F2 and F3 are
doubled in size.

10) What is the total force acting on the point X?

11) A rally driver needs to drive due north. The road he is able to take is on a bearing
of 030 and the average speed he travels along that road is 25ms-1. Determine
the drivers average velocity due north in km/h.

12) A box slides down a chute. What is the component of gravity acting:
a. down the chute?
b. normal to the chute?
13) A car starts from rest and rolls down a hill inclined at 10 to the horizontal.
a. Determine the acceleration of the car down the hill.
b. If the car has a mass of 1.2 tonnes, find the net force acting down the hill.
c. If friction is acting up the slope with a magnitude of 1kN, find the net force
down the hill.
14) A car is driven at constant speed of 10ms-1 around a curve with radius 5m.
Including passengers and luggage, the mass of the car is 1800kg. Calculate:
a. the net force on the loaded car.
b. the acceleration of the loaded car.
c. the net force acting on an 80kg passenger.
15) A racing car with a mass of 850kg is speeding around a circular banked track at
220km/h. The centripetal acceleration is measured as 5ms-2.
a. What is the centripetal force acting on the racing car?
b. Calculate the radius of the circular track.
c. Why can the car travel faster on a banked track than on a flat track?

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 51


MOVING ABOUT

COMBINING FORCES

ANSWERS
1) a. 5ms-2 west
b. 1.5ms-2 north
2) a. 15N
b. 0.1N
3) a. Tape A
b. Tape A (no acceleration) and Tape C
c. Tape B in the section between 4 and 7
4) a. 0.2ms-1
b. 0.1ms-2
c. Constantly decelerating
d. 0.0025N
5) 16g
6) 150N
7) a. 26N
b. 1.3ms-2
c. 1.25ms-2
d. By 0.05ms-2
10 2 N at bearing 045
8) a. 10
b. 0.94ms-2
9) a. 100 2 N in the direction opposite F1
b. 100N
c. Net force on x is 100 2 N in the direction opposite to F1.
10) 0N (the resultant of 4.5N and 6N forces is 7.5N and acts in exactly the opposite direction).
11) 78kmh-1
12) a. 4.9ms-2
b. 8.5ms-2
13) a. 1.7ms-2
b. 12kN
c. 11kN down the hill
14) a. 36kN
b. 20ms-2
c. 1.6kN
15) a. 4.3kN
b. 750m
c. A component of gravity acts on the car towards the centre of the banked tracks curve,
adding to its centripetal acceleration. The vehicle can then maintain the same line on
the track (i.e. same radius) at a greater velocity.

52 Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource


MOVING ABOUT

KINETIC ENERGY

Kinetic Energy
Moving objects possess kinetic energy. If work is done on the moving object then the kinetic
energy it possesses can be increased. For example, accelerating a vehicle to a higher speed
increases its kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy is proportional to the mass and the square of the velocity of an object, and is
measured in joules.
The formula used to calculate the kinetic energy of a body is:

1 22
Ek = mvmv
2
Work
Work done is measured in joules and represents the gain in kinetic energy obtained by that work.
It can also be calculated if the force applied and the distance over which it is applied are both
known.
The formula used to calculate the work done on an object is:

sFs
W =F
Note that 1 joule = 1 newton metre.

Quantity Formula Symbol Basic SI Unit Unit Abbreviation


kinetic energy Ek joule J
mass m kilogram kg
velocity v metres per second ms-1
work W joule J
force F newton N
distance s metre m

When collisions occur kinetic energy (energy of movement) is transformed into heat and sound.
It also causes distortions to the physical bodies involved in the collision (mechanical energy).
Kinetic energy is also transferred from one body to another in the form of movement or velocity
change.

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MOVING ABOUT

KINETIC ENERGY - continued


Questions
1) Explain the meaning of the concept of work in physics.

2) Explain kinetic energy.

3) A car of mass 1 tonne changes its speed from 10ms-1 to 25ms-1 in 30 seconds.
a. Find the increase in kinetic energy.
b. If power is calculated by dividing the amount of work done by the time,
determine the power of the engine.

4) Calculate the kinetic energy of a 50 tonne semitrailer moving at 100kmh-1.

5) What is the mass of a vehicle that has kinetic energy of 1.2MJ and a speed of 30ms-1?

6) A man of mass 90kg spins around a circular ride in a fun park. If the circle of
rotation has a radius of 10 metres, determine:
a. the speed of rotation if it takes one minute to rotate 10 times.
b. the mans kinetic energy due to the rotation.

7) The engine from a racing car set does work of 2.4kJ on a car of mass 300g.
Find the speed of the car.

8) Distinguish between an energy transfer and an energy transformation.

9) How much work is done when a 5kg object is lifted to a height of 10 metres?

10) What is the kinetic energy of a motorbike and its rider when it is travelling at
90kmh-1, if the mass of the rider is 70kg and the bike 200kg?

11)
A parked car starts rolling down a hill because the handbrake fails. After it has
rolled 40 metres the 1200kg car has reached a speed of 20ms-1. Calculate:
a. the gain in kinetic energy of the car.

b. the net force acting on the car while it is rolling down the hill assuming no
air resistance or friction.

12) How much work is done in changing the speed of a 20 tonne mass from 20ms-1 to
40ms-1?

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MOVING ABOUT

KINETIC ENERGY

ANSWERS

1) Work is measured in joules and is the amount of effort required to produce a


given amount of energy.

2) Energy of movement.

3) a. 262.5kJ
b. 8750W

4) 19.3MJ

5) 2667kg

6) a. 10.5ms-1

b. 4935J

7) 126ms-1

8) An energy transfer is when energy is moved from one place to another. An


energy transformation is when energy changes from one form to another. For
example, kinetic energy to heat energy.

9) 490J

10) 84.4kJ

11) a. 240kJ
b. 6kN

12) 12MJ

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 55


MOVING ABOUT

IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

What is Momentum?
Momentum is mass times velocity.
The symbol for momentum is p.
Momentum is directly proportional to mass.
Momentum is directly proportional to velocity.
The formula for calculating the momentum of a moving object is
p=mvmv
Momentum is important in collisions.

The Impulse Equation


This equation can be derived by starting with the formula
F =m ama
Force = mass acceleration

v u m(v u )
Since acceleration, a = then F =
t t
m
v -mu
mv m
u
F=
t
F
t =m
Ft vmv - m
umu . . . . . . The Impulse Equation
Note that in the impulse equation above:
Ft = the impulse of a force
mv = the final momentum
mu = the initial momentum

Impulse of a Force
Impulse = Force Time
The impulse of a force changes the momentum. A greater time of impact means a greater change
in momentum.
Good tennis players follow through to maximise contact between the tennis racquet and the ball.
This results in a greater change in momentum.
During a collision, the force is enormous if the impact time is small.

p
F=
t
During a car crash, when t is small, the force is enormous and can cause serious injury to the
passengers.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM - continued

Use the three formulae below to complete the following questions.

II = Ft
= Ft
F
t =
Ft =m vmv - mu
m
u
pp == mv
mv

1) Can both a 50kg and a 100kg person have the same momentum? Explain.
2) Calculate the momentum of an 80kg footballer moving at 5ms-1.
3) Find the speed of an object with momentum 80kgms-1 and mass 0.5kg.
4) Calculate the momentum of:
a. A 500kg motorbike moving at 80kmh-1.
b. A 20 tonne truck moving at 100kmh-1.
c. A 1kg packet of rice being tossed across a room at 5ms-1.
5) A car of mass 800kg moving at 20ms-1 uses its brakes, that can apply a force
of 6400N to the car. How long will it take for the car to stop?
6) In a game of snooker, a player hits a 200g ball with the cue. This exerts an average
force of 40N south on the ball for 10 milliseconds.
a. What is the impulse of the force exerted on the ball?
b. Find the change in momentum of the ball.
c. With what velocity does the ball leave the cue?
7) A railway carriage of mass 700kg is travelling at 4ms-1 due north. It comes to rest in
2.5 seconds when the engine pulling it stops.
a. Calculate the impulse.
b. Calculate the change in momentum.
c. Calculate the average force acting to stop the carriage.
8) A driver of mass 70kg could survive a force of 7700N during an impact if his vehicle
is moving at 90kmh-1.
a. For how long should the vehicle crumple after hitting a solid wall head on if he
is to survive the collision?
b. What will be his acceleration during this collision?
9) a. Find the force necessary to stop a 10t truck moving at 24ms-1 in 4s.
b. Truck brakes normally deliver the weight force of the truck, otherwise the
driver would be injured. Use the formula W = m gmg to calculate the braking force
needed for the truck.
c. Determine whether it is possible to stop the 10t truck from 24ms-1 in 4 seconds.
10) Find the frictional force to stop a 1200kg car in 6s from 40kmh-1.

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MOVING ABOUT

IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

ANSWERS

1) Yes. Momentum is mass times velocity so if the 50kg person is travelling at twice the
velocity of the 100kg person, both would have the same momentum.

2) 400kgms-1

3) 160ms-1

4) a. 11111kgms-1
b. 555556kgms-1
c. 5kgms-1

5) 2.5s

6) a. 0.4Ns
b. 0.4kgms-1
c. 2ms-1

7) a. 2800Ns
b. 2800kgms-1
c. 1120N

8) a. 0.23s
b. 110ms-2

9) a. 60kN
b. 49kN
c. No. The braking force of 49kN is less than the force of 60kN required to
stop the truck.

10) 2222N

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FORCE-TIME GRAPHS

A force-time graph illustrates very clearly how the force of an object involved in a collision varies
with time. The graph below illustrates variation of the force over time of a ball that is dropped to
the floor and bounces back up again.
The shaded area under the curve represents the impulse of the force.

The area under a force-time curve represents the impulse or change of momentum. The standard
SI unit of impulse is the Newton second.

Example 1
What is the impulse of a constant force of 5 newtons over 5 seconds?
Mathematically, II == Ft
F
t = 5 x1010==50 50Ns
N
s
Graphically, impulse is represented by the area under the rectangle as shown in the graph. Area
of rectangle is 5 10 = 50Ns

Example 2
Given the following force-time graph, find the impulse of the force.
Graphically, the impulse is given by the shaded area that consists of a rectangle and a triangle.
Therefore impulse = 8 1 + 4 2
= 12Ns

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MOVING ABOUT

FORCE-TIME GRAPHS - continued

Questions
1) The following force-time graphs represent the force applied to an object versus time.
What is the total impulse applied to the object in each case?

a) b)

d)
c)

e)

2) Sketch a force-time graph to represent the following and calculate the impulse of the
force in each case.
a. A body moves with a constant force of 2N for 5 seconds.
b. An object moves under a constant force of 100N for 1 minute.
c. A vehicle endures a constant force of 2.7kN for 15 seconds.

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FORCE-TIME GRAPHS

ANSWERS
1) a. 800Ns

b. 150Ns

c. 112.5Ns

d. 40Ns

e. 200Ns

2) a. 10Ns

b. 6000Ns

c. 40500Ns

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 61


MOVING ABOUT

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Collisions
The Law of Conservation of Momentum allows us to predict the motion of masses after they have
been involved in a collision.
The law states:
Sum of momenta of all objects = Sum of momenta of all objects
before the collision after the collision

i.e. p before collision = p after collision


m1u1 + m2u2 + m3u3 + = m1v1 + m2v2 + m3v3 +

Note that units of momentum may be expressed as kilogram metres per second (kgms-1) or
Newton seconds (Ns).

Example
A car of mass 900kg travelling at a speed of 80kmh-1 runs into the back of a stationary car of
mass 750kg. After the collision the 900kg car is still moving at 15kmh-1. Calculate the speed of
the 750kg car after the collision.

Solution
Choose forward motion as positive. Convert all quantities to base SI units.
m1u1 + m2u2=m1v1 + m2v2
900 22.2 + 750 0 = 900 4.17 + 750 v2
19980 = 3753+750v2
16227 = 750v2
v2 = 21.6ms-1

The speed of the 750kg car is 21.6ms-1 or 77.9kmh-1 in the same direction as the 900kg car was
originally travelling.

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CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM - continued

Questions
1) Two bodies collide head on (on a linear air track). Body A has mass 125g and an
initial velocity of +1.5ms-1 and Body B has mass 150g and initial velocity of -1.0ms-1.
If the cars stick together, find:
a. initial momentum of body A.
b. initial momentum of B.
c. total initial momentum.
d. total final momentum.
e. change in momentum (impulse).
2) A car X of mass 1450kg moving at 20ms-1 collides head on with an identical car Y
travelling in the opposite direction, also at 20ms-1.
a. What is the momentum of X before the collision?
b. What is the momentum of both cars combined after the collision?
c. What is the total kinetic energy of both cars before the collision?
d. Where has this energy gone after the collision?
e. The relative speed between X and Y is 40ms-1. A single car travelling at
this speed and colliding with a rigid stationary object would experience much
greater damage than in the first collision. Explain why.
3) Two identical cars of mass 1200kg are travelling in opposite directions. Car A is travelling
at 50kmh-1 and Car B at 60kmh-1. They collide and become locked together on impact.
What is the velocity after impact?
4) A 200g ball travelling at 20ms-1 has a collision with a stationary ball. After the collision
the 200g ball joins with the stationary ball and continues to move forwards with a speed
of 15ms-1. What is the mass of the stationary ball?
5) A learner driver, reversing out of the driveway hits a stationary garbage bin that has a
mass of 30kg. The car has a mass of 1100kg and is travelling at a speed of 5ms-1. During
the collision the car loses 20% of its reversing momentum. Find the new speed of the
garbage bin.
6) A car of mass 1500kg moving at 25ms-1 collides head on with a car of mass 1000kg
moving at 30ms-1. The heavier car rebounds at 3ms-1. Find the velocity of the lighter car
after the collision.
7) Two cars of mass 1000kg and both moving at 20ms-1 collide head on and lock together.
Find:
a. the new speed of the combined mass after the collision.
b. the impulse on one of the drivers who weighs 60kg.
c. the force on the driver in part b, if the collision lasts 0.5 seconds.
8) A car of mass 0.9 tonnes and speed 9ms-1 ploughs into the back of a stationary car of
mass 750kg. After the collision the larger car is still moving at 3ms-1. Find the new speed
of the car that has been hit.
9) A rifle of mass 5kg fires a 45g bullet with muzzle velocity 1000ms-1. Find the speed of
the rifle recoil.
10) A 3kg mass moving North at 6ms-1 collides with a 4.5kg mass moving South at 7ms-1.
Find the final velocity of the combined mass.

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MOVING ABOUT

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

ANSWERS
1) a. +0.1875kgms -1

b. -0.15kgms-1
c. 0.0375kgms-1

d. 0.0375kgms-1
e. 0.136ms-1
f. 0

2) a. 29000kgms-1
b. 0
c. 580000J
d. As sound energy, heat energy and to crumple the cars.
e. A single car moving at 40ms-1 towards a stationary object would have kinetic
energy of 1/2 m 402 or 800m. However, if the cars were travelling in
opposite directions at 20ms-1 (i.e. relative velocity 40ms-1) the kinetic energy
would be 1/2 m 202 + 1/2 m 202 or 400m. Note that the collision with
the stationary object has much greater kinetic energy.

3) 5kmh-1 or 1.39ms-1 in the same direction as the 60kmh-1 car.

4) 67g

5) 36.7ms-1

6) 12ms-1

7) a. 0
b. 1200kgms-1
c. 2400N

8) 7.2ms-1

9) 9ms-1

10) 1.8ms-1 south

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MOVING ABOUT

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
A PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION

Aim
To investigate conservation of momentum in a collision.

Equipment Required
Linear air track with constant air supply
Ticker timer connected to a 50Hz power supply
Strips of velcro
150g car
300g car

Method
Set up the linear air track and ticker timer as illustrated in the diagram.
Check that the ticker timer paper is attached securely to the 150g car so that it is pulling
freely through the timer.
Attach a velcro tab to each car so they stick together after the collision.
Place the 300g car stationary in the middle of the linear air track as shown.
Put the 150g car in motion towards the 300g car (using a compressed spring would be an
easy way to do this).
Once the 150g car is in motion the results will be recorded on the ticker timer
Repeat 10 times.
Note that the ticker timer operates at a frequency of 50Hz so each time interval between

1
the dots is second.
50
50
Record your results (both time and displacement) in a table.

Results
Record results in a table showing time and displacement readings.
Graph the results on a displacement-time graph.
From the gradient of the graph, calculate the velocity of the150g car both before and after
the collision.

Conclusion

Write a valid conclusion to your experimental results by considering the following questions:
1. How do the velocities before and after the collision compare?
2. What relationship is suggested between mass and velocity by your results?
3. Is momentum conserved in this collision?
4. Does this experiment support the Law of Conservation of Momentum?

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MOVING ABOUT

REVISION QUESTIONS

1) Categorise the following as either vector or scalar quantities:


a. displacement
b. distance
c. speed
d. velocity
e. acceleration
f. force
g. energy
h. kinetic energy
i. momentum
j. mass
2) Explain the difference between mass and weight.
3) What is inertia?
4) A car travels 10km north, then 24km east in 25 minutes. Calculate:
a. the distance it has travelled.
b. its displacement.
c. its average speed.
d. its average velocity.

5) Explain the meaning of instantaneous velocity of a vehicle.

6) Calculate the time it takes for a cyclist to accelerate from a speed of 3ms-1 to 12ms-1 at
a constant acceleration of 1.5ms-2.

7) An aircraft moving at 250ms-1 north encounters a cross wind from the west. The cross
wind has a speed of 20kmh-1. Find the resultant velocity of the aircraft.

8) A truck is travelling north across the harbour bridge at 15ms-1. Whilst it is doing this, a
ship is moving east under the bridge at 15ms-1. Find the velocity of the truck relative to
the ship.

9) The following displacement-time graph represents the motion of a cyclist who initially
travels north. The graph is divided into sections as follows - A (0-30 seconds), B (30-40
seconds), C (40-60 seconds), D (60-100 seconds).

From the graph, determine:


a. the distance travelled in one minute.
b. the displacement after one minute.
c. the velocity in section C.

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MOVING ABOUT

REVISION QUESTIONS - continued

d. the average speed over the first minute.


e. the average velocity over the first minute.
f. the average speed over section D.
g. the average speed for the whole jouney.
h. the average velocity for the whole journey.

10) Use the following velocity-time graph to answer the questions.

a. What is the total distance travelled in 20 seconds?


b. What is the displacement after 10 seconds?
c. What is the constant acceleration in the first 5 seconds?
d. What is the average velocity over the 20 seconds?

11) Does this graph represent constant velocity? Explain.

12) What quantity is represented by the area under this acceleration-time graph? Calculate
its value and express in its correct units.

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MOVING ABOUT

REVISION QUESTIONS - continued

13) A car has a mass of 750kg. The engine applies a force of 2000N forwards against friction
of 500N. Find:
a. the net force of the engine.
b. the acceleration of the car.
c. the velocity after 19 seconds if the car starts from rest.

14) A truck has a mass of 4.8 tonnes. Find the net force required to accelerate it at
2.0ms-1.

15) A car of mass 1000kg is moving at constant speed down the open highway against air
resistance of 1200N and a friction force of 550N. Find:
a. the acceleration of the car.
b. the constant force delivered by the engine.
c. the acceleration of the car if the air resistance is halved.

16) The weight force of a man is 875N. Find his mass.

17) A blimp flies northeast at 50ms-1 (relative to the ground) and sights an aircraft moving
southeast at 250ms-1 (relative to the ground). Find the speed of the aircraft relative to the
blimp.

18) A car has a mass of 1300kg. Calculate:


a. the weight of the car on the surface of the Earth.
b. the weight force of the car on Mercury, where the acceleration due to gravity is
approximately 3.7ms-2.

19) A car rolls freely down a hill.


a. Draw a diagram showing all of the forces acting on the car.
b. What is the greatest force acting on the car?
c. What direction is the overall force acting on the car?

20) What is kinetic energy?

21) Calculate the kinetic energy of a 30 tonne ferry moving at 10kmh-1?

22) What mass has a speed of 35ms-1 and kinetic energy of 3.5MJ?

23) What is the speed of a 12 tonne truck with kinetic energy of 2MJ?

24) A car of mass 1350kg changes its speed from 5ms-1 to 15ms-1 in 20 seconds.
a. Determine the increase in kinetic energy.
b. Determine the power used to perform this task.

25) Define momentum.

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REVISION QUESTIONS - continued


26) Calculate the momentum of a 90kg football player moving at 7ms-1.

27) Calculate the speed of a toy car weighing 600g with momentum 15kgms-1.

28) Calculate the impulse of a wall that applies 120kN of force on a car during a 0.3 second
collision.

29) Using the graph below, answer the following questions.


a. What quantity is represented by the area under the graph.
b. Calculate the total impulse over the 15 seconds.

30) An engine applies a force of 150N for 60 seconds to a car of mass 900kg.
Find:
a. the impulse of the force.
b. the change in momentum.
c. the final velocity if the car began at 5ms-1.

31) A car of mass 1600kg moving at 20ms-1 collides head on with a car of mass 1000kg
moving at 25ms-1 in the opposite direction. The heavier car rebounds at 1.5ms-1. Find
the velocity of the second car after the collision.

32) A driver hits a stationary object of mass 50kg in a car of mass 900kg and speed 10ms-1.
The car loses 25% of its forward speed during the collision. Find the new speed of the
stationary object.

33) A car of mass 1100kg moving at 18ms-1 is stopped using brake pads that can apply a
force of 6000N to the car. How long will it take for the car to stop?

34) A driver of mass 75kg may be able to survive a force of 7500N during impact. If the
vehicle is moving at 30ms-1:
a. How long must the car be allowed to crumple if the driver is to survive the
collision with a solid brick wall?
b. What will be the drivers acceleration in this collision?

35) Give three methods used to improve the safety of cars. Describe how each method
helps to reduce serious injuries and fatalities.

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MOVING ABOUT

REVISION QUESTIONS

ANSWERS
1) a. vector
b. scalar
c. scalar
d. vector
e. vector
f. vector
g. scalar
h. scalar
i. vector
j. scalar
2) Mass is the amount of substance of an object and is measured in kilograms. Weight is a
force, is measured in Newtons and is the product of the mass and the acceleration due to
gravity.
3) Inertia is the tendency of a body to remain at constant velocity or at rest and is directly
related to the mass.
4) a. 34km
b. 25km on a bearing of 067.4
c. 81.6kmh-1
d. 60kmh-1
5) Instantaneous velocity is the velocity at any given instant of time. If the velocity is constantly
changing then the instantaneous velocity will be constantly changing.
6) 6s
7) 250.1ms-1 on a bearing of 00116
8) 21.2ms-1 on a bearing of 315
9) a. 500m
b. -100m
c. -15ms-1

d. 8.3ms-1
e. -1.7ms-1
f. 7.5ms-1
g. 8ms-1
h. 2ms-1
10) a. 125m
b. 62.5m
c. 2ms-2
d. 0ms-1
11) No. As there is acceleration on the body there must be an external force acting on it. This
results in a changing velocity.
12) Velocity. Its value is 50ms-1
13) a. 1500N
b. 2ms-2
c. 38ms-1
14) 9600N
15) a. 0ms-2

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REVISION QUESTIONS

ANSWERS - continued

b. 1750N
c. 0.6ms-2
16) 89.3kg
17) 255ms-1
18) a. 12740N
b. 4810N
19) a.

b. gravity
c. down the hill, parallel to the incline
20) energy of movement
21) 115741J
22) 5714kg
23) 18.26ms-1
24) a. 135kJ
b. 6750W
25) Momentum is the product of mass times velocity.
26) 630kgms-1
27) 25ms-1
28) 36000Ns
29) a. Impulse b. 112.5Ns
30) a. 9000Ns
b. 9000Ns or 9000kgms-1
c. 15ms-1
31) 9.4ms rebound
-1

32) 45ms-1
33) 3.3s
34) a. 0.3s
b. -100ms-2
35) Crumpling of car body during collision increases time of impact, which reduces the
impulse.
Seat belts prevents excessive forward motion of the passengers due to their
momentum.
Air bags cushions a persons impact with the interior parts of the car or steering wheel.

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MOVING ABOUT

ASSESSMENT TASK
Title: Safety in Motor Vehicles

Type of Task: Research Task

Syllabus Outcomes Addressed

Assess the impact of particular technological advances on understanding in


P3
physics.
P4 Describe applications of physics that affect society or the environment.
Describe the scientific principles employed in particular areas of research in
P5
physics.
P6 Describe the forces acting on an object that causes changes in its motion.

P7 Describe the effects of energy transfers and energy transformations.


Discuss the validity and reliability of data gathered from first hand
P12
investigations and secondary sources.
Identify appropriate terminology and reporting styles to communicate
P13
information and understanding in physics.
P14 Draw valid conclusions from gathered data and information.
Implement strategies to work effectively as an individual or a member of a
P15
team.

The Task
Gather, process, analyse and present secondary information to assess the benefits of technologies
currently used as safety devices in vehicles. Evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies in
reducing injury and saving lives.

Length
The report should be about 500-1000 words in length. Use diagrams where applicable.

Task Description

By considering the concepts of momentum and impulse, assess reasons for:


a. the introduction of low speed zones in built-up areas and around schools.
b. crumple zones in vehicles.
c. seat belts.
d. air bags.
Choose any three particular safety features in vehicles and evaluate their effectiveness
in reducing injury and saving lives.
Select one hazard you consider to be dangerous and propose a safety measure that
could be introduced to reduce injury and save lives.

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ASSESSMENT TASK
Marking Guidelines

A student will:
Demonstrate a very strong practical understanding of secondary information
and thoroughly assesses the benefits of current safety devices.
Demonstrate a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of three safety
17-20
devices.
marks
Submit a thorough written report that is complete and logically set out, that
shows a very strong understanding of concepts.
Use clearly labelled diagrams and/or graphs.
Use relevant physics terminology consistently throughout the report.

A student will:
Demonstrate an understanding of secondary information and assesses the
benefits of current safety devices.
Demonstrate an evaluation of the effectiveness of three safety devices. 13-16
Submit a written report that is complete and logically set out, that shows an marks
understanding of concepts.
Use labelled diagrams and/or graphs.
Use relevant physics terminology frequently throughout the report.

A student will:
Demonstrate some understanding of secondary information and thoroughly
assesses the benefits of current safety devices.
Demonstrate an evaluation of the effectiveness of one or two safety devices. 9-12
Submit a written report that is complete and logically set out, that shows some marks
understanding of concepts.
Use unlabelled diagrams and/or graphs.
Use relevant physics terminology occasionally throughout the report.

A student will:
Demonstrate little understanding of secondary information and assesses only a
few of the benefits of current safety devices.
Demonstrate a minimal evaluation of the effectiveness of safety devices. 0-8
Submit a written report that is incomplete, vague and illogically set out, that marks
shows little understanding of concepts.
Use no diagrams and/or graphs.
Use relevant physics terminology rarely throughout the report.

Preliminary Physics Teacher Resource 73