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Optimisation Past Year Exam Exercise (25 marks)

fcP, tin


FCP, Tin FCP, Tout

fcP, tm


fcP, tout

Figure 1 Heat exchanger network

Figure 1 shows a small process network with two process streams and three heat exchangers.
Using temperatures defined by Tin >Tout and tout > tin, the hot stream with a fixed flow rate F

and heat capacity Cp needs to be cooled from Tin to Tout , while the cold stream with fixed

flow rate f and heat capacity cp needs to be heated from tin to tout . This is accomplished by two

heat exchangers; the heater uses steam at temperature Ts and has a heat duty Qh, while the cooler

uses cold water at temperature Tcw and has a heat duty Qc. However, considerable energy can be
saved by exchanging heat between the hot and cold streams through the third heat exchanger
with heat duty Qm and hot and cold exit temperatures, Tm and tm, respectively. Each heat
exchanger also has a capital cost that is based on its area A, for heat exchange. Consider a simple
countercurrent, shell and tube heat exchanger with an overall heat transfer coefficient, U.
a) Define objective function for this problem (5 marks)
b) Define all constraints consist of energy balance, area of heat exchange, log mean
temperature difference and other relevant constraints.
c) For the above problem, which model type is the most suitable? (2 marks)
d) If no heat integration for this system (no process-to-process heat exchanger), what are the
implications interms of operating and capital cost? (3 marks)


1. Energy balance for a heat exchanger, Q (kW) : Q = FCp(T )

2. Heat transfer coefficient, U from equation : Q = UA(Tlm )
3. The log-mean temperature difference, Tlm :

T 1 T 2
T lm=
ln( T 1 / T 2 )

4. Purchase cost for floating head heat exchanger, CB ($) :


5. Assume that i (i, for all heat exchanger) is cost efficient for energy, ($/kWh)
6. Annual operating hour for heat exchanger, 8000 hours
7. Annual payment of heat exchanger is 10% from the purchase cost.