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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA MANUTENTION


Section IX FEM
SERIES LIFTING EQUIPMENT 9.341
'1 st edition (E)
Local Girder Stresses '10. 1983

1 Local girder stresses The variables R, t1, j and A necessary for the stress
The flange bending stresses UFx and UFz arise as secon- computation have the following meanings:
dary stresses in the vicinity of the place of load appli- R represents the maximum wheel load ascertained
cation in a girder, regardless of its supporting structure upon consideration of the dynamic coefficients.
(figure 1.1 and 1.2).
tl is the theoretical thickness of the flange at the
load position j (without tolerances and wear).
is the distance from the girder edge to the point
of load application.
A is calculated as the quotient from
j
A = b s
2 2

2 Determination of the coefficients c x ' Cz

The coefficients established here are based on numerous


test results 1). Theoretical investigations of certain test
results with the method of finite elements have proved
largely concurrent 1). 'he equations listed below, which
are the product of test results, are valid for the ascertain-
Figure 1.1 Parallel flange track section
ment of the coefficients cx, C z . Positive values of cx/ z
mean tensile stress on the bottom of the flange.

2.1 Parallel flange track section according to figure 1.1


Transition =005-058.A+0148.e3,015.A (1)
Cz O , , , .
web/flange
Load appli- czl= 2,23 -1,49 A+ 1,390e -18,33 . A (2)
cation point
Edge of c z2 = O.73-1,58.A+2,910.e-6.O' A (3)
the flange
Transition CxO = -2,11 + 1,977. A+0,0076 .e 6 ,53 A (4)
web/flange
Load appli- cxl = 10,108 -7,408 'A-l0,108 .e-1,364(~
l---- b _.- .... -,10
cation point
Edge of
Figure 1.2 Girder with inclined flanges Cx 2 = 0 (6)
the flange

The stresses are calculated with the help of the equations 2.2 Girder with inclined flanges according to figure 1.2

UFx = Cx ~
R Transition
tl CzO = -0,981"':"1,479 A+ 1,120 e1,322 . Am
web/flange
R Load appli-
u Fz = Cz 2 cation point czl = 1.810-1.150.A+l,060.e-7.7OO .A(8)
tl
" Edge of
The factors Cx and c/usedin the equations can be de- the flange c z2 = 1,990-2,810.A+0,840.e-4,690 .A(9)
termined separately according to the type of girder
(figure 1.1 and 1.2) and the load position j or A for the Transition cxo= -1,096+1,095',A+0:192.e- 6 O 'A(tO)
specially marked points (0), (1), (2) on the flange. web/flange

1) Hannover, H.-a. und Reichwald, R.: Lokale Biegebeanspruchung von Triiger-Unterflanschen (Local flexural
stressing of girder lower flanges),f+h-fordern und heben 32 (1982) Nr. 6
(Teil 1) und Nr. 8 (Teil 2)

Copyright by FEM Sektion IX . Also available in French and. German . ! Sources of supply see back page
Licenced to SCHOSS SA

Page 2 FEM 9.341

Load appli- Cxl = 3.965 - 4.835 A-3.965 e -2.675 . A The equations in paragraphs 3.1 and 3.2 apply to cranes.
cation point (11 ) Corresponding equations, to be taken from the respec-
tive national regulations, apply to crane runways or other
Edge of Cx 2 =0 (121 steel structures.
the flange

2.3 Lower chord of box type girder 4 Explanation of the design rules
The lower chord o'f a box type girder is to be calculated
as a parallel flange track section. Figure 2 represents an Design rules are given for local flange bending stresses on
analogous depiction. rolled sections with inclined and parallel flanges. The
design rules are based on the results of tests 1). Measure-
ments on the following sections were evaluated: 1200,
I 300 as in DIN 1025 part 1 and IPE 200. 300, 360 as in
DIN 1025 part 5. The load was distributed symmetrically
R along the longitudinal axes of the girders. The lower
~i- chord of box girders with an underrunning trolly should
I also be calculated using geometric characteristics with
b* _!. the equations for the parallel-flange girder.
I 2
.~ <b (~
~tf-.!.---, The wheel load is ideally assumed to be a load point in
2
the middle of the Hertzian surface. Tolerances in the
-t- rr - thickness of the flange are not taken into account.
Generally, no reduction in the flange thickness as a result
Figure 2. Lower chord of a box type girder of wear is to be taken into account. Results of tests on
four overhead travelling cranes with underrunning trol-
leys after 14 years of operation have shown wear of less
3 Ascertainment of stresses than 1 mm. Only on heavily stressed suspension tracks
The flange bending stresses aFz are to be superimposed on is it possibly necessary to increase the thickness of the
the main stresses O'Hz resulting from vertical and lateral section on account of wear (e. g. by 5 mm for a flange
forces. The flange bending stresses are diminished by the thickness of 30 mm).
factor e = 0.75. This also holds true for the flange bending
stresses to be considered for the proof of service strength. When determining stresses, flange bending stresses should
be superimposed with the main stresses from vertical
and lateral forces both in the general stress proof and in
the service strength proof (e. g. in a box girder lower
chord). Thus for O'penn it should be borne in mind that
in crane girders there is a principal load picture with
vertical load and lateral force. In superimposing flange
3.1 General proof of stress bending stresses on principal stresses. the former are
In the case of composite plane stresses, the following reduced by a factor e. This reduction may be accounted
must be proven with consideration of the signs for by two basic facts:
in structural parts:
Flange bending stress produces a local stress peak
only. The flange bending stress is very rapidly attenu-
ated in the longitudinal direction of the girder. At a
distance of 10 mm from the point of the maximum,
in welding seams: the flange bending stress is approximately only a half

' - JO' x2+ 2 < of the maximum.


cp - az - O'x . O'z + 2',Txz2 O'aw
- Taking into account local flange bending stresses
32 Proo'f of service strength increases the accuracy of the carculation. This prevents
( O'xmax
O'xa
r+ (~zmax )2_ O'x~ax . a zmax + (T xzmax )2 ~ 1,0*)
O'za laxal 100za l Tx:za
uncertainties. which would allow a lower safety factor
v.
v
O'yield point
=
O'penn '
Definitions:
O'xmax calculated normal stress in the x and z The value was arrived at by comparing the results of
O'zmax directions calculations for numerous single-girder overhead travel-
ling cranes on the basis of both the traditional and the
T xzmax calculated shear stress F EM methods. Consideration was given to craneS-which'
'a xa admissible normal stress corresponding to had not been damaged by flange bending stresses even
O'za O'xmax and O'zmltli stresses after many years of operation.
The flange bending stresses which accur are proved using
laxal sum total ofa xa and a za a calculation example and the superimposition of flange
(Uza I bending stresses,on main stresses demonstrated.
T xza admissible shear stress corresponding to the
T x z max
stress,
.) This inequality represents an unfavourable condition. allowing values slightly above 1. If this is so, the following inequality is used for
the calculation:' / 2 2 2
(aX max) + (aZ max) _ a x max . a z max + (xz max ) ~ 1.05
J a xa a za Iaxal . Iazal Tx za
Licenced to SCHOSS SA FEM9.341 Page 3

5.0 Calculation example 5.3 Values incross section of main girdersection:IPBl360


The application of the calculation formulae shown for The variables are labelled according to fig.5.2 to fig.5.4.
flange bending stresses in the x and z directions is
demonstrated in the following calculation example. h 350 mm Wxo WXl = Wx2 = 1890 cm 3
The stresses in the middle of the main girder (see fig.5.1, b 300 mm Wxow 2100 cm 3
intersection b) of a singlegirder overhead travelling crane s 10mm Wyo 15780 cm 3
with parallel flange section girder are.to becalculated.
t 17,5 mm Wyl 580 cm 3
The design rules used are: FEM Rules for the Design of 33090 cm 4
Hoisting Appliances, Section I (2nd edition) ..
Ix Wy2 526 cm 3
Iy 7890 cm 4 i 14mm
5.1 Technical data of overhead travelling crane
Single-girder overhead travelling crane 3,2 t x 11,0 m
5.4 Calculation of the flange bending stresses using
SWL GH = 3200 kg equations 1 to 6 (parallel flange section)
Span lKr = 11,0 m 5.4.1 Calculation of A
Approach dimension lan = 0,57 m
Main girder IPB 1360 Material: St 37 2 . i 2 . 14
(DIN 1025 Part 3) 0,0966
b-s 300 - 10
End carriage Travel wheel dia. d KT = 0,16 m
Wheel base eKT = 2,00 m
5.4.2 Factors czo, cZl< cz2
Trolley Electric hoist trolley .(equations 1 to 3)
. max. long travel speed vKr 31,5 m/min
. max. cross travel speed vKa 14,0 m/min Czo = 0,05 - 0,580,0966+0,148. e 3 ,015' 0,0966
- max. lifting speed VH 6,0 m/min czo = 0,192 (web/flange) (1 )
Trolley deadweight GKa 490 kg
Trolley wheel base eKa = 0,420 m
Cz 1= 2,23 - 1,49 . 0,0966 + 1,390 . e- 18 ,33 . 0,0966
Trolley travel wheel dia d Ka = 0,140 m cz l = 2,323 (load attachment point) (2)
The overhead travelling crane is classified as FEM Cz 2 = 0,73 - 1,58 . 0,0966 + 2,910 . e -6,0 . 0,0966
Group 2.
f: z 2 = 2,207 (edge of flange) (3)
5.2 Calculation of the forces and moments in the middle
of the main girder (intersection b)
The proof of stress in the middle of the main girder is
5.4.3 Factors Cxo, Cxl, Cx 2
carried out with the load case I. Components consisting
of the deadweight of the main girder and that of the trol- (equations 4 to 6)
ley and the load lifted are taken into account in the ver
tical direction (y direction, see Fig. 5.4) and the inertia Cxo =- 2,110 + 1,977 . 0,0966 + 0,0076 . e 6 53 . 0.0966
forces from long travel in the horizontal direction cxo = - 1,905 (web/flange) (4)
(x direction).
cx ) = 10,108 - 7,4080,0966 - 10,108. e-1,364. 0,0966
5.2.1 Oscillation coefficient
Osci llation coefficient 1JJ = 1,15 cxl = 0,532 (load application point) (5)

5.2.2 Max. wheel force R Cx 2 = 0,0 (edge of flange) (6)


a
R = (G: + G4H 1JJ) . g g= 9,81 m/s 2
5.4.4 Flange bending stresses UF!(z) and uF!(x)
R ( 490 + 3200 . 1 15) .' 9 81 The quotient, occurring in all the equations
4 4 ' ,
R 10227 N has the value
5.2.3 Bending moments in the x and y directions
5.2.3.1 x direction R 10227
33,4N/mm 2
Main girder deadweight t.2
1 , 2
- 175
component Mx(HT) 16614 Nm
Trolley deadweight component Mx(GKa) 12719 Nm Thus the flange bending stresses are calculated:
min Mx(GKa) 1370 Nm uF! (zO) = 0,192 33,4 = 6,4 N/mm 2
Load lifted component Mx(GH) 83063 Nm uF! (zl) = 2,323 . 33,4 = 77,6 N/mm 2
Mx(GH) .1JJ 95522 Nm
UF) (z2) = 2,207 . 33,4 = 73,7 N/mm2
5.2.3.2 y direction uF! (xO) =-1,905 33,4 = - 63,6 N/mm2
Inertia forces from long travel component: UF! (x l) = 0,532 33,4 = 17,8 N/mm2
MY(Kr) 1320 Nm UF) (x2) = 0,0
Licenced P,age
to SCHOSS SA 9.341
4 FEM
r,

5.5 General proof of. stress in middle of main girder 5.5.4 Proof of stress point 0
(underside of flange) (transition web/flange)
5.5.1 Bendirig moments z direction:
M xges (Mx(HT) + Mx(GKa) + Mx(GH) . 1/1) . M M xges ~
+
az(O) = --
Wxo Wyo . + aFl(zO)
withM= 1,0 (increased coefficient Table T - 1,34)
M xges (16614 + 12 719 + 95 522) . 1,0 124855 1320 .
1 890 + 15780 + 0,75 . 6,4
M xges 124855 Nm
M yges My(Kr) . M az(O) 66,0 + 0,1 + 4,8
M yges 1320 Nm
az(O) 70,9 N/mm2 ~ 160,0 N/mm 2

5.5.2 Proof of stress point 2 (edge of flange) 7,7 N/mm 2 ~ 92,0 N/mm 2
Z direction:
Mxges . My x direction:
a Z (2) = -- + -- + . aFl(z2)
Wx2 Wy2 ax(O) . aFl(xO)

124855 1320 ax(O) 0,75 . (-63,6) -47,7 N/mm 2


az (2) 1 890 + 526 + 0,75 . 73,7
I ax(o)1 ~ 160,0 N/mm 2
a z (2) 66,0 + 2,5 + 55,3

a Z (2) 123,8 N/mm 2 ~ 160,0 N/mm 2 Reference stress:

x direction:
acp(O) J a:(O) + a~(O) - az(O) . ax(O) + 3 . T to)

a X (2) = 0,0
aep(O)

acp(O) = 104,2 N/mm2 ~ 160,0 N/mm 2

5.5.3 Proof of stress point 1 (load application point)


5.6 Welded web plate / flange design
z direction:
When there is a welded connection between the web
Mxges My plate and flange (fillet welds, see fig. 5.3), the general
az(l) = -- + - - + . aFl(zl) proof of stress and a proof of service strength is carried
Wxl Wyl
out for flange point 0 (top side of flange),
124855 +1-320
- + 0,75 . 17,6
aZ(l)
1890 580 5.6.1 General proof of stress for the weld seam point 0
z direction (
az(l) = 66,0 + 2,3 + 58,2
Normal stress, longitudinal loading of the weld point 0
az(l) . = 126,5 N/mm 2 ~ 160,0 N/mm 2 az(O)w = 54,8 N/mm 2 ~ 160,0 N/mm 2
Shearing stress, transverse loading of the weld seam
x dii'ection: (including the stresses resulting from the longitudinel distri-
bution of the wheel loads)
aX(l) . aFl(xl) 2 ~ 113,0 N/mm 2
T(O)w = 26,7 N/mm
ax(l) 0,75 ' 17,8
x direction:
aX(l) 13,4 N/mm2~ 160,0 N/mm 2 Normal stress, transverse loading to the weld seam
ax(O)w= 47,7 N/mm
2 ~ 113,0 N/mm 2
Reference stress:
2 Reference; stress :
acp(l) T(l)

acp(l) ~h26,52 + 13,42 - 126,513,4

with T(l) ~ 0,0


acp(O)w= ..J 54,82 + 47,7 2 - . 54,8 . 47,7 + 2,26,7 2
!

a'cp(l) = 120,4 N/mm 2 ~ 160,0 N/mm 2 Ucp(O)w= 64,0 N/mm2 ~ 160,0 N/mm 2
Licenced to SCHOSS SA
FEM 9.341 Page 5

t
5.6.2 Proof of service strength for weld seam point 0

/~
=:1'"' :$
The weld seams are classified -in the K4 case of notch
toughness.

5.6.2.1 Limiting stress ratio for normal stress


- i_ f::J 1ii'tf=leL1='= = = = =
1-- I

wL: ,.'' 11
---:.j ~
,
bolted connection d-d

z direction:
~
MXlHTl + minMxlGKal
min Uz(O)w = W
xOw
b
16614 + 1 370
min Uz(O)w = 2100

min Uz(O)w = 8,6 N/mm 2 drive

2
maxuz(O)w = 54,8 N/mm (tension) wheel 11 wheel 21

...M. Figure 5.1 Single-girder overhead travelling crane


KzlO) 54,8 -- 016
,

x direction:
min uX(O)w = 0,0

maxuxlO)w= 47,7 N/mm 2 (tension)

Kx(O) = 0,0

5.6.2.2 Permissible maximum for normal stress


perm UOz(K z) = 160,0 N/mm 2 ~ 54,8 N/mm 2
Figure 5.2 Main girder section, intersection f
permUOz(Kx) = 160,0 N/mm 2 ~ 47,7 N/mm 2

5.6.2.3 Limiting stress ratio for shear stress


min T(O)w ==' 0,0

maXT(O)w 26,7 N/mm 2

0,0
r x--
5

--x

5.6.2.4 Permissible maximum for shear stress


perm TO(KT) = 92,4 N/mm 2 ~ 26,7 N/mm 2
Y11
,f'----- b ---(

5.6.2.5 Proof of the combined stress @


(UZ(O)w )2 + (1x(O)w )2 _ uz(O)w . (1xlO)w
Figure 5.3 Main girder section, intersection b
permCTOz(z) permuOz(x) Ipermuoz1/permUozI welded- design

TlO)W )2 ~ 1,0
+ ( perm TO

x --- --x
0,1173 + 0,0889 - 0,1021 -+ 0,0835

0,1876 ~ 1,0

Figure 5.4 Main girder section, intersection b


Licenced .Erstellt
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den Technischen AusschuB der Sektion IX der Federation Europeenne de la Manutention (FEM)
Prepared by the Technical Committee of Section IX of the Federation Europeenne de la Manutention (FEM)
Etabli par le Comite Technique de la section IX de la Federation Europeenne de la Manutention (FEM)

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