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General Hydraulic Data Book

Content
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ....3
1. Directions for use of hydraulic valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1. 1. Instructions for installation, operation and maintenance of hydraulic valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1. 2. General information
1.2.1. Distributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Slide valve distributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Saddle valve distributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.2.2. Unidirectional valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


Unidirectional valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Hydraulic locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.3. Pressure valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


One-stage pressure valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Two-stage pressure valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.2.4. Reduction valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


One-stage reduction valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Two-stage reduction valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

1.2.5. Throttle valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


Throttle valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Stabilised throttle valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.2.6. Proportional valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2. Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs


2. 1. Instructions for installation, operation and maintenance of hydraulic units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2. 2. Instructions for installation, operation and maintenance of blocs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2. 3. General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.3.1. Hydraulic motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Linear hydraulic motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Rotary hydraulic motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.3.2. Hydraulic generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

2.3.3. Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.3.4. Filtration and filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


Suction filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Return filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Return-Suction filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Pressure and High-pressure filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Clogging indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Ventilating filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Off-line filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Mobile filter units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Definition of the filter fineness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Oil cleanliness classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Recuired oil cleanliness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Required fineness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Nominal flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
How to determine the required dirt capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Further considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

2.3.5. Accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

2.3.6. Connecting lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57


Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Blocs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Bolts and nuts for vertical modular grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3. Assembly and maintenance principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

1
It is recommended to read thoroughly this instructions before assembly!

Compiled by the team of engineers at ARGO-HYTOS, s.r.o. (Ltd) Vrchlab

14. revised issue

2
Introduction
Hydraulic mechanisms are an integral part of most modern - hydraulic generators actual pressures and flow rates,
machinery and equipment. Their use allows configuring piston and piston rod diameters and travel ( D / d x h) of
machines in new ways so that optimal operating parameters are the linear hydraulic motors
achieved, including improved efficiency, lower weight, wider - geometric volume and the range of speed of the rotating
regulating range and higher operational reliability, while hydraulic motors.
adhering to the principles of correct design, installation and - reduction and pressure valves setting
maintenance. - delayed (braking) elements time data-
The following chapters give some instructions compiled on oil filters filtration ability
basis of experience in designing, manufacturing and operating - designation and type of all elements used
hydraulic mechanisms, including references to relevant - inside diameters of lines (outside diameters and piping
standards and catalogues. - wall thicknesses, hose inside diameters and lengths)
- outlets inside diameters (threads dimensions)
Hydraulic circuit design where electrical controls are involved (including regulating
The following essential data and parameters have to be solenoids) draw electrical and hydraulic diagrams separately,
established at the initial stages of the hydraulic circuit design: and mark the common elements in both cases identically.
in case of linear hydraulic motors the required outputs,
speed and travel Hydraulic circuit constructional design
in case of rotating hydraulic motors the required rotational Elements must be positioned in such a way that they are easily
speed range, outputs and/or torques accessible and visible for checks, adjustment, maintenance
and replacement. This specifically applies to thermometers,
time duration of the required activity and/or the working
manometers, adjusting elements, filler sockets and
cycle, functions sequence and nature of operation
discharging outlets and filters.
required method of control and determination of operating
environment The hydraulic elements seating faces must be designed and
finished according to the requirements given in the elements
other specific data (spatial, and / or weight particulars) catalogue; incorrectly designed or finished seating might lead
to oil leakage under seals, or malfunctioning of the element
The compiled data are analysed and the basic concept of the itself.
proposed mechanism is established. Based on the required
parameters, nature of operation, regulating methods and
availability of motors and other elements follows the Selected parts of ISO 5598 (hydraulic mechanisms -
determination of the maximum required operating pressure and
flow rate and the source type particulars. terminology) and ISO 1219-1 ( H+P graphic symbols and
A hydraulic diagram is being prepared in conjunction with the
above activity. circuit diagrams) were added to following chapters.

Instructions for drawing hydraulic circuit diagram


Tab. 1 Characteristic Parameters - units
The diagram must clearly express the function of the given Characteristic Parameters Symbol Units
circuit. The elements are drawn in their initial positions; the initial Working pressure p [bar]
position of the elements is usually a position to which the
elements are brought back by the force of springs, or the status Pressure gradient Dp [bar]
to which the elements return after being deactivated (power Flow rate Q [l.min ]
-1
supply switched off) in case of electrically driven components,
and in case of limit switches the initial position is the position the Force F [N, kN]
limit switch is in before the start of a cycle. The individual Velocity v
-1
[m.s ]
symbols, their combinations and assembly details must be
drawn clearly and legibly. Torque M [Nm]
-1
Rotation speed n [min ]
It is recommended: 2
Surface area S [cm ]
to draw the layout arrangement of the elements with clarity of 3
the diagram in mind, ignoring the actual physical position of Geometric volume Vg [cm ]
the element(s) on the machine or equipment
Mechanical efficiency hm [1]
to draw linear motors and distributors horizontally whenever Volumetric efficiency hv [1]
possible
to draw connections in straight line, and wherever possible Total efficiency hc [1]
without crossing each other Performance P [kW]
to mark subgroups with a frame drawn in a dot-and-dash line
to always include in the diagrams:
- voltage, electromotor output and rotating speed; in case of
combustion engines rotating speed, output, and direction of
rotation

3
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

1. Directions for use of hydraulic valves


1.1. Instructions for installation, operation and maintenance of valves
Assembly Operation
Before assembly check the following: Valves may be used only for purposes specified by the
that the valve type matches the type given in the diagram and manufacturer. The manufacturer guarantees reliable function
only within the recommended operating parameters. Exceeded
that it is mounted in the right place on / in the block.
maximum pressure can lead to accidents and health hazards. All
the completeness of the valve in accordance with the operating conditions are listed in the catalogue sheets.
datasheet.
the soundness of the valve, particularly its seals, seating faces,
i.e. surfaces of the block, or of the inset hole (chamber).Maintenance and spare parts
Checks are carried out at intervals in accordance with Tab. 2. The
During the assembly it is necessary to proceed in accordance performance of the individual tasks does not apply only to the
with the following general principles: actual valves, but the entire hydraulic circuit.
the valves may be installed only on surfaces or in holes, which
The valves must be replaced after they performed the number of
correspond to the shape and quality given in the catalogue list.
cycles indicated by the manufacturer.
the dimensions or mechanical properties of the mounting Replacement parts are listed in the relevant catalogue sheet.
screws or bolts used must comply with the manufacturer's
recommendations.
It is required that the tightening torques given in the catalogue
are adhered to.
Electrical connections may be carried out only by competent
person in accordance with relevant regulations and standards.

Interval daily weekly monthly quarter-yearly half-yearly yearly


Valves
leakage x
dirtiness x
damage x
noise level x
Fluid pressure
fluid level x
temperature x
quality x
change x
Filter
change on display

Tab. 2 - Intervals of controlling

1.2. General information


1.2.1. Distributors
Distributors are directional control valves in hydraulic circuits, The maximum flow rate and operating pressure are given by the
which close or redirect the flow of fluid to control the movement construction of the distributor, and the selection of the channels
of hydraulic motors. The distributors are available in the interconnection depends on the required function of the
following designs: distributor in the hydraulic circuit.
Slide valves - there is a leakage flow in the closed position of
this valve, caused by the play between the body and the valve,
which is usually taken to the discharge channel of the
distributor
Seat valves - there is no leakage flow in the closed position,
i.e no flow occurs between the channels or to the drain.

The linear slide valve movement type distributors are used in


most applications.

4
Directions for use of hydraulic valves
Slide valve distributors

The number of squares gives the number of positions (stable distributors channels in the new state. The actual
states) of the dis-tributor (Fig. 1), The positions are marked in interconnection of the channels is done by an axial shiftover of
Arabic numerals (1,0,2); the 0 is the starting position. Arrow in the slide valve to the defined position (for overview of standardly
the squares marks the direction of the flow in the chan-nels, and used interconnections see Fig. 2)
the lateral lines in the circuits indicate closure of the flow. The
intermediate states are marked with a square filled with broken
lines.
The distributor type is given by a broken number. For example,
4/3 stands for a four-way three position distributor (4 channels -
P, T, A, B). An implied transfer of the respective square to the
starting position determines the re-adjusted function of the
distributor, and the end points of the circuits must merge with the

Channels marking:
P - pressure supply
A discharge to hydr. motor
B discharge to hydr. motor
Starting position 0 - hydraulic motor is T - return circuit
stationary
position 1 - energised solenoid a
(piston rod moves to the left)
position 2 - energised solenoid b (piston
rod moves to the right) Fig. 1
In addition, the following distributor types are available
in accordance with the method of the slide valves axial movement:
manually operated distributors (pushbutton, lever)
mechanicaly operated distributors (spring, pulley)
solenoid regulated distributors with single or double action magnet

hydraulically regulated distributors


electro-hydraulically regulated distributors
distributors with displacement control
Fig. 2 - Overview of standardly used interconnections of distributors

Designation Symbol Intermediate positions Designation Symbol Intermediate positions

5
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Example of solenoid regulated distributor RPE3-06:


The solenoids are fed by direct or alternating current through
Description of construction and function (Fig. 3) connector plugs (6, 7), which can be rotated at 90 steps, once
The distributors consist of a cast iron body (1), a cylinder slide the holding nut (8) is loosened. The solenoid coils (2, 3) can be
valve (5), return springs (4) and control solenoids (2, 3). rotated up to 360.around their axes.
The three-position distributors always consist of two control The distributors can be operated manually (9) up to the pressure
solenoids and two return springs. The two-position distributors of 2,5 MPa in the channel.
consist of one return spring and one control solenoid, or two
control solenoids and lock position of the cylinder slide valve.



A B

a A B b
Fig. 3

Example of manually controlled distributor RPR3-04:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 4) The lock holds the slide valve in the pre-set position. Two or
Manually operated distributors open or close the fluid flow, or three position distributors are available.
change the direction of fluid flow.
The distributor consist of a body (1), housing a slide valve (2) and
the controlling part (3). The controlling part either consists of a
shifting lever (4) and two or one return springs (5), or of a shifting
lever (4) and a lock (6).

A B A B

Fig. 4

6
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Example of manually controlled seat valve type


distributor ROR3-062:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 5) Opening and closing of the valve is provided by a return spring
Manually controlled seat valve distributors are normally used to held cone in a seat ensuring tight shut-off of the distributor. The
block or throttle the fluid flow. cone can be controlled by a mechanical stop, a push handle or a
The distributor consist of a body (1), a cone (2) and a controlling control lever. The push handle distributor version (3) consists of
element (3). two working positions, where the cone is pushed back to the

Fig. 5

Indirectly actuated distributors

The so-called indirect actuation is used on distributors of larger 1. The speed of this slide valve is adjustable with the throttle
internal diameters with high power transfer (P). The indirectly valve (4). When the solenoid (a) is deenergised the return spring
actuated distributor consists of a control step I and a power step (5) will bring the distributors I slide valve to position 0, and the
II. return spring (6) will bring the distributors II slide valve also back
The first step usually involves a solenoid regulated distributor to the position 0. The fluid in the space (7) is pushed out by the
(so called pilot distributor), which brings the pressure fluid to the slide valves head through the throttle valve (4) and the
head of the so-called electro-hydraulically controlled distributor I into the space (8), and finally to the drain Y.
distributors power slide valve. The action is similar when the solenoid (b) is energised. The
speed of repositioning of the power distributors slide valve is
Description of construction and function (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7) adjustable with the throttle adapter plate III.
With the deenergised solenoids (a) and (b) the slide valves of the
controlling (I) and the power (II) distributor are held by the return
springs in the 0 position.
Once the solenoid a is energised, the slide valve of the
controlling distributor I shifts over to the position 1. The fluid
pressure, brought in through the circuit X (external supply) will
move the power distributors II slide valve also to the position

Simplified symbol Detailed symbol A B

II
1 0 2 6
A B
1 0 2

a b III 4
3

5
X P T Y I a
1 0 2
b

P X Y T
Fig. 6

7
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

I a b

T P T
A B


III


c
II

T A P B X Y Fig. 7

Examples of typical versions of electro hydraulically Symbol A B


controlled distributors:
0 1
Two-position distributor actuated by one solenoid (Fig. 8)
With the de-energised solenoid (a), the controlling distributor
is in 0 position. The power distributor slide valve is kept in 0
position by the pressure of the fluid brought through circuit X 1 0
(so-called external supply).With the energised solenoid (a), 3
a
the controlling distributor slide valve will shift to position 1, and
the pressure of the fluid will shift the power distributor slide
P X Y T
valve also to position 1. When the solenoid (a) is de-energised
the spring 3 will return the controlling distributor slide valve to Simplified A B
0 1
position 0 and the pressure of the fluid will return the power symbol
3
distributor slide valve also to position 0. b

X PT Y Fig. 8

Two-position distributor actuated by two solenoids with


aretation of the (Fig.9) Symbol A B
The basic position is not determined on this type of 1 0
distributors. With the de-energised solenoids (a) and (b) the
controlling distributor slide valve is secured mechanically for
instance in position 0. By the pressure of the fluid brough from
the main circuit P (so called internal supply), the power 1 0
distributor slide valve is held in position 0. After a brief (pulse)
energization of the solenoid a the controlling distributor slide a b
valve will shift to position 1 where it will get mechanically
latched. The pressure of the fluid will shift the power distributor P X Y T
slide valve to position 1. The procedure to achieve position 0 is A B
analogous a brief (pulse) energization of the solenoid (b) Simplified
etc... symbol a b
1 0

PT Y
Fig. 9

8
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Three-position distributor with unloaded centre and Symbol A B


in-ternal supply (Fig. 10)
1 0 2
With de-energised solenoids (a) and (b) the controling and
power distributor slide valves are spring in position 0. Valve 3
pre-loading provides the minimum control pressure required
for unloaded centre distributors (circuits P and T connection in 1 0 2
position 0) during the direct control pressure take-off from 3
cicuit P (an internal supply). a b

P X Y T
Simplified A B
symbol
a b
1 0 2

PT Y Fig. 10

Saddle valve distributors


The saddle valve distributors flow blocking is provided with an rectifier, or by alternating current through a connector plug with
operating element (ball, cone) pushed under pressure into the a rectifier. The connector plug can be turned at 90 steps, and it
seat created in the body of the valve. The element is lifted from is possible to revolve the solenoid within the range of 360
the seat by an auxiliary piston, a solenoid, etc. The saddle valves around its axis after loosing the locknut (2).
are suitable for high pressures up to 100 MPa and ensure
virtually a perfect closure.
The valves are either designed as special saddle distributors Saddle distributors symbols
with a specific function (Fig. 11), or can be assembled relatively According to CSN ISO 1219 (Fluid power systems and
easily from regulated unidirectional valves (Fig. 12). components - Graphic symbols) there is no differentiation
between the symbols for slide valves and saddle distributors.
Example of solenoid actuated saddle distributors However, in practice and for faster orientation it is advisable to
ROE3-06: mark the closing element in hydraulic diagrams as a
unidirectional valve - see Fig. 12.
Description of construction and function (Fig.11)
The solenoid actuated saddle distributors serve to block a
pressure fluid flow. Opening and closing is carried out with the
use of a hydraulically controlled cone (4), which abuts against a
matching surface of the body seat (3) and ensures in the closed
position virtually an absolute tightness. The actuating solenoid
(1) is fed by direct current through a connector plug without a



S2 S1

S6 S5

Fig. 11

9
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Diagram 4/4 of distributor built-up of four controlled unidirectional valves

A B
1 2 3 4

X2 X1 A B
X1 X2

X1 X2 P T
X1 X2 position
T P T 1 0 1
0 0 2
1 1 3
0 1 4
Fig. 12

a) b) c)

d) e)

Fig. 13

Standardised connection figures (Fig. 13):

Internal diameter 04 Internal diameter 10


a) Figures in accordance with standarts ISO 4401/CETOP-RP e) Figures in accordance with standarts ISO 4401-05-04-0-05
121 H and DIN 24 340-A10
b) Figures in accordance with standarts ISO 4401-AA-02-4-A
and DIN 24
340-A4 (its use us subsiding)
c) Figures in accordance with standarts CETOP-RP 121 H

Internal diameter 06
d) Figures in accordance with standarts ISO 4401-AB-03-4-A
and DIN 24 340-A6

10
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

1.2.2. Unidirectional valves


Unidirectional valves (Fig.14)

The unidirectional valves serve to close the flow in one direction Example of unidirectional valve VJ:
and permit unrestricted flow in the opposite direction. The Description of construction and function (Fig. 16)
modular design allows vertical grouping with other elements of
the corresponding internal diameters. The seat (3) is created directly in the housing (1) and the poppet
The unidirectional valves can be built-in into one or two (2) is pushed onto the seat by the compression spring (4).
channels, while the other channels are straight through. The seat Mounting styles:
of the valve (3) is created directly in the body of the valve (1) and - for in-line mounting (Fig. 15a)
the cone in it is held by the spring force (4). The valve opening - straight valve cartridge (Fig. 15b)
pressure depends on the spring used, its pre-stressing and the - right angled valve cartridge (Fig. 15c)
size of the surface area of the cone exposed to the effects of the
pressure.
Example of a unidirectional modular valve MVJ2:
Description of construction and function (Fig. 16)

Unidirectional valve with Unidirectional valve The check valve sandwich plates are used to allow flow in one
return spring without return spring direction and prevent flow in the other one. The sandwich design
enables vertical stacking with other components of the same
A B A B size. The check elements can be built into one or two ports, the
other ports being through-holes.
The seat (3) is machined directly in the housing (1) and the
poppet (2) is pushed onto the seat by compression spring (4).
The cracking pressure depends on the spring used, on its
preload and on the pressurized poppet surface area.
Fig. 14a Fig. 14b

a)a) b)
b) c)
c)

Fig. 15

Fig. 16

11
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Design versions according to positioning to unidirectional valve VJ in the channels

T P A C

B D AB PT

Valve side
Plate side

Note: Channel T is used only with the internal diameter 10 excluding versions T and PT, where it is closed.
Orientation of the element symbol on the label corresponds with the function of the valve.

Fig. 17

Hydraulic locks (Fig. 18) a) b)

The hydraulic locks are unidirectional valves in which it is


possible to secure flow in the direction of the block by the action
of the regulating pressure (B A). By bringing the pressure in
channel X or A1, A2 the valve closure is cancelled (Fig. 18).

c) d)
a) Hydraulic lock single-sided for piping
b) Hydraulic lock single sided modular
c) Hydraulic lock double-sided for piping
d) Hydraulic lock double sided modular
Fig. 18

12
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Example of hydraulic lock 2RJV1:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 19) Thus opening route B2 B1 (A2 A1). If the pressure in the
The hydraulic lock is an element that totally shuts-off a working channels A1 and B1 drops (for instance, when the distributor is
circuit under pressure, provides a load in the event of pressure being reset into its centre position) the springs will push the
drop due to failed piping, and is able to maintain a stable position valves 2 and 3 into their seats and the circuit in the direction of the
of the hydraulic cylinder under pressure even for a certain cylinder will be closed under pressure. To ensure correct
period. seating of the cones to totally close off spaces A2 and B2, a
It consists of a cast iron body (1), one or two unidirectional valves distributor with Y interconnection is employed, which connects
(2), (3) and a regulating auxiliary piston (4). If the fluid flows from the space on both sides of the auxiliary cylinder 4 with the
A1 (B1) to A2 (B2), it will open the unidirectional valve 2 (3) itself reservoir (Fig. 20b).
and at the same time it will shift the regulating auxiliary piston 4 to
the right (left)

Fig. 19

a) Unidirectional valves position in the b)Examples of connections


body of the lock of hydraulic locks

single-sided double-sided

Valve in channel Valve in channel Valves in channels


A B A and B

Fig. 20a Fig. 20b

13
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

1.2.3. Pressure valves


Pressure valves serve to regulate pressure, thus controlling the
force or torque of hydraulic motors.
two-stage, indirectly regulated - suitable for higher flow
rates (above 60 l/min -1)
The valves perform various functions in hydraulic circuits, such
as by-pass, pressure relief, connecting, disconnecting etc. The supply pressure in both valve types is almost independent
The following designs are available: of the flow rate. The valve maximum flow rate depends on the
one-stage, directly regulated - suitable for smaller flow rates selected nominal internal diameter; the maximum pressure is
(up tol 60 l/min-1) determined by the preloading force of the regulating spring

One stage pressure valves

Exmple of directly regulated by-pass valve VPP1:


The pressure range is divided into six stages, to achieve optimal
Description of construction and function (Fig. 21)
behaviour within the full pressure range. It is recommended to
The valve consists of a casing (1), a cone with a damping piston
always choose the closest higher pressure range. The valves
(2), and a spring (3). The pressure setting is carried out manually
design makes them suitable for use in blocks, piping, or a plate.
with a screw (4).The spring holds the cone un-der pressure in its
The piping or connecting plate types are available with metric or
seat (5) and keeps the valve closed. If the pressure in channel P
pipe thread.
exceeds the value, set by preloading of the spring the cone, will
lift and let the fluid flow from channel P to channel T.

P Method of control: T
T with a spanner, handle and a lockable
handle
Fig. 21

Modular modifications and example of modular design of directly regulated by-pass valve VPP2-04

Example Design MP Other design versions:


Valve is connected between channel P and T Design MA Design MB
A1 B1

Design MP

A2 B2

Design MC Design MD

Fig. 22

14
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Two stage pressure valves


The two-stage, indirectly regulated by-pass pressure valves are
used in circuits with higher flow rates.

Example of indirectly regulated by-pass valve VPN1-06:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 23)


The pressure valves VPN1 are indirectly regulated valves serving unload, the function edge of the slide valve will open the casings
to limit the pressure in a system. radial holes (7) and the pressure fluid will start flowing from
The pressure setting is carried out with a setting screw (4). The channel P to T. The regulating flow is brought down from the
valve is closed in its initial position. The pressure acts on spring space (5) through a groove (8) to channel T.
the face area of the slide valve (1) and simultaneously on its
spring loaded backside through a nozzle (2) and further through
a nozzle (3) on the regulating valve ball (6).
Once the rising pressure in the system reaches the spring (5)
preset value, the fluid will start flowing through the regulating
valve. The spring-loaded slide valve side will

Design A Design B Design P Design C Design D

Valve side

Platte side

Fig. 23

15
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

1.2.4. Reduction valves


Pressure reducing valves draw off and reduce the pressure of Design A
the main pressure branch. This design arrangement allows the fluid to enter the body from
The following designs are available:. the primary circuit through channel A1 and flows though the
regulating edge, where the pressure reduction occurs. The
one-stage, directly regulated - suitable for smaller flow rates reduced pressure corresponds with the setting of the regulating
(up to 60 l/min)
spring. The pressure acts simultaneously on the surface area of
two-stage, indirectly regulated - suitable for higher flow the slide valve opposite the spring (can be measured on the
rates (above 60 l/min) discharge outlet provided with a thread G 1/4 closed off with a
stopper), creating a static equilibrium on the slide valve. If the
Pressure on the discharge side of the valves (reduced pressure) reduced pressure value in the discharge channel changes, a
is virtually independent of the flow rate and almost independent control process will take place and the pressure will return to its
of the supply pressure. The maximum flow rate through the valve adjusted value. The fluid then flows from the discharge channel
depends on the selected nominal internal diameter; the A2 to the appliance. If the pressure on the discharge side of the
maximum pressure is determined by the preloading force of the valve increases as the result of an overloaded appliance, the
regulating spring. slide valve moves further against the spring until the second
regulating edge opens and releases the surplus flow into
channel T. The loss flow in the spring space is also drained to
One stage reduction valves channel T. The fluid flows in the direction A2-A1 through a
unidirectional valve, which is connected in parallel to the
Example of directly regulated reduction valve VRP2-04 regulating edge of the slide valve.

Description of construction and function (Fig. 24) Design B


The pressure valves VRP2 are directly regulated reduction Under design B arrangement the pressure reduction occurs
from channel P2 to channel P1. However, the pressure is
valves for a vertical modular grouping in a three-way design,
reduced only when the flow in channel B is in the direction of the
thus providing a secondary circuit. The reduction valve
appliance (not the other way around). The secondary circuit is
consists of a body (1), a slide valve (2), a spring (3), a
also secured only in the described case.
setting mechanism (4), a stopper G1/4 (5) of a pressure
measuring off-take, and in some cases of an unidirectional Design P
valve. Under design P arrangement the pressure reduction occurs
from channel P2 to channel P1. The secondary circuit is
secured in the same way as in design A.


A1 B1

A2 B2

Modular design example

VRP 2-04-A . / .. VRP 2-04-B . / .. VRP 2-04-P . / ..

Fig. 24

16
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Two-stage reduction valves value of the reduced pressure is carried out by preloading the
spring. If the reduced pressure (A2) increases above the set
value the control level will open as the result of the fluid pressure
The two-stage indirectly regulated reduction valves are used to against the force of the spring. The pressure gradient resulting
reduce a higher flow rate pressure.. from the fluid flow will shift the slide valve, which will start closing
the fluid inlet into the valve (A1). Constricting the fluids flow will
Example of indirectly regulated reduction valves make the pressure in the output channel (A2) drop. Conversely if
VRN2-06 the load on the device increases and further increase of pressure
(A2) occurs the slide valve will completely close the inlet channel
(A1) and the output channel (A2) will interconnect with the waste
Description of construction and function (Fig. 25)
channel (T). At this stage the reduction valve works in the
The pressure valves VRN2 are built-in, indirectly regulated
function of a safety bypass valve. The fluid flowing through the
reduction valves of three-way design, whereby the secondary
control level is also diverted to the channel T.
circuit is secured. Two body versions are available for a built-in,
vertical modular grouping, either with channel A, or channel B
Modular design MA
pressure reduction. In addition, a return valve is built-in in the
In this design arrangement the fluid enters the body through
body MA to allow unrestricted flow in the opposite direction.
channel A1. The supply pressure is reduced and taken to the
The reduction valve consist of a casing (1) with a mounting
discharge channel A2, and from there to an appliance. The fluid
thread M22 x 1,5, a slide valve (2), a spring (3), and an adjusting
in the opposite direction flows through the unidirectional valve
mechanism (4). The modular version consists of an additional
(6), which is connected in parallel to the regulating edge of the
body (5) or, in some cases, of an check valve (6).
slide valve.
Built-in design
Modular design MP
The fluid from the primary circuit (channel A1) flows to the first
The pressure reduction in design MP takes place from channel
control edge of the slide valve, which in the basic position allows
P2 to channel P1.
free flow of fluid to the output channel (A2). The fluid from the
All design versions allow connection of a checking pressure
slide valve space is fed through a nozzle in the slide valve to the
gauge to the outlet G 1/4 (7).
saddle of the control level, in which the force of the spring (3)
presses the cone fitted with a hardened ball. Setting the required

A1 B1 P1 T1

B1 A1

A2 B2 P2 T2

B2 T A2

Modular design example

Design MA Design MP

Fig. 25

17
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

1.2.5. Throttle valves


The throttle valves are used to regulate the movement speed of
hydraulic motors.
throttle valves with pressure gradient stabilisation - The
size of the flow rate is dependent on the opening size, and is
almost independent of pressure changes in front and behind
The following designs are available: the valve. The valves are used in hydraulic motor circuits of
Throttle valves without pressure gradient stabilasation - large load variations. They are available in a two-way (Fig.26b)
the flow rate is dependent on the size of the opening (size of and a three-way (Fig. 26c) designs.The mentioned throttle
the cross-sectional area of the throttle) and the pressure drop valve types are mostly used in combination with a
(Pressure difference in front and behind the valve) - Fig. unidirectional valve.
26a.The valves are used in hydraulic motor circuits with
relatively steady loading pattern.

Throttle valves

Example of modular throttle valve 2VS3:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 27): valve). The modular arrangement of the valve allows its vertical
Dual throttle valve serve to throttle the flow in two separate grouping with other elements of corresponding internal
branches (A, B) of the hydraulic circuit. The modular diameters. The valve contact area seal is provided by an
arrangement allows three different connections. inter-plate (6) with inserted O-rings. Certain valve position
The body of the valve (1) consist of precast channels and the corresponds with throttling connection on the supply or
throttle valves are built into channels A or B, or A and B; these discharge side of the appliance. Change of connection from
restrict flow in one direction and allow unrestricted flow in the supply throttling to discharge throttling is carried out by turning
opposite direction. The throttling slide valve (2) is shifted with an the valve by 180 around the horizontal axis. The throttle and the
adjustment screw (3) and certain position of the slide valve unidirectional valves orientation corresponds to the orientation
corresponds to certain clear opening. The pressure fluid of the diagram symbol on the valves label. The adjustment
brought in through the channel A1 flows through the throttle screw is carried out by a spanner, handle, or a lockable handle.
groove and the throttle circular ring and exits through the
channel A2. The fluid entering through channel B2 shifts the seat
(4) against the spring (5) and the created clear opening allows
unrestricted flow into channel B1 (function of the unidirectional

P1 A1 B1 T1


P2 A2 B2 T2

Fig. 27

18
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Unidirectional and throttle valves positions Examples of throttle valves


connections

Valves in Valves in Valves in channel


channel A channel B A and B

One sided throttling on Both sided throttling on


hydraulic motor supply hydraulic motor
side discharge side
Fig. 28

Stabilised throttle valves


Example of dual-way throttle valve VSS2-206:

Description of construction and function:


The throttle valves with stabilised pressure drops are used to
regulate flow in hydraulic systems, where the
dependence of the flow rate on pressure and temperature is
very small.
The valve consist of a body (1), a casing (2), a throttle slide
valve (3), a spring (4), a stabiliser (5), an unidirectional valve
(6) and a turning handle (7) with relevant adjusting
mechanism.
Throttle valve VSS2-206-xxQ/Jx0-1 (Fig. 29)
Throttle of the flow in direction A B takes place on the
throttle cross section (8). The throttle cross section is

adjustable with the turning handle. The stabiliser (5) is placed
after the throttle cross section (8) to ensure independence of

the flow rate in channel B.The spring (4) pushes on the throttle
slide valve (3) and the stabiliser (5) onto the external
backstops, and keeps the stabiliser opened during a zero
flow. During the flow through the valve the pressure in channel
A acts through nozzle (9) on the bottom surface area of the

stabiliser. The resulting force moves the stabiliser upwards,


closes it partially and keeps reducing the pressure difference
on the throttle cross section (8) until reaching the equilibrium
again. The stabiliser compares continuously the pressure
difference on the throttle cross section (8) with the value given
by the parameters and the spring preloading, and by
continuous fine regulation keeps the flow rate constant.


A B

Simplified symbol Detailed symbol Fig. 29

19
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Throttle valve VSS2-206-x/JxA-1 (Fig. 30)


(with stabiliser held up)
The function of this valve corresponds in principle to the function
of the valve described above. However, in this case there is an
additional possibility to hold up the stabiliser by an external
pressure brought from channel P via the nozzle (10) onto the
bottom side of the stabiliser (5). The held up function can be
clearly observed on the given diagram.
If the fluid does not flow through the valve (distributor (11) in
centre position), the pressure in channel P acts on the bottom
side of the stabiliser and keeps it in the upper closed position.
When the distributor is set to the left position, connection to
channel A and to the source of pressure will take place, but the

closed stabiliser will prevent sudden rise of the flow in channel B,
pre-empting a sudden jerk of the connected hydraulic motor -
the hydraulic motor start up is smooth. The actual function of the
flow stabilisation is the same as in the preceding case.

The valve with the held up stabiliser can be connected only to the
hydraulic motor inlet.
Free flow in direction B A is possible on both versions of the
valves, with an unidirectional valve (6) connected in parallel.

Fig. 30
Simplified symbol Detailed symbol

Example of modular grouping throttle valves


Offer for the vertical modular grouping of hydraulic elements
includes two-way throttle valves with stabilised pressure drop
type VSS1-206 (Fig. 31).

Supplied modification Connection examples: Supplied modification Connection examples:

a) without unidirectional valve b) without unidirectional valve

c) with unidirectional regulating d) with unidirectional regulating valve


valve on inlet on outlet

Fig. 31

20
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Example of three-way throttle valve VSS1-306 with


stabilization:

The vertical modular grouping of hydraulic elements include The flow through the channel P2 is divided into two parts. One
supply of three-way throttle valves with stabilised pressure drop part flows through a throttle cross section (6) and proceeds
type VSS1-306 (Fig. 32) further to the channel P1. The second part is taken through the
throttle cross section (7) of the stabiliser into channel T2. The
Description of construction and function (Fig. 32) throttle cross section (6) is adjusted with a turning handle. A
The throttle valves with stabilised pressure drops are used to screw (8) secures the handle in the adjusted position. The
regulate flow in hydraulic systems which require very little stabiliser continuously compares the pressure difference on the
dependence of the flow on the pressure and temperature. The throttle cross section (6) with the value given by the spring
three-way throttle valves can be connected only to the hydraulic parameters and its preloading. The pressure difference on the
motor inlet. They consist of a body (1), a throttle slide valve (2), a throttle cross section and the corresponding constant flow rate
stabiliser (3), a spring (4) and a turning handle (5) with relevant are maintained at a constant value by draining the surplus flow
adjusting mechanism. into the drain.

Detailed symbol Examples of connections

Fig. 32

21
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

1.2.6. Proportional valves


The proportional valves and servo valves are among the
electro-hydraulic regulating elements that ensure regulation of
hydraulic parameters (flow rate, pressure) by electrical signals
(current, voltage).

Proportional valves
The proportional valves are typically used in the open regulating
systems as electro-hydraulic controls, and replace the
combination of the distributor and the throttle valve to regulate
the turning direction and speed of the hydraulic motor
Connecting the two functions into one element and the
availability of smooth throttle regulation simplify the connection
and improve the function of the hydraulic circuits. The demands
for cleanliness during operation are lower than for circuits with
servo valves.

Example of proportional distributor PRM7-06:


The coils, including the electronic box, can be partially rotated
Description of construction and function (Fig. 33) around the longitudinal axis by 90.
The proportional distributor PRM7 consists of a cast iron body, a The digital electronics allows regulating the proportional valve
special cylindrical slide valve, two centering springs with based on data obtained from two feedback loops. The
supporting washers, one or two proportional solenoids, position proportional distributor can be used in the following four ways:
sensor and in some cases of digital electronics box.
The position sensor measuring system consists of a differential Regulated valve without feedback - E01
transformer with a core and the evaluation, hybrid design Only internal feedback based on signal from the slide valve
electronics. position sensor - E02S01
The version without the integrated electronics consist of the
solenoid connections by connector sockets EN 175301-803-A,
Only external feedback (pressure sensor, position sensor
etc.) - E03
and the position sensor output is provided by the connector
socket G4W1F . Internal and external feedback - E04S01
The version with the integrated electronics consist of the
proportional distributor equipped with the electronic box, fitted The output current to the solenoid coils is controlled by PWM.
on any solenoid together with the position sensor, of which The electronics is equipped with an internal current feedback,
output is cable interconnected directly. The version comprising and the output current could be, if required, modulated by the
of the distributor with two solenoids consist of the solenoid on dynamic deletion signal. The individual function parameters are
the opposite side interconnected with the electronics box using software set using a computer connected to the proportional
cable connector socket EN 175301-803-A. Connection of the distributor through serial interface RS 232. The cable has to be
power supply, control signal, control output of the slide valves ordered and the order number quoted, see page 4. The correct
position sensor (if provided) and the output voltage +10V DC function of the digital electronics is indicated with the
is carried out with a seven pole connector M23. Connection of illuminating green LED. Malfunctioning of the unit (fault) is
the external feedback is carried out with a five pin connector indicated with the illuminating red LED.
M12x1 which, apart from the external feedback input also The factory configuration of the valve depends on its design
comprises the external sensor +24V power supply. version. Consult the manufacturer for the configuration with the
external feedback.

Fig. 33

22
Directions for use of hydraulic valves

Example of proportional reducing valve PVRM1-06:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 34)


The reducing valve PVRM1 is a directly operated 3-way valve which is proportional to the current. Acting against this force is
controlled by proportional solenoid (1). In the de-energized the force created by the reduced pressure acting on the
state, the spring (4) holds the control spool (3) in relation to the differential area. In a balanced state, both the forces are equal.
housing in such a position that the input pressure in port P is This arrangement ensures the proportional relation between the
blocked, whereas the port A is connected with tank. The electric reduced pressure in port A and the control current.
current through the solenoid shifts the spool and closes The basic surface treatment of the solenoid is blackened, other
gradually the return port and opens the inlet to the output port A. parts are zinc coated.
The reduced pressure in port A brought to the solenoid room
acts on the differential area of the spool, this being created by
adapter (5). The solenoid pushes on the spool with a force,

P T

Fig. 34

Proportional pilot operated relief valve SR4P-B2:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 35)


The pilot operated pressure relief valve is used for a pressure for very small flow rates to 2 L/min.
control in hydraulics circuits. It consists of a main and a pilot With respect of the design and desired performance it is very
stage. The main stage consists of valve body (1), spool (2), important before to unvented the air from actuation system on
springs (3) and nozzles (4). The main stage is controlled by pilot the pilot valve. For this is on the actuation system installed the air
flow rate, which flows through the spool and the nozzle. The pilot bleeding screw (7).
stage, due to the force of the proportional solenoid (6) to the
popped (5), produces desired pressure drop in the pilot seat. For the electric control it is possible to use external analogue
This pressure drop, which acts at the spool of the main stage, electronics EL3E (see catalogue Ha 9145).
controls the pressure at the valve inlet P. On the pilot side the
main stage is equipped with the 3/4-16 UNF cavity and it can be
used it withexcessive current applied could cause the valve to
function beyond stated pressure limits. The pilot stage can be
also used separately, such as proportional pressure relief valve

Main stage Pilot stage

2 3 4 1 5 6 7

P P

T T
Fig. 35

23
Directions for use of hyraulic units and blocs

2. Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs


2.1. Instructions for installation, operation and maintenance of
hydraulic units
Unit placement and assembly Units 3-phase asynchronous electric motors
Hydraulic unit must be placed and mounted on a solid base connections
(machine frame, floor, etc.). The mounting holes are at the
bottom (in the footing) of the tank. The unit is designed to render
easy operation and maintenance. However, it is necessary to
The standard version of the three-phase asynchronous
motors terminal comprises 6 connecting screws, onto which
observe the basic principles and safety regulations. the start and end of the individual phases winding is
connected.
It is necessary to:
This arrangement is used for the delta (D) and star (Y)
adhere to the principles of cleanliness as this is a prerequisite connections, allowing the motor to be connected to two
for trouble-free operation of hydraulic equipment. Hydraulic different voltages, e.g. 230/400V.
components are products made with high accuracy, and any
fouling leads to a reduced service life or malfunction. The Fig. a), b) shows the start and end of the individual phases
winding connecting screws moved by one position higher, i.e.
consequences are very difficult and expensive to remove.
not directly below each other.
use clean tools when fitting the unit into your equipment. Such configuration makes the change from the star (fig. 36a)
Never put down the hydraulic circuits parts and connection to the delta (fig. 36b) connection easier.
accessories on a dirty surface. The most suitable cleaning
material is a crepe paper as even the fibres of cleaning rags Standard connection
can cause malfunction
remove the protection plugs from the threaded chambers just a) STAR ,,Y
before the assembly of the relevant screwed connection
rinsethe hoses and pipes with gasoline or other cleaning
agent before assembly and blow them through with
compressed air
allscrewed connections must be properly tightened;
however, do not use excessive force

Electrical installation
The installation must be carried out in accordance with the
following general principles:
connection of all electrical elements of the units must comply
with the current regulations and standards, in particular with
EN 60204-1 and EN 60204-31
prior to connecting to a power supply a check of the operating b) DELTA ,,D
voltage and frequency given on the name plate must be
carried out to ensure that the equipment is being connected to
the correct power supply network
protection against dangerous contact voltage must comply
with given standards. An earthing bolt on one leg of the units
tank marked with the earthing symbol serves as the earthing
connection
all safety regulations must be observed when operating and
repairing the electrical parts of the unit

Fig. 36 - Asynchronous motors terminal connection

24
Directions for use of hyraulic units and blocs

technicians, who, after testing the unit, mark the direction of


All electric motors are identically connected in the factory and rotation by an arrow placed directly on the electric motor or on
the above mentioned phase sequence L1, L2, L3 applies to
the clockwise turning of the shaft. The anticlockwise turning of the cover of the unit close to the electric motor.
the shaft is achieved by changing the phases sequence, e.g. At the first start the electric motor must not run longer than 5
L2, L1, L3. seconds to check the correct direction of rotation. Running the
pump in the opposite direction for longer than the specified
Definition of the direction of rotation is identical for both
period (applicable for one-directional pumps - more than 99%
motors and the pumps. Thus, clockwise rotation of the electric
motor / pump is determined by looking at the motor / pump of pumps used in AHCZ) can damage or destroy the pump!
shaft by turning it clockwise, and the anticlockwise direction Out of the pumps used at AHCZ the most sensitive to the
by turning it anticlockwise, see fig 37a. opposite direction of rotation are the vane pumps - max. 5s
and the least sensitive are the gear pumps max. 10s.
In this context it should be realised that the anticlockwise
turning pump must have the clockwise turning el. motor, see Fig. 38 below shows the phase sequence measuring method,
fig. 37b (all units of the SMA series) and the clockwise turning where, using the measuring instrument, the direction of
pump must have the anticlockwise turning el. motor (all-units rotation is identified directly -R (right) or L (left).
of the SA series).
The electric motor is connected in the star Y, clockwise
Before connecting the electric motor it needs to be clarified turning direction indicated by the green LED above the
which direction of rotation is required and the phases designation R; the clockwise turning direction electric motor
sequence established and connected in accordance with the is intended for an anticlockwise turning pump (units SMA).
above text. The electric motor may be connected by an
instructed person only. At AHCZ these persons are the test

Direction of turning A left turning pump belongs to a right turning electric


(looking from the shaft's direction) motor
L

L
P
P
Elektromotor
Electric motor erpadlo
Pump

Fig. 37a Fig. 37b

Fig. 38

25
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Filling of the oil tank


The following principles must be observed when the filling is First start (be careful the working pressure on the safety valve is
performed: set according to manufacturer's diagram):

The tank is to be filled with one of the hydraulic oils given in Start the electric motor of the hydrogenerator at short intervals
Tab.3 and Tab.4. These are hydraulic oils of the HM and HV Check for noisiness and tightness of piping
classes in accordance with the European specification
CETOP RP 91H of ISO VG 32, 46 and 68 viscosity classes Bleed the hydraulic circuit
The hydraulic oil is not to be filled into the tank directly but with If possible test the circuit function under minimal load
the use of the filling filtration plant with filter fineness better Test the electrical controls
than 12 mm! Monitor during the operation the control and measuring
In the event of an oil leak it is necessary to prevent equipment, noisiness, level and temperature of the oil in the
contamination of water sources. Remove the spilled oil with a tank
suitable chemical agent (Vapex), or cover it with saw-dust or During the initial start the devices and the distribution system
sand and remove such oil-soaked material to a controlled
dumping site
will fill up with oil leading to the drop of the oil level in the tank. If
The used hydraulic oil should be disposed of in accordance the oil drops below the minimum level it is necessary to fill up
with the Act On waste. the oil after the equipment is turned off

Puting the hydraulic unit into operation After sufficient number of starts the hydraulic unit is ready for
operation.
Prior to the initial start-up check that:
the tank is filled with the prescribed oil up to the upper limit
the connections are properly tightened and the assembled
piping free of internal stress
the interconnections correspond with the hydraulic and
electric connection diagrams
the electric motors (of hydro-generator and cooler) are turning
in the right direction and that they are correctly wired
the hydraulic accumulator is filled with nitrogen to a specified
value (NOTE: The hydraulic accumulator is a pressure vessel
and therefore subject to specific regulations that may differ in
each country. In any event the hydraulic accumulator must be
equipped with a "Technical Passport", which is a certified
documentation of the product; the hydraulic accumulator is
subject to periodic inspections. The initial inspection is carried
out by an engineering inspector in the course of the inspection
of the entire plant in which the hydraulic unit and the
accumulator are built into
the auxiliary elements are functioning properly (thermometer,
level gauge, heater).

Oil type kinematic viscosity in mm /s in dependence on the temperature Setting point


0C 20C 40C 60C 80C C
OH-HM 32 220 100 32 15 7 -40
OH-HM 46 400 170 46 18 11 -30
OH-HM 68 700 170 68 26 14 -28
OH-HV 32 180 67 32 17 11 -40
OH-HV 46 350 110 46 25 14 -36

Tab.3

26
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Hydraulic petroleum oils


Power classes HM and HV in accordance with European specification
CETOP RP 91H in the viscosity classes ISO VG 32, 46 and 68

Tab. 4 - Hydraulic petroleum oils

Performance HM HV
Specification HM 32 HM 46 HM 68 HV 32 HV 46
CETOP RP 91 H
AGIP OSO 32 OSO 46 OSO 68 - ARNICA 46
ARAL VITAM GF 32 VITAM GF 46 VITAM GF 68 VITAM HF 32 VITAM HF 46
AVIA AVILUB RSL 32 AVILUB RSL 46 AVILUB RSL 68 AVILUB HVI 32 AVILUB HVI 46
PARAMO MOGUL HM 32 MOGUL HM 46 MOGUL HM 68 MOGUL HV 32 MOGUL HV 46
BP ENERGOL HLP 32 ENERGOL HLP 46 ENERGOL HV 68 BARTAN HV 32 BARTAN HV 46
BULHARSKO MX-M/32 MX-M/46 MX-M/68 MX-B/32 MX-B/46
CASTROL HYSPIN AXS 32 HYSPIN AWS 46 HYSPIN AWH 68 HYSPIN AWH 32 HYSPIN AWH 46
DEA ASTRON HLP 32 ASTRON HLP 46 ASTRON HLP 68
ELF ELFOLNA 32 ELFOLNA 46 ELFOLNA 68 HYDRELF DS 32 HYDRELF DS 46
ESSO NUTO H 32 NUTO H 46 NUTO H 68 UNIVIS HP 32 UNIVIS HP 46
FAM FAMHIDO HD 32 FAMHIDO HD 46 FAMHIDO HD 68 FAMHIDO HV 32 FAMHIDO HV 46
FINA HYDRAN 32 HYDRAN 46 HYDRAN 68 HYDRAN HV 32 HYDRAN HV 46
INA HIDRAOL 32 HD HIDRAOL 46 HD HIDRAOL 68 HD HIDRAOL HDS 32 HIDRAOL HDS 46
KLBER LAMORA HLP 32 LAMORA HLP 46 LAMORA HLP 68 - -
TALLZS HIDROKOMOL HIDROKOMOL HIDROKOMOL HIDROKOMOL HIDROKOMOL
P 32 P 46 P 68 U 32 U 46
OIL TRANS MOBIL DTE 24 MOBIL DTE 25 MOBIL DTE 16 MOBIL DTE 32 MOBIL DTE 46
MV HLP 32 HLP 46 HLP 68 HLP - M 32 HLP - M 46
OLPAK - HYDROLL HM 46 HYDROLL HM 68 - BOXOL 26
AZMOL H 32 EP H 46 EPS - T5A -
SPRINGER LINK IGP 18 IGP 30 IGP 38 - -
SUN SUNVIS 832 WR SUNVIS 846 WR SUNVIS 868 WR SUNVIS 832 SUNVIS 846
WR-HV WR-HV
SHELL TELLUS OIL 32 TELLUS OIL 46 TELLUS OIL 68 TELLUS OIL T 32 TELLUS OIL T 46
TEXACO RANDO HD 32 RANDO HD 46 RANDO HD 68 RANDO HD Z 32 RANDO HDZ 46
VALVOLINE ULTRAMAX AW 32 ULTRAMAX AW 46 ULTRAMAX AW 68 ULTRAMAX ULTRAMAX
AW 32-HVI AW 46-HVI

Biologicaly degradable hydraulic fluids

Groups HTG and HE at the specification DIN

Tab. 5 - Biologicaly degradable hydraulic fluids


Group HTG (vegetable oil) HE (synthetic ester-oils)
Viscosity class 32 46 32 46
EPRO PRIMOL-EKO-36 H PRIMOL-EKO HTG 40 PRIMOL-EKO HE 46
BP BIOHYD 32 BIOHYD 46 - BIOHYD SE 46
EVVA BIOHYD 40 N BIOHYD S
FUCHS PLANTOHYD 40 N
MV BIOHYD M 32 BIOHYD M 46 BIOHYD MS 32 BIOHYD MS 46
QUAKER QUINTOLUBRIC QUINTOLUBRIC
CHEMICAL GREENSAVE N 30 GREENSAVE
SHELL NATURELLE HF 32 NATURELLE HF 46 - -
SOLLNER CONNEXOL HD 32 - 68 - -

27
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Maintenance
The first maintenance must be carried out as a preventative In case of a serious fault shut down the equipment immediately
measure either after 50 hours of operation, or not later than after and call the service technician.
3 months from the date of commissioning. The maintenance To ensure reliable function it is necessary to adhere to the check
includes: and maintenance intervals given in Tab.6
Leak check and tightening of all elements and connecting
elements (valves, screw connections, pipes, hoses etc).
Oil level check
Oil temperature check the temperature should not exceed
the value of 65C
Signalling elements function check (thermometer, level
gauge, filter clogging indicator )
Working pressure setting check
Attention! Before starting work on the hydraulic circuit the
system must be cleared of any residual pressure!

Interval daily weekly monthly quarter-yearly half-yearly yearly 5 years


Pressure fluid
Stand x
Temperature x
Condition x
Change x
Filter
Change on display
other checks
External leakages x
Pollution x
Damages x
Sounds x
Measure machines x
Hydraulic reservoirs x
Hose-check x
Hose-change x

Tab.6

Brief list of possible defects

Hydrogenerator does not supply oil: Increased mechanical noise:


reverse rotation damaged coupling drive
shortage of oil in the tank damaged or destroyed motor bearings
oil viscosity is not of the prescribed value air suction
hydrogenerator failure Low pressure, hydrogenerator supplies oil:
Oil contains air bubbles: failure of safety valve
circuit venting is not adequate hydrogenerator wear
low oil level external or internal leakage
beschdigte Dichtung an der Pumpenwelle Overheating oil:
hydrogenerator shaft seal is damaged
malfunction of the cooler
Hydrogenerator seized up: hydrogenerator wear, part of energy turns to heat
damage by solid particles in oil Hydraulic distributor cannot be adjusted:
failure to keep the prescribed oil viscosity
no supply (voltage) to electromagnet - interrupted supply lines
wrong kind of oil
burned solenoid coil
exceeding the service life of hydrogenerator
distributor slide valve jammed

28
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Warranty

The following is applicable: conditions specified in this manual.


The warranty period is given by legal regulations and purchase If necessary, please contact us at the addresses listed on the
agreement
back of this publication.
The warranty does not apply to defects caused by improper
interference, mechanical damage or failure to comply with the

Manipulation of hydraulic units

29
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

2.2. Instructions for installation, operation and maintenance of blocs

Location and installation of hydraulic blocs Maintenance


The hydraulic block is to be held in its specified place only with
the use of elements designed for this purpose (through holes for To ensure reliable function of the hydraulic block the following
bolts and/or threaded holes). must be checked regularly (on daily basis):

In addition, it is important to observe the basic principles and


Leak check and tightening of all elements and connecting
elements (valves, screw connections, pipes, hoses etc)
safety regulations:
Signalling elements function (filter clogging indicator)
The adherence to cleanliness principle is a prerequisite for a
defect-free operation of hydraulic equipment. The hydraulic Working pressure setting
components are products made with high accuracy, and any
fouling leads to a reduction in the service life or malfunction. In case of a serious fault shut down the equipment immediately
Removal of the consequences is difficult and costly. and call the service technician

Use clean tools when fitting the unit into your equipment. Never Warranty
put down the hydraulic circuits parts and connection
accessories on a dirty surface. The most suitable cleaning
material is a crepe paper as even the fibres of cleaning rags can The following is applicable:
cause failure of a function.
The warranty period is given by the purchase agreement and
remove the protection plugs from the threaded chambers just legal regulations.
before the assembly of the relevant screwed connection
The warranty does not apply to defects caused by improper
rinse the hoses and pipes with gasoline or other cleaning agent interference, mechanical damage or failure to comply with the
and blow them through with compressed air before assembly conditions specified in this manual.
allscrewed connections must be properly tightened in
accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. If necessary, please contact us at the addresses listed on the
back of this publication.

Electrical installation

The installation must be carried out in accordance with the


following general principles:
connection of all electrical elements of the units must comply
with the current regulations and standards, in particular with
EN 60204-1 and EN 60204-31
prior to connecting to the power supply a check of the
operating voltage and frequency given on the name plate must
be checked to ensure that the equipment is being connected to
the correct power supply network
protection against dangerous contact voltage must comply
with given standards. An earthing bolt on one leg of the units
tank marked with the earthing symbol serves as the earthing
connection

Putting the hydraulic bloc into operation

Prior to the initial start-up check that:


All connections are properly tightened
The interconnections correspond with the hydraulic and
electric connection diagrams
the hydraulic accumulator is filled with nitrogen to a specified
value (NOTE!: The hydraulic accumulator is a pressure vessel
and therefore subject to specific regulations that may differ in
each country. In any event the hydraulic accumulator must be
equipped with a "Technical Passport", which is a certified
documentation of the product; the hydraulic accumulator is
subject to periodic inspections. The initial inspection is carried
out by an engineering inspector in the course of the inspection
of the apparatus in which the hydraulic unit is built into).

30
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

2.3. General information


2.3.1. Hydraulic motors
The hydraulic motors convert pressure energy to mechanical Calculation of basic parameters
energy.
Rod push-out force
Linear hydraulic motors p1 [bar] . S1 [cm 2 ]- p2 . S2
F1 [kN] =
100
single-acting with one-sided piston rod the fluid is fed to Rod retracting force
one side (A) and only one direction rod movement can be p2 [bar] . S2 [cm 2 ]- p1 . S1
achieved; the return movement is provided by an external F2 [kN] =
force or a spring-loaded action. The opposite part of the motor 100
is free (fig. 40a, 40b) Rod push-out speed
double acting with one-sided or continuous piston rod,
-1
Q1 l. min-1
where the fed-in fluid flows to one or the other side of the v1[m . s ] =
piston (A or B) and can move the rod in either direction (fig. 6 . S1 cm2
40c, 40d)
Rod push-in speed
double acting with one-sided adjustable braking at
Q2
extreme position one sided damping (Fig. 40e) v 2[m . s-1] =
6 . S2
double acting with two-sided adjustable braking at
extreme positions two sided damping (Fig. 40f)
single-acting telescopic - return movement is provided by
an external force (Fig. 40g)
double-acting single side telescopic - where the fed-in fluid
flows to either side of the pistons (A or B) can move the
pistons in either direction (Fig. 40h).

The force on the rod is dependent on the operating pressure


of the fluid and the size of the active surface area of the piston.

The speed of the piston movement is dependent on the rate of


flow and the size of the active surface area of the piston.
Fig. 41
a) b)
The resulting forces during movement will be lower due to the
mechanical operation of the linear hydraulic motor.

Linear hydraulic motors mounting


Mounting method of the hydraulic motors has a considerable
influence on the size of the maximum force the piston rod can be
c) d)
loaded in the required pushed-out position. Permissible
buckling stresses are given in the product catalogues including
various mounting options for the given motor types.

Linear hydraulic motor :


e) f) Description of construction and function (Fig. 42)
All linear hydraulic motors are of the flange mounted (1) one
sided piston rod (2) construction.
The piston guide is made of a brass ring (3), and the piston rod
guide is made of a brass casing (4).
The outer sealing is provided with a sealing collar (5) with an oil
g) h) scraper ring (6), and the inner sealing is made up of two sealing
collars (7). Damping at the end positions of the rod is provided
with the impact constriction through a damping pin (8), with a
combined damping effect adjustment.

Fig. 40

31
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Fig. 39

Rotary hydraulic motors


Calculation of basic parameters

The following types of rotary hydraulic motors are available


according to the principle of the geometric volume Vg creation Flow rate for the required turning speed
(spatial volume filled with fluid per 1 full turn of the rotor):
3 -1 -1 Vg cm3 . n min-1
gear the geometric volume is created by the gaps around Q[l.min
Q[dm . min] ] =
1000 . hv 1
the meshing gear
Motor shaft turning speed
vane - the geometric volume is created by the space between dm3. min
QQ[l.min-1 -1 .1000 . h 1
] v
the vanes, stator and the rotor n[min-1] = 3
Vg cm
piston - the geometric volume is created by the pistons
movement Motor shaft torgue
- axial pistons are parallel to the axis of turning or inclined to the
Vg cm3 . Dp MPa
[bar] . hc 1
axis of turning by an angle smaller than 45 M[Nm] =
- radial - pistons are vertical to the axis of turning or inclined to the 202p
axis of turning by an angle bigger than 45 Motor shaft power output

The rotary hydraulic motors can be further grouped as follows: M Nm . n min-1


P[kW] =
unidirectional unregulated - dthe geometric volume is not 9549
variable; the unidirectional turning (fig. 40a) of the output shaft
is achieved with the supplied fluid (A)
bidirectional regulated - the geometric volume is not
variable; the bidirectional turning (Fig. 4b) of the output shaft is Volumetric efficiency approximate values:
achieved with the supplied fluid (A or B). The turning speed of for gear motors hv = 0,85 - 0,95
the output shaft is determined by the size of the flow rate for vane motors hv = 0,8 - 0,9
unidirectional regulated with variable geometric volume for piston motors hv = 0,9 - 0,98
(Fig. 40c)
Total efficiency approximate values:
bidirectional regulated - with variable geometric volume
for gear motors hc = 0,6 - 0,8
(Fig. 40d)
for vane motors hc = 0,65 - 0,8
for piston motors hc = 0,8 - 0,95

The turning speed of the output shaft is determined by the size of Coupling of rotary hydraulic motors
the supplied flow rate and the geometric volume size Accurately aligned axes of the hydraulic motor and the driven
adjustment. equipment greatly influence proper function and lifespan of both
the motor and the driven equipment.
Any possibility of the axial and radial forces transfer onto the
a) b) c) d) hydraulic motor axis through the coupling must be eliminated;
A A A A also, the coupling must not be mounted onto the shaft by force.
The flow loss drainage piping must have the specified internal
diameter and must be arranged in such a way that the entire
internal motor space is filled with oil. The piping must be
separate and terminate below the reservoir oil level.
B L B L B L B L
Fig. 43

32
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Rotary hydraulic motor:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 44)


The hydraulic motors are intended for drives with high turning dependent to a great degree on the characteristics of the load.
speed range and torque demand; the motors are bidirectional While the dimensioning and shaft support allow application of
and reversible under load. The motor construction allows low additional external radial force, application of axial load must be
turning speeds, but the smoothness of the turning speed is avoided.

Fig. 44

2.3.2. Hydraulic generators


The hydraulic generators convert the mechanical energy to fluid a) P b) P P
pressure energy; the following types are available according to
the principle of creation of the geometric volume Vg:
gear the geometric volume is created by the gaps around
the meshing gear
vane - the geometric volume is created by the gaps around S S S
the meshing gear
piston - the geometric volume is created by the space
between the vanes, stator and the rotor P
- axial pistons are parallel to the axis of turning or inclined to the c) d)
P
axis of turning by an angle smaller than 45
- radial - pistons are vertical to the axis of turning or inclined to
the axis of turning by an angle bigger than 45

The hydraulic generators can be further divided into the


following types: S L
L S
unidirectional unregulated - the geometric volume is not
Fig. 45
variable (it is constant), the flow rate size is determined by the
turning speed of the driving shaft S Suction, P Discharge,
- single (Fig. 45a) L Loss oil take-off
- dual (Fig. 45b)
Calculation of basic parameters
bidirectional unregulated - the geometric volume is not
Hydraulic generator supplied flow rate
variable
unidirectional regulated the geometric volume is not
variable, the flow rate size is determined by the turning speed Vg cm3 . n min-1 . hv 1
3 -1 -1
of the driving shaft and the adjustment of the size of the Q[l.min
Q[dm ] ]=
. min
1000
geometric volume
- manually or mechanically regulated Vg (Fig. 45c) Hydraulic generator turning speed for the required flow rate
- with constant pressure regulation - Vg is controlled by a
special pressure valve (Fig. 45d)
dm3. min
QQ[l.min-1 -1 .1000
]
- with constant flow rate regulation n[min-1] =
- with constant power regulation Vg cm3 . hv 1
bidirectional regulated - with variable geometric volume

33
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Torque required to drive the hydraulic generator the operating temperature range, below the pressure value
specified by the manufacturer. The pressure is depended on the
Vg cm . Dp[MPa
3
bar]
M[Nm] = losses in piping, suction head, temperature and viscosity of the
202p oil, the turning speed and the given geometric volume.
Power input required to drive the hydraulic generator We recommend that a thin-walled steel pipes are used for the
suction piping. The end of the suction piping is to be cut at 45
-1 -1
dm3. min
QQ[l.min ] . D. Dp[bar]
p MPa angle, and the piping is to be placed from the bottom of the
P[kW] = reservoir at least 2,5 times of its the diameter, and minimally 100
600 60 . hc 1 mm below the lowest expected level of oil in the reservoir. The
internal diameter of the loss flow off-take piping must be to the
The hydraulic motors efficiency values can be also considered manufacturers specification and laid in such an arrangement
here. that the entire inner space of the hydraulic generator is filled with
oil. This piping must run separately and end below the level of oil
of the reservoir (Fig.46). We recommend that the
Coupling of hydraulic generators essential electromotor-wafer type body-hydraulic generator aggregate on
con-struction principles the reservoir lid is placed on flexible mounting to reduce the
noise and vibration.

Accurately aligned axes of the hydraulic generator and the


driving equipment (motor) are prerequisites for a proper function
and long design life of the generator and the driving unit. Any
possibility of the axial and radial forces transfer onto the
hydraulic generator axis through the coupling must be
eliminated; under no circumstances can the shafts be coupled
with a fixed connection.
The internal diameter of the suction piping must not be smaller
than the nominal internal diameter of the suction given in the
catalogue; no acute transitions, changes of cross-sectional
areas and sharp arches are acceptable.
The suction piping pressure measured at the immediate
proximity of the hydraulic generator body must not drop, within

obr. 2 obr. 3 1 Electromotor


2 Gear hydraulic generator
3 Piston regulating hydraulic
generator
4 Flange
5 Coupling
6 Damping rubber ring

S - Suction
P - Discharge
L - Leakage
X -Regulation

Screw to limit
geometric volume
of hydraulic
generator* Fig. 46

34
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Example of the series PV axial piston hydraulic generator:

Description of construction and function (Fig. 47)


Series PV axial piston hydraulic generators are generators with minimum. The version L regulator is used to regulate the
an inclined plate and a variable geometric volume (the flow rate hydraulic generator flow rate by means of load sensing to
is adjustable by changing the angle of the inclined plate), mostly eliminate the load influence. The version T regulator controls the
used to feed constant pressure hydraulic systems; the smooth hydraulic generator flow rate within certain range of pressures to
pressure adjustment, which ranges from 0,9 to 31 MPa is keep it more or less constant, to prevent occurrence of
adjustable either manually with a screw placed directly on the overloading of the hydraulic generators driving motor.
regulator (version C), or remotely (version F). Regulator of the clockwise turning hydraulic generator is placed
Zero to maximum flow rate setting is adjusted with a screw fitted on the left side of the body, and on the right side of the body in the
with a locknut. case of the anticlockwise turning hydraulic generator.
The versions C and F pressure regulators allow full flow rate on Note: the dimensioning and mounting of the hydraulic generator
the discharge of the hydraulic generator until the pressure in the shaft allows only torque created loading. It is for this reason that
system reaches the value preset on the pressure regulator, the hydraulic generator must be coupled to the driving motor
when the flow rate drops to the value required by the system. with the use of a coupling, which will prevent loading the shaft by
The pressure on the discharge will in effect remain at the preset external radial and axial forces.
value. A three-way slide valve pressure regulator guides the
controlling piston of the hydraulic generators regulating
mechanism.
The design of the regulating mechanism and especially the
large throughput ability of the guiding valve ensures fast
response (50 ms-1 after the flow rate drop, and 120 ms-1 after
the flow rate increase) and reduces the pressure peaks to a
Controlling piston

Pressure screw regulator

Maximum flow rate


adjustment screw

Inclined plate Rotor


Distributor plate

Mounting flange
Pressure spring

Pressure plate Fig. 47

2.3.3. Reservoirs

A reservoir serves as the hydraulic fluid source and storage Reservoir - fluid storage tank, which is under atmospheric
facility (Fig. 48) pressure
Reservoirs also allow following: a) with piping outlet above the fluid level
b) with piping outlet under the fluid level
Equalisation of imbalances in the fluid take-off c) with fluid drainage piping
Dirt sedimentation and release of air in the fluidAufnahme von
Schmutzablagerungen a) b) c)
Termal stabilisation of the fluid
Installation of pressure fluid source, panels and blocks with
regulating hydraulic elements, accumulators, filters, coolers,
heaters, and hydraulic fluid temperature and level control and
check elements.
Fig. 48

35
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Useful size of the reservoir Surface protection


The internal and external surfaces of the reservoir and its lid are
Recommended sizes (in L): treated with oil resistant paint, e.g. powder coating Komaxit RAL
7030.
For stationary, open circuit with non-regulated hydraulic
generators 3 to 6 times the flow rate (L/min) of the proposed
hydraulic generator. Equipment
The reservoir must be equipped for the intended operation with
For stationary, closed circuit with regulated hydraulic suitable elements, including level and temperature checks.
generators 2 to 4 times the flow rate (L/min) of the proposed
hydraulic generator
Level check is carried out with:
For mobile circuits with non-regulated hydraulic generators dipsticks with marks (usually part of the fill plug) Fig. 49a
and for closed circuits with regulated hydraulic generators
1,5 to 2 times the flow rate (L/min) of the proposed hydraulic two circle oil gauges on the side of the reservoir - see Fig. 49b
generator. Good quality hydraulic oil and proper cooling (e.g. a continuous oil gauge on the side of the reservoir alternatively
ram-air cooler) is a definite prerequisite. combined with a thermometer - see Fig. 49c, 50a

The location of the hydraulic generators suction line and the floating switch, blocking the electrical function of the
aggregate in the event of insufficient level within the given
return line from the circuit must ensure good circulation of oil in
range - Fig. 49d, 50b
the reservoir. The reservoir must have sufficient static and
dynamic rigidity. The larger reservoirs should be equipped with
cleaning and draining holes and suspension mountings,
enabling handling with lifting devices.

The design of the reservoir and its lid shall prevent contaminants
entering the reservoir.
It is recommended that a drain furrow is made around the
perimeter of larger reservoirs to capture spilled oil and prevent
its concentration on the outside.
The reservoir should be equipped with an earthing screw.
Symbols:

a) b) c) d)

Fig. 49

Examples:

a) b) c)

Example of continuous oil gauge


combined with thermometer of firm Example of level indicator VDI Example of thermostat type TH 143:
ARGO-HYTOS: Obzor These thermostats are intended for the
The level must be maintained between Praha, type 03: solenoid or fans electromotor switching.
the two level marks. Two temperature Allows signalling of three The regulating wheel is secured with a
scales one in C, the other in F. monitored levels. Basic design safety screw, which has to be tightened
Range 0 - 80 C. Mounting with two version signals the level 150 mm under operating conditions to avoid
drilled-in screws. above the seating surface of the sponta-neous displacement of the preset
level indicators casing. temperature.
Fig. 50

36
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs
Examples:

a) b) c)

Example of the pressure switch:


The pressure fluid is brought to a piston, which acts against
the force of the spring. When the pressure in the hydraulic
circuit reaches the spring preloaded value, the pressure switch
either switches on or off the electrical circuit. The spring
preloading value is adjustable with the regulating screw.
Spring preloading setting screw (1) (ac-cessible after the
Electrical pressure switch with Pressure sensor
connector removal) turn-ing to the right = higher pressure Fig. 51
digital display
turning to the left = lower pressure

The operating fluid pressure check is carried out with


the aid of:
manometers Fig. 52a
pressure relays, allowing regulation or signalisation of the
circuit limit statuses
- elektromechancal - Fig. 51a, 52b
- without electrical digital display - Fig. 52c
- with electrical digital display - Fig. 51b; 52d
Pressure sensors - Fig. 51c, 52e
The manometers must be protected against pressure surges
(e.g. on switched systems). The protection can be achieved with
a suitable damping, manometer switching off equipment or
dismantling of the manometer once the pressure has been set.
The same results are achievable with manometers filled with
glycerine.

Symbols:

a) b) c) d) e)
P P P P

Fig. 52

The operating fluid temperature check is carried out with the Heating
aid of:
The warming of the fluid occurs during operation as the result of
thermometers - Fig. 53a part of the energy converting to heat (e.g. as the result of cross
thermostats, allowing monitoring of the operating fluid section throttling). Heating by electric heating elements is
temperature - Fig. 50c, 53b applied only during so-called "cold start". The heating elements
contact thermometers, allowing indication and monitoring of (power input 750 VA) are installed on the side of the reservoir.
the temperature - Fig. 53c For safety reasons the heating elements should be placed in
sufficiently dimensioned protection pipes near the suction. The
Additional reservoir facilities - operating fluid temperature check sensor a thermostat should be placed close to the
adjustment equipment heating elements to prevent local overheating of the fluid.
To maintain the temperature and the corresponding viscosity of
the operating fluid within the specified range it is necessary to
provide means of heating or cooling.

37
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Water cooling (Fig. 54a) Cooling by air (Fig. 54b)


The effective method of cooling the fluid is to use a through-flow The air coolers are used more often due to shortage of cooling
cooler with an intermittent regulation of the water flow using a water; these are however less efficient and normally add to the
solenoid and a thermostat-controlled valve. It is necessary to noise level. Their application in dusty environment is less
check at intervals the level of clogging of the water cooler, and/or suitable, as the clogging by dust reduces the cooling
the corrosion of the parts that come into contact with water. The performance and continuous swirling of dirt occurs at the same
water coolers are usually installed on the side of the reservoir. time. The internal oil space must be deaerated before the
The required cooling power is usually up to 15 kW at the flow rate cooling plant is brought into operation. The cooling honeycomb
of approx. 30 L/min. radiators must be regularly cleaned to be free of foreign matter
and must be kept dry. The air coolers are normally placed on
support structures above the actual reservoir. The required
cooling power is usually up to 5 kW, the fan electric motor power
consumption is between 250 - 750VA.

a) b) c)
T T

Fig. 53

Fig. 54a Fig. 54b

2.3.4. Filtration and Filters

Guidelines on selecting the optimal hydraulic filter: How to determine the proper filter type

The ARGO-HYTOS procedure Unfortunately, there is no generally applicable concept which


for selecting a filter dictates the proper type of filter for each of the different hydraulic
The selection procedure described below systems. To a large extent, the decision on whether to use
makes it easy for you to select the right suction, return, pressure or high-pressure filters or a
filters for hydraulic systems. To simplify matters, the procedure is combination of these types depends on these factors:
broken down into these steps: the contamination sensitivity of the components in the existing
determine the right filter type or planned system

determine the filter fineness that is the priority given to protect the function of the component, or to
prevent wear
needed
determine the filter size that is needed design or requirements of pumps, motors and valves, which
may result in specified requirements from the compone
other considerations manufacturer

This filter selection procedure is based on many years of practical


the way dirt is generated, the locations where it occurs and the
possibility of ingression from outside.
experience with countless mobile and industrial hydraulic
systems that are equipped with correctly chosen ARGO-HYTOS
Depending on these factors, the criteria detailed below should be
filters.
taken into account when you are choosing from possible types of
filters. A basic distinction can be made here between protective
filters that protect the function of components, and working filters
that attain a specified level of cleanliness for the pressure fluid.

38
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Return filters
Suction filters

Pressure filters High-pressure filters

Fig. 55

Suction filters
Hydraulic systems have to be fitted with a suction filter if there is a
particularly high risk of damage to the pump from coarse
contamination.

Typical aplications of this sort include:


systems with a common oil reservoir for working hydraulics
and gear transmissions.
unitswith oil tanks of large dimensions and/or complex A B
shapes, or those which are welded or casted. Experience
shows that 100% cleaning of the tank prior to assembly is
impossible under these circumstances.
P T
systems that are filled under difficult conditions in the field.
Often relatively coarse suction filters (e.g. screen filter elements
with a mesh size of 40125 m) are planned that can only
guarantee functional protection for the pump. In this case, the
required protection against wear on the hydraulic components
must be ensured by a finer filter at another location.

Specialized literature and company publications sometimes


advance the opinion that the use of finer suction filters with paper
or glassfiber elements is either impractical or inadvisable:
however, this view is not tenable. Positive field experience even
with filter finenesses of 16 m abs. in hydraulic systems
(especially in the mobile sector) have demonstrated that these
objections are not justified.

Hydraulic system with suction filter


Fig. 56

39
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

However, it is essential to consider the following criteria when


designing a hydraulic system with a suction filter:
low pressure drop on the clean filter, due to optimal design of
the filter element and housing, also taking account of high start
viscosities
filter monitoring with a vacuum switch or vacuum manometer
the filter element must be easily accessible and simple to
replace for maintenance purposes
the suction pipe should be designed with the lowest possible
pressure drop, i.e. large nominal width (inner diameter), few
and/or constant changes of direction (bent pipe instead of 90
fittings) and shortest possible length
the oil tank should be positioned higher than the pump
(gravitation drop)
the system should be designed so that the planned operating
temperature is reached as soon as possible after a cold start
(tank volume should not be too large, oil cooler should be
bypassed during the cold start phase)
the hydraulic oils used should have the lowest permitted
viscosity and a low increase in viscosity if the temperature
drops (high viscosity index)
the pump types used should not be very sensitive to cavitation
(e.g. gear pumps).

ARGO-HYTOSs ES filter line offers a range of easy-to-maintain


tank-mounted suction filters that have proven their excellence,
especially in hydrostatic transmissions on mobile equipment. ARGO-HYTOS suction filter ES
Fig. 57

Return filters
It is particularly beneficial to use filters that are mounted on the
tank or integrated in it, because this method allows filtering of the
entire oil flow (full flow filtration) at low cost and with low space
requirements.
Full flow filtration in the return flow protects the pumps against dirt
which penetrates the system from outside (especially via
hydraulic cylinders) or which is generated by abrasion.
When selecting the right filter size, it is essential to consider the A B
maximum possible flow rate. Depending on the area ratio
between the piston and piston rod side of the hydraulic cylinder,
this is larger than the flow rate for the pump(s). P T
Full flow filtering in the return may be problematic, and is
therefore inadvisable. If the maximum flow rate is very high in
relation to the pump flow rate (for example due to a large area
ratio for the cylinders, and/or due to the emptying of
hydroaccumulators).

Hydraulic system with return filter


Fig. 58

40
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Maximum pressure build-up (mainly determined by the actuating To prevent oil foaming in the tank, it is essential to ensure that the
pressure and characteristic curve of the bypass valve) should be oil outlet is always below the oil level under all operating
considered on the basis of these conditions: conditions. The distance from the tank bottom should be 2 to 3 x
the diameter of the outlet (extension pipe diameter), in order to
if drain lines for pumps and/or hydromotors are connected to avoid swirling particles which have already settled on the bottom.
the return filter system, the maximum pressure build-up
specified for these components by the manufacturer must not At a very early stage, ARGO-HYTOS pushed the consistent
be exceeded. (The limitation is usually on the sealing rings of introduction of return filters for mobile units mounted below the
the input/output shafts). tank surface, in a separate oil return chamber. (Fig. 59)

in certain cases where several components are connected in a As long ago as 1983, ARGO-HYTOS was the first manufacturer to
system, high pressure build-up can trigger uncontrolled launch tankmounted return filters on the market, featuring an
functions for example, the hydraulic cylinders may be moved interchangeable paper element integrated into the filter
out unintentionally. headpiece as the tank ventilating filter. (Fig. 60)

E 103 return filter for tank installation, with


E 440 . E 700 return filters for installation in tanks integrated tank ventilating filter
Fig. 59 Fig. 60

Return-suction filters
ARGO-HYTOS first developed its return suction filters in the
A pressure relief valve is used to feed the oil directly into the tank
mid-1980s. On equipment with a hydrostatic drive and
starting from a Dp of 2.5 bar (so no bypass for the closed circuit!).
combined working hydraulics, these filters replace the suction
and/or pressure filters that were previously required for the filling
If the drain oil from the hydrostatic drive is fed through the filter as
pump of the closed hydrostatic drive, and in an open circuit they
well as the flow in the open circuit, remember that in order to
replace the return filter for the working hydraulics.
protect the radial shaft seals the permissible drainline pressure
must not be exceeded (taking account of the pressure drop in the
The benefit of these filters is that filtered oil is fed to the filling
drain lines, the oil cooler and the pressure relief valve on the filter).
pump at an overpressure of 0.5 bar, avoiding the risk of cavitation
in the filling pump so that excellent cold start characteristics are
possible.

In order to maintain a boost pressure of approx. 0.5 bar at the


connection to the filling pump, a surplus between the return and
suction flow is required under all operating conditions.

41
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Working hydraulics

A
P

Hydraulic system with return-suction filter


Fig. 61

ARGO-HYTOS return suction filters ARGO-HYTOS high-pressure filter


Fig. 62 Fig. 63

42
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Pressure and high-pressure filters Dp2 = max. differential pressure at start viscosity n2

The main function of this type of filter is to ensure that the


functions of downstream hydraulic components are protected.
For this reason, these filters are installed directly upstream of the
components if possible.

Taking account of the risks of dirt penetrating the system from


outside and the possibility of pump abrasion, the following
aspects can be particularly decisive for the use of a pressure or
high-pressure filter: A B

the components are particularly sensitive to dirt (such as servo


valves) and/or they are integral to the functioning of a complex
system P T

the components are particularly expensive (such as large


cylinders, servo valves, hydromotors) and they are extremely
important for the safety of the equipment (such as hydraulic
steering, transmission or brake systems)
exceptionally high costs are possible if a system is shut down
due to malfunctions or damage to a hydraulic component
caused by contamination.

High pressure filters must withstand the maximum system


pressure, and in many cases the fatigue strength must also be
guaranteed because there are frequent pressure peaks in the
system.

ARGO-HYTOS is convinced that safety is very important. For


example, casings must undergo a fatigue strength test with more
than 10 million pressure pulses before they are released for
Hydraulic system with high-pressure filter
series production, and leakage tests are performed regularly Fig. 64
during production.

Example of calculation:
In many cases, high-pressure filters carry out their function by
2
filtering only part of the flow or only relatively coarse particles. In operating viscosity n1= 35 mm /s
these cases, the filter basically operates as a safety filter. Under 2/
start viscosity n2 = 700 mm s
these conditions, a fine filter should be positioned at another
point in the system so as to take account of the requirements for switching pressure of differential pressure switch = 5 0,5 bar
protection against wear. max. differential pressure Dp = 5,5 bar
1

High-pressure filters that mainly work as safety filters should


preferably be equipped with a differential pressure switch that 700
Dp2 = 5,5 = 110 bar
monitors the contamination of the filter element. Only 35
high-pressure filters without a bypass valve should be fitted
upstream of particularly critical components. Those filter types
must be fitted with a high collapse filter element that itself is able The differential pressure which occurs here would be 110 bar.
to withstand higher differential pressure loads without damage. ARGO-HYTOSs EXAPORMAX elements, with a collapse
pressure of 160 bar, have been specially developed to meet
In this case, a decisive influence on the maximum differential these demanding requirements.
pressure is the ratio between startup viscosity v2 and operating
viscosity v1. The EXAPORMAX filter elements that are used in
ARGO-HYTOS high-pressure filters without a bypass valve have
Assuming that the filter element is changed when the differential a collapse pressure of 160 bar and they are stable in response to
pressure indicator responds, the following formula can be used differential pressure, so they satisfy the highest safety
to determine the highest possible differential pressure that will requirements:
occur on the element:
damage to the filter layer up to the specified differential
n pressure of 160 bar is impossible thanks to the exceptional
Dp2 = 2 Dp1
n1 support offered by the filter medium, together with its high
intrinsic stability.

n1 = operating viscosity there is consistent monitoring of the manufacturing process for


n2 = start viscosity filter elements, with continuous checks on production quality
Dp1 = max. differential pressure when the differential pressure to ISO 2942.
switch responds at operating viscosity n1

43
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Clogging indicators
Effects of delaying the replacement of a
As the duration of use of the filter element increases, the level of
filter element:
contamination and therefore the pressure drop will increase. This
causes pressure build-up and/or differential pressure, which is on filters with a bypass valve: the more heavily the filter element
monitored by the clogging indicator. When a preset value is is contaminated, the more frequently the bypass valve will
reached, electrical and /or optical signals are given. respond, and part of the hydraulic fluid will not be filtered.

The following points should be noted here: the pressure drop on on filters without a bypass valve: the pressure drop on the filter
the filter element increases with the flow rate, the contamination element, and hence the loss of efficiency in the system, will
and the kinematic viscosity of the pressure fluid. increase continuously: this can lead to impermissible heating
of the hydraulic oil.
For these reasons, a filter element is only regarded as
contaminated and in need of replacement when the
contamination indicator responds at the operating temperature
of the hydraulic system, and when the signal remains on
continuously.

100
differential pressure [%]

70
indication of clogging
60
50

0 50 95 100
lifetime [%]

Typical progresion of contamination of a filter element throughout his service life Fig. 65

Differential pressure indicators Pressure switches and manometers


Fig. 66 Fig. 67

44
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Ventilating filters
Temperature changes, together with the use of cylinders and/or
pressure accumulators, cause the oil level in the tanks of
hydraulic systems to have constant fluctuations.

These create a difference in pressure with the surrounding


environment, which is compensated by an exchange of air that
can allow dirt to penetrate the tank.

A ventilating filter can prevent dirt from entering. Ideally, it should


have at least the same fineness as the system filters in the
hydraulic circuit.

Ventilating filters with double check valves can be used to


achieve a major reduction in the exchange of air between the tank
and the environment, so that the entry of dirt and dust is
minimized and the service life of the ventilating filter element can
be prolonged.
Circuit diagram for ventilating filters with double
check valve Fig. 68
An important factor here is that the air volume in the tank and the
valve cracking pressure must be optimally coordinated with the
A special feature: ARGO-HYTOS ventilating filters in the patented
specific design of the system.
Vandalism-Proof version.
With the specified air volume in the tank, higher response
These ventilating filters can only be dismantled with a special
pressures tend to cause a reduction in the exchange of air. The air
spanner which is supplied with the product. This makes it
exchange at the defined response pressure of the ventilating filter
considerably more difficult to remove the ventilating filter, or to
can be reduced by increasing the air volume.
pour dirt in through the filling/ventilation opening when the
ventilating filter is dismantled.
With a suitable design, a defined pressure level can be generated
in the tank in order to improve the suction conditions for the
pump(s).

ARGO-HYTOS Vandalism Proof ventilating filters


ARGO-HYTOS ventilating filters
Fig. 69 Fig. 70

45
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Off-line filters
Increasingly, additional off-line filters are being used in systems
that are subject to high stress in order to prevent the build-up of
superfine particles. Unlike main flow filters, off-line filters only filter
part of the total flow in the system. Depending on the influence of
the environment (incidence of dirt) and the selected filter
fineness, the partial flow (in l/min) should be approx. 2 to 10% of
the tank volume (in l).
In combination with superfine filter elements, outstanding levels
of oil cleanliness can be achieved by continuous filtration,
independently of the machines working cycle. Furthermore, the
load on the main filters is reduced, so that intervals between
replacements can be extended.
Off-line filter systems should be used in addition to main flow
filters; in this case, the latter can be designed as protective filters,
i.e. they do not filter so finely.

A distinction is usually made between two different concepts:


Off-line filters with a flow control valve
From the pressure circuit of the system, the required quantity of
oil initially flows via an integrated flow control valve and then it is
fed into the tank via the offline filter. The small installation effort for
this concept makes it especially suitable for retrofitting systems.

Off-line filter units


on the other hand, having an integrated motor/pump unit. This
makes the energy consumption economical more favorable than Hydraulic system with high-pressure filter and
off-line filters with a flow control valve. Separate filter-cooler off-line filter unit
circuits can be implemented in combination with an oil cooler. Fig. 71

Off-line filter unit with motor and pump. Mobile filter unit with oil diagnostic system
Fig. 72 Fig. 73

46
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Filter units
The filtration level (or filtration efficiency) can be calculated
analogously.
To guarantee the required level of oil cleanliness when a system no. of
no. of
is filled for the first time or refilled, the operating medium should particles
particles
be cleaned using filter units with superfine filter elements. downstream
upstream of
filter of filter x 100%
Mobile filter units are also suitable for cyclical cleaning of filtration efficiency=
hydraulic or lubrication systems where no provision was made for no. of particles upstream of
off-line filters when the systems were equipped for the first time, filter
and it is impossible to install them at a later stage.
The following relation exists between the two values:
Optimal results can be achieved if the cleaning and/or filling
processes are monitored by an oil diagnosis system such as filtration
filtranefficiency [%]=(1- 1 )x 100%
innost [%]
b
particle counters.

Definition of the filter fineness The following table provides some numerical values (Tab. 7)

The Multi-Pass test according to ISO 16889:1999 (previously ISO The characteristics of the individual ARGO-HYTOS filter fineness
4572:1981) is used to determine the number of particles is based on the mean beta value 200 (x(c) =200 according to
upstream and downstream of a filter, in relation to specified ISO 16889:1999), corresponding to a filtration efficiency of 99.5
particle sizes. This makes it possible to calculate the respective %. The relevant characteristic filtration curves are shown in the
beta value (the filtration ratio) which is the quotient of the numbers chart. This makes it easy to read the filtration ratio and the
of particles upstream and downstream of the filter. filtration efficiency in percent for various particle sizes, clearly
showing the relationship between the various levels of fineness.
The characteristics of the individual curves ultimately determine
number of particles upstream of filter the level of cleanliness for the pressure fluid that can be achieved
Beta value b = in practice.curves ultimately determine the level of cleanliness for
number of particles downstream of filter the pressure fluid that can be achieved in practice.

Beta value b Separation grade


1 0,00%
1000 99,5
1,5 33,33%
2 50,00%
5 80,00%
10 90,00%
200 99,5
20 95,00%
100 99 50 98,00%
75 98,7 75 98,67%
Filtration efficiency [%]

100 99,00%
Filtration ratio b

200 99,50%
1000 99,90%
10000 99,99%
10 90
Tab. 7 - Relation between filtration
efficiency and numerical values.

2 50

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Particle size [m(c)]]
ARGO-HYTOS filter fineness:
filtration ratio b and filtration efficiency in relation to particle size to
ISO 16889 Fig. 74

47
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Oil cleanliness classification


The following chart shows the evaluation of an oil sample
according to the new standard, ISO 4406:1999.
The classification systems ISO 4406 and NAS 1638 are most
widespread. Both systems are used to describe the distribution of
solid particles in hydraulic fluids according to number and size.

This is done by assigning the number of particles of a specific size


to a code number or class. Each time the oil cleanliness
deteriorates by a class, the number of particles is doubled.

This relationship is shown in the table, using ISO 4406 as the


example. NAS 1638 uses different particle size ranges to
describe the distribution of particles, whereas ISO 4406:1987
indicates codes for the numbers of particles > 5 m and > 15 m.

Analogously, revised standard ISO 4406:1999 indicates the


number of particles > 6 m(c) or > 14 m(c) as codes. In
addition, this standard incorporates a code for particles > 4
m(c), represented by a dash if determination is impossible.

Due to the changes between ISO 4406:1987 and ISO 4406:1999,


shifts in cleanliness classes between the old and new standards
may occur when comparing analytical results from the same oil
sample.

For example, an oil sample may have cleanliness class 16/13 (>
5 m / > 15 m) according to ISO 4406:1987, but according to
ISO 4406:1999 it may be between -/16/13 and -/17/13 (> 4 m(c) /
> 6 m(c) / > 14 m(c)).

No. of particles per 1 ml Code 1000000


from up number
80000 160000 24
40000 80000 23 100000
20000 40000 22
22
10000 20000 21
5000 10000 20
10000
2500 5000 19
1300 2500 18 18
640 1300 17
Particles/ml > than indicated particle size

1000
320 640 16
160 320 15
ISO 4406 code

80 160 14
40 80 13 100 13
20 40 12
10 20 11
5 10 10 10
2,5 5 9
1,3 2,5 8
0,64 1,3 7 1
0,32 0,64 6
0,16 0,32 5
0,08 0,16 4 0,1
0,04 0,08 3
0,02 0,04 2
0,01 0,02 1 0,01
Tab. 8 - Extract from ISO 4406:1987 or
ISO 4406:1999 particle size [m(c)]
Evalution of an oil sample to ISO 4406:1999 Fig. 75

48
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Required oil cleanliness Using an example, we will now explain the influence of the
operating pressure on the required oil cleanliness, and hence on
The oil cleanliness required in the system is determined by the the filter fineness.
component which is most sensitive to dirt. If the component
manufacturer does not provide any specific information about the
required oil cleanliness or filter fineness, it is advisable to
determine the oil cleanliness on the basis of the tables shown 6
below (Tab.9 and Tab.10).
5
The listed reference values for normal components refer to a 4
basic pressure range of 160 ... 210 bar.

Change in cleanliness class


3
Pumps 2
Axial piston pumps 21 / 18 / 15
1
Radial piston pumps 21 / 18 / 15
Gear pumps 21 / 18 / 15 0
Vane pumps 20 / 17 / 14 -1
-2
Motors
Axial piston motors 21 / 18 / 15 -3
Radial piston motors 21 / 18 / 15 -4
Gear motors 21 / 18 / 15
10 100
Vane motors 20 / 17 / 14 Max. system pressure [bar]

Influence of operating pressure on required oil


Valves
cleanliness
Directional control valves 21 / 18 / 15 Fig. 76
(solenoid valves)
Pressure valves 21 / 18 / 15 In a system with gear pump and proportional valves, oil
Flow control valves 21 / 18 / 15 cleanliness of 20/17/14 to ISO 4406 is required for an operating
Check valves 21 / 18 / 15 pressure of up to 210 bar. If the operating pressure is raised to
Proportional valves 20 / 17 / 14 250 bar, the table shows that the oil cleanliness must be improved
Servo valves 17 / 14 / 11 by 1 class to 19/16/13.

Cylinders 21 / 18 / 15 The required oil cleanliness is determined by other influencing


Tab. 9 - Oil cleanliness levels required for variables as well as the operating pressure:
hydraulic components (160210 bar)
expected lifetime of the machine
costs of repairs / spare parts
If the operating pressure is increased in a system, it is necessary interruption costs due to shutdown times
to improve the oil cleanliness in order to achieve the same wear requirements for the safety of the system (these are not only
lifetime for the components. influenced by the cleanliness of the oil!)

The following table lists the required change in oil cleanliness the required oil cleanliness should be improved by one class. If
when the operating pressure increases in relation to the basic two or more criteria apply, the required oil cleanliness must be
pressure range of 160 ... 210 bar. upgraded by two classes.

In the example given above, if high-grade cylinders are used as


well, and if high interruption costs can be expected due to a
Operating pressure Change in oil cleanliness system shutdown, 17/14/11 should be recommended as the oil
0 - 100 bar 3 classes worse cleanliness class instead of 19/16/13 (2 classes better).
100 - 160 bar 1 class worse
160 - 210 bar none
210 - 250 bar 1 class better
250 - 315 bar 2 classes better
315 - 420 bar 3 classes better
420 - 500 bar 4 classes better
500 - 630 bar 5 classes better
Tab. 10 - required change in oil cleanliness

49
Einsatz der Aggregate und Blcke

Required ARGO-HYTOS filter fineness


Continuous evaluation of oil samples for several decades has
shown which level of oil cleanliness can be achieved with which Fineness required to prevent gap blockage
filter fineness under specified system conditions. For full flow
filtration under the least favorable conditions, cleanliness levels Typical phenomena that cause functional failures on hydraulic
to ISO 4406:1999 can be achieved with ARGO-HYTOS filter components include blockage of gaps and nozzles. Flow control
finenesses as follows: valves, restrictor valves and servo valves are particularly
susceptible to this problem. If the relative movement of the gap
However, significantly better levels of oil cleanliness can be surfaces is small, there is a greater risk that the gap will clog up
achieved depending on the environmental conditions and the when the size of the dirt particles exceeds 1/3 of the smallest gap
specific circumstances of the system. Conditions that may have a height (characteristic b in the chart below). Bearing the possibility
positive influence on the cleanliness level include: of blockage in mind, this means that the absolute filter fineness
must be at least equal to the given value, or better less than this
design features that reduce the penetration of dirt from outside value. The following chart shows how the gap width and the
(high-quality packing seals in hydraulic cylinders, good shaft
permitted particle size are related.
sealing rings)
tank ventilating filters with fine filter elements
uniform flow instead of pulsation (caused by variable
displacement pumps, for example)
low pressure drop, e.g. when suction filters or off-line filters are
used

Depending on the influence of one or more of the criteria


mentioned above, the oil cleanliness levels that are achieved will
be at the left end of the bandwidths shown (in favorable cases) or
Permitted particle size [mm]

at the right end (in unfavorable cases).


In the calculation example cited previously, an oil cleanliness
level of 19/16/13 was required. Now we shall determine which
ARGO-HYTOS filter fineness is required to achieve this.
According to the chart, filter fineness 16E-X can be used to
achieve oil cleanliness of 17/14/10 in the most favorable case. But
under unfavorable conditions, it will only be possible to attain
class 20/17/12. On the other hand, filter fineness 12E-X can
achieve the required oil cleanliness of 19/16/13 even under the
most unfavorable conditions.
The new calibration of particle counters is based on the ISO MTD
test dust. In about half of all cases, this means that - in relation to
the result with ACFTD calibration the measured oil cleanliness Gap width [mm]
may deteriorate by one class as compared with evaluations to
ISO 4406:1987 for particles > 5 m, in conjunction with ISO Permitted particle size in relation to gap width
4406:1999 for particles > 6 m(c). with (a) a large and (b) a small relative
movement on the gap surfaces.
Fig. 77
ARGO-HYTOS filter fineness

Oil cleanliness ISO 4406


Attainable oil cleanliness levels Fig. 78

50
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Nominal flow rate


When using hydraulic oils of lower viscosity, a higher flow rate is
possible as compared with the nominal flow rate. For media of
The correct choice of filter size, taking account of
higher viscosity, on the other hand, a lower flow rate is permitted
application-specific operating conditions, is the only way to
as compared with the nominal flow rate.
ensure that:
This results in the following factors for QN when hydraulic oils of
economically acceptable filter lifetimes are achieved different viscosity classes are used:
even with higher starting viscosity, 100% filtering guarantees
the best possible functional protection for the hydraulic
components, with pressure drops in the system kept to a
minimum. ISO Viscosity class Factor for QN
22 2,60
These important criteria must be taken into account when the 32 1,60
nominal flow of a hydraulic filter is determined.
46 1,00
68 0,60
in practical operating conditions, the filter service life must be at 100 0,38
least 1000 operating hours (for this purpose, ARGO-HYTOSs
150 0,23
operational experience shows that a specific dirt capacity of at
least 0.07 g per l/min flow rate is needed) 220 0,14
320 0,09
at nominal flow rate, the bypass valve of the filter must remain
closed during first startup (new filter element) up to a starting Tab. 11
viscosity of 200 mm2/s (see the following chart). This Depending on the filter type, the following flow speeds in pipes
corresponds to a temperature of approx. 15 C with an ISO VG and hoses should not be exceeded:
46 or HLP 46 hydraulic oil.

Suction filter: 1,5 m/s


Return filter: 4,5 m/s
Pressure filter up to 40 bar: 4,5 m/s
High-pressure filter up to 250 bar: 8 m/s
High-pressure filter up to 600 bar: 12m/s
All nominal flow rates indicated by ARGO-HYTOS are based on
Pressure drop [bar]

the criteria listed above, which have been fully tried and tested in
practice.

Kinematic viscosity [mm2.s-1]

Pressure drop of a filter in relation to the kinematic


viscosity Fig. 79

Given that the pressure drop on superfine filter elements is more


or less proportional to the kinematic viscosity, the approximate
permitted flow rate on a filter for pressure fluids that vary from ISO
VG 46 can be determined as follows:

n1
Qmax = QN x
n2

Qmax = permitted maximum flow with a pressure fluid that


varies from ISO VG 46
QN = nominal flow rate based on ISO VG 46
n1 = kinematic viscosity of the ISO VG 46 pressure fluid at
15 C (corresponds to 200 mm2/s)
n2 = kinematic viscosity of the variant pressure fluid at 15 C

51
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

How to determine the required dirt capacity


In many cases, the user indicates either the required filter lifetime SPS-Values
in operating hours (Bh in the formulas) or the dirt capacity in
grams of ISO MTD. SPS = specific dirt ingression, indicated in g/l/min pumping flow
in 1000 operating hours.
If the lifetime is specified (usually it is identical to the intervals
between replacements according to the operating and In the Multi-Pass test, the dirt capacity of a filter is determined with
maintenance instructions), a safety factor of 1.2 to 2.0 should be the help of a test dust whose chemical and physical
applied in order to calculate the required ISO MTD capacity of the characteristics cannot be compared to those of dirt that occurs in
filter element. practice. The filter lifetimes that can actually be achieved in
various hydraulic systems under practical conditions can only be
The safety factor is based on the importance or weighting of determined by extensive investigations in the field. The SPS value
criteria such as: represents the relationship between the dirt capacity determined
in the Multi-Pass test and the filter lifetime that can be achieved in
practice. SPS values for commonly used hydraulic systems are
nature of influences (dust, moisture, temperature) shown in the chart.
nature of influences from the environment (original spare parts,
oil quality, intervals between replacements) These experience-based values refer to a machine concept with
filter monitoring by electrical/optical indicators a well-protected hydraulic cylinder and highly efficient tank
ventilating filters.
preventive replacement of filter elements
The required setpoint dirt capacity in grams ISO MTD is
For systems and equipment that are not included in this list,
Dirt capacity Specified lifetime xSxSPSxQ please consult ARGO-HYTOS for the relevant SPS value.
=
setpoint
1000 Oh

calculated according to this formula:

Specified lifetime = desired filter lifetime in operating hours (Oh)


S = safety factor (1,2 ... 2,0)
SPS = specific dirt ingression in g/l/min/1000Bh
Q = pumped flow rate of the working pump in l/min

0,25
The reference variable
here is not the flow rate
of the supply/filling pump,
0,20
system more dirty

but the relevant value for the


high pressure pump or the
hydraulic motors.

0,15 average X average X


SPS

system cleaner

0,10

average X
0,05 average X

0
machine tools (cutting) plastic injection construction machines construction machines, floor
moulding machines (excavators, loaders, etc.) conveyors and
vehicles, runway equipment

closed hydrostatic
systems with an open circuit drives
Fig. 80

52
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

How to determine the lifetime

The calculated dirt capacity should now be compared with the


ISO MTD values shown in the ARGO-HYTOS data sheets, taking
account of the filter fineness that has already been determined,
and the nominal flow rate.

If the selection table shows that the dirt capacity of the selected
filter varies substantially from the calculated value, it may be
necessary to select the next largest type. If the variance is
insignificant, the decision is ultimately up to the user. The lifetime
in hours can then be determined as follows:

Dirt capacity actual High pressure filters with flanged/ threaded


Lifetimeactual= x 1000 Oh connection Fig. 82
SxSPSxQ

If the result varies substantially from the


specified lifetime, you should again verify the initial data and
safety factors, and check whether the system has been classified
in the correct machine group based on the SPS value.
Hydraulic factors:
type of fluid
Further considerations level/number of possible pressure peaks

Before you finally determine the hydraulic filter that is suitable,


pressure drops at nominal flow

you should also clarify these points: viscosity


bypass valve required/allowed

Design related factors:


accessibility for changing the filter element
Pressure drop [bar]

type of clogging indicator


positioning/dimensions of the oil tank
level differences/angles
connection threads/flanges

kinematic viscosity [mm2.s-1]

Pressure drop
Fig. 83

Clogging indicators
Fig. 81

53
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

100 000
50 000
20 000
10 000
5 000
SA
2 000 E9
0
1 000
H-
L/

500
H

SA
-L

E8

400
P4
kinematic viscosity [mm2.s-1]

0
6

300
AF

200
T

150
100

50
40 M
IL-
30 H-
56
06
20
H-

16
L/
H-
LP

12
68
H-

10
L/

9
H-

8
LP
32

7
6

-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Temperature [C] Fig. 84

Viscosity

Pressure peaks

40

35
Pressure [bar]

30

25

20

15

0
Time [s]
Fig. 85

54
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

2.3.5. Accumulators
The basic function of the hydraulic generator is to accumulate Permanently appointed workers normally perform this activity.
pressure energy. Unlike the electric battery, it has a long service
life, it is reliable and a sudden energy drain is harmless. In terms Accumulator filling by nitrogen
of energy, the accumulator ensures more eco-nomical working Filling or replenishment of an accumulator with nitrogen can be
of the entire hydraulic circuit. This chapter deals with gas carried out before or after the erection of the hydraulic
hydraulic accumulators. equipment. The fluid must be drained and the circuit must be
free of pressure when filling the accumulator connected in the
Operation and filling of gas hydraulic accumulators hydraulic circuit. The rooms in which the filling is carried out
The following rules and guidelines, prepared in accordance with must be at least 3 meters high and must allow for effective
the relevant standards and regulations are particularly important ventilation leading to an external space. Maximum of two spare
for the operation and filling of gas hydraulic accu-mulators nitrogen cylinders may be stored in the room.
(hereinafter referred to only as accumulators) used in the If the permissible maximum working pressure of the
hydraulic equipment assemblies manufactured by accumulator is lower than the pressure of nitrogen in the
ARGO-HYTOS, s.r.o. (Ltd) Company. nitrogen cylinder, it is necessary to install in the line between the
cylinder and the filling valve of the accumulator a device
The filling gas is nitrogen (N2). If the product of nominal vol-ume (pressure control valve), which will guarantee that the nitrogen
(dm3) and nominal pressure (bar) exceeds the value of 10, the filling pressure in the accumulator will not exceed the maximum
accumulator is, in accordance with CSN 69 0010-1.1., operating pressure value of the accumulator.
considered to be a stationary pressure vessel and its operation
and filling is governed by regulations contained in standards Filling equipment
CSN 69 0012 and CSN 07 8304. The extract of the most The manufacturer describes the filling equipment including its
important regulations and guidelines are included in the operating parameters in the technical documentation. The
following paragraphs, and equipment serves to fill, replenish, and to retest the accumulator
apply in particular to membrane and bag / bladder-type nitrogen fill.
accumulators up the volume of 25 l/min.
Functions of the main parts of the filling equipment (Fig. 87)
The filling pressure of nitrogen is determined by the designer of The unidirectional valve of the accumulator is opened with the
the hydraulic circuit. The prescribed value must be mentioned in spindle of the valve (1) using the hand wheel (2). The pressure
the accompanying documentation of the hydraulic circuit (in the gauge (3) measures the gas pressure in the accumulator. The
diagram and the technical parameters). It must not exceed the high-pressure hose (5) serves to connect the filling valve with the
maximum value stated by the manufacturer in the test nitrogen pressure cylinder. The unidirectional valve in the socket
documents of the accumulator. (4) prevent escape of nitrogen through the socket, or the hose, if
it is not connected to the pressure cylinder. The relief valve (6)
Accumulator test documents controlled with a knurled wheel allows to reduce the pressure of
According to CSN 69 0010-1.1 the accumulator must be nitrogen in the accumulator and release of the nitrogen residue
provided by the manufacturers test documents of which content once the filling is completed.
must be in accordance with the mentioned standard. According
to CSN 69 0012 the user of the equipment must especially Filling equipment check
ensure, in cooperation with the revision technician, performance The worker performs the filling equipment check each time
of the following: before filling by checking the integrity of the equipment,
a) local record keeping of the accumulator especially the condition of the high-pressure hoses and seals.
b) notifications to the revision technician of changes made to the The work is interrupted if defects are found and necessary
accumulator measures taken, including request for repair or replacement of
c) planning and performing accumulator revisions etc., see any defective parts.
CSN 69 0012 Art.III
Main principles of filling
Filling gas - nitrogen N2 Only filling equipment intended for that purpose shall be used
Nitrogen is an inert, colourless, odourless and non-flammable when filling nitrogen. We recommend to use preferably the filling
gas that does not support combustion; its specific weight is equipment made by the manufacturers of the accumulators.
slightly less than air. For industrial needs it is supplied in It is not permissible to fill accumulators of which condition is
standard pressurised cylinders mostly having volume of 6 m3, not perfect or for which the testing documentation is not
and pressure under 120 - 150 bar. The cylinders are marked with available.
blue-green stripe.
Oxygen must not be used for filling under any
Nitrogen filling is carried out from standard pressure cylinders
marked with the green blue stripe.
circum-stances!
The cylinders and the accumulators must be during filling
Eligibility of workers to perform filling safely secured against tipping.
By its nature the accumulator filling is a transfer of compressed Tightness of connection against nitrogen leaking must be
gas from one vessel to another, and according to CSN 07 8304 ensured on the cylinder and the accumulator.
article 121 no special permission is required for this activity. A The nitrogen filling by transfer must be done in such a way that
staff generally qualified to operate machinery and equipment a significant surface temperature changes will not occur.
and demonstrably instructed within the scope of this regulation After filling the accumulator and disconnecting the filling
may perform the filling. Such personnel must be acquainted equipment it is necessary to check the tightness of the
with the regulations applicable to operation of accumulators and accumulator shut-off valve and secure it with the protection
filling equipment used for transferring nitrogen from one vessel guard.
to another.

55
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

The bladder accumulator is usually a cylindrical, spherical


cap ends vessel, or a spherical vessel, in which the gas side
is used to hold a flexible bladder, which changes its volume
according to the pressure conditions in the accumulator.


The fluid side holds the equipment closing the fluid take-in
and at the same time prevents damage to the bladder by
being pulled in to the fluid output section.

Example: firm OLAER bladder accumulator

1 - filling valve cover


2 - gas filling valve
3 - safety nut to fasten the bladder to the body of the
accumulator
4 - accumulator body
5 - pear shaped flexible bladder
6 - fluid valve
7 - cone shaped rubber insert
8 - safety nut
9 - breather screw



Fig. 86

Accumulators filling equipment


Filling procedure (see Fig. 87)
Prior to filling, carry out a visual check of the filling equipment
and the accumulator to be filled. Screw the high-pressure hose
onto the socket (4) of the filling equipment. Turn out with the

hand wheel (2) the opening spindle (1) into the top position
(turning it in the anticlockwise direction). After removing the
protection guard of the accumulator gas socket, screw the filling
equipment onto it. Then screw the other end of the
high-pressure hose onto the nitrogen pressure cylinder valve

and tighten well the union nut (7). Open the unidirectional valve
of the accumulator by smoothly turning the hand wheel of the
spindle (1) in the clockwise direction. Fill in the accumulator with
nitrogen to the prescribed pressure level by slowly opening the
pressure cylinder valve, and close the valve once the pressure
level has been reached. Should the prescribed pressure be
exceeded, adjust it by opening the pressure relief valve (6).
Once the filling is completed screw out the spindle (1) with the

hand wheel (2), to close the unidirectional accumulator valve.
Let out with the relief pressure valve any residue nitrogen from
the body of the filling equipment and dismantle the equipment
from the accumulator. Check the integrity of the accumulator

valve seal with a soap solution and screw on the protection
guard.

Notice:
rapid opening of the cylinder valve causes the nitrogen
pressure in the accumulator to drop. The equalisation process
will take approximately two minutes.
rapid opening or closing of the accumulator unidirec-tional
valve could cause damage to the valve seat.

Fig. 87

56
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Discharging nitrogen from accumulator below 16% the first signs of suffocation are beginning to show,
According to CSN 69 0012, accumulators under pressure must initially characterised by deeper and faster breathing,
not be transported, unless it is permitted in the testing report decreased attention, inability to think clearly and to perform
issued with the accumulator. Discharging of nitrogen is work accurately; later the ability to feel pain is reduced,
performed by the method and with the filling equipment followed by partial and then full loss of consciousness. When
de-scribed in the preceding text. With regard to the working indoors it is necessary to use close-circuit breathing
bags/bladders lifetime most manufacturers of the bag type apparatus with regenerated, positive pressure and chemically
bound oxygen, or a hose connected gas mask with
accumulators recommend to leave in the bags a minimal
continuous supply of fresh air. The first aid, after bringing the
nitrogen pressure ranging between 2 to 10 bar.
afflicted expeditiously out of the threatened space, consist of
letting him/her breath oxygen or carbogen (pneumoxid). If the
afflicted is unable to breathe on his/her own, administer
Instructions for the event of fire, gas escape and failure
immediately mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. At the same time,
of the filling equipment or the accumulator: seek additional medical assistance.

In the event of fire transport nitrogen filled cylinders and In the event of failure of the filling equipment or
accumulators to premises, where they will not be exposed to
accumulator close the pressure cylinders valves and
heat effects. If transportation is not possible, open the valves
discontinue the filling establish the cause of the problem and
and let nitrogen escape.
remove the problem before proceeding further.
In the event of nitrogen escape close immediately the
pressure cylinder valve.In case of defective valve, ensure
effective ventilation and quickly leave the room. The nitrogen
is harmless gas under normal pressure and when mixed with
21% oxygen. However, when mixed with air, oxygen is
physically displaced and when its content in the air drops

2.3.6. Connecting lines


The lines interconnect individual elements of fluid circuits.Piping
or blocks are used there, where the positions of the elements are
static. The piping is made of steel or metal pipes and tubes. The
pipes and tubes are connected to hy-draulic elements by
screwed couplings, flanges and fittings, allowing proper
orientation and positions of the lines. Moving joints (articulated,
telescopic) or flexible hoses are used to couple those parts of a)
circuits, of which positions change.
b)

Line an element serves to conduct a steam of fluid


Piping a line, which does not permit movements of elements c)
which it interconnects:
a - main, secondary, return
d)
b - regulation - information transferring line
c - leakage - a drain line, the fluid due to the leakage of an
element runs through this line

Quick-coupling - section of line allowing quick coupling and


a disconnection of two line sections without aids or tools and
which does not allow the fluid to flow out in its disconnected
b position;
c a - coupled
b - uncoupled

Coupling
a - Teleskopic coupling - part of line that allows mutual shift or
turning of two in-terconnected piping sections
b - articulated joint of one pipe a)
c - articulated joints of several parts -section of line ,allowing
mutual turning in plane or in space of two interconnected piping
b)
sections
d - hose a line that allows mutual movements of elements
joined with it.

57
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Speed of flow in connecting line


Crossing and coupling
a - crossing of two mutually not interconnected lines (piping,
channels inside element) Line internal diameters (pipes, hoses, bores in blocks) have to
b - few lines joint (piping, channels inside element) be selected according to the flow rate so as not to exceed the
maximum recommended flow rates.

Tab. 9 Recommended maximum speed of flow

a)
Line type Recommended maximum
flow rate[m.s-1]
Suction 1 to 2
b) Pressure for
p = max. 25 bar 3
p = 25 to 50bar 4
p = 50 to 100bar 5
Outlet line to connect measuring instruments or to serve as an p = 100 to 200bar 7
off-take of the pressure fluid
a - outlet line is closed p = 200 to 320bar 5 to 10
b - outlet line is open Waste from motor to reservoir 0,5 to 2
Blocks connections 15 to 20

a)

b)

Piping
The pressure fluid fixed lines consist of seamless steel pipes,
standardly annealed according to SN 42 6711.3, made of
material in accordance with 11 353.1, 11 453.1 or 12 011.2, free
of scales and undamaged.
The piping is joined to the elements and between itself by
solderless screwed couplings, and on larger internal diameters
and in case of high pressures by soldered screwed couplings.

Pipe bending
Smaller internal diameter pipes (up to Dn 20) are cold bent using
a hand bender.
Pipes of bigger internal diameters are machine or heat bent to
prevent damage by flattening.

After ring soldering, welding or bending under heat the pipes


must be thoroughly cleaned mechanically and chemically
(pickled in solution of hydrochloric or phosphoric acid,
neutralised by soda, rinsed in water, dried and blown through
with compressed air).

56
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Unsoldered, screwed coupling pipe assembly instructions

Function
State before assembly State after assembly
Rings edges cut
into pipe

Endstop in socket

Assembly instructions

1. 2.

Check pipe for square cut. Deburr pipe.

3. 4.

Apply lubricant or vaseline on socket Apply lubricant or vaseline on rings


thread. conical support face.

5. 6.

Apply lubricant or vaseline on union nut thread. Slip cutting edge ring over pipe.
Fig. 88

57
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

7. 8.

Check accuracy of cutting edge ring slip-over. Tighten union nut slightly by hand.

9. 10.

Push pipe up to endstop inside socket. Mark position of union nut with match mark on
nut and pipe (helps to check on misalignment
if turned)

11. 12.

Tighten the union nut (by about 11/2 turn) by Check: loosen the union nut and check if the ring
applying normal force the pipe must not turn. The has cut in deep enough. If not, tightening with
cutting-in will manifest by having to apply more more force is required. (It does not matter if the
tightening force. ring turns slightly on the pipe: but it must not be
possible to slide it in the pipe axis' direction.

13. 14.

Repeated assembly. After each loosening of Minimal height of straight part of pipe equals two
union nut tighten again, but without increased heights of union nut.
force.

Notice: If it is discovered under check carried out according to point 12 that the cut-in is not deep enough
even after applying more tightening force, it is necessary to discontinue the assembly and find out:
1) whether the rings cutting edge is sharp enough
2) whether the pipe used is annealed.
Fig. 89

60
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Pipes assembly
Rinse with petrol or other cleaning agent, blow out with After final assembly of the piping in the machines circuits, it is
compressed air and remove all mechanical dirt just before necessary to fasten its longer sections to the machinery rigid
assembling into the circumference of the pipe. parts to avoid vibrations caused by the pressure pulsation; this
All screwed joints must be properly tightened. For screwed joint will reduce the risk of destruction, chances of the screwed
sockets sealing method - see Fig. 90. Take care during assembly couplings becoming loose, and will also reduce the noise level
not to create unnecessary twisting and bending etc. that would produced by the equipment.
increase the stress during operation. That is why two spanners
must be used as a rule when tightening (or loosening), screwed
couplings - one spanner for the socket, and the other for the nut.

a) b) c) d)

a), b) Sealing with flat seal ring c) cutting edge sealing d) tapered thread sealing
Copper rings are mostly used in this The socket has to be properly The socket with a tapered thread is
sealing method. It is important to tighten tightened so that the edge cuts in mounted only in a tapered thread
the socket properly during assembly to well. chamber. It is recommended to
deform the ring material. Use of a new wind a teflon tape on the socket
seal ring is recommended at every thread to improve the sealing.
dismantling and repeated assembly.

e) f) g)

e) Sealing by inserted ring f) O-ring sealing g) O-ring sealing


A perbunan or viton ring is inserted in This sealing method can be used This sealing method is suitable for
the sockets sealing recess head. only in a correspondingly shaped use in chambers as per methods a)
When assembling, the socket needs to chamber (with relevant chamfer). to f).
be tightened only slightly.

Notice: when machining the chambers (with the exception of the chambers with a tapered thread) it is important to
adhere to the specified squareness and dressing of the sealing surface. It is adviceable to make a groove for flat seal
rings to improve the centering.

Fig. 90

61
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Hoses

High-pressure hoses with wire-braiding / twine and rubber The hoses and their couplings must be protected against
sheath with various end fittings and couplings are used in mechanical damage and against the effects of high
designs where flexibility is required. temperatures, and must be easily accessible for checks and
dismantling. It must be taken into account during assembly that
The conditions specified by the manufacturers must be adhered the hoses shrink and extend as the result of pressure
to when designing flexible lines (type of fluid, static alternatively fluctuations i.e. the fixing has to be loose.
dynamic working pressure, minimal bend radius and method of Once fixed the hoses must not be exposed to twisting forces.
assembly); longer sections of the flexible lines must be fixed to a
rigid, alternatively moving partsof the machine structures to limit
vibrations caused by pressure pulsation, and to reduce the risk
of destruction.

Examples of recommended mounting methods of high-pressure hoses

Fig. 91

62
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Examples of some shapes of couplings

a) Straight coupling with union nut b) Straight coupling with union nut and sealing cone with
O-ring

c) Elbow 90 with union nut d) Flow-through bolt coupling

e) Straight coupling with edge cutting ring f) Straight coupling, inner cone, external thread

g) Straight coupling with union nut and sealing face h) Straight coupling with external thread and sealing ring
on the face - can be combined with version
Fig. 92

63
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Blocs
Use of custom made or standard type pressure fluid distribution assembly of hydraulic elements in vertical and horizontal
blocks is on a continuous increase due to smaller spatial arrangement (using modular element versions). The blocks
requirements in hydraulic circuit building, clearer and easier contain central supply and discharge holes and apertures
arrangement, operating reliability and due to reducing the allowing pipe or hose interconnections of individual appliances.
chances of oil escape. External surfaces of these blocks allow

Diagrams of most frequently used basic blocks (Fig. 93)

The blocks are mounted on a reservoir lid.

Fig. 93

Connection example

This block allows connection of large number of circuits.


Above given example represents only one of many possible
options.
Fig. 94

64
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Diagrams of connecting plates type PD 04, PD 06 (Fig. 95)

The plates are mounted on the basic block and are connected
with the use of two bolts to form a longitudinal block
comprising of up to 8 pieces.

Fig. 92

PD06A PD06B PD06C PD04

(parallel elements (serial elements (reduced pressure circuit) (parallel elements


layout) layout) layout)

Solution example: serial connecting plate, fitted with four distributors and marked with additional modular elements

TRHO
OF BOTH PARTIES

Fig. 96

65
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Vertical modular element grouping options

RPE
(RPR)

2VS3

VPP2-04

VPN

A1 B1

VRP
B1 A1
A2 B2

VRN2

B2 T A2
MVJ

MTS1

2RJV

A T
PD06
P

B
Fig. 97

66
Directions for use of hydraulic units and blocs

Bolts and nuts for vertical modular grouping


The internal diameter elements 04, 06 and 10 mm are available,
and are used in combination with distributors RPE 3-04, RPE 3-06 and RPE 4-10.

Tab. 13 - Example: Dn 04

Pressure Reduction By-pass Hydraulic Unidirectional Throttle Bolt with Max. Order
switch valve valve lock valve valve parallel working number
threads pressure
Height Height Height Height Height Height
35 mm 30 mm 35 mm 30 mm 30 mm 30 mm Mu = 5 Nm pmax (bar)
M - TR VRP2-04 VPP2-04 VJR1-04 VJO1-04/M M5 x 210 250 16104700
M - TR VRP2-04 VPP2-04 VJR1-04 VSO1-04/M M5 x 210 250 16104700
M - TR VRP2-04 VPP2-04 VJO1-04/M VSO1-04/M M5 x 210 250 16104700
M - TR VRP2-04 VJR1-04 VJO1-04/M VSO1-04/M M5 x 202 250 16105300
M - TR VPP2-04 VJR1-04 VJO1-04/M VSO1-04/M M5 x 210 250 16104700
VRP2-04 VPP2-04 VJR1-04 VJO1-04/M VSO1-04/M M5 x 202 250 16105300

Tab. 14 - Example: Dn 06

Height Height Height Height Height Height


43 mm 45 mm 40 mm 40 mm 31,4 mm 40 mm Mu = 8,9 Nm pmax (bar)
MTS1-06 VRN2-06 VPN1-06 2RJV-06 MVJ2-06 M5 x 255 200 16105000
MTS1-06 VRN2-06 VPN1-06 2RJV-06 2VS3-06 M5 x 262 200 16105400
MTS1-06 VRN2-06 VPN1-06 MVJ2-06 2VS3-06 M5 x 255 200 16105000
MTS1-06 VRN2-06 2RJV-06 MVJ2-06 2VS3-06 M5 x 255 200 16105000
MTS1-06 VPN1-06 2RJV-06 MVJ2-06 2VS3-06 M5 x 250 200 16105500
VRN2-06 VPN1-06 2RJV-06 MVJ2-06 2VS3-06 M5 x 255 200 16105000

Tab. 15 - Example: Dn 10

Height Height Height Height Height Height


43 mm 50 mm 50 mm 50 mm 40 mm 50 mm Mu = 14 Nm pmax (bar)
MTS1-10 VRN1-10 VPN2-10 VJR2-10 MVJ2-10 M6 x 287 200 16107600
MTS1-10 VRN1-10 VPN2-10 VJR2-10 VSO2-10 M6 x 295 200 16107700
MTS1-10 VRN1-10 VPN2-10 MVJ2-10 VSO2-10 M6 x 287 200 16107600
MTS1-10 VRN1-10 VJR2-10 MVJ2-10 VSO2-10 M6 x 287 200 16107600
MTS1-10 VPN2-10 VJR2-10 MVJ2-10 VSO2-10 M6 x 287 200 16107600
VRN1-10 VPN2-10 VJR2-10 MVJ2-10 VSO2-10 M6 x 295 200 760-0140

Bolt Nut

0,3x45 7,5
M6

M6

10

M6-6H

5D12 1x45
12 15 15
L 30
Fig. 98

67
Assembly and maintenance principles

3. Assembly and maintenance principles


It is required that the following principles are observed during using fouling indicator filters.
assembly of subgroups and elements of a hydraulic circuit and
piping. Activities performed before putting hydraulic equipment
into service

In particular, utmost orderliness and cleanliness must be Check if:


exercised during assembly! The hydraulic circuit is the reservoir is filled with clean, as specified oil up to the upper
assembled of a very precise elements and removal of any dirt limit
and of the consequences foulness creates is difficult, time
consuming and expensive. all piping has been thoroughly cleaned, connections properly
tightened and the actual piping assembled free of internal
Inappropriate storage or non-renewal of hydraulic elements stress
conservation leads to jamming of the elements moving
internal parts. The element must be rinsed out with a suitable all screwed connections and elements properly assembled
and tightened to the specified tightening torque
degreasing agent (benzine etc) and the oil film renewed.
Prior to assembly it is essential to get acquainted in detail with the assembled connections correspond with the hydraulic
diagram
all documentation of the manufacturers, which gives all
assembly instructions, screws tightening torques etc. all couplings between the motors and the hydraulic
generators or between the hydraulic motors and other
The assembly of all hydraulic circuit components must be
equipment have been assembled and comply with the
carried out without using excessive force. Increased attention
required alignment and axial play
must be paid to protection of hydraulic units and blocks after
tensioning of all binding means during lifting to prevent the motor is correctly connected ( or Y), including the correct
mechanical damage. direction of rotation, and if the level, pressure and temperature
sensors function properly
Protection covers of the hydraulic elements (transport boards
over seating surfaces, guard plugs in threaded chambers) are the filters (inserts) used are of the specified filtering grade,that
to be removed just before assembly. they are assembled in the correct direction of flow and
pre-filled with the same oil as the oil in the reservoir
the internal space of the piston hydraulic generators is filled up
Electrical installation with oil
The electrical installation, solenoids and regulating elements
supplies must comply with the valid regulations and standards, the pressure valves are set at the minimum values
in particular with EN 602 04-1 and EN 34 5611.
Prior to connecting to the power supply network it is necessary
Putting the equipment in service
to check operating voltages and frequency values given on the
equipment labels and in catalogues to ensure that they start-up the hydraulic generator at short intervals
corresponds with the values of the power supply to which the check the piping noisiness and tightness
equipment will be connected. Protection for safety and against
electric shock must comply with the requirements of SN 33
deaerate the hydraulic circuit
2000-4-41, according to which the entire plant must be properly check functioning of the circuit with minimal loading as
earthed. circumstances permit
The earthing (for connecting the equipment to the earthing gradually increase the pressure to the specified operating
network or with the Protective Earthing and Neutral conductor) is value, and at the same time set the other regulating elements
provided by the earthing bolt on one of the reservoirs legs of the such as reduction valves etc.
aggregate. The nut welded on the reservoir is marked with the
earthing symbol. Regulations of SN 34 3100 must be adhered
monitor during operation the checking and measuring
instruments, noisiness, temperature and level of oil in the
to when servicing or repairing the electrical equipment. reservoir

Filling reservoir with oil follow the instructions given in the individual operating
First carry out a detailed inspection of the reservoirs internal manuals; the start-up procedure must be followed exactly
space. Check the condition of the oil-resistant coat. If the coat is particularly with the vane type hydraulic generators, piston
peeling or if there are traces of poor quality coat finish it is hydraulic generators with regulation etc.
advisable to remove the coat with a suitable solvent, rinse, clean
and dry the inside surface with a compressed air. This measure
will prevent faults created by fouled entire hydraulic system by During equipment shut-down
an inferior coat. tighten all joints
The actual filling is carried out, as a rule, with oil recommended
by the manufacturer of the equipment. Never fill directly from the
check the accumulator filling pressure
drums, but use a filtration plant with filters finer than 25 ?m.
Well-proven method is to use two filters each with a different
filtering grade, where the first, a coarser one, contains a metal
insert, and the second, a finer one, contains a paper insert. One
improves the filtering quality and makes ones work easier by

68
Assembly and maintenance principles

A brief list of malfunctions


...which the user of hydraulic equipment might come across. It is
assumed that the circuit is open and assembled of standardly
available elements.

V. Hydraulic generator loss flow increase (also valid for


I. Hydraulic generator does not supply pressure oil
rotary hydraulic motor)
the hydraulic generator is turning in opposite direction hydraulic generator function surfaces wear level is high due to
insufficient oil in reservoir impurities contained in oil
suction line closed low viscosity overheated oil
suction line not sealing properly hydraulic generator mechanical defect
regulating hydraulic generator set to zero geometric volume
oil viscosity differs from specified value VI. Hydraulic generator seized
hydraulic generator defective
basic parameters not observed overloading
damage by cavitation
II. Air bubbles in oil (pressure source noisy unsteady
damage by solid particles in oil
running of appliance)
non-adherence to oil viscosity specification
new circuit not adequately deaerated
unsuitable oil type
suction piping filters do not seal well
exceeding hydraulic generator service life
suction piping not fully submerged in oil
exceeding permissible radial axial forces on output shaft
return oil is not brought under fluid level and brings in air
hydraulic generator shaft seal damaged
VII. Reservoir oil overheating
suction piping under-dimensioned big suction under
pressure (cavitation) efficiency drop due to wear loss flow considerably higher, part
of supplied energy converts to heat
some of pressure oil leaks to drain through one of the
III. Increased mechanical noise elements
drive not centered too small reservoir in terms of volume, heat exchange surface
drive coupling damaged not big enough

damaged or ruined bearings insufficiently dimensioned coolers


drive aggregate rubber bedding damaged inadequate maintenance of coolers (air type check vanes
cleanliness)
air suction
incorrectly set service controls of regulating hydraulic
generators
IV. Hydraulic generator supplies oil, pressure does not external source of heat
increase
unsuitably assembled circuit element base
hydraulic circuit disengaged unloaded
malfunctioning safety-valve VIII. Hydraulic circuit does not meet preplanned
parameters
pressure branch connected to drainage, probably in
distributor hydraulic generator flow rate is not according to original
calculation
shut-off valve (e.g. in accumulator) open
regulation defect on regulating hydraulic generator concurrence of two or more functions all at once
hydraulic generator function surfaces worn appliance under or over dimensioning
appliance un-tightness - some oil escapes out of working increased pressure loss in piping
space one of elements leaks some pressure oil to drain
gradual clogging of pressure filters (e.g. on servo-technology)

Re-start
check oil level
test simultaneously all functions; compare measured values
with the values planned
check signalisation of pressure drop at filters

69
Assembly and maintenance principles

Work safety containers with benzine for


washing must be used only in
designated premises and must be always covered with a lid or
a cover
Hydraulic circuits are reliable and safe even under high
pressures, provided all elements are properly sized. However, a hydraulic motors that could start moving spontaneously in the
failure can occur due to material defect or fatigue, which could event of switched off driving hydraulic generator (pressure
jeopardise the safety of personnel or damage the surroundings drop) must be mechanically or hydraulically secured against
with oil. We can quote two examples of defects that will manifest such possibility
themselves externally: the minimal emptying time of an accumulator must be
observed, and/or the maximum flow rate from the
dripping oil accumulator must not be exceed (the data are provided by the
manufacturers of accumulators)
destruction of the pressure-bearing parts of the circuit
accumulators must be equipped with manually controlled
Oil dripping from poorly tightened joint or other place collects on valve, which will allow in case of need their continuous
the ground and can cause a slip and fall of a worker or damage discharge into the reservoir
the floor, and when it escapes into surroundings, it can accumulators are regulated by SN 69 0010 stationary
contaminate large volume of water. An explosion does not take pressure vessels
place during destruction of pressure-bearing parts. In case of
small tears, the oil scatters around in the form of fog, and bigger
pressure piping should be welded by a welder who passed
relevant state examinations
tear usually empties the entire reservoir. Destruction of pressure
hoses manifests itself by leaking (sweating) of oil, and often by maintenance and setting of the aggregate must be carried out
the hose tearing out of the hose end coupling. In such case, the by responsible and authorised worker
hose can snap out sharply and cause mechanically a serious
injury.

Both defects lead to a proper lubrication of the surroundings The above mentioned safety principles are not complete.
and even a tiny spark can cause a fire of great magnitude. There are different conditions and different possibilities of threat
at each hydraulic circuit. However, these principles should
Accumulators of larger volumes are subjected to ongoing contribute towards reducing the accident rate and to improve
inspections as pressure vessels and must be protected against the working conditions of the users.
mechanical damage and large sources of heat.

It follows that the design, placement and operation of hydraulic We would like to believe that our manual offers you valuable
circuits must be based on the following principles: information and impetus for your further decisions. We also
understand that the data contained in this publication cannot
replace personal contact. To that end we are pleased to advise
do not use hydraulic elements designed for lower pressures that our qualified specialists are ready and looking forward to
than the circuit operating pressure
answer your questions.
if possible, place large, high-pressure aggregates in a
separate plant room with good ventilation (cooling), with
electrical elements covered against direct effects of oil during
operation and destruction
at plants with high temperature sources (steelworks,
gasworks) use in place of oil a fluid that does not ignite easily
(consult the elements manufacturers in this regard)
the plant room must be kept clean and any spilled oil
immediately covered by sawdust or absorber VAPEX, then the
floor swept and rinsed with a suitable solvent until dry
during dismantling use suitable collection trays to prevent oil
spilling on the floor
aggregates and all hydraulic elements including hoses and
piping must be protected against external mechanical
damage and sources of heat
it is not advisable to come too close, especially with the face,
to piping and hoses if the circuit is under pressure
if oil gets into the eyes the eyes must be quickly rinsed with
Opthal or similar suitable means; if non-flammable fluid (apart
from water emulsion) enters the eyes it is necessary to seek
help with ophthalmic medical specialist
do not smoke or use open fire in the store and near proximity
of aggregates and hydraulic motors
switch off the hydraulic generator drive or at least offload and
disconnect the relevant circuit during any adjustments and
repairs

70
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HK- Kwai Chung, New Territories, Hong Kong info.hk@argo-hytos.com
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