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Exam Practice

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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

Session: 2006/2007

(a) Answer should include - CFD is needed to investigate flows which are not amenable to

analytical treatment due to complexity of flow or the need for multi-physics. Typical

applications can be found in the following areas;

Automotive

Chemical & Petrochemical

Electronics

HVAC&R

Power Generation

[5 marks]

(b) The basis of CFD is to represent the geometry with a grid of points or nodes which are

linked to form elements or finite volumes in a mesh. The spatial co-ordinate of each

point is defined.

The shape of the volumes are important as the flow is calculated across faces, therefore the

more cubic the volume the better. However to accommodate curved geometry non-

rectangular cells can be used with added computational cost.

The size of the cell or fineness of mesh should be chosen to match geometry or flow

conditions.

The flow equations for mass and momentum (continuity and N-S) and energy equations are

non-linear partial differential equations and are represented numerically using a finite

difference approximation. Mention may also be given to Taylor series etc.

[5 marks]

D/ENG/002

Please include marking schedule

D/ENG/002

The explanation should include the idea of flow across a face and the progression from volume to

volume.

Mass flow through a volume

v

v y

y

u

u u x

x

y

v

[5marks]

The finite volume method can in some ways be thought of as a combination of the finite difference and

finite element methods.

If we consider a simple finite volume, or cell, where the centroid of the cell is point P is the reference

point at which we wish to find a numerical analogue of the partial differential equation.

Face w Face e

Directions in the domain about the reference point are denoted by the points of a compass and so the

neighbouring volumes are said to have their centroids at W(est) and E(ast). One boundary is midway

between the points W and P at the face w, the other boundary midway between P and E at the face e.

It can be shown that for some function

U uE uP U u P uW

and

x e xE xP x w xP xW

D/ENG/002

The finite volume approach solves the mass and momentum equations for each cell.

An important aspect to the solution of the equations is the application of boundary conditions

without which no solution can be obtained.

[5 marks]

The answer will include a description of the need for a staggered grid and the SIMPLE algorithm, for

example:

We require solution algorithms for pressure-velocity coupling in steady flows.

This is not entirely straightforward as there are problems associated with the pressure source terms of

the momentum equations.

If the velocities and pressures are both defined at the nodes of an ordinary control volume the

pressure field may be inaccurately defined.

To overcome this we choose a staggered grid.

We evaluate pressure, density, temperature at ordinary nodal points but we calculate velocity

components on staggered grids centred on the cell faces.

The acronym SIMPLE stands for Semi-Implicit Pressure Linked Equations.

The algorithm was originally put forward by Patankar and Spalding.

This is essentially a guess and correct procedure for the calculation of pressure.

Uses the staggered grid arrangement.

The method is iterative and when other scalars are coupled to the momentum equations, the

calculation has to be performed sequentially.

D/ENG/002

Start

Initial guess p*, u*,..

Solve momentum equns

Reset p, u,

Correct pressure and velocity

Convergence?

Stop

[10 marks]

D/ENG/002

Module: Applied Thermofluids & CFD (ESDM502)

Q2

Question No: Author: Dr. D.McGlinchey

1. Initial thinking try to understand as much as possible about the problem to be solved.

2. Mesh generation decide on the distribution of points.

3. Flow specification boundaries and initial conditions.

4. Calculation of the numerical solution no. of iterations, relaxation, allowable error, etc.

5. Results analysis is the solution satisfactory, what flow data is actually required

Point 1

The user needs to give careful thought to the requirements and objectives of the simulation and

typically might consider the following points:

Is a CFD simulation method really appropriate?

A re the objectives of the simulation clearly defined?

W hat are the requirements on accuracy?

W hat local/global quantities are needed from the simulation?

W hat are the documentation/reporting requirements?

W hat are the important flow physics involved?

What is the area of primary interest (domain) for the flow calculation?

Is the geometry well defined?

What level of validation is necessary? Is this a routine application, where validation and calibration

has already been carried out on similar flow fields, and where only relatively small changes can be

expected from earlier similar simulations? Or is it a non-routine application, where little earlier

validation work has been done

D/ENG/002

Point 2

Once the flow problem has been adequately specified we move to the stage of Mesh Generation.

In the past this was one of the most time consuming and hence expensive stages in the whole analysis,

now however this task has been largely taken over by dedicated software.

Just as the governing equations are written in numerically discrete form, the mesh of points which is

produced within the volume of the fluid can be considered as the discretisation of the space in which

the flow takes place.

The way the combination of numerically discrete equations and the mesh of points is utilised is

method dependent.

If the finite difference method is used:

The values of the variables at the points are used to produce equations of the variables that enable a

solution to be found.

If the finite volume method is used:

The points must be arranged so that they can be grouped together into sets of volumes and the

equations are solved by equating various flux terms through the faces of the volumes.

If the finite element method is used:

The points are grouped to define elements within which the numerical analogue of the partial

differential equations can be set up.

In some cases a mesh can be modified in such a way as to produce a more realistic CFD solution.

Some adapt the original mesh to obtain a better fit on the geometry of the flow problem, this can

speed up computational solution of the flow.

Others solve using the original grid then modify the mesh in light of these initial results, this requires

considerable experience.

The two mesh modification strategies are:

Mesh enrichment additional points are placed in the domain at locations where they are needed.

Mesh adaptation the mesh points are moved so that the density of points is increased where

required.

D/ENG/002

Point 3

Information required by the CFD software:

The fluid properties such as density and viscosity

Which flow related variables have to be calculated

Specify the boundaries of the geometry as sets of cell faces

Apply the appropriate boundary conditions to each set of faces

Define the initial conditions of the simulation

Consider carefully whether the flow can be expected to exhibit steady or unsteady flow behaviour.

Consider the size of the unsteady scales to be expected present in the flow field in comparison to the

geometrical dimensions, and if this is large then an unsteady simulation is necessary.

If a steady solution has been computed and there is a reason to be unsure that the flow is really steady,

then an unsteady simulation should be carried out with the existing steady flow field as the initial

condition. Examination of the time-development of the physical quantities in the locations of interest

will identify whether the flow is steady or not.

Point 4

If using a finite volume scheme then a poor mesh which has cells that differ greatly from a cubiod may

cause problems

Inadequate prescription of the boundary conditions, such as not specifying the pressure anywhere in

the domain.

Initial conditions that are unrealistic and too far from the converged solution

The turbulence model used can significantly alter results

Check the adequacy of the solution procedure with respect to the physical properties of the flow.

As a first step in this process, the parameters controlling convergence (e.g. relaxation parameters or

Courant number) of the solution algorithm should be used as suggested by the CFD-code vendor or

developer.

If it is necessary to change parameters to aid convergence, it is not advisable to change too many

parameters in one step, as it then becomes difficult to analyse which of the changes have influenced

the convergence.

D/ENG/002

Point 5

If the Solution results are unrealistic, check for:

Adequate mesh density in regions of high rates of change of the flow variables

Adequate physical modelling of the flow, especially due to the use of turbulence models which are too

simplistic (for some complex flow situations this applies to all turbulence models).

Poor specification of the boundary conditions which have over or under-constrained the flow. For

example, if the pressure has been fixed as a constant across an outlet, this restricts the flow if it swirls

out through the outlet as the pressure would then vary across the outlet to provide the necessary

centripetal force.

A potential source of user errors is in implementing the solution strategy with a particular code. Such

errors might be minimised by the availability of a formal check list or by letting another CFD analyst

checking through the code input data. The types of questions which should be considered are:

Have the boundary conditions not only been properly defined, but also properly applied?

Has the appropriate system of units been used?

Dont be seduced into believing that the solution is correct just because it has converged and

produced high-quality colour plots (or even seductive video presentations) of the CFD simulations.

Make sure that an elementary interpretation of the flow-field explains the fluid behaviour and that the

trends of the flow analysis can be reconciled with a simple view of the flow.

Check conserved variables, including an overall force/momentum balance.

Check that velocities, forces, pressures, etc. have believable values.

D/ENG/002

PROGRAMME TITLE: MSc in Mechanical Engineering (Design) DIET: 1st

Session: 2006/07

Q3(a)

Question No: Author: Dr. M.Macdonald

Exapnsion

waves

i) Under-expanded, expansion waves at exit

Throat

If exit pressure > back pressure under

p expansion conditions, i.e. expansion

waves form at the exit.

pe

pb

x

Oblique shock

waves

ii) Over-expanded, oblique shock waves

Throat

If exit pressure < back pressure over

p

expansion conditions - if the difference is

pb small, oblique shock waves occur.

pe

Ma < 1

Ma > 1 Normal shock

waves

Throat

p iii) Over-expanded, normal shock waves

pb If exit pressure < back pressure over

expansion conditions - if the difference is

large, normal shock waves occur.

[8]

D/ENG/002

Module: Applied Thermofluids & CFD (ESDM502)

pt 2 1

po 1 Eqn(1)

c1 m

c3

c

A2 2 Ma3=?

Throat

1 1.4 1

p 100 x10 3 1.4

T3 T1 3 350 6

181.2 K

p1 1x10

Rearranging Eqn(1) and referring to the figure:

1 2

c p (T3 T1 ) (c3 c12 )

Now, Q W = 2

1

1.005(181.2 350) (c32 0)

0 (isentropic flow) = 2 x10 3

c3 582.5m / s

1 1

Sonic velocity, a (RT ) 2 (1.4 x 287 x181.2) 2 269.8m / s

3 3

c3 582.5 Ans.

Ma3 2.16

a3 269.5

8

ii) pV RT

p3 100 x103

3 1.923kg / m 3

For exit conditions and for unit volume, RT3 287 x181.2

.16kg / s

1

1

3

p2

2 1 2 2

iii) T2 T1 T1 T1 350 291.66 K

p1 1 1 1.4 1

1 1

2 2

D/ENG/002

Module: Applied Thermofluids & CFD (ESDM502)

2 1

2 1.4 1

p 2 p1 1x10 6 528.3kN / m 2

1 1 .4 1

p2 528.3

Now, 2 6.311kg / m 3

RT2 287 x 291.66

2 A2 c2

Now, m

m 20.16

A2 9.3 x10 3 m 2 9300mm 2 Ans.

2 c2 6.311x342.33

6

[17]

D/ENG/002

Module: Applied Thermofluids & CFD (ESDM502)

x

(a)

= heat generated

per unit volume

T0

d 2T q

0

Tw Tw dx 2 k

L L

x=0

Plane Wall Geometry with Internal Heat Generation q 2

The general solution to the 2nd order differential equation Eqn(12) is: T x c1 x c 2

2k

Considering a symmetrical problem, the boundary conditions (i.e. either side of the wall) are:

T = Tw at x = L

This gives c1 = 0, and the temperature at the midplane (i.e. at x = 0) T 0 = c2. Temperature distribution

is:

2

q 2 T T0 x

T T0 x or Eqn(1)

2k Tw T0 L

Eqn(1) shows a parabolic temperature distribution. An expression for T 0 may be obtained through an

energy balance, i.e. steady-state conditions, total heat generated must equal heat lost at faces,

dT

2 kA q A2 L where A is the cross-sectional area of the plate.

dx x L

dT 2x 2

(T w T0 ) (T w T0 )

dx x L 2 L

L x L

2

k (Tw T0 ) q L

L

q L2

i.e. T0 Tw

2k [10]

D/ENG/002

Question No:_Q4(contd)______________ Author: Dr. M.Macdonald

(b)

Data:

xal 2L xal

2L = 10 mm = 0.01 m

Tc, Usc

q

= 40000 W/kg

T0

T2 T1 Tc = 120oC

u = 18900 kg/m3

Aluminium

Cladding ku = 24.4 W/mK

Uranium

kal

Fuel kal = 206 W/mK

Element

ku, u, Usc = 28000 W/m2K

x=0

i) Temperature at aluminium-coolant interface, T1

T2 = temperature at aluminium-uranium interface

T0 = temperature at centre of uranium fuel element (ie. at x = 0)

x t x u where t = 2L

q 7.56 x10 6

(T1 Tc )

U sc

28000

= 270 oC

D/ENG/002

ii) Temperature at aluminium-uranium interface, T2:

Q 7.56 x10 6

xal 0.002

4

d 2T q

0

dx 2 k

7.56 x10 6

where q = 7.56 x 108 W/m3

0.01

2

dT q q x

x c1 and T . c1 x c2

dx ku ku 2

Hence, c1 = 0

736.4 0 c2 387.295 c2

2 x 24.4

Hence, c2 = 1123.695

The temperature at the centre of the fuel element is the maximum temperature i.e. Tmax = T0 at x =

0.

T0 . (0)(0) 1123 .695 = 1123.695 K = 850.695 oC

24.4 2

7

[15]

Please include marking schedule

D/ENG/002

D/ENG/002

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