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The Opening of the Philippines to World Commerce

The Spanish King allowed the Laissez-faire or let alone policy in

commercial trading ventures which gave full freedom to private individuals and
firms to engage in economic activities without much interferences from
government. This let the entry of foreign firms into the country

Between 1834 to 1873 several ports were opened in the Philippines:

1834 port of Manila

1855 ports of Iloilo, Zamboanga and Sual (in Pangasinan)
1860 port of Cebu
1873 ports of Tacloban and Legazpi

During 1842, Manila has two American, one French, one Danish and eight
British commercial firms. By 1859, the number of foreign firms increased to

These events stimulated the economic activity in the country, which brought
some prosperity to some Filipinos, mostly the Spanish and Chinese mestizos.

Rise of the Filipino Middle Class

As a result, there emerged a new class: The Filipino Middle Class

Group of people below the aristocratic Spanish officials, families and
religious orders but higher or above the masses (poor, uneducated Indios)
Filipinos who participated in the economic activities when the Philippines
was opened to world trade
They improved also their social influence and stature
They were able to send their children to schools not only in the Philippines
but also to abroad
Educated children of middle class (Rizal, del Pilar, Jaena, Luna brothers)
They clamored for social and political equality with their colonial masters
They are the initial propagators of reform movement
They were called Illustrados,

After the Philippines opened to world trade, liberal ideas of Europe and American
dropped into the country.

Influx of Liberal Ideas

Ideas were brought by men of liberal orientation who came to the

By the Illustrados who imbibed them during their stint abroad
Books and magazines contains the ideas of French and American Revolution
Political thoughts of Liberal thinkers
(Jean Jacques Rousseau Social Contract)
(John Locke Two treatises of Government)
(Thomas Paine Common Sense)
Filipinos learned the democratic practices in Europe, such as freedom of the
press, freedom of speech, and free exchange of ideas among people
Introduction of modern technology such as the mail (1854), telegraph
(1873), telephone and the Manila-Dagupan railway (1890) hastened the
spread of these ideas

Opening of Suez Canal in 1869

It shortens the travel between Europe and Asia. More people came to the
country, from 14,000 in 1810 to 15,000 people in 1870.
Spaniards and European liberals came to the Philippines via Suez Canal,
among them were exile creoles from Mexico like Verela and Novales whose
subversive ideas and activities advocated freedom and liberties, they helped
in the dissemination of these liberal ideas.

The Spanish Revolution (1868)

1868 a liberal democratic revolution led by Generals Francisco Serrano and Juan
Prim successfully ousted Queen Isabela II from the Spanish throne. The Queen was
forced to flee to France.

Spanish republic was born on 1868 and lasted in 1870.

The liberal government of Spain sent Governor General Carlos Maria Dela Torre to
the Philippines. He is considered as the best Governor General the Philippines has
ever had.

The Liberal Regime of Gov General Carlos Ma. Dela Torre

Governor-general Carlos Maria dela Torre

He showed democratic ways by living simply and avoiding luxury, by
dismissing the halberdiers of his palace and by walking the streets of Manila
in civilian clothes
He encouraged the freedom of speech
He abolished the censorship of the press
He abolished the flogging as a punishment
He solved the agrarian unrest in Cavite
He implemented the Educational Decree of 1870 and the Moret Decree
(which called for limited secularization of educational institutions and the
government supervision and control of certain schools)
He was serenaded by the Filipinos, mestizos and the Insulares to show their
gratitude and appreciation to dela Torres administration.
After the serenade, he invited them to a buffet, and openly welcomed talks
and ideas on freedom and democracy and the secularization in the parishes.
Restoration of Monarchy in Spain

The Republic of Spain ended in 1870 when the monarchy was restored and a new
italian king, Amadeo de Savoy, assumed the Spanish throne. The Spain sent Rafael
de Izquierdo who was appointed Governor-general in 1871 to replace dela Torre.

Rafael de Izquierdo
Boasted that he would rule the Philippines with a cross in one hand and a
sword in the other
He reversed the reforms of dela Torre
He disapproved the establishment of a school of arts and trades in Manila
Censorship of the press and restrictions on freedom of speech were restored.

The Campaign for Secularization

Regular priests those who belongs to the religious orders like the Dominicans,
Recollects, Augustinians, and Franciscans.
Have mission to fulfill, to convert non-christian people to Christianity
They should leave and find another area after they converted people

Secular priests not members of any religious orders

They are the one who administered the Christianized areas, churches and
By the 19th century, many Filipinos became secular priests

Friar-curates friars or regulars that not only made converts to Christianity but
also occupied parishes.
Refused to leave the parishes

Council of Trent (1545-1563) a decree stated that parishes were to be

administered by secular priests.

Secularization Movement asking for equality between native priests and regular
Later called Filipinization, a racial overtone.
Members of this movement were Spanish mestizos, Chinese mestizos or
Fr. Jacinto Zamora, Mariano Gomez, Toribio del Pilar, Mariano Sevilla,
Pedro Dandan, Jose Guevara etc.

Father Pedro Pablo Palaez (1812-1863) - a Spanish mestizo, the leader of the
Filipino Campaign to secularize the parishes. After his death, Fr. Jose Burgos
succeeded him.
The Cavite Mutiny and the Death of the GOMBURZA

Cavite Mutiny
Occurred on January 20, 1872
Consisted of 200 Mutineers included Indios, mestizos, and criollos
(Spaniards born in Mexico and exiled in Cavite)
led by military sergeant named La Madrid
Their reasons were the revocation of exemption of shipyard workers from
forced labor and paying tributes
Izquierdo Immediately dispatched soldiers to quell the rebellion
La Madrid was killed
Persecute the Ring leader
This gave governor-general Rafael Izquierdo a justification to persecute the
leaders of secularization movement
Accused the GOMBURZA as the Mastermind of the Rebellion. The mock
trial of the three priests found them guilty and was sentenced to die by

Francisco Zaldua a former Bicolano soldier gave a false testimony against the
three priests

GOMBURZA - martyrs of the motherland

Champions of liberalism by becoming members of the clergy sector, the
Comite de Reformadores ( Committee of Reformers) organization during
dela Torres administration which aimed for liberal reforms

Fr. Mariano Gomez

the oldest among the three, he was 73 when executed
He was born in Sta. Cruz Manila.
He founded the organ La Verdad which became the mouthpiece of the
government for secularization of the parishes.
Curate of Bacoor, Cavite when the mutiny took place.

Fr. Jose Burgos

Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur on February 9, 1837
His father was an officer in the Spanish army while his mother was a
Spanish mestiza
He studied in San Juan de Letran and in the University of Santo Tomas
where he took priesthood
He finished the degrees of doctor of theology and doctor of canon law
At the time of mutiny, he was the curate of Cathedral and acting Canonigo
During execution, the executioner knelt before the priest-martyr and ask for
forgiveness and he forgave it

Fr. Jacinto Zamora

was born in Pandacan, Manila on August 14, 1835
He studied in Letran where he obtained his AB degree and in UST where he
finished a degree in canon law
Became curate of Pasig and cathedral
He lost his mind during the execution

February 17, 1872 the three priests marched from Fort Santiago to
Bagumbayan Field.
While they were executed one by one first, Zamora, then Gomez and lastly
Burgos, the witnesses of the events took off their hats and knelt to pray for
the souls of innocent priests.
bells rang all over the City upon the order of Archbishop Melito Martinez

Significance of the GOMBURZAs Execution

National Consciousness emerged
Filipinos felt great indignation
United the Filipinos: Ethnic differences and Regional Hostilities were set
Dedication of Katipunan (password: GOMBURZA) and Rizal
(El Filibusterismo) works in their memory
Without 1872 Rizal wouldnt be a Hero instead he could be a Jesuit

The Propaganda Movement

PROPAGANDA - systematic efforts to spread opinion and beliefs by means of pen

and tongue. Propagation of a given opinion

The three major factors that paved the way for the reform movements or
propaganda movement that started in 1882 were:
1. Emergence of the Filipino Middle Class
2. The liberal regime of Governor-general Carlos Maria dela Torre
3. Martyrdoms of the GomBurZa

The Illustrados like Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena and Marcelo del Pilar
led the peaceful campaign for reforms which started in Spain.

1) Assimilation / Integration of the colony as a regular province of Spain
2) Secularization of the Parishes
3) The Restoration of the representation of the Philippines to Spanish cortes
4) Restoration of Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly and Religion
Lopez Jaena great orator
Rizal the great thinker and writer
Del Pilar great political analyst and journalist
Others: Jose Ma. Panganiban, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Eduardo de Lete, etc.

Graciano Lopez Jaena

Born in Jaro (part of Iloilo City) on December 18, 1856
His parents were Placido Lopez and Maria Jacobo Jaena
Studied in Seminary of Jaro to become a priest but changed his mind to
physician so he studied medicine at the University of Valencia in Spain but
later on gave up to become an active member of propaganda
He is well known to his gift of tongues and was called the Prince of
Filipino orators
He compiled his articles and speeches and named it Discurso y Articulos
Graciano praised the Philippines and called it Pearl of the Orient and a A
Piece of Palpitating Heart of Spain
He wrote the story of Fray Botod and Spanish hunted him and in 1880, he
escaped persecution, by secretly sailing to Europe
1889, he founded the fortnightly newspaper La Solidaridad (Solidarity)

La Solidaridad official organ of the reform movement in Spain and eventually

copies were secretly distributed to Filipinos in the colony

Aims of La Solidaridad
1. To fight reaction
2. To stop all efforts to keep the Philippines a backward country
3. To extol liberal ideas
4. To defend progress

He also expressed the demands of the reformist

1. Representation in the Spanish Cortes
2. The right to vote
3. Freedom of speech, of assembly, and of press
4. Freedom of commerce
5. Removal of friars from the Philippines because they were an obstacle to
6. The education of the people
7. Reforms of the jails in the country
8. The abolition of the diezmos prediales (tithe consisting of 1/10 of the
produced land)
Lopez Jaena suffered from hunger and tuberculosis and on January 20, 1896,
he died in Barcelona, Spain

Marcelo H. del Pilar

greatest journalist produced by purely Filipino race

Was born in the barrio of Cupang, Bulacan, Bulacan on August 30, 1850
Studied at the college of San Jose and UST, where he finished law in 1880
1882, he founded the Diariong Tagalog
1888, he secretly left for Spain and became the editor of La Solidaridad
Has two books: La Soberania Monacal en Filipina (Monastic Sovereignty in
the Philippines) and La Frailocracia Fiipina (Frailocracy in the Philippines)
Caiingat Cayo, Dasalan at Tocsohan, Kadakilaan ng Dios, Sagot ng Espana
sa Hibik ng Filipinas etc.
He used pseudonyms Dolores Manapat, Piping dilat, Plaridel
He died on July 4, 1896 in Barcelona, Spain

10 Commandments of Friars
1. Thou shalt woship and love friars above all
2. Thou shall not cheat them with their stipends
3. Thou shalt sanctify the friars, Sundays or holidays
4. Thou shalt pawn thyself to pay for the burial of thy mother and father
5. Thou shouldst not die if thou hast not the money to pay for thine internment
6. Thou shalt not covet his wife
7. Thou shalt not steal with him
8. Thou shalt not accuse him even if thou be called a liar
9. Thou shalt not refuse him your wife
10.Thou shalt not deny him your property

Jose Rizal
Was born in Calamba, Laguna on June 19, 1861
He studied at the Ateneo Municipal and later at the UST and went to Europe
to continue his medical studies
1882, he went to Spain and studied medicines and several languages such as
German and French
Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo novels
Ultimo Adios
Founder of La Liga Filipina

La Liga Fiipina a patriotic society which was suspected of uniting and preparing
the people for revolution
He was first banished to Dapitan, Zamboanga on orders of Governor-general
Eligio Despujol and later tried by a military court that sentenced him to
Executed in Bagumbayan on December 30, 1896

Other Propaganda Literature

Dr. Pedro Paterno

Doctor of law produced Ninay the first Filipino novel
He wrote Sampaguitas collection of his verses

Gregorio Sanciangco
a lawyer and economist wrote El Progreso de Filipinas (treatise on
politics and economics)

Antonio Luna (Taga-ilog)

produced Impresiones a book of essays on Spanish customs

Jose Maria Panganiban (JoMaPa)

authored La Universidad de Filipinas: Plan de Estudios showed the friar
controlled educational system in the Philippines

Mariano Ponce (Naning, Tikbalang, Kalipulako)

a biographer wrote the series Celebres Filipinos in Soli

Isabelo de los Reyes

combined history and folklore and wrote the outstanding contributions:
Historia de Ilocos (1890) and El Folklore Filipino (1887)

Masonry and the Movement

Masonry a secret society of an international fraternity for mutual help, having an

elaborate ritual and system of secret signs associated with free thinking and
libertarian beliefs

Rizal, Jaena, Ponce and del Pilar were masons in Spain

The Masonic lodge Revolucion was founded by Jaena in 1889 at Barcelona
1889, del Pilar and Julio Llorante organized Lodge Solidaridad in Madrid
1892, Serrano Laktaw (with instructions of del Pilar) founded Lodge Nilad
the first Masonic lodge in the Philippines

Lodge Nilad aims:

1. To work for freedom and prosperity of the Philippines
2. To work for good government
3. To ask for representation in the Spanish cortes
4. To establish the Philippines as a province of Spain
1893, there were 35 Masonic lodges in the country, 9 were in Manila
Walana Masonic lodge for women

These masons were anti-friar and they wanted friars to be shipped back to Spain.
Generally, members of the reform movement were masons.

La Liga Filipina
Rizal came home on June 26, 1892 and on the night of July 3, 1892, he
organized it in the house of Doroteo Ongjunco at Ilaya Street, Tondo,
The organization derived from La Solidaridad and the Propaganda
The constitution of the La Liga provided the Supreme Council as its national
organ, the Provincial Council in every province, the Popular Council in
every town
Membership was open to all patriotic Filipinos, they will pay 10 centavos as
their monthly dues

1. To unite the whole archipelago into one vigorous and homogenous
2. Mutual protection in every want and necessity;
3. Defense against all violence and injustice;
4. Encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce; and
5. Study the application of reforms.

Ambrosio Salvador, President of the League

Agustin dela Rosa, Fiscal
Bonifacio Arevalo, Treasurer
Deodato Arellano, Secretary and first Supreme leader of Katipunan

The Funds will be used for:

1. The poor shall be supported in his right against any powerful individual
2. A member who shall have suffered any loss
3. A member who shall need it for commerce or agriculture
4. Shops and stores where members shall get preferential treatment
5. To introduced machines in order to promote industries

The Liga membership split into two groups: the conservatives formed the Cuerpo
de Compromisarios which pledged to continue supporting the La Solidaridad while
the radicals led by Bonifacio devoted themselves to a new and secret society,
the Katipunan

Significance of the Propaganda Movement

The campaign for reforms did not achieve any of its basic objectives but it
succeeding in influencing profound political developments during the twilight of
the Spanish rule.

Thus, on July 7, 1892 when Rizal, the guiding light and conscience of the reform
movement was arrested and deported to Dapitan, on the same day Andres
Bonifacio, a radical Liga member immediately founded the Katipunan, the
revolutionary society.

Counter Propaganda
Pablo Feced (Quioqiap) a journalist whose articles expressed hated and
contempt for the Filipino reformists
He published Filipinas:.Esbozos y Pinceladas (The Philippines: Sketches
and strokes) an exaggerated and biased assessment of the country and

Wenceslao Retana (Desenganos) a rabid defender of frailocracy and vigorously

attacked the anti-friar reformists in his writings
Wrote the Cuestiones Filipinas: Avisos y Profecias (Philippine Questions:
Warnings and prophecies)
Founded the La Politica de Espana
Wrote a long biography of Rizal

Fray Jose Rodriguez

An Augustinian friar, printed eight pamphlets and attacked Rizal
Wrote Caiingat Cayo, a searing attack on Noli Me Tangere
(Rizal as reply wrote La Vision del Fray Rodriguez which exposed the friars
stupidity and ignorance)
(del Pilar also defended Noli Me Tangere in his work Caiigat Cayo, Slippery as
an eel)

Father Miguel Lucio Bustamante

Ridiculed Filipinos who wanted to learn the Spanish language

The Diario de Manila, El Liberal and La Voz de Espana were the newspapers
where these counter propagandists published their works.

Failure of the Movement

Inadequacy of funds for publication

Personal and health problems of propagandists
Different and conflicts of opinions of the members