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STUDY PACKAGE
Subject : Mathematics
Topic : Binomial Theorem
Available Online : www.MathsBySuhag.com

Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 + 5 = 6)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 39 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced)
7. 15 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)

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1.
Binomial
Binomial Expression :
Theorem Any algebraic expression which contains two dissimilar terms
1 1
is called binomial expression. For example : x + y, x 2y + 2 , 3 x, x2 1 + etc.
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3
xy ( x 1)1/ 3
2. Statement of Binomial theorem :
If a, b R and n N, then ;
(a + b)n = n C0 an b0 + n C1 an1 b1 + n C2 an2 b2 +...+ n Cr anr br +...+ n Cn a0 bn

page 2 of 38
n
n
or (a + b) = n Cr an r b r
r 0
Now, putting a = 1 and b = x in the binomial theorem -
or (1 + x)n = n C0 + n C1 x + n C2 x 2 +... + n Cr x r +...+ n Cn x n
n
n
(1 + x) = n Cr x r

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r 0
Solved Example # 1: Expand the following binomials :
2 4

(i) (x 3) 5
(ii) 1 3x
2

Solution.
(i) (x 3)5 = 5C0x 5 + 5C1x 4 ( 3)1 + 5C2 x 3 ( 3)2 + 5C3 x 2 (3)3
+ 5C4 x ( 3)4 + 5C5 ( 3)5
= x 5 15x 4 + 90x 3 270x 2 + 405x 243
4 2
3x 2 3x 2 3x 2
1 = 4C + 4C 4
(ii) 2 + C2
2
0 1
2
3 4
3x 2 3x 2
4
+ C3 + C4
4
2 2

27 4 27 6 81 8
= 1 6x2 + x x + x
2 2 16
20
2x 3 y
Solved Example # 2: Expand the binomial up to four terms
3 2
Solution.
20 20 19 18 2
2x 3y 2x 2x 3y 2x 3y
= C0
20
+ C1
20 + 20C
3 2 3 3 2 2
3 2
17 3
2x 3y
+ C3
20 + ....
3 2
20 18 16 14
2x 2 2 2
= + 20. x y + 190 .
19
x y + 1140
18 2
x 17 y3 + .....
3 3 3 3
Self practice problems
6
y
1. Write the first three terms in the expansion of 2 .
3
5
x2 3
2. Expand the binomial .
3 x
80 2 x10 5 7 10 4 135 243
Ans. (1) 64 64y + y (2) + x + x + 30x + 2 + .
3 243 27 3 x x5
3. Properties of Binomial Theorem :
(i) The number of terms in the expansion is n + 1.
(ii) The sum of the indices of x and y in each term is n.
(iii)The binomial coefficients ( n C0, nC1 .......... n Cn ) of the terms equidistant from the beginning and
the end are equal, i.e. n C0 = n Cn , n C1 = n Cn1 etc. { nCr = nCnr}
Solved Example # 3: The number of dissimilar terms in the expansion of (1 3x + 3x 2 x3)20 is
(A) 21 (B) 31 (C) 41 (D) 61
Solution. (1 3x + 3x 2 x 3)20 = [(1 x)3] 20 = (1 x)60
Therefore number of dissimilar terms in the expansion of (1 3x + 3x x 3)20 is 61.
2

4. Some important terms in the expansion of (x + y) n :


(i)General term :
(x + y)n = n C0 x n y0 + n C1 x n1 y1 + ...........+ n Cr x nr yr + ..........+ n Cn x 0 yn
(r + 1)th term is called general term.
T r+1 = n Cr x nr yr
Solved Example # 4
9
4x 5
Find (i) 28th term of (5x + 8y) 30
(ii) 7th term of
5 2x
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Solution. (i) T 27 + 1 = 30C27 (5x)30 27 (8y)27
30 !
= (5x)3 . (8y)27 Ans.
3 ! 27 !
9
4x 5
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(ii) 7th term of


5 2x
9 6 6
4x 5
T6 + 1 = C6
9
5 2x

page 3 of 38
3 6
9! 4 x 5 10500
= 3! 6! = Ans.
5 2
x x3
Solved Example # 5 : Find the number of rational terms in the expansion of (9 1/4 + 81/6)1000.
Solution. The general term in the expansion of 91/ 4 81/ 6
1000
is
1000 r r
1 1

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1000 r r
9 4 8 6
Tr+1 = 1000
Cr = 1000
Cr 3 2 22

The above term will be rational if exponent of 3 and 2 are integres
1000 r r
It means and must be integers
2 2
The possible set of values of r is {0, 2, 4, ............, 1000}
Hence, number of rational terms is 501 Ans.
(ii) Middle term (s) :
n2
(a)If n is even, there is only one middle term, which is th term.
2
n 1 n1
(b) If n is odd, there are two middle terms, which are th and 1 th terms.
2 2
Solved Example # 6 : Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of
2 14 3 9

(i) 1 x (ii) 3a a
2 6

14
2
Solution. (i) 1 x
2

14 2
Here, n is even, therefore middle term is th term.
2
It means T 8 is middle term
7
x2
T 8 = 14C7 = 429 x14. Ans.
2 16

9
3
(ii) 3a a
6

9 1 9 1
Here, n is odd therefore, middle terms are th & 1 th.
2 2
It means T 5 & T 6 are middle terms
4
a3
T 5 = 9C4 (3a)9 4 = 189 a17 Ans.
6
8
5
a3
9
T 6 = C5 (3a) 95 = 21 a19. Ans.
6 16

n
b
(iii) Term containing specified powers of x in ax
x
15
1
Solved Example # 7: Find the coefficient of x 32 and x17 in x 4 3 .
x
Solution.: Let (r + 1)th term contains x m
r
1
Tr + 1 = 15Cr (x 4)15 r 3
x
= 15Cr x 60 7r ( 1)r
(i) for x 32 , 60 7r = 32
7r = 28 r = 4. (T5)
T 5 = 15C4 x 32 ( 1)4
Hence, coefficient of x 32 is 1365Ans.
(ii) for x 17, 60 7r = 17
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r = 11 (T12)
T 12= 15C11 x 17 ( 1)11
Hence, coefficient of x 17 is 1365 Ans.
(iv) Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (x + y) n , n N
Let T r and T r+1 be the rth and (r + 1)th terms respectively
Tr = n Cr1 x n(r1) yr1
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Tr+1 = n Cr x nr yr
n
Tr 1 Cr x nr y r n r 1 y
Now, Tr = n nr 1 r 1 = .
Cr 1 x y r x

page 4 of 38
Tr 1
Consider Tr 1

n r 1 y
1
r x
n1 x

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1
r y
n 1
r
x
1
y
n 1
Case - When is an integer (say m), then
x
1
y
(i) T r+1 > T r when r < m (r = 1, 2, 3 ...., m 1)
i.e. T 2 > T 1, T 3 > T 2, ......., T m > T m1
(ii) T r+1 = T r when r = m
i.e. T m+1 = T m
(iii) T r+1 < T r when r > m (r = m + 1, m + 2, ..........n )
i.e. T m+2 < T m+1 , T m+3 < T m+2 , ..........T n+1 < T n
n 1
Conclusion : When is an integer, equal to m, then T m and T m+1 will be numerically greatest terms
x
1
y
(both terms are equal in magnitude)
n 1
Case - When is not an integer (Let its integral part be m), then
x
1
y
n 1
(i) T r+1 > T r when r< (r = 1, 2, 3,........, m1, m)
x
1
y
i.e. T 2 > T 1 , T 3 > T 2, .............., T m+1 > T m
n 1
(ii) T r+1 < T r when r > (r = m + 1, m + 2, ..............n)
x
1
y
i.e. T m+2 < T m+1 , T m+3 < T m+2 , .............., T n +1 < T n
n 1
Conclusion : When is not an integer and its integral part is m, then T m+1 will be the numerically
x
1
y
greatest term.
1
Solved Example # 8 Find the numerically greatest term in the expansion of (3 5x) 15 when x = .
5
Solution. Let rth and (r + 1)th be two consecutive terms in the expansion of (3 5x) 15
Tr + 1 Tr
15
Cr 315 r (| 5x|)r 15Cr 1 315 (r 1) (| 5x|)r 1
15)! 3. 15)!
| 5x |
(15 r ) ! r ! (16 r ) ! (r 1) !
1
5. (16 r) 3r
5
16 r 3r
4r 16
r4
Explanation: For r 4, T r + 1 T r T 2 > T1
T 3 > T2
T 4 > T3
T 5 = T4 For r > 5, T r + 1 < T r
T 6 < T5 T 7 < T6

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and so on Hence, T 4 and T 5 are numerically greatest terms and both are equal.
Self practice problems :
9
2 3
3. Find the term independent of x in x
x
4. The sum of all rational terms in the expansion of (31/5 + 21/3)15 is
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(A) 60 (B) 59 (C) 95 (D) 105


8
1
5. Find the coefficient of x 1 in (1 + 3x 2 + x 4) 1
x

page 5 of 38
6. Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of (1 + 3x + 3x 2 + x 3)2n
2
7. Find the numerically greatest term in the expansion of (7 5x) 11 where x = .
3
Ans. (3) 28.37 (4) B (5) 232
6n
440
(6) C3n . x 3n (7) T4 = 78 53.
9

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5. Multinomial Theorem : As we know the Binomial Theorem
n
n
(x + y)n =
r 0
Cr x nr yr

n
n!
= (n r )! r!
r 0
x nr yr
putting n r = r 1 , r = r2
n!
therefore, (x + y)n = r
r1 r2 n 1

! r2 !
x r1 . y r2

Total number of terms in the expansion of (x + y)n is equal to number of non-negative integral solution
of r1 + r2 = n i.e. n+21C21 = n+1C1 = n + 1
In the same fashion we can write the multinomial theorem
n!
(x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + ........... x k)n = r !
r r ... r n 1 2
r x r1 . x r22 ...x rkk
!... rk ! 1
1 2 k

Here total number of terms in the expansion of (x 1 + x 2 + .......... + x k)n is equal to number of non-
negative integral solution of r 1 + r2 + ........ + rk = n i.e. n+k1Ck1
Solved Example # 9 Find the coeff. of a2 b 3 c4 d in the expansion of (a b c + d) 10
(10 )!
Solution. (a b c + d) 10 = r1 r2 r3
r ! r ! r ! r ! (a) ( b) ( c ) (d)
r1 r2 r3 r4 10 1 2 3 4
r4

we want to get a2 b3 c4 d this implies that r1 = 2, r2 = 3, r3 = 4, r4 = 1


coeff. of a2 b3 c4 d is
(10)!
(1)3 (1)4 = 12600 Ans.
2! 3! 4! 1!
11
7
Solved Example # 10 In the expansion of 1 x find the term independent of x.
x
Solution.
11 (11)! r
7 73
1 x
x
= r ! r !r ! (1)r1 ( x)r2
r1 r2 r3 11 1 2 3 x
7
The exponent 11 is to be divided among the base variables 1, x and in such a way so that we get x 0.
x
Therefore, possible set of values of (r 1, r2, r3) are (11, 0, 0), (9, 1, 1), (7, 2, 2), (5, 3, 3), (3, 4, 4),
(1, 5, 5)
Hence the required term is
(11)! (11)! (11)! (11)! (11)! (11)!
(70) + 9! 1 !1 ! 71 + 7! 2 ! 2 ! 72 + 5! 3 ! 3 ! 73 + 3! 4 ! 4 ! 74 + 1 ! 5 ! 5 ! 75
(11)!
(11)! 2! (11)! 4! (11) ! 6!
= 1 + 9 ! 2 ! . 1 ! 1 ! 71 + 7 ! 4 ! . 2 ! 2 ! 72 + 5 ! 6 ! . 3 ! 3 ! 73
(11) ! 8! (11) ! (10) !
+ . 74 + . 75
3! 8! 4!4! 1 ! 10 ! 5! 5!
= 1 + 11C2 . 2C1 . 71 + 11C4 . 4C2 . 72 + 11C6 . 6C3 . 73 + 11C8 . 8C4 . 74 + 11C10 . 10C5 . 75
5
11
= 1+
r 1
C 2r . 2rC . 7r
r
Ans.
Self practice problems :
8. The number of terms in the expansion of (a + b + c + d + e + f) n is
(A) n+4C4 (B) n+3Cn (C) n+5Cn (D) n + 1
9. Find the coefficient of x 3 y4 z2 in the expansion of (2x 3y + 4z) 9
10. Find the coefficient of x 4 in (1 + x 2x 2)7

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9!
Ans. (8) C (9) 3! 4! 2!
(10) 23 34 42 91
6. Application of Binomial Theorem :
n
(i) If ( A B ) = + f w here an d n are p osi ti ve in teg ers, n bei ng o d d an d
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0 < f < 1 then ( + f) f = k where A B2 = k > 0 and


n
A B < 1.
If n is an even integer, then ( + f) (1 f) = kn
Solved Example # 11
If n is positive integer, then prove that the integral part of (7 + 4 3 )n is an odd number..

page 6 of 38
Solution. Let (7 + 4 3 )n = + f .............(i)
where & f are its integral and fractional parts respectively.
It means 0 < f < 1
Now, 0<74 3 <1
0 < (7 4 3 )n < 1

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Let (7 4 3 )n = f .............(ii)
0 < f < 1
Adding (i) and (ii)
+ f + f = (7 + 4 3 )n + (7 4 3 )n
= 2 [ n C0 7n + n C2 7n 2 (4 3 )2 + ..........]
+ f + f = even integer(f + f must be an integer)
0 < f + f < 2 f + f = 1
+ 1 = even integer
therefore is an odd integer.
Solved Example # 12
Show that the integer just above ( 3 + 1)2n is divisible by 2n + 1 for all n N.
Solution. Let ( 3 + 1)2n = (4 + 2 3 )n = 2n (2 + 3 )n = + f ..........(i)
where and f are its integral & fractional parts respectively
0 < f < 1.
Now 0< 3 1<1
0 < ( 3 1)2n < 1
Let ( 3 1)2n = (4 2 3 )n = 2n (2 3 )n = f. ........(ii)
0 < f < 1
adding (i) and (ii)
+ f + f = ( 3 + 1)2n + ( 3 1)2n
= 2n [(2 + 3 )n + (2 3 )n ]
= 2.2n [ n C0 2n + n C2 2n 2 ( 3 )2 + ........]
+ f + f =2n + 1 k (where k is a positive integer)
0 < f + f < 2 f + f= 1
+ 1 = 2n + 1 k.
+ 1 is the integer just above ( 3 + 1)2n and which is divisible by 2n + 1.
(ii) Cheking divisibility
Solved Example # 13: Show that 9n + 7 is divisible by 8, where n is a positive integer.
Solution. 9n + 7 = (1 + 8)n + 7
= n C0 + n C1 . 8 + n C2 . 82 + ....... + n Cn 8n + 7.
= 8. C1 + 82. C2 + ....... + Cn . 8n + 8.
= 8 where, is a positive integer, Hence, 9n + 7 is divisible by 8.
(iii) Finding remainder
Solved Example # 14
What is the remainder when 5 99 is divided by 13.
Solution.: 599 = 5.598 = 5. (25)49
= 5 (26 1)49
= 5 [ 49C0 (26)49 49C1 (26)48 + .......... + 49C48 (26)1 49C49 (26)0]
= 5 [ 49C0 (26)49 49C1 (26)48 + ...........+ 49C48 (26)1 1]
= 5 [ 49C0 (26)49 49C1(26)48 + .......... + 49C48 (26)1 13] + 60
= 13 (k) + 52 + 8 (where k is a positive integer)
= 13 (k + 4) + 8 Hence, remainder is 8. Ans.
(iv) Finding last digit, last two digits and last there digits of the given number.
Solved Example # 15: Find the last two digits of the number (17) 10.
Solution. (17)10 = (289)5
= (290 1)5
= 5C0 (290)5 5C1 (290)4 + ........ + 5C4 (290)1 5C5 (290)0
= 5C0 (290)5 5C1 . (290)4 + ......... 5C3 (290)2 + 5 290 1
= A multiple of 1000 + 1449 Hence, last two digits are 49 Ans.
Note : We can also conclude that last three digits are 449.
(v) Comparison between two numbers
Solved Example # 16 : Which number is larger (1.01) 1000000 or 10,000 ?
Solution.: By Binomial Theorem
(1.01)1000000 = (1 + 0.01)1000000
= 1 + 1000000C1 (0.01) + other positive terms
= 1 + 1000000 0.01 + other positive terms
= 1 + 10000 + other positive terms, Hence (1.01)1000000 > 10,000
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Self practice problems :
11. If n is positive integer, prove that the integral part of (5 5 + 11)2n + 1 is an even number..
12. If (7 + 4 3 )n = + , where is a positive integer and is a proper fraction then prove that
(1 ) ( + ) = 1.
13. If n is a positive integer then show that 3 2n + 1 + 2n + 2 is divisible by 7.
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14. What is the remainder when 7103 is divided by 25 .


15. Find the last digit, last two digits and last three digits of the number (81) 25.
16. Which number is larger (1.2) 4000 or 800
Ans. (14) 18 (15) 1, 01, 001 (16) (1.2)4000.
7. Properties of Binomial Coefficients :

page 7 of 38
(1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + ......... + Cr x r + .......... + Cn x n ......(1)
(1) The sum of the binomial coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x) n is 2n
Putting x = 1 in (1)
n
C0 + n C1 + n C2 + ........+ n Cn = 2n ......(2)
n
n
or Cr 2n

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r0
(2) Again putting x = 1 in (1), we get
n
C0 n C1 + n C2 n C3 + ............. + (1) n n Cn = 0 ......(3)
n
r n
or (1)
r 0
Cr 0

(3) The sum of the binomial coefficients at odd position is equal to the sum of the binomial coefficients
at even position and each is equal to 2n1.
from (2) and (3)
n
C + n C2 + n C4 + ................ = 2n1
n 0
C1 + n C3 + n C5 + ................ = 2n1
(4) Sum of two consecutive binomial coefficients
n
Cr + n Cr1 = n+1Cr
n! n!
L.H.S. = n Cr + n Cr1 = +
(n r )! r! (n r 1)! (r 1)!
n! 1 1 n! (n 1)
= (n r )! (r 1)! = (n r )! (r 1)!
r n r 1 r(n r 1)
(n 1)!
= (n r 1)! r! = n+1Cr = R.H.S.
(5) Ratio of two consecutive binomial coefficients
n
Cr n r 1
n =
Cr 1 r
n n1 n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2).........(n (r 1))
n n2
(6) Cr = Cr1 = Cr2 = ............. =
r r(r 1) r (r 1)(r 2).......2 .1
Solved Example # 17
If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + ............. + cn xn , then show that
(i) C0 + 3C1 + 32C2 + .......... + 3n Cn = 4n .
(ii) C0 + 2C1 + 3. C2 + ........ + (n + 1) Cn = 2n 1 (n + 2).
C1 C2 C3 Cn 1
(iii) C0 + + ......... + ( 1) n = .
2 3 4 n1 n1
n 2 n
Solution. (i) (1 + x) = C0 + C1 x + C2x + ........... + Cn x
put x = 3
C0 + 3 . C1 + 32 . C2 + .......... + 3n . Cn = 4n
(ii) Method : By Summation
L.H.S. = n C0 + 2. n C1 + 3 . n C2 + ........ + (n + 1). n Cn .
n
= (r 1) .
r 0
n
Cr

n n n n

= r. n C r + n
Cr =n n1
Cr 1 + n
Cr
r 0 r 0 r 0 r 0
= n . 2n 1 + 2n = 2n 1 (n + 2). RHS
Method : By Differentiation
(1 + x)n = C0 + Cxx + C2x 2 + ........... + Cn x n
Multiplying both sides by x,
x(1 + x)n = C0x + C1x 2 + C2x 3 + ........ + Cn x n + 1.
Differentiating both sides
(1 + x)n + x n (1 + x) n 1 = C0 + 2. C1 + 3 . C2x 2 + ....... + (n + 1)Cn x n .
putting x = 1, we get
C0 + 2.C1 + 3 . C2 + ...... + (n + 1) Cn = 2n + n . 2n 1
C0 + 2.C1 + 3 . C2 + ...... + (n + 1) Cn = 2n 1 (n + 2) Proved
(iii) Method : By Summation
C C2 C Cn
L.H.S. = C0 1 + 3 + ........ + ( 1) n .
2 3 4 n1
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n
n
r Cr
= (1)
r0
.
r 1
n
1 ( 1)r . n + 1C n 1 n
= r+1

r 1
. Cr n1Cr 1
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n1 r 0
1
= [ n + 1C1 n + 1C2 + n + 1C3 .............+ ( 1) n . n + 1Cn + 1]
n1
1

page 8 of 38
= [ n + 1C0 + n + 1C1 n + 1C2 + ......... + ( 1) n . n + 1Cn + 1 + n + 1C0]
n1
1
=
n1

= R.H.S. n1 C 0 n1 C1 n1 C 2 ... (1)n n 1Cn1 0
Method : By Integration
(1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + ...... + Cn x n .
Integrating both sides, with in the limits 1 to 0.

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0 0
(1 x )n 1 x2 x3 x n 1
= C0 x C1 C2 ..... Cn
n 1 1 2 3 n 1
1

1 C1 C2 C
0 = 0 C0 ..... (1)n 1 n
n1 2 3 n 1
C C2 Cn 1
C0 1 + .......... + ( 1) n = Proved
2 3 n1 n1
Solved Example # 18 If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + ........+ Cn xn , then prove that
(i) C02 + C12 + C22 + ...... + Cn 2 = 2n Cn
(ii) C0C2 + C1C3 + C2C4 + .......... + Cn 2 Cn = 2n Cn 2 or 2n Cn + 2
(iii) 1. C0 + 3 . C1 + 5. C2 + ......... + (2n + 1) . C n . = 2n. 2n 1Cn + 2n Cn .
2 2 2 2

Solution. (i) (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + ......... + Cn x n . ........(i)


(x + 1)n = C0x n + C1x n 1+ C2x n 2 + ....... + Cn x 0 ........(ii)
Multiplying (i) and (ii)
(C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + ......... + Cn x n ) (C0x n + C1x n 1 + ......... + Cn x 0) = (1 + x)2n
Comparing coefficient of xn,
C02 + C12 + C22 + ........ + Cn 2 = 2n Cn
(ii) From the product of (i) and (ii) comparing coefficients of x n 2 or x n + 2 both sides,
C0C2 + C1C3 + C2C4 + ........ + Cn 2 Cn = 2n Cn 2 or 2nCn + 2.
(iii) Method : By Summation
L.H.S. = 1. C02 + 3. C12 + 5. C22 + .......... + (2n + 1) Cn 2.
n
= (2r 1)
r 0
n
C r2

n n n
n
= 2.r . (n Cr)2 + ( Cr ) 2 =2 . n . n1
Cr 1 n Cr + 2n Cn
r 0 r 0 r 1
(1 + x)n = n C1 + n C4 x + n C2 x 2 + ............. n Cn x n ..........(i)
(x + 1)n 1 = n 1C0 x n 1 + n 1C1 x n 2 + .........+ n 1Cn 1x 0 .........(ii)
Multiplying (i) and (ii) and comparing coeffcients of x n.
n1
C0 . n C1 + n 1C1 . n C2 + ........... + n 1Cn 1 . n Cn = 2n 1Cn
n
n 1

r0
Cr 1 . n Cr = 2n 1Cn

Hence, required summation is


2n. 2n 1Cn + 2n Cn = R.H.S.
Method : By Differentiation
(1 + x 2)n = C0 + C1x 2 + C2x 4 + C3x 6 + ..............+ Cn x 2n
Multiplying both sides by x
x(1 + x 2)n = C0x + C1x 3 + C2x 5 + ............. + Cn x 2n + 1.
Differentiating both sides
x . n (1 + x 2)n 1 . 2x + (1 + x 2)n = C0 + 3. C1x 2 + 5. C2 x 4 + ....... + (2n + 1) Cn x 2n ........(i)
(x 2 + 1)n = C0 x 2n + C1 x 2n 2 + C2 x 2n 4 + ......... + Cn ........(ii)
Multiplying (i) & (ii)
(C0 + 3C1x 2 + 5C2x 4 + ......... + (2n + 1) Cn x 2n ) (C0 x 2n + C1x 2n 2 + ........... + Cn )
= 2n x 2 (1 + x 2)2n 1 + (1 + x 2)2n
comparing coefficient of x2n,
C02 + 3C12 + 5C22 + .........+ (2n + 1) Cn 2 = 2n . 2n 1Cn 1 + 2n Cn .
C02 + 3C12 + 5C22 + .........+ (2n + 1) Cn 2 = 2n . 2n1Cn + 2n Cn . Proved
Solved Example # 19
Find the summation of the following series
m
(i) Cm + m+1Cm + m+2Cm + .............. + n Cm (ii)n C3 + 2 . n+1C3 + 3. n+2C3 + ......... + n . 2n1C3
Solution. (i) Method : Using property, n Cr + n Cr1 = n+1Cr
m
Cm + m+1Cm + m+2Cm + .............. + n Cm
m 1
= C m1 Cm + m+2Cm + .............. + n Cm { mCm = m+1Cm+1}

m
1

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m 2
C m 1 m 2 C m
= + .................. + n C
m

= m+3Cm+1 + ............. + n Cm = n Cm+1 + n Cm = n+1Cm+1 Ans.


Method
m
Cm + m+1Cm + m+2Cm + .......... + n Cm
The above series can be obtained by writing the coefficient of x m in
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(1 + x)m + (1 + x)m+1 + ......... + (1 + x) n


Let S = (1 + x) m + (1 + x)m+1 +.............. + (1 + x) n

=
n m1
(1 x )m 1 x 1 =
1 x n1 1 x m

page 9 of 38
x x
x m : S (coefficient of x m in S)
(1 x )n1 (1 x)m
xm :
x
Hence, required summation of the series is n+1Cm+1 Ans.
(ii)
n
C3 + 2 . n+1C3 + 3 . n+2C3 + .......... + n . 2n1C3

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The above series can be obatined by writing the coefficient of x 3 in
(1 + x)n + 2 . (1 + x) n+1 + 3 . (1 + x) n+2 + ........... + n . (1 + x) 2n1
Let S = (1 + x) n + 2 . (1 + x) n+1 + 3. (1 + x) n+2 + ........... + n (1 + x) 2n1 ........(i)
(1 + x)S = (1 + x)n+1 + 2 (1 + x) n+2 + ............. + (n 1) (1 + x) 2n1
+ n(1 + x)2n ........(ii)
Subtracting (ii) from (i)
xS = (1 + x) n + (1 + x)n+1 + (1 + x)n+2 + .............. + (1 + x) 2n1 n(1 + x)2n

=

(1 x)n (1 x )n 1
n (1 + x) 2n
x
(1 x )2n (1 x )n n(1 x )2n
S = +
x2 x
x 3 : S (coefficient of x 3 in S)
(1 x )2n (1 x )n n(1 x )2n
x3 : +
x2 x
Hence, required summation of the series is 2n C5 + n C5 + n . 2n C4 Ans.
Self practice problems :
17. Prove the following
(i) C0 + 3C1 + 5C2 + ............. + (2n + 1) C n = 2n (n + 1)
42 43 4n 1 5n1 1
(ii) 4C0 + . C1 + C2 + .............. + Cn =
2 3 n1 n 1
n
(iii) C0 . n+1Cn + n C1 . n Cn1 + n C2 . n1Cn2 + ........... + n Cn . 1C0 = 2n1 (n + 2)
2
(iv) C2 + 3C2 + ......... + n C2 = n+1C3
8. Binomial Theorem For Negative Integer Or Fractional Indices
If n R then,
n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2)
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx + 2!
x 2
+ 3!
x 3 + ................
n(n 1)(n 2).......(n r 1)
.................. + x r + .................... .
r!
Remarks:(i) The above expansion is valid for any rational number other than a whole number if | x | < 1.
(ii) When the index is a negative integer or a fraction then number of terms in the expansion of
(1 + x)n is infinite, and the symbol nCr cannot be used to denote the coefficient of the general term.
(iii) The first terms must be unity in the expansion, when index n is a negative integer or fraction
y
n y n (n 1) y
2 y
x n 1 x n 1 n . ..... if 1
x x 2! x x

(x + y)n =
n 2
y n 1 x y n 1 n . x n (n 1) x ..... if x 1

y y 2! y y

n(n 1)(n 2).........(n r 1)
(iv) The general term in the expansion of (1 + x) n is T r+1 = xr
r!
(v) When n is any rational number other than whole number then approximate value of (1 + x) n is
1 + nx (x 2 and higher powers of x can be neglected)
(vi) Expansions to be remembered (|x| < 1)
(a) (1 + x)1 = 1 x + x 2 x 3 + .......... + (1) r x r + .........
(b) (1 x)1 = 1 + x + x 2 + x 5 + .......... + x r + .........
(c) (1 + x)2 = 1 2x + 3x 2 4x 3 + .......... + (1) r (r + 1) x r + ...........
(d) (1 x)2 = 1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + ............. + (r + 1)x r + ...........
Solved Example # 20: Prove that the coefficient of x r in (1 x)n is n+r1Cr
Soltion.: (r + 1)th term in the expansion of (1 x) n can be written as
n( n 1)( n 2)......(n r 1)
T r +1 = (x)r
r!

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n(n 1)(n 2)......(n r 1)
= (1)r (x)r
r!
n(n 1)(n 2)......(n r 1) r
= x
r!
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(n 1)! n(n 1)......(n r 1) r


= x
(n 1) ! r !
(n r 1)! n+r1
Hence, coefficient of x r is = Cr Proved

page 10 of 38
(n 1)! r!
Solved Example # 21: If x is so small such that its square and higher powers may be neglected then
(1 3x )1 / 2 (1 x )5 / 3
find the value of
( 4 x) 1/ 2
(1 3x )1/ 2 (1 x )5 / 3
Solution.
(4 x )1/ 2

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3 5x
1 x 1 1/ 2
2 3 1 2 19 x x
= 1/ 2 = 1
x 2 6 4
21
4
1 2 19 x 1 x 1 2 x 19 x
= =
2 6 8 2 4 6
x 19 41
=1 x =1 x Ans.
8 12 24
Self practice problems :
18. Find the possible set of values of x for which expansion of (3 2x) 1/2 is valid in ascending powers of x.
2 3
3 1.3 2 1.3.5 2
19. If y = + 2 ! + 3 ! + ............., then find the value of y 2 + 2y
5 5 5
3 5x
20. The coefficient of x 100 in is
(1 x )2
(A) 100 (B) 57 (C) 197 (D) 53
3 3
Ans. (18) x , (19) 4 (20) C
2 2

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Short Revision
BINOMIAL EXPONENTIAL & LOGARITHMIC SERIES
1. BINOMIAL THEOREM : The formula by which any positive integral power of a binomial
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expression can be expanded in the form of a series is known as BINOMIAL THEOREM .


If x , y R and n N, then ;
n
(x + y)n = nC xn + nC xn1 y+ nC xn2y2 + ..... + nC xnryr + ..... + nC yn = nCr xn r yr.

page 11 of 38
0 1 2 r n
r0
This theorem can be proved by Induction .
OBSERVATIONS :
(i) The number of terms in the expansion is (n + 1) i.e. one or more than the index .
(ii) The sum of the indices of x & y in each term is n .
(iii) The binomial coefficients of the terms nC0 , nC1 .... equidistant from the beginning and the end are
equal.

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2. IMPORTANT TERMS IN THE BINOMIAL EXPANSION ARE :
(i) General term (ii) Middle term
(iii) Term independent of x & (iv) Numerically greatest term
(i) The general term or the (r + 1)th term in the expansion of (x + y)n is given by ;
Tr+1 = nCr xnr . yr
(ii) The middle term(s) is the expansion of (x + y)n is (are) :
(a) If n is even , there is only one middle term which is given by ;
T(n+2)/2 = nCn/2 . xn/2 . yn/2
(b) If n is odd , there are two middle terms which are :
T(n+1)/2 & T[(n+1)/2]+1
(iii) Term independent of x contains no x ; Hence find the value of r for which the exponent of x is zero.
(iv) To find the Numerically greatest term is the expansion of (1 + x)n , n N find
n
Tr 1 C xr n r 1
n r r 1 x . Put the absolute value of x & find the value of r Consistent with the
Tr C r 1x r
T
inequality r 1 > 1.
Tr
Note that the Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (1 x)n , x > 0 , n N is the same
as the greatest term in (1 + x)n .
3.
If A B n = I + f, where I & n are positive integers, n being odd and 0 < f < 1, then
(I + f) . f = Kn where A B2 = K > 0 & A B < 1.
If n is an even integer, then (I + f) (1 f) = Kn.
4. BINOMIAL COEFFICIENTS : (i) C0 + C1 + C2 + ....... + Cn = 2n
(ii) C0 + C2 + C4 + ....... = C1 + C3 + C5 + ....... = 2n1
(2 n) !
(iii) C0 + C1 + C2 + .... + Cn = 2nCn =
n! n!
(2n )!
(iv) C0.Cr + C1.Cr+1 + C2.Cr+2 + ... + Cnr.Cn =
(n r) (n r)!
REMEMBER : (i) (2n)! = 2n . n! [1. 3. 5 ...... (2n 1)]
5. BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR NEGATIVE OR FRACTIONAL INDICES :
n (n 1) 2 n (n 1) (n 2) 3
If n Q , then (1 + x)n = 1 n x x x ...... Provided | x | < 1.
2! 3!
Note : (i) When the index n is a positive integer the number of terms in the expansion of
(1 + x)n is finite i.e. (n + 1) & the coefficient of successive terms are :
nC , nC , nC , nC ..... nC
0 1 2 3 n
(ii) When the index is other than a positive integer such as negative integer or fraction, the number of
terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n is infinite and the symbol nCr cannot be used to denote the
Coefficient of the general term .
(iii) Following expansion should be remembered (x < 1).
(a) (1 + x)1 = 1 x + x2 x3 + x4 .... (b) (1 x)1 = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + ....
2 2 3
(c) (1 + x) = 1 2x + 3x 4x + .... (d) (1 x)2 = 1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + .....
(iv) The expansions in ascending powers of x are only valid if x is small. If x is large i.e. | x | > 1 then
1
we may find it convinient to expand in powers of , which then will be small.
x
n ( n 1) n (n 1) (n 2) 3
6. APPROXIMATIONS : (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + x + x .....
1. 2 1.2.3
If x < 1, the terms of the above expansion go on decreasing and if x be very small, a stage may be
reached when we may neglect the terms containing higher powers of x in the expansion. Thus, if x be
so small that its squares and higher powers may be neglected then (1 + x)n = 1 + nx, approximately.

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n
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This is an approximate value of (1 + x) .
7. EXPONENTIAL SERIES :
n
x x x2 x3 Limit 1
(i) e =1+ ....... ; where x may be any real or complex & e = n 1
1! 2! 3! n
x2 2 x3 3
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x
(ii) ax = 1 + ln a ln a ln a ....... where a > 0
1! 2! 3!
1 1 1
Note : (a) e = 1 + .......

page 12 of 38
1! 2! 3!
(b) e is an irrational number lying between 2.7 & 2.8. Its value correct upto 10 places of decimal is
2.7182818284.
1 1 1 1 1 1
(c) e + e1 = 2 1 ....... (d) e e1 = 2 1 .......
2! 4! 6! 3! 5! 7!
(e) Logarithms to the base e are known as the Napierian system, so named after Napier, their inventor.

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They are also called Natural Logarithm.
8. LOGARITHMIC SERIES :
x 2 x3 x 4
(i) ln (1+ x) = x ....... where 1 < x 1
2 3 4
x 2 x3 x 4
(ii) ln (1 x) = x ....... where 1 x < 1
2 3 4
(1 x )
x3 x5
(iii) ln =2 x ...... x < 1
(1 x ) 3 5
1 1 1
REMEMBER : (a) 1 +... = ln 2 (b) eln x = x
2 3 4
(c) ln2 = 0.693 (d) ln10 = 2.303
EXERCISE - 1
11 11
2 1 1
Q.1 Find the coefficients : (i) x7in a x (ii) x7 in ax 2
bx bx
(iii) Find the relation between a & b , so that these coefficients are equal.
Q.2 If the coefficients of (2r + 4)th , (r 2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)18 are equal , find r.
Q.3 If the coefficients of the rth, (r + 1)th & (r + 2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)14 are in AP,
find r.
10 8
x 3 1 1/ 3 1 / 5
Q.4 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (a) 2 (b) x x
3 2x 2
n 1 3r 7 r 15r
Q.5 Find the sum of the series (1) r . n C r r 2r 3r 4r .....up to m terms
r0 2 2 2 2
Q.6 nd rd th 2n
If the coefficients of 2 , 3 & 4 terms in the expansion of (1 + x) are in AP, show that
2n 9n + 7 = 0.
Q.7 Given that (1 + x + x)n = a0 + a1x + a2x + .... + a2nx2n , find the values of :
(i) a0 + a1 + a2 + ..... + a2n ; (ii) a0 a1 + a2 a3 ..... + a2n ; (iii) a02 a12 + a22 a32 + ..... + a2n2
Q.8 If a, b, c & d are the coefficients of any four consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n, n N,
a c 2b
prove that a b cd bc .
8
2 log 4 x 44 1
Q.9 Find the value of x for which the fourth term in the expansion, 5 5 5 is 336.
log 5 3 2 x 1 7
Q.10 Prove that : n1Cr + n2Cr + n3Cr + .... + rCr = nCr+1. 5
Q.11 50 50
(a) Which is larger : (99 + 100 ) or (101) . 50

4n
(b) Show that 2n2Cn2 + 2.2n2Cn1 + 2n2Cn > , nN , n 2
n 1
11
7
Q.12 In the expansion of 1 x find the term not containing x.
x
Q.13 Show that coefficient of x5 in the expansion of (1 + x)5 . (1 + x)4 is 60.
Q.14 Find the coefficient of x4 in the expansion of :
(i) (1 + x + x2 + x3)11 (ii) (2 x + 3x2)6

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Q.15 Find numerically the greatest term in the expansion of :
3 1
(i) (2 + 3x)9 when x = (ii) (3 5x)15 when x =
2 5
2 n
q 1 q 1 q 1
Q.16 Given sn= 1 + q + q + ..... + qn & Sn = 1 + +
2
+ .... + 2 , q 1,
2
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prove that n+1C1 + n+1C2.s1 + n+1C3.s2 +....+ n+1Cn+1.sn = 2n . Sn .


Q.17 Prove that the ratio of the coefficient of x10 in (1 x)10 & the term independent of x in
10
2
is 1 : 32 .

page 13 of 38
x
x
9
3 x2 1
Q.18 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (1 + x + 2x3)
.
15
2 3x
Q.19 In the expansion of the expression (x + a) , if the eleventh term is the geometric mean of the eighth and
twelfth terms , which term in the expansion is the greatest ?
n4
Q.20 Let (1+x) . (1+x)n = a K . x K . If a1 , a2 & a3 are in AP, find n.

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
K 0
Q.21 If the coefficient of ar1 , ar , ar+1 in the expansion of (1 + a)n are in arithmetic progression, prove that
n2 n (4r + 1) + 4r2 2 = 0.
(1 x n )(1 x n 1 )(1 x n 2 )..................(1 x n r 1 )
n
Q.22 If Jr = , prove that nJn r = nJr..
(1 x )(1 x 2 )(1 x 3 )..................(1 x r )
n
Q.23 Prove that n C K sin Kx . cos(n K )x 2n 1 sin nx .
K 0
Q.24 The expressions 1 + x, 1+x + x2, 1 + x + x2 + x3,............. 1 + x + x2 +........... + xn are multiplied
together and the terms of the product thus obtained are arranged in increasing powers of x in the form of
a0 + a1x + a2x2 +................., then,
(a) how many terms are there in the product.
(b) show that the coefficients of the terms in the product, equidistant from the beginning and end are equal.
(n 1)!
(c) show that the sum of the odd coefficients = the sum of the even coefficients =
2
Q.25 Find the coeff. of (a) x6 in the expansion of (ax + bx + c)9 .
(b) x2 y3 z4 in the expansion of (ax by + cz)9 .
(c) a2 b3 c4 d in the expansion of (a b c + d)10.
2n 2n
r r
Q.26 If a r (x2) b r ( x3) & ak = 1 for all k n, then show that bn = 2n+1Cn+1.
r0 r 0
i k 1 n
1 x
Q.27 If Pk (x) = x i then prove that, n C k Pk ( x) 2n 1 Pn 2

i 0 k 1
Q.28 Find the coefficient of xr in the expression of :
(x + 3)n1 + (x + 3)n2 (x + 2) + (x + 3)n3 (x + 2)2 + ..... + (x + 2)n1
n
x 2
Q.29(a) Find the index n of the binomial if the 9th term of the expansion has numerically the
5 5
greatest coefficient (n N) .
(b) For which positive values of x is the fourth term in the expansion of (5 + 3x)10 is the greatest.
(72)!
Q.30 Prove that 1 is divisible by 73.
36!2
Q.31 If the 3rd, 4th, 5th & 6th terms in the expansion of (x + y)n be respectively a , b , c & d then prove that
b 2 ac 5a
.
c 2 bd 3c
Q.32 Find x for which the (k + 1)th term of the expansion of (x + y)n is the greatest if
x + y = 1 and x > 0, y > 0.
Q.33 If x is so small that its square and higher powers may be neglected, prove that :
1/ 3 5

(1 3 x )1/2 (1 x ) 5 / 3 41 1 3x
7 1 3x
5
(i)
( 4 x )1/ 2
1 x (ii) 1/7 = 1 x x
10
7
1
12 or
24 1 x
2 1
1/3 7x
3 1 x
127
84

1 1. 3 1. 3. 5 1. 3. 5 . 7
Q.34 (a) If x = ........ then prove that x2 + 2x 2 = 0.
3 3. 6 3. 6 . 9 3 . 6 . 9 .12
2 3
2 1. 3 2 1. 3 . 5 2
(b) If y = ........ then find the value of y + 2y..
5 2! 5 3! 5
1/ n
(n 1)p (n 1)q p
Q.35 If p = q nearly and n >1, show that .
(n 1)p (n 1)q q
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EXERCISE - 2
Q.1 Show that the integral part in each of the following is odd. n N
n n n

(A) 5 2 6
(B) 8 3 7
(C) 6 35
Q.2 Show that the integral part in each of the following is even. n N
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2n 1 2n 1

(A) 3 3 5
(B) 5 5 11
Q.3
If 7 4 3 n = p+ where n & p are positive integers and is a proper fraction show that

page 14 of 38
(1 ) (p + ) = 1.
n
Q.4
If x denotes 2 3 , n N & [x] the integral part of x then find the value of : x x + x[x].
n
Q.5
If P = 8 3 7 and f = P [P], where [ ] denotes greatest integer function.
Prove that : P (1 f) = 1 (n N)

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2n 1
Q.6
If 6 6 14 = N & F be the fractional part of N, prove that NF = 202n+1 (n N)
p

Q.7 Prove that if p is a prime number greater than 2, then the difference 2 5 2p+1 is divisible by


p, where [ ] denotes greatest integer.
2n
Q.8 Prove that the integer next above
3 1 contains 2n+1 as factor (n N)
n
Q.9 Let I denotes the integral part & F the proper fractional part of 3 5 where n N and if
denotes the rational part and the irrational part of the same, show that
1 1
= (I + 1) and = (I + 2 F 1).
2 2
2n
Cn
Q.10 Prove that is an integer, n N.
n 1
EXERCISE - 3
(NOT IN THE SYLLABUS OF IIT-JEE)
PROBLEMS ON EXPONENTIAL & LOGARITHMIC SERIES
For Q.1 TO Q.15, Prove That :
2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
Q.1 1 ...... 1 ...... =1
2 ! 4 ! 6 ! 3! 5 ! 7 !
e1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q.2 ...... ......
e 1 2! 4 ! 6 ! 1! 3! 5!
e2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q.3 2
...... 1 ......
e 1 1! 3! 5! 2! 4! 6!
1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 3
Q.4 1+ ....... e
2! 3! 4! 2
1 1 1 1
Q.5 ........ =
1. 3 1. 2 . 3. 5 1. 2 . 3. 4 . 5 . 7 e
1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 22 23
Q.6 1 + 2! ........ = e e
3! 4!
23 33 43 2 3 6 11 18
Q.7 1 + 2! 3! 4! ........ = 5e Q 8. ........ = 3 (e 1)
1! 2! 3! 4 ! 5!
1 1 1 1 1 1
Q.9 ........ = 1 loge 2 Q 10. 1 + 2
4
........ = loge3
2.3 4.5 6 .7 3. 2 5.2 7 . 26
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q.11 ... = .... = ln 2
1. 2 3. 4 5 . 6 2 1. 2 . 3 3. 4 . 5 5 . 6 . 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q.12 +..... = ln3 ln2 Q 13. +..... = ln 2
2 2 . 22 3. 23 4 .24 3 3 . 33 5 . 35 7 . 37 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q.14 2 3 3 ....... l n 2
2 2 3 4 22 3 6 2 3
2 3 4
y2 y3 y4
Q.15 If y = x x x x +..... where | x | < 1, then prove that x = y + +......
2 3 4 2! 3! 4!
EXERCISE - 4
If C0 , C1 , C2 , ..... , Cn are the combinatorial coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)n,
n N , then prove the following :
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2 n ! 2 n !
Q.1 C0 + C1 + C2 +.....+ Cn = Q.2 .C0 C1 + C1 C2 + C2 C3 +....+Cn1 Cn =
n! n ! ( n 1)! ( n 1)!
Q.3 C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 +.....+ n . Cn = n . 2n1
Q.4 C0 + 2C1 + 3C2 +.....+ (n+1)Cn = (n+2)2n1
Q.5 C0 + 3C1 + 5C2 +.....+ (2n+1)Cn = (n+1) 2n
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n
Q.6 (C0+C1)(C1+C2)(C2+C3) ..... (Cn1+Cn) = C 0 . C1 . C 2 .... C n 1 (n 1)
n!
C1 2 C2 3 C3 n .Cn n ( n 1) C1 C 2 C 2 n 1 1

page 15 of 38
Q.7 ....... Q 8. C0 + ...... n
C0 C1 C2 C n 1 2 2 3 n 1 n 1
22 . C1 23 . C 2 24 .C3 2n 1 .C n 3n 1 1
Q.9 2 . Co + ......
2 3 4 n 1 n 1
2 n!
Q.10 CoCr + C1Cr+1 + C2Cr+2 + .... + Cnr Cn =
(n r)! (n r)!
C1 C 2 C 1

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n n
Q.11 Co 2 3 ...... ( 1) n 1 n 1
( 1) r ( n 1)!
Q.12 Co C1 + C2 C3 + .... + (1)r . Cr =
r ! . ( n r 1)!
Q.13 Co 2C1 + 3C2 4C3 + .... + (1)n (n+1) Cn = 0
Q.14 Co C1 + C2 C3 + ...... + (1)n Cn = 0 or (1)n/2 Cn/2 according as n is odd or even.
Q.15 If n is an integer greater than 1 , show that ;
a nC1(a1) + nC2(a2) ..... + (1)n (a n) = 0
Q.16 (n1) . C1 + (n3) . C3 + (n5) . C5 +..... = n (n + 1)2n3
(n 1) (2 n)!
Q.17 1 . Co + 3 . C1 + 5 . C2 + ..... + (2n+1) Cn =
n! n !
Q.18 If a0 , a1 , a2 , ..... be the coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x + x)n in ascending
powers of x , then prove that : (i) a0 a1 a1 a2 + a2 a3 .... = 0 .
(ii) a0a2 a1a3 + a2a4 ..... + a2n 2 a2n = an + 1 or an1.
(iii) E1 = E2 = E3 = 3n1 ; where E1= a0 + a3 + a6 + ..... ; E2 = a1 + a4 + a7 + ..... &
E3 = a2 + a5 + a8 + .....
n2
(2 n)!
Q.19 Prove that : n

Cr . nCr 2 =
r0 (n 2)! ( n 2)!
Q.20 If (1+x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x + .... + Cn xn , then show that the sum of the products of the C i s
Ci C j 2 n!
taken two at a time , represented by is equal to 22n1 .
0 i j n 2 ( n !) 2
n 1
Q.21 C1 C2 C 3 ...... C n 2n 1
2
1/ 2
Q.22 C1 C2 C3 ...... C n n 2 n 1 for n 2.

EXERCISE - 5
Q.1 If (1+x)15 = C0 + C1. x + C2. x2 + .... + C15. x15, then find the value of :
C2 + 2C3 + 3C4 + .... + 14C15
Q.2 If (1 + x + x + ... + xp)n = a0 + a1x + a2x+...+anp. xnp , then find the value of :
a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 + .... + np . anp
Q.3 1. C0 + 2. C1 + 3. C2 + 4. C3 + .... + (n+1) Cn = 2n2 (n+1) (n+4) .
n
Q.4 r 2
. C r n (n 1) 2 n 2
r0
n
Q.5 Given p+q = 1 , show that r 2
. n C r . p r . q n r n p (n 1) p 1
r0
n
2
Q.6 Show that C 2 r n
r n . 2n where C denotes the combinatorial coeff. in the expansion of
r
r0
(1 + x)n.
C1 C C Cn (1 x) n 1 1
Q.7 C0 + x 2 x 2 3 x 3 ....... . xn =
2 3 4 n1 (n 1) x
22 23 211 311 1
Q.8 Prove that , 2 . C0 + . C1 . C 2 ...... . C 10
2 3 11 11
n
Q.9 If (1+x)n = C r . xr then prove that ;
r0

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22 . C 0 2 3 . C1 24 .C2 2n 2 .C n 3n 2 2n 5
......
1. 2 2.3 3. 4 (n 1) (n 2) (n 1) (n 2)
C0 C C 2n
Q.10 2 4 ........
1 3 5 n 1
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C 0 C1 C 2 C 3 Cn 4 n . n!
Q.11 ........(1) n
1 5 9 13 4 n 1 1. 5 . 9 .13..... (4 n 3) (4 n 1)
C0 C C C C 1 n .2n 1
Q.12 1 2 3 ........ n

page 16 of 38
2 3 4 5 n 2 (n 1) (n 2)
C0 C C C C 1
Q.13 1 2 3 ....... ( 1) n . n
2 3 4 5 n 2 (n 1) (n 2)
C1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 1 1 1 1
Q.14 ....... ( 1) n 1 . n = 1 .......
1 2n 3 4 n n 2 3 4 n
Q.15 If (1+x) = C0 + C1x + C2x + ..... + Cn x , then show that :

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C2 C3 1 1 1 1
C1(1x) (1x) + (1x)3 ....+ (1)n1 (1x)n = (1x) + (1x) + (1x3) +......+ (1xn)
2 3 n 2 3 n
1n 2 3n 4 ( 1) n 1 n n 1
Q.16 Prove that , C1 nC2+ C3 nC4 + ..... + . Cn=
2 3 4 5 n 1 n 1
n n n n
C C1 C2 C n!
Q.17 If n N ; show that x 0 ...... (1) n n

x 1 x 2 x n x (x 1) (x 2) .... (x n )
(4 n 1)!
Q.18 Prove that , (2nC1)+ 2 . (2nC2) + 3 . (2nC3) + ... + 2n . (2nC2n) =
(2 n 1) !2
2n
Q.19 If (1 + x + x2)n = ar xr , n N , then prove that
r0
(r + 1) ar + 1 = (n r) ar + (2n r + 1) ar1. ( 0 < r < 2n)
C0 C1 C2
Q.20 Prove that the sum to (n + 1) terms of ......... equals
n (n 1) (n 1) (n 2) (n 2) (n 3)
1

xn1. (1 x)n+1 . dx & evaluate the integral.


0

EXERCISE - 6
10
Q.1 The sum of the rational terms in the expansion of
n
2 31/ 5 is ___ . [JEE 97, 2]
1 n
r
Q.2 If an = n C , then n equals [JEE98, 2]
r 0 r C r 0 r
(A) (n1)an (B) n an (C) n an / 2 (D) None of these
3 5 9 15 23
Q.3 Find the sum of the series ........ [REE 98, 6]
1! 2! 3! 4! 5!
Q.4 If in the expansion of (1 + x)m (1 x)n, the co-efficients of x and x2 are 3 and 6 respectively, then
m is : [JEE '99, 2 (Out of 200)]
(A) 6 (B) 9 (C) 12 (D) 24
n n n
Q.5(i) For 2 r n , + 2 + =
r r 1 r 2
n 1 n 1 n 2 n 2
(A) (B) 2 (C) 2 (D)
r 1 r 1 r r
a
(ii) In the binomial expansion of (a b)n , n 5 , the sum of the 5th and 6th terms is zero . Then equals:
b
[ JEE '2000 (Screening) , 1 + 1 ]
n5 n4 5 6
(A) (B) (C) (D)
6 5 n4 n5
n
Q.6 For any positive integers m , n (with n m) , let = nCm . Prove that
m
n n 1 n 2 m n 1
+ + + ........ + =
m m m m m 1
Hence or otherwise prove that ,
n n 1 n 2 m n2
+ 2 + 3 + ........ + (n m + 1) = .
m m m m m 2
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[ JEE '2000 (Mains), 6 ]
Q.7 Find the largest co-efficient in the expansion of (1 + x) n
, given that the sum of
co-efficients of the terms in its expansion is 4096 . [ REE '2000 (Mains) ]
a
Q.8 In the binomial expansion of (a b)n, n > 5, the sum of the 5th and 6th terms is zero. Then equals
b
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n5 n4 5 6
(A) (B) (C) (D)
6 5 n4 n5
[ JEE '2001 (Screening), 3]

page 17 of 38
Q.9 Find the coeffcient of x49 in the polynomial [ REE '2001 (Mains) , 3 ]
C 2 C 2 C 2 C
x 1 x 2 2 x 3 3 ................. x 50 50 where Cr = 50Cr .
C0 C1 C2 C 49
m
Q.10 The sum ,
10 20
i m i (where = 0 if P < q ) is maximum when m is
p
q

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
i 0
(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 20
Q.11(a) Coefficient of t24 in the expansion of (1+ t2)12 (1 + t12) (1 + t24) is
(A) 12C6 + 2 (B) 12C6 + 1 (C) 12C6 (D) none
[JEE 2003, Screening 3 out of 60]
n n n n 1 n n 2 n n K n
(b) Prove that : 2K . 0 K 2K1 1 K 1 + 2K2 2 K 2 ...... (1)K K 0 K .

[JEE 2003, Mains-2 out of 60]
Q.12 n1Cr = (K2 3).nCr+1, if K
(A) [ 3 , 3] (B) (, 2) (C) (2, ) (D) ( 3 , 2]
[JEE 2004 (Screening)]
30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 n
Q.13 The value of 0 10 1 11 + 2 12 ........ + 20 30 is, wheree r = nCr.

30 30 60 31
(A) 10 (B) 15 (C) 30 (D) 10

[JEE 2005 (Screening)]


EXERCISE - 7
Part : (A) Only one correct option
15
17
1. In the expansion of 3 3 2 ,
the 11th term is a:
4
(A) positive integer (B) positive irrational number (C) negative integer (D) negative irrational number.
n n
a C3
2. If the second term of the expansion a1/ 13 is 14a5/2 then the value of n is:
a 1 C2

(A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 12 (D) 6
18 3 7 3 3. 18 . 7 . 25
3. The value of, is :
3 6 6 . 243 . 2 15 . 81. 4 20 . 27 . 8 15 . 9 . 16 6 . 3 . 32 64
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) none
5
P Q
4. Let the co-efficients of x n in (1 + x)2n & (1 + x)2n 1 be P & Q respectively, then =
Q
(A) 9 (B) 27 (C) 81 (D) none of these
5. If the sum of the co-efficients in the expansion of (1 + 2 x)n is 6561 , then the greatest term in the
expansion for x = 1/2 is :
(A) 4th (B) 5th (C) 6th (D) none of these
6. 9
Find numerically the greatest term in the expansion of (2 + 3 x) , when x = 3/2.
(A) 9C6. 29. (3/2)12 (B) 9C3. 29. (3/2)6 (C) 9C5. 29. (3/2)10 (D) 9C4. 29. (3/2)8
100
1
7. The numbers of terms in the expansion of a 3 3 1 is
a
(A) 201 (B) 300 (C) 200 (D) 100C3
8. The coefficient of x 10 in the expansion of (1 + x 2 x 3)8 is
(A) 476 (B) 496 (C) 506 (D) 528
9. (1 + x) (1 + x + x 2) (1 + x + x 2 + x 3)...... (1 + x + x 2 +...... + x 100) when written in the ascending power
of x then the highest exponent of x is
(A) 505 (B) 5050 (C) 100 (D) 50

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10. 2n
If x = 7 4 3 = [x] + f, then x (1 f) =
(A) 2 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) 2520
11. The remainder when 22003 is divided by 17 is
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 8 (D) none of these
12. The last two digits of the number 3400 are:
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(A) 81 (B) 43 (C) 29 (D) 01


50 50 50 50 50 50 n
13. The value of + +...........+ is, where n Cr =
0 1 12 49 50 r

page 18 of 38
2
100 100 50 50
(A) (B) (C) (D)
50 51 25 25
10 10 10
10 CK
14. The value of the expression
Cr ( 1)K
r 0

K 0 2K is
(A) 210 (B) 220 (C) 1 (D) 25

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15. If |x| < 1, then the co-efficient of x n in the expansion of (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 +.......)2 is
(A) n (B) n 1 (C) n + 2 (D) n + 1
16. The number of values of ' r ' satisfying the equation, 39 C3r 1 39C 2 = 39 Cr 2 1 39C3r is :
r
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
17. Number of elements in set of value of r for which, 18Cr 2 + 2. 18Cr 1 + 18Cr 20C13 is satisfied
(A) 4 elements (B) 5 elements (C) 7 elements (D) 10 elements
18. The co-efficient of x in the expansion of, (1 + x) + (1 + x) +....... + (1 + x) 30 is :
5 21 22

(A) 51C5 (B) 9C5 (C) 31C6 21C6 (D) 30C5 + 20C5
19. If (1 + x) = a0 + a1x + a2x +......+ a10x , then (a0 a2 + a4 + a6 + a8 a10)2 + (a1 a3 + a5 a7 + a9)2
10 2 10

is equal to
(A) 310 (B) 210 (C) 29 (D) none of these
10 n
Cr
20. The value of r .
r 1
n
Cr 1
is equal to

(A) 5 (2n 9) (B) 10 n (C) 9 (n 4) (D) none of these


21. If C0, C1, C2,..........Cn are the Binomial coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x) n. n being even, then
C0 + (C0 + C1) + (C0 + C1 + C2) +......... + (C0 + C1 + C2 +......... + Cn1) is equal to
(A) n. 2n (B) n. 2n1 (C) n. 2n2 (D) n. 2n3
22. If (1 + x + 2x 2)20 = a0 + a1x + a2x 2 +......... + a40x 40, then a0 + a2 + a4.......+ a38 equals
(A) 219 (230 + 1) (B) 219(220 1) (C) 220 (219 1) (D) none of these
23. Co-efficient of x 15 in (1 + x + x 3 + x 4)n is :
5 5 5 3
(A) n
C5 r. n C3 r (B) n
C5 r (C) n
C3 r (D) n
C3 r. nC5 r
r0 r0 r0 r0
24. The sum of the coefficients of all the integral powers of x in the expansion of 1 2 x
40
is
1 40 1 40
(A) 340 + 1 (B) 340 1 (3 1) (C) (D) (3 + 1)
2 2
31001
25. If { x } denotes the fractional part of ' x ', then =
82
(A) 9/82 (B) 81/82 (C) 3/82 (D) 1/82
10

x 1 x 1
1
26. The coefficient of the term independent of x in the expansion of 2 1
is
x3 x3 1 x x2
(A) 70 (B) 112 (C) 105 (D) 210
27. The coefficient of x n in polynomial (x + 2n+1C0) (x + 2n+1C1) (x + 2n+1C2).......(x + 2n+1Cn ) is
(A) 2n+1 (B) 22n+1 1 (C) 22n (D) none of these
28. In the expansion of (1 + x) n (1 + y)n (1 + z)n , the sum of the co-efficients of the terms of degree ' r ' is :
n3 n
(A) Cr (B) C r3 (C) 3nCr (D) 3. 2nCr
n r 1
n
Cr Cp 2p
r
29.
r 1 p 0
is equal to

(A) 4n 3n + 1 (B) 4n 3n 1 (C) 4n 3n + 2 (D) 4n 3n
30. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x +.... + Cn x n, then show that the sum of the products of the Cis taken two at
Ci C j
a time, represented by is equal to
0 i j n
2n ! 2 n! 2n ! 2 n!
(A) 22n 1 2 (n ! ) (B) 22n 1
(C) 2 2n1
2(n ! )
(D) 22n 1
2 (n!) 2 2 (n!) 2
Part : (B) May have more than one options correct
31. In the expansion of (x + y + z) 25
(A) every term is of the form 25Cr . r Ck. x 25 r . yr k. zk
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8 9 9
(B) the coefficient of x y z is 0 (C) the number of terms is 325
(D) none of these
32. 79 + 97 is divisible by
(A) 16 (B) 24 (C) 64 (D) 72
EXERCISE - 8
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8
2
log 5 4 x 44 1
1. Find the value of ' x ' for which the fourth term in the expansion, 5 5 is 336.
x1
log 3 2 7
5 5

page 19 of 38
n
1
2. In the binomial expansion of 3 2 3 , the ratio of the 7th term from the begining to the 7th term
3
from the end is 1 : 6 ; find n.
9
3 2 1
3. Find the terms independent of 'x' in the expansion of the expression,(1 + x + 2 x 3)
2 x 3 x .

4. If in the expansion of (1 x)2n 1,the co-efficient of x r is denoted by ar, then prove that ar 1 + a2n r = 0.

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
10 5
6
5. Show that the term independent of x in the expansion of 1 x is, 1 +
x r 1
10 C
2r
2r Cr 6r .

6. 5 4 7
Find the coefficient of a b c in the expansion of (bc + ca ab) . 8
7. If (1 + 2x + 3x 2)10 = a0 + a1x + a2x 2 +.... + a20x 20, then calculate a1, a2, a4.
8.
n
If 3 3 5 = p+ f, where p is an integer and f is a proper fraction then find the value of

3
n
3 5 , n N.
9. Write down the binomial expansion of (1 + x) n + 1, when x = 8. Deduce that 9n + 1 8n 9 is divisible by
64, whenever n is a positive integer.
10. Prove that 5353 3333 is divisible by 10.
11. Which is larger : (9950 + 10050) or (101)50.
If C0, C1, C2,........, Cn are the combinatorial co-efficients in the expansion of (1 + x)n, n N, then prove
the followings: (Q. No. 12 - 14)
2 2.C1 2 3.C2 2 4.C3 2n 1.Cn 3n 1 1
12. 2. Co + ......
2 3 4 n1 n 1
C1 C C Cn n (n 1)
13. + 2. 2 + 3 3 +........ + n =
C0 C1 C2 C n 1 2
14. 1. C0 + 2. C1 + 3. C2 + 4. C3 +.... + (n+1) Cn = 2n2 (n+1) (n+4).
15. Assuming ' x ' to be so small that x 2 and higher powers of ' x ' can be neglected, show that,
1 34 x 4
(16 3 x)1/ 2
is approximately equal to, 1
305
x.
2/ 3 96
(8 x )
n 1 3r 7r 1
16. If ( 1)r . nCr r 2 r 3 r ........ to m terms = k 1 m n , then find the value of k.
r0 2 2 2 2
17. Find the coefficient of x 50 in the expression:
(1 + x)1000 + 2x. (1 + x) 999 + 3x (1 + x) 998 +..... + 1001 x 1000
2 n
q 1 q 1 q 1
18. Given sn= 1 + q + q +..... + qn & Sn = 1 + + +.... + , q 1,
2 2 2
prove that n+1C1 + n+1C2.s1 + n+1C3.s2 +....+ n+1Cn+1.sn = 2n. Sn.
19. Show that if the greatest term in the expansion of (1 + x) 2n has also the greatest co-efficient, then ' x '
n n1
lies between, & .
n1 n
32
20. Find the remainder when 32 32 is divided by 7.
21. If (1 + x + x +... + x p)n = a0 + a1x + a2x+...+anp. x np, then find the value of :
a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 +.... + np. anp.
(4n 1) !
22. Prove that, (2nC1)+ 2. (2nC2) + 3. (2nC3) +... + 2n. (2nC2n) =
{(2n 1) ! } 2
23. If (1+x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x +..... + Cn x n, then show that:
C2 C3 1
C1 (1x) (1 x) + (1 x)3 ........ + ( 1)n1 (1 x)n
2 3 n
1 1 1
= (1 x) + (1 x) + (1 x 3) +........ + (1 x n)
2 3 n
n
2 n
24. Prove that r
r0
C r pr qn r = npq + n2p2 if p + q = 1.

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2n 2n
25. If ar ( x 2)r b ( x 3)
r
r
& ak = 1 for all k n, then show that bn = 2n+1Cn+1.
r 0 r 0
26. If a0, a1, a2,..... be the coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x + x) n in ascending powers of x, then prove
that :
(i) a0 a1 a1 a2 + a2 a3 .... = 0 (ii) a0a2 a1a3 + a2a4 ..... + a2n 2 a2n = an + 1
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(iii) E1 = E2 = E3 = 3n1; where E1= a0 + a3 + a6 +...; E2 = a1 + a4 + a7 +...& E3 = a2 + a5 + a8 +...


27. If (1 + x)n = p0 + p1 x + p2 x 2 + p3 x 3 +......., then prove that :
n n
(a) p0 p2 + p4 ....... = 2n/2 cos (b) p1 p3 + p5 ....... = 2n/2 sin

page 20 of 38
4 4
28. If (1+x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x +.... + Cn x then show that the sum of the products of the Ci s taken two at
n,

Ci C j 2n !
a time, represented by is equal to 22n1 .
0i jn 2 (n ! )2

ANSWER KEY EXERCISE - 1


6 5

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11C a a 5
Q 1. (i) 5 5 (ii) 11C6 6 (iii) ab = 1 Q 2. r = 6 Q 3. r = 5 or 9 Q 4. (a) (b) T6 =7
b b 12

Q 5.
2 mn
1 Q 7. (i) 3n (ii) 1, (iii) an Q 9. x = 0 or 1 Q 10. x = 0 or 2

2 1 2mn
n

5
Q 11. (a)10150 (Prove that 10150 9950 = 10050 + some +ive qty) Q 12. 1 + 11C2k . 2kCk 7k
k1
13
7.3 17
Q 14. (i) 990 (ii) 3660 Q 15. (i) T7 = (ii) 455 x 312 Q 18.
2 54
n2 n 2
Q.19 T8 Q.20 n = 2 or 3 or 4 Q.24 (a)
2
Q 25. (a) 84b c + 630ab c + 756a b c + 84a3c6 ; (b) 1260 . a2b3c4 ; (c) 12600
6 3 4 4 2 2 5
5 20 nk
Q 28. nCr (3nr 2nr) Q 29. (a) n = 12 (b) < x < Q.32
8 21 n
Q 34. (a) Hint : Add 1 to both sides & compare the RHS series with the expansion (1+y)n
to get n & y (b) 4
EXERCISE - 2
Q.4 1
EXERCISE - 5
Q 1. divide expansion of (1+x)15 both sides by x & diff. w.r.t.x , put x = 1 to get 212993
np
Q 2. Differentiate the given expn. & put x = 1 to get the result (p+1)n
2
Q 9. Integrate the expn. of (1 + x)n. Determine the value of constant of integration by putting x = 0.
Integrate the result again between 0 & 2 to get the result.
1
Q 10. Consider [(1+x)n + (1x)n] = C0 + C2x + C4x4 + ..... Integrate between 0 & 1.
2
Q 12. Multiply both sides by x the expn. (1+x)n . Integrate both sides between 0 & 1.
(1 x ) n 1
Q 14. Note that = C1+ C2x C3x +....+ Cn. xn1 . Integrate between 1 & 0
x
(n 1)! (n 1)!
Q 20.
(2 n 1)!
EXERCISE - 6
Q.1 41 Q.2 C Q.3 4e 3 Q.4 C Q.5 (i) D (ii) B
Q.7 12C6 Q.8 B Q.9 22100 Q.10 C
Q.11 (a) A Q.12 D Q.13 A
EXERCISE - 7
1. B 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. B 6. A 7. A 8. A 9. B 10. C
11. C 12. D 13. B 14. C 15. D 16. B 17. C 18. C 19. B 20. A
21. B 22. B 23. A 24. D 25. C 26. D 27. C 28. C 29. D 30. B
31. AB 32. AC
EXERCISE - 8
17
1. x = 0 or 1 2. n = 9 3. 6. 280 7. a1 = 20, a2 = 210, a4 = 8085
54
1
8. 1 f, if n is even and f, if n is odd 11. 10150 16. n 17. 1002C
50
2 1
np
20. 4 21. (p + 1)n
2

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