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The Praxis Study Companion

English to Speakers of
Other Languages
5362

www.ets.org/praxis
Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion

Welcome to The PraxisStudy Companion


Prepare to Show What You Know
You have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you are
ready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis test.

Using the Praxis Study Companion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test day. This
guide can help keep you on track and make the most efficient use of your study time.

The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including:

An overview of the Praxis tests


Specific information on the Praxis test you are taking
A template study plan
Study topics
Practice questions and explanations of correct answers
Test-taking tips and strategies
Frequently asked questions
Links to more detailed information

So where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you need
to revisit. Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs
and how much time you have before test day.

Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your
test. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic. You may have more energy
early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop the
approach that works best for you.

Your teaching career begins with preparation. Good luck!

Know What to Expect

Which tests should I take?


Each state or agency that uses the Praxis tests sets its own requirements for which test or tests you must take for
the teaching area you wish to pursue.

Before you register for a test, confirm your state or agencys testing requirements at www.ets.org/praxis/states.

How are the Praxis tests given?


Praxis tests are given on computer. Other formats are available for test takers approved for accommodations (see
page 43).

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Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion

What should I expect when taking the test on computer?


When taking the test on computer, you can expect to be asked to provide proper identification at the test
center. Once admitted, you will be given the opportunity to learn how the computer interface works (how to
answer questions, how to skip questions, how to go back to questions you skipped, etc.) before the testing time
begins. Watch the What to Expect on Test Day video to see what the experience is like.

Where and when are the Praxis tests offered?


You can select the test center that is most convenient for you. The Praxis tests are administered through an
international network of test centers, which includes Prometric Testing Centers, some universities, and other
locations throughout the world.

Testing schedules may differ, so see the Praxis Web site for more detailed test registration information at www.
ets.org/praxis/register.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents
The Praxis Study Companion guides you through the steps to success

1. Learn About Your Test.....................................................................................................5


Learn about the specific test you will be taking

2. F
 amiliarize Yourself with Test Questions.......................................................................9
Become comfortable with the types of questions youll find on the Praxis tests

3. Practice with Sample Test Questions.......................................................................... 13


Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers

4. Determine Your Strategy for Success.......................................................................... 21


Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient

5. Develop Your Study Plan.............................................................................................. 24


Develop a personalized study plan and schedule

6. Review Study Topics..................................................................................................... 28


Review study topics with questions for discussion

7. Review Smart Tips for Success..................................................................................... 41


Follow test-taking tips developed by experts

8. Check on Testing Accommodations............................................................................ 43


See if you qualify for accommodations that may make it easier to take the Praxis test

9. Do Your Best on Test Day.............................................................................................. 44


Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident

10. Understand Your Scores............................................................................................. 46


Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores

Appendix: Other Questions You May Have .................................................................... 48

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Step 1: Learn About Your Test

1. Learn About Your Test


Learn about the specific test you will be taking

English to Speakers of Other Languages (5362)

Test at a Glance
Test Name English to Speakers of Other Languages
Test Code 5362
Time 120 minutes
Number of Questions 120 selected-response questions
Format Selected-response questions
Test Delivery
Computer delivered
Approximate Approximate
Content Categories Number of Percentage of
Questions Examination

I. Foundations of Linguistics 22 18%


VI I
V II. Foundations of Language Learning 26 22%
III. Planning and Implementing Instruction 28 23%
IV II
IV. Assessment and Evaluation 18 15%
III
V. Culture 13 11%
VI. Professionalism and Advocacy 13 11%

About This Test


The English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) test is designed to measure basic linguistic and pedagogical
knowledge for those interested in working in the context of teaching ESOL in elementary or secondary schools.
Candidates usually come from a variety of backgrounds. Some are preservice teachers who are recent graduates
of an ESOL degree program, some may be experienced ESOL teachers moving from a different state, while
others are current teachers who have changed from their content area of education to ESOL.

The Praxis ESOL test is categorized into six content categories of expertise, as shown in the pie chart above.
Candidates are expected to demonstrate the knowledge and skills required of a beginner-level K-12 ESOL
teacher. The six content categories were identified, via rigorous content analyses, by nationally recognized
thought leaders in the field of TESOL and applied linguistics. Having basic knowledge in each category was
deemed critical for the beginning-level ESOL teacher.

ETS works in collaboration with teacher educators, higher-education content specialists, and accomplished
teachers to keep the test updated and representative of current and relevant standards.

ETS has aligned the questions on this test with the TESOL/NCATE Standards for the Recognition of Initial TESOL
Programs in P-12 ESL Teacher Education developed by the international organization, TESOL, in collaboration with
the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), formerly known as the National Council for
Accreditation of Teacher Education.

Test takers have two hours to complete 120 multiple-choice questions, which have listening questions
embedded throughout the test. For the listening questions, test takers have an opportunity to listen to

The Praxis Study Companion 5


Step 1: Learn About Your Test

a recorded prompt multiple times, taking into II. Foundations of Language Learning
account time considerations. Some of the questions A. Understands the distinction between
ask candidates to choose more than one answer, social and academic language functions
which helps to capture the breadth of a candidates
B. Understands the similarities and
knowledge.
differences between first and second
This test may contain some questions that will not language acquisition, and how learners
first language can affect their second-
count toward the test takers total score.
language production and reception
Test Specifications C. Understands the processes of second-
language acquisition including research-
Test specifications in this chapter describe the based models
knowledge and skills measured by the test. Study D. Knows the different types of affective
topics to help you prepare to answer test questions factors and their implications for the
can be found in 6. Review Study Topics on page 28. second-language learning process
E. Understands the relationship between
I. Foundations of Linguistics English phonemes and graphemes and
A. Understands phonetics, stress and the rules of phonics
intonation patterns, and the effects of
F. Understands the literacy development of
phonetic environment on pronunciation
ELs
B. Is familiar with IPA (the International
G. Understands how first-language literacy
Phonetic Alphabet)
influences the development of English
C. Understands the various types of literacy
morphemes and how they are used in
H. Understands that, in addition to
word formation
language, student performance may be
D. Understands the usage of English syntax affected by various factors (e.g.,
E. Understands the parts of speech socioeconomic, physical, emotional)
including their structural, semantic, and
functional characteristics III. Planning and Implementing Instruction
F. Understands semantics and how A. Knows the implication of dialect variation
combinations of words convey meaning for the instruction of English learners
G. Knows that languages differ from or are B. Understands various methods and
similar to each other in their phonology, approaches in teaching ELs and knows
morphology, syntax, semantics, and how to select the most appropriate
pragmatics methods for the context
H. Understands the concepts of pragmatics C. Knows a variety of instructional delivery
I. Understands the concepts of models specific for ELs
sociolinguistics D. Knows how to identify appropriate and
J. Knows the concept of World Englishes measureable objectives that align to
language and content standards
K. Understands the conventions of written
English (i.e., mechanics) E. Knows how to design appropriate
classroom activities that connect to
L. Understands the rhetorical patterns and learning objectives for ELs
range of genres used in written English
F. Knows how to design appropriate
M. Understands communicative competence assessments that connect to learning
N. Know about the inconsistencies and objectives for ELs
irregularities of the English language G. Is familiar with ways to collaborate with
other educators in designing classroom
activities appropriate to the proficiency
levels of English learners

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Step 1: Learn About Your Test

H. Knows how to effectively integrate the V. Understands that there are differences
four domains of language (i.e., speaking, between planning for ELs with learning
listening, reading, and writing) into disabilities Is aware that instruction will
instruction need to be adapted for ELs receiving
I. Knows how to promote ELs acquisition special education or gifted services
of receptive and productive skills W. Understands the importance of language
J. Knows how and when to apply a variety modeling, comprehensible input and
of strategies for teaching language skills output, and scaffolding for English
contextually or targeting them discretely language learning

K. Knows how to promote autonomous


learning through cognitive and IV. Assessment and Evaluation
metacognitive strategies with ELs A. Familiar with the role of assessment in
L. Understands techniques that activate the identification, placement, and exit
students prior knowledge and that build from language-support programs
new knowledge to support acquisition of B. Understands a variety of formal and
content and language informal methods to assess receptive
M. Knows how to organize instruction that and productive language skills
provides students with meaningful C. Knows how to develop and administer
opportunities to use language formative and summative classroom
N. Understands effective practices for assessments to determine ELs language
teaching literacy to English learners skills, inform instruction, and document
student growth
O. Understands how to select, modify, and/
or create culturally responsive, age- D. Knows there are a variety of
appropriate, and linguistically accessible accommodations for state-mandated
teaching materials and resources to content-area testing for ELs
support ELs learning styles and needs E. Knows ways to adapt classroom
P. Is familiar with how technologies can be assessments for ELs
used to support language development, F. Knows that some ELs may be eligible for
instruction and learning special education and/or gifted and
Q. Understands how to create a secure, talented services and is familiar with how
supportive, and culturally respectful to provide feedback and input about
learning environment for ELs assessment data

R. Knows how and when to use constructive G. Is familiar with assessment-related


feedback to facilitate English-language issues such as validity, reliability, and
learning language and cultural bias

S. Knows how to create a language-, text-, H. Knows the difference between norm-
and print-rich environment at a linguistic referenced and criterion-referenced
and an age- appropriate level that assessments, and how they are used with
promotes academic growth ELs

T. Understands how to differentiate I. Knows how to interpret assessment data


instruction for ELs based on individual and use it to assist in planning and
student needs and language proficiency differentiating instruction for ELs
levels J. Is familiar with strategies for
U. Knows how to recognize and be communicating assessment data to
instructionally responsive to Students English learners and their guardians
with Interrupted Formal Education (SIFEs)

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Step 1: Learn About Your Test

V. Culture VI. Professionalism and Advocacy


A. Understands the interrelationship A. Knows the possible differences between
between language and culture disabilities and typical language
proficiency development
B. Understands the ways cultural variables
affect second-language acquisition and B. Knows how to value and incorporate
teaching diverse cultures of students into
instruction
C. Understands the ways students
identities and learning styles will vary C. Understands the legal provisions and
widely across and within cultures ethical implications of laws and federal
court decisions related to the education
D. Understands the implications of cultural of ELs
stereotyping, cultural bias, and cultural
bullying in the school setting D. Understands the need to serve as a
professional resource and advocate for
E. Knows that cultural experiences ELs and families
influence student language development,
disposition, and learning E. Understands the need to communicate
with school personnel about the
F. Understands that the teachers personal characteristics and emotional, social, and
and cultural experiences influence physical needs of ELs
teaching style
F. Knows how to identify appropriate
G. Understands the difference between strategies for planning and collaborating
acculturation and assimilation with ELs, their families, and school and
community members
G. Understands ways to collaborate with
other school personnel regarding the
academic needs of ELs
H. Is familiar with ways that ELs and their
families may benefit from a variety of
outside resources (e.g., services,
networks, organizations)
I. Knows a variety of strategies for
consulting with guardians and
communicating with them about each
students progress and needs
J. Knows the importance of engaging in
professional development by continually
researching relevant and reliable
resources and organizations in the field
of teaching ESOL

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Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions

2. Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions


Become comfortable with the types of questions youll find on the Praxis tests

The Praxis assessments include a variety of question types: constructed response (for which you write a
response of your own); selected response, for which you select one or more answers from a list of choices or
make another kind of selection (e.g., by clicking on a sentence in a text or by clicking on part of a graphic); and
numeric entry, for which you enter a numeric value in an answer field. You may be familiar with these question
formats from taking other standardized tests. If not, familiarize yourself with them so you dont spend time
during the test figuring out how to answer them.

Understanding Computer-Delivered Questions


Questions on computer-delivered tests are interactive in the sense that you answer by selecting an option
or entering text on the screen. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The
directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond.

For most questions, you respond by clicking an oval to select a single answer from a list of options.

However, interactive question types may also ask you to respond by:

Clicking more than one oval to select answers from a list of options.
Typing in an entry box. When the answer is a number, you may be asked to enter a numerical answer.
Some questions may have more than one place to enter a response.
Clicking check boxes. You may be asked to click check boxes instead of an oval when more than one
choice within a set of answers can be selected.
Clicking parts of a graphic. In some questions, you will select your answers by clicking on a location (or
locations) on a graphic such as a map or chart, as opposed to choosing your answer from a list.
Clicking on sentences. In questions with reading passages, you may be asked to choose your answers by
clicking on a sentence (or sentences) within the reading passage.
Dragging and dropping answer choices into targets on the screen. You may be asked to select answers
from a list of options and drag your answers to the appropriate location in a table, paragraph of text or
graphic.
Selecting options from a drop-down menu. You may be asked to choose answers by selecting options
from a drop-down menu (e.g., to complete a sentence).
Clicking on specific icons to play an audio file. For listening questions, which are embedded within the
test, you are asked to click on an icon to listen to a student speak as many times as necessary, keeping in
mind time considerations. Answer choices are presented on the same page, where the test taker can
choose the correct answer among four choices. At the time of the test administration, make sure your
headphones are in good working order before starting the test.

Remember that with every question you will get clear instructions.

Perhaps the best way to understand computer-delivered questions is to view the Computer-delivered Testing
Demonstration on the Praxis Web site to learn how a computer-delivered test works and see examples of
some types of questions you may encounter.

The Praxis Study Companion 9


Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions

Understanding Selected-Response Questions


Many selected-response questions begin with the phrase which of the following. Take a look at this example:

Which of the following is a flavor made from beans?


(A) Strawberry
(B) C
 herry
(C) Vanilla
(D) Mint

How would you answer this question?


All of the answer choices are flavors. Your job is to decide which of the flavors is the one made from beans.

Try following these steps to select the correct answer.

1) L
 imit your answer to the choices given. You may know that chocolate and coffee are also flavors made
from beans, but they are not listed. Rather than thinking of other possible answers, focus only on the choices
given (which of the following).

2) Eliminate incorrect answers. You may know that strawberry and cherry flavors are made from fruit and
that mint flavor is made from a plant. That leaves vanilla as the only possible answer.

3) Verify your answer. You can substitute vanilla for the phrase which of the following and turn the
question into this statement: Vanilla is a flavor made from beans. This will help you be sure that your answer
is correct. If youre still uncertain, try substituting the other choices to see if they make sense. You may want
to use this technique as you answer selected-response questions on the practice tests.

Try a more challenging example


The vanilla bean question is pretty straightforward, but youll find that more challenging questions have a
similar structure. For example:

Entries in outlines are generally arranged according


to which of the following relationships of ideas?
(A) Literal and inferential
(B) C
 oncrete and abstract
(C) L inear and recursive
(D) M
 ain and subordinate

Youll notice that this example also contains the phrase which of the following. This phrase helps you
determine that your answer will be a relationship of ideas from the choices provided. You are supposed to find
the choice that describes how entries, or ideas, in outlines are related.

Sometimes it helps to put the question in your own words. Here, you could paraphrase the question in this way:
How are outlines usually organized? Since the ideas in outlines usually appear as main ideas and subordinate
ideas, the answer is (D).

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Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions

QUICK TIP: Dont be intimidated by words you may not understand. It might be easy to be thrown by words
like recursive or inferential. Read carefully to understand the question and look for an answer that fits. An
outline is something you are probably familiar with and expect to teach to your students. So slow down, and
use what you know.

Watch out for selected-response questions containing NOT, LEAST, and EXCEPT
This type of question asks you to select the choice that does not fit. You must be very careful because it is easy
to forget that you are selecting the negative. This question type is used in situations in which there are several
good solutions or ways to approach something, but also a clearly wrong way.

How to approach questions about graphs, tables, or reading passages


When answering questions about graphs, tables, or reading passages, provide only the information that the
questions ask for. In the case of a map or graph, you might want to read the questions first, and then look at the
map or graph. In the case of a long reading passage, you might want to go ahead and read the passage first,
noting places you think are important, and then answer the questions. Again, the important thing is to be sure
you answer the questions as they refer to the material presented. So read the questions carefully.

How to approach unfamiliar formats


New question formats are developed from time to time to find new ways of assessing knowledge. Tests may
include audio and video components, such as a movie clip or animation, instead of a map or reading passage.
Other tests may allow you to zoom in on details in a graphic or picture.

Tests may also include interactive questions. These questions take advantage of technology to assess
knowledge and skills in ways that standard selected-response questions cannot. If you see a format you are
not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are
expected to respond.

QUICK TIP: Dont make the questions more difficult than they are. Dont read for hidden meanings or tricks.
There are no trick questions on Praxis tests. They are intended to be serious, straightforward tests of
your knowledge.

Understanding Constructed-Response Questions


Constructed-response questions require you to demonstrate your knowledge in a subject area by creating
your own response to particular topics. Essays and short-answer questions are types of constructed-response
questions.

For example, an essay question might present you with a topic and ask you to discuss the extent to which you
agree or disagree with the opinion stated. You must support your position with specific reasons and examples
from your own experience, observations, or reading.

Take a look at a few sample essay topics:

 Celebrities have a tremendous influence on the young, and for that reason, they have a responsibility to
act as role models.
 We are constantly bombarded by advertisementson television and radio, in newspapers and
magazines, on highway signs, and the sides of buses. They have become too pervasive. Its time to put
limits on advertising.
Advances in computer technology have made the classroom unnecessary, since students and teachers
are able to communicate with one another from computer terminals at home or at work.

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Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions

Keep these things in mind when you respond to a constructed-response question


1) A
 nswer the question accurately. Analyze what each part of the question is asking you to do. If the
question asks you to describe or discuss, you should provide more than just a list.

2) A
 nswer the question completely. If a question asks you to do three distinct things in your response,
you should cover all three things for the best score. Otherwise, no matter how well you write, you will
not be awarded full credit.

3) A
 nswer the question that is asked. Do not change the question or challenge the basis of the
question. You will receive no credit or a low score if you answer another question or if you state, for
example, that there is no possible answer.

4) G
 ive a thorough and detailed response. You must demonstrate that you have a thorough
understanding of the subject matter. However, your response should be straightforward and not filled
with unnecessary information.

5) R
 eread your response. Check that you have written what you thought you wrote. Be sure not to
leave sentences unfinished or omit clarifying information.

QUICK TIP: You may find that it helps to take notes on scratch paper so that you dont miss any details. Then
youll be sure to have all the information you need to answer the question.

For tests that have constructed-response questions, more detailed information can be found on page 5.

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Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

3. Practice with Sample Test Questions


Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers

Sample Test Questions Directions: Each of the questions or statements below


is followed by four suggested answers or completions.
The sample questions that follow illustrate the kinds of Select the one that is best in each case.
questions on the test. They are not, however, representative
of the entire scope of the test in either content or difficulty. 1. An ELL approaches the ESOL teacher and
The answers and their explanations are provided later in says, Give me a piece of paper. The ELLs
this chapter. utterance is best characterized as an error in
Terminology: In this test, the following terminology (A) article usage
may appear as described.
(B) word order
English to Speakers of Other Languages may be
(C) register
referred to as ESOL.
(D) conjugation
English as a Second Language may be referred to
as ESL.
2. Which of the following terms refers to how the
English as a Foreign Language may be referred to level of a language learners negative feelings
as EFL and motivation correlates to his or her ability
An English-language learner may be referred to as to acquire new language skills?
an ELL (A) Deductive reasoning
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (B) Extrinsic reinforce
may be referred to as TESOL.
(C) Affective filter
The National Association for Bilingual Education may be
referred to as NABE.
(D) Self-regulated learning

The Center for Applied Linguistics may be referred to 3. Mr. Lewis, a new ESL teacher, is evaluating
as CAL. several assessments that were used by the
previous ESL teacher. Because of the diverse
Basic interpersonal communication skills may be
referred to as BICS.
cultural backgrounds of his students, Mr.
Lewis wants to ensure that the assessments
Cognitive academic language proficiency may be he chooses to incorporate into the curriculum
referred to as CALP. do not exhibit any cultural bias. Which of the
The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach following is the most appropriate question for
may be referred to as CALLA. Mr. Lewis to use as a guideline when
screening the assessments for cultural bias?
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Model
may be referred to as the SIOP Model. (A) Was the ESL teacher who designed the
assessments fluent in more than one
A first language may be referred to as the L1.
language?
A second language may be referred to as the L2.
(B) Will the students need a high level of
Total Physical Response may be referred to as TPR. sociopragmatic competence to complete
A parent or legal guardian may be referred to as the assessments?
a parent. (C) Are the scores that students received on
Second Language Acquisition may be referred to as the assessments in the past reliable?
SLA. (D) Do the assessments separate content-
area learning from language learning?

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Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

4. A high school ESOL teacher gives students 7. Subtractive bilingualism is most likely to occur
the following work sheet. in second-language learners who
(A) have difficulty understanding content-
area vocabulary
(B) have little opportunity to continue using
their first language
(C) work to maintain the customs of their
home cultures
(D) had limited formal schooling in their
The primary purpose of the work sheet is to home countries
provide instruction on
8. Which of the following makes the greatest use
(A) morphology
of active participation, including gestures and
(B) stress body movement?
(A) Grammar Translation
(C) intonation
(B) Total Physical Response
(D) syllabication
(C) Suggestopedia
(D) The Direct Method
5. Which of the following court cases resulted in
a ruling that district-implemented programs
for ELLs must be evaluated for effectiveness? 9. The following is based on an excerpt from an
ELLs essay about a summer job.
(A) Lau v. Nichols
(B) Brown v. Board of Education
(C) Plyler v. Doe
(D) Castaeda v. Pickard

6. An ESL teacher plans to evaluate the


The errors in the second sentence primarily
students midyear progress by referencing
involve
various examples of their work taken from the
current semester. Which of the following will (A) word choice
most accurately assist the teacher in
assessing the students English-language (B) word structure
development? (C) word order
(A) Standardized test scores that (D) word spelling
demonstrate ESL students academic
performance in specific content areas
10. Listen to an ESOL student read the following
(B) Report card grades and comments from sentence aloud.
all content area classroom teachers
(Recorded excerpt)
(C) Individualized portfolios that include all
He finally went to bed.
essays, presentation rubrics, and tests
(D) A norm-referenced midterm exam that (Student pronounces bed as [bt])
was recently administered to ESL The error in pronunciation in the word bed
students indicates a problem with
(A) final intonation patterns
(B) places of articulation
(C) voiced and voiceless sounds
(D) word stress patterns

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Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

11. Mr. Abbott notices that a few of his ESL 14. An ESL teacher is conducting a lesson on the
students have not been doing classwork or woolly mammoth. Sandra, an intermediate-
homework assignments because they lack level ELL, is having trouble taking notes on
motivation to learn about certain topics. Mr. the characteristics of the animal during the
Abbott can best increase his students lesson. Based on Sandras needs, the ESL
intrinsic motivation to learn by teacher should provide her with a
(A) offering them verbal praise after they (A) graphic organizer with a word bank
complete an assignment properly about the woolly mammoth
(B) rewarding them with a small prize after (B) collection of photographs of the woolly
they successfully complete a certain mammoth
number of assignments (C) multiple-choice work sheet about the
(C) determining their interests and woolly mammoth
incorporating those interests into (D) textbook passage on the woolly
classroom lessons mammoth from a lower grade level
(D) calling their parents to inform them of the
missing assignments
15. Mr. Jenkins, an ESL teacher, recently took his
students on a field trip to a museum. The
12. Which of the following behaviors is most following day, Mr. Jenkins asks the class to
consistent with culture shock? recount their trip to the museum as he
transcribes their dictated speech. Next, Mr.
(A) An ELL prefers learning activities that
Jenkins distributes copies of the
feature pictures, graphic organizers, and
transcriptions and has students work in
film clips to present content-area topics.
groups to find and correct errors. Finally, he
(B) An ELL appears nervous and frustrated has the students expand the corrected
in his or her new surroundings and transcriptions into a narrative essay as a
expresses a desire to return to the home homework assignment. Which of the following
country. best describes the instructional approach
(C) An ELL prefers learning activities that being utilized by Mr. Jenkins?
feature bodily movement and (A) Language experience approach
manipulatives that reinforce academic
content. (B) Multisensory approach

(D) An ELL appears to emphasize the (C) Natural approach


context of a conversation, including (D) Phonics approach
gestures, facial expressions, and tone of
voice, when communicating.
16. The following conversation takes place
between an ELL and an ESOL teacher.
13. Which of the following best summarizes the
Student: He read frequently the newspaper.
critical period hypothesis?
(A) Assimilation to a new culture usually Teacher: Oh, he frequently reads the
occurs during a small window of time. newspaper? So, what sections of the
(B) The ease with which one acquires native- newspaper does he prefer?
like proficiency correlates to a biological
The response that the teacher gives to the
timetable that is connected to age.
ELL can most accurately be described as
(C) Optimal language acquisition occurs
when learners are exposed to the L2 for (A) metalinguistic feedback
at least 50 percent of their day. (B) positive feedback
(D) L2 grammar is taught most effectively (C) an elicitation
when learners participate in a series of
translation activities for the first six (D) a recast
months of study.

The Praxis Study Companion 15


Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

17. Which THREE of the following strategies can 19. A middle school English teacher has selected
an ESOL teacher use to most effectively a reading passage on the history, rules, and
create a culturally responsive classroom? importance of baseball in the United States
for an upcoming reading comprehension test.
(A) Reflecting on the influence that their
The English teacher is worried that the ELLs in
personal bias has on student
the class may have difficulty reading and
expectations
understanding the passage and consults the
(B) Devising ways to reward student ESL teacher for feedback. To best address the
participation to encourage speaking English teachers concern, the ESL teacher
(C) Gaining knowledge of students should advise the English teacher to closely
individual learning styles examine the passage for which of the
following?
(D) Becoming familiar with students prior
knowledge (A) Statistics that may be too complex for
the ELLs with a limited math background

18. Which of the following is the best example of (B) Cultural content that may bias the test
an error in sociolinguistic competence? against the ELLs

(A) An ELL wants to borrow a pen from the (C) Changes in verb tense that may cause
teachers desk and says, I need this confusion for the ELLs
while taking it. (D) Abundant usage of figurative language
(B) An ELL doesnt know the word for that the ELLs may not recognize
highway and describes it as the big
road where there are a lot of cars. 20. A first grade teacher recently welcomed a new
(C) A native English speaker asks an ELL ELL named Hassan into the classroom.
where the ELL was born, and the ELL Hassans records show that he had limited
responds I am come from Europe. exposure to English classes in his home
country and is currently functioning at the
(D) An ELL wants to say Watch out for the beginning level of English-language
curb but produces the sentence Watch proficiency. Which of the following
out for the curve. instructional strategies would most
appropriately assist Hassan in increasing his
communication skills?
(A) Providing Hassan with a study guide that
includes all topics discussed in class
(B) Supplying Hassan with an English
dictionary and a thesaurus to use during
activities
(C) Having Hassan use pictures and
gestures when interacting with others
(D) Setting the expectation that Hassan
must respond in English when called on
in class

The Praxis Study Companion 16


Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

21. In contrast to collectivist cultures, individualist 24. A social studies teacher plans to administer a
cultures are more likely to chapter test that includes multiple-choice and
short-answer questions. Which of the
(A) emphasize the importance of learning a
following testing accommodations would be
second language
most appropriate for the intermediate-level
(B) maintain their traditional customs as ELLs in the class?
globalization becomes more pervasive
(A) Permitting the ELLs to use the test study
(C) prioritize the needs of social institutions guide during the test
in their society
(B) Allowing the ELLs to take the test in their
(D) regard personal ambition and initiative native languages
favorably
(C) Allotting the ELLs more time to complete
the test
22. Listen to an ESOL student talk about her
(D) Reducing the number of questions on
experience upon arriving in the United States.
the ELLs version of the test
(Recorded excerpt)

When I arrive in the United States, the first 25. People across the United States use a variety
of terms to refer to sugary, flavored
three months for me here were the most
carbonated beverages, including soda,
difficult experience in my life . . .
pop, and soft drink. Which of the following
The verb arrive in the first line is incorrect best identifies this occurrence?
with respect to (A) Code-switching

(A) tense (B) Dialect variation

(B) gender (C) Language register

(C) person (D) Jargon

(D) number
26. Ms. Yamamoto teaches an introductory
writing class composed of learners from a
23. Which of the following situations most likely variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
indicates that an ELL may require testing for Her primary objective is to encourage her
special education services? students to brainstorm ideas on a given topic
(A) The ELL often shifts from one language and develop their English writing skills as a
to another when speaking. result of brainstorming. Which of the following
is the most effective strategy Ms. Yamamoto
(B) The ELL exhibits an English-language can use to benefit the ELLs in the class during
pattern that is highly unusual compared the brainstorming process?
to that of others who speak the same L1.
(A) Encouraging ELLs to use their first
(C) The ELLs ability to communicate simple
languages and cultural knowledge in
ideas in English is impeded by a heavy
brainstorming discussions
accent.
(B) Providing ELLs with a detailed outline
(D) The ELL is hesitant to speak and does
where they can summarize the
not participate in most classroom
beginning, middle, and end of future
discussions.
essays during brainstorming discussions
(C) Asking ELLs to consult an English
dictionary for all necessary words during
brainstorming discussions
(D) Advising the ELLs to look for relevant
outside references prior to their
brainstorming discussions

The Praxis Study Companion 17


Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

27. Which of the following activities most Questions 2829 refer to the following visual
effectively helps beginning-level ELLs develop
decoding skills? Mr. Lambert, an elementary ESOL teacher,
provides his students with the following work
(A) Presenting predictable spelling patterns sheet and a handful of plastic tokens
in word families to the ELLs
(B) Asking the ELLs to describe the events
of a story after the teacher has read it
aloud
(C) Directing the ELLs to select their own
reading materials from the schools
library
(D) Having the ELLs work in small groups to
categorize nouns and verbs on chart First, Mr. Lambert says the word that names
paper the first picture on the work sheet, bee.
Then, he instructs students to quietly repeat
the word to themselves and segment the
word into its distinct sounds. Once the
students have identified the distinct sounds in
the word, they move one token for each
sound into a box above the picture. Finally,
Mr. Lambert asks the class to share which
sounds they recognize in the word bee, and
he moves on to the next picture on the work
sheet.

28. Which of the following best describes the


primary focus of the activity?
(A) It introduces the concept of
onomatopoeia.
(B) It connects phonemes and graphemes.
(C) It develops phonemic awareness.
(D) It improves translation skills.

29. The activity is most appropriate for students


in which of the following stages of second
language acquisition?
(A) Early production
(B) Speech emergence
(C) Intermediate fluency
(D) Advanced fluency

The Praxis Study Companion 18


Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

Answers to Sample Questions


1. The correct answer is (C). In this example, the ELL 10. The correct answer is (C). Stress and intonation do
has addressed the teacher in a manner that is too not determine final consonant forms, and [t] and [d]
informal for their relationship, making it an error in the have the same place of articulation. However, [t] is a
appropriate use of register (formal vs. informal). voiceless sound and [d] is a voiced sound.
2. The correct answer is (C). Krashen refers to the 11. The correct answer is (C). By incorporating the
affective filter hypothesis as a critical factor that can students interests into future lessons, the teacher will
affect language learning positively or negatively. help students gain a sense of personal value from doing
schoolwork. As a result, they may begin to enjoy what
3. The correct answer is (B). If students need a high
they are learning and develop a sense of personal,
level of sociopragmatic competence to understand the
intrinsic motivation to continue learning.
assessments, it means that there could be a heavy
degree of culturally-specific material on the 12. The correct answer is (B). Culture shock is a stage
assessments, which could lead to cultural bias. that some ELLs may experience upon arrival in the
United States. Typically, an ELL going through culture
4. The correct answer is (B). The work sheet asks
shock may feel overwhelmed by his or her new
students to identify which part of the sentence they
environment and experience homesickness.
would emphasize when answering a series of
questions. This illustrates how the way certain words in 13. The correct answer is (B). The critical period
a sentence are emphasized can influence the meaning hypothesis states that there is a period of time in
of the sentence. Thus, the work sheet is primarily childhood when language can be easily acquired.
providing instruction on stress. According to the hypothesis, language becomes
increasingly more difficult to learn after the onset of
5. The correct answer is (D). Castaeda v. Pickard ruled
puberty.
that district programs for ELLs must be evaluated for
effectiveness using a set of established criteria. 14. The correct answer is (A). The student is having
trouble taking notes on the woolly mammoth during
6. The correct answer is (C). A portfolio that spans the
class discussions. Based on her needs and proficiency
work completed over the semester and includes a wide
level, a graphic organizer with a word bank would most
representation of assessment that addresses all four
likely assist the student while taking notes on the topic.
modes of language learning would be the best tool to
use when evaluating ESL students English-language 15. The correct answer is (A). The language experience
development. approach uses students spoken language to develop
materials for reading and writing instruction. This
7. The correct answer is (B). Subtractive bilingualism
approach incorporates students oral language
refers to the phenomenon in which first-language
proficiency levels and personal experiences.
attrition occurs in learners as a result of acquiring a new
language. This phenomenon typically occurs in learners 16. The correct answer is (D). A recast focuses on the
of a second language who no longer have or have meaning. The teacher casts back the learners utterance
fewer opportunities to use their first language in a new in the correct form but continues with a focus on
environment. meaning. Recast is defined as the reformulation of a
learners utterance minus the error(s).
8. The correct answer is (B). Total Physical Response
(TPR) is a language-teaching method built around the 17. The correct answers are (A), (C), and (D). For (A), this
coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach approach guides teachers to understand that student
language through physical (motor) activity. behavior is influenced by culture. For (C) and (D), both
strategies guide teachers to understand that student
9. The correct answer is (A). The second sentence
behavior is influenced by culture.
contains instances of incorrect lexical collocations. That
is, certain words in English cannot idiomatically and
customarily be used to modify certain other words
even though the overall meaning is decipherable (to
speak a language fluently versus to speak a language
greatly). Hence, errors in word choice were made.

The Praxis Study Companion 19


Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

18. The correct answer is (A). The appropriate level of 24. The correct answer is (C). Allotting more time is a
politeness and register contribute to a learners commonly used accommodation with ELLs on high-
sociolinguistic competence. In this example, the ELL stakes achievement tests and content-area exams. This
does not ask to use the pen before taking it. In addition, accommodation will not compromise learning
because the ELL is taking the pen from a teacher standards and will help the ELLs display their
(someone of a different power structure), a more polite knowledge.
choice of words would typically be used. Sociolinguistic
25. The correct answer is (B). A dialect is a form of
competence is the knowledge of the sociocultural rules
language that is specific to a particular region or social
of language and of discourse. This type of competence
group. The terms presented in the question are
requires an understanding of the social context in
indicative of dialect variation.
which language is used: the role of the participants, the
information they share, and the function of the 26. The correct answer is (A). ELLs first language and
interaction. It is an individuals knowledge of ways of culture are rich sources of knowledge for the
speaking and interacting through language, e.g. brainstorming process and will help facilitate the L1-L2
politeness, taboos, etc. These different competences connection.
are used in any given act of communication.
27. The correct answer is (A). Teaching predictable
19. The correct answer is (B). Bias in testing may stem spelling patterns in word families will most effectively
from any one of three characteristics of the tests assist the ELLs in developing their decoding skills,
themselves, including the cultural content embedded especially if they are at the beginning level of language
in any given test. Baseball is considered a sport that is proficiency and are unfamiliar with English spelling
highly specific to American culture and the ELLs may conventions/sound/symbol relationships. A word
be unfamiliar with the vocabulary, rules, etc., associated family is a group of words sharing a common phonetic
with it. This could contribute to a lower test score, element. Children learn that words often contain these
which is unrelated to their language proficiency. recognizable chunks. The cracking of this code provides
predictable patterns and is a help in decoding new
20. The correct answer is (C). The instructional goal is
words. With practice, children learn to use these chunks
to increase the students communication skills. Using
instead of sounding out one letter at a time.
visuals and gestures will help the student communicate
given his current level of language proficiency and his 28. The correct answer is (C). The teacher is asking the
educational background. students to determine the individual sounds in the
words that the teacher says aloud by moving tokens
21. The correct answer is (D). Individualist cultures
into Elkonin boxes. Because the activity focuses on the
typically emphasize the needs and wants of the
sounds that make up each word, it is primarily building
individual over those of a group or social institution as
phonemic awareness.
a whole.
29. The correct answer is (A). In the early production
22. The correct answer is (A). In the transcription of the
stage of second language acquisition, students should
recorded excerpt, the verb arrive is in the present
build prereading skills that will assist them with future
tense. The context is the students experience, and the
literacy development. A phonemic awareness activity
rest of the sentence is in the past (the first three
that focuses on building knowledge of the sounds in
months were). Arrive should be in the past tense
different English words is most appropriate for students
(arrived).
in this stage.
23. The correct answer is (B). A unique pattern of usage
is a common indicator that a student may have
different cognitive abilities from his peers, which might
signal a need for further investigation.

The Praxis Study Companion 20


Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success

4. Determine Your Strategy for Success


Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient

Effective Praxis test preparation doesnt just happen. Youll want to set clear goals and deadlines for yourself
along the way. Otherwise, you may not feel ready and confident on test day.

1) Learn what the test covers.


You may have heard that there are several different versions of the same test. Its true. You may take one
version of the test and your friend may take a different version a few months later. Each test has different
questions covering the same subject area, but both versions of the test measure the same skills and
content knowledge.

Youll find specific information on the test youre taking on page 5, which outlines the content categories
that the test measures and what percentage of the test covers each topic. Visit www.ets.org/praxis/
testprep for information on other Praxis tests.

2) Assess how well you know the content.


Research shows that test takers tend to overestimate their preparednessthis is why some test takers
assume they did well and then find out they did not pass.

The Praxis tests are demanding enough to require serious review of likely content, and the longer youve
been away from the content, the more preparation you will most likely need. If it has been longer than a few
months since youve studied your content area, make a concerted effort to prepare.

3) Collect study materials.


Gathering and organizing your materials for review are critical steps in preparing for the Praxis tests. Consider
the following reference sources as you plan your study:

Did you take a course in which the content area was covered? If yes, do you still have your books or
your notes?
Does your local library have a high school-level textbook in this area? Does your college library have a
good introductory college-level textbook in this area?
Practice materials are available for purchase for many Praxis tests at www.ets.org/praxis/testprep. Test
preparation materials include sample questions and answers with explanations.

4) Plan and organize your time.


You can begin to plan and organize your time while you are still collecting materials. Allow yourself plenty of
review time to avoid cramming new material at the end. Here are a few tips:

Choose a test date far enough in the future to leave you plenty of preparation time. Test dates can be
found at www.ets.org/praxis/register/centers_dates.
Work backward from that date to figure out how much time you will need for review.
Set a realistic scheduleand stick to it.

The Praxis Study Companion 21


Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success

5) Practice explaining the key concepts.


Praxis tests with constructed-response questions assess your ability to explain material effectively. As a
teacher, youll need to be able to explain concepts and processes to students in a clear, understandable
way. What are the major concepts you will be required to teach? Can you explain them in your own words
accurately, completely, and clearly? Practice explaining these concepts to test your ability to effectively
explain what you know.

6) Understand how questions will be scored.


Scoring information can be found on page 46.

7) Develop a study plan.


A study plan provides a road map to prepare for the Praxis tests. It can help you understand what skills and
knowledge are covered on the test and where to focus your attention. Use the study plan template on page
26 to organize your efforts.

And most importantget started!

Would a Study Group Work for You?


Using this guide as part of a study group
People who have a lot of studying to do sometimes find it helpful to form a study group with others who are
working toward the same goal. Study groups give members opportunities to ask questions and get detailed
answers. In a group, some members usually have a better understanding of certain topics, while others in the
group may be better at other topics. As members take turns explaining concepts to one another, everyone
builds self-confidence.

If the group encounters a question that none of the members can answer well, the group can go to a teacher or
other expert and get answers efficiently. Because study groups schedule regular meetings, members study in a
more disciplined fashion. They also gain emotional support. The group should be large enough so that multiple
people can contribute different kinds of knowledge, but small enough so that it stays focused. Often, three to
six members is a good size.

Here are some ways to use this guide as part of a study group:

Plan the groups study program. Parts of the study plan template, beginning on page 26, can help
to structure your groups study program. By filling out the first five columns and sharing the worksheets,
everyone will learn more about your groups mix of abilities and about the resources, such as textbooks, that
members can share with the group. In the sixth column (Dates I will study the content), you can create an
overall schedule for your groups study program.

Plan individual group sessions. At the end of each session, the group should decide what specific
topics will be covered at the next meeting and who will present each topic. Use the topic headings and
subheadings in the Test at a Glance table on page 5 to select topics, and then select practice questions,
beginning on page 13.

Prepare your presentation for the group. When its your turn to present, prepare something that is
more than a lecture. Write two or three original questions to pose to the group. Practicing writing actual
questions can help you better understand the topics covered on the test as well as the types of questions
you will encounter on the test. It will also give other members of the group extra practice at answering
questions.

The Praxis Study Companion 22


Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success

Take a practice test together. The idea of a practice test is to simulate an actual administration of the
test, so scheduling a test session with the group will add to the realism and may also help boost everyones
confidence. Remember, complete the practice test using only the time that will be allotted for that test on
your administration day.

Learn from the results of the practice test. Review the results of the practice test, including the
number of questions answered correctly in each content category. For tests that contain constructed-
response questions, look at the Sample Test Questions section, which also contain sample responses to
those questions and shows how they were scored. Then try to follow the same guidelines that the test
scorers use.

Be as critical as you can. Youre not doing your study partner(s) any favors by letting them get away with
an answer that does not cover all parts of the question adequately.
Be specific. Write comments that are as detailed as the comments about the sample responses. Indicate
where and how your study partner(s) are doing an inadequate job of answering the question. Writing notes
in the margins of the answer sheet may also help.
Be supportive. Include comments that point out what your study partner(s) got right.
Then plan one or more study sessions based on aspects of the questions on which group members performed
poorly. For example, each group member might be responsible for rewriting one paragraph of a response in
which someone else did an inadequate job.

Whether you decide to study alone or with a group, remember that the best way to prepare is to have an
organized plan. The plan should set goals based on specific topics and skills that you need to learn, and it
should commit you to a realistic set of deadlines for meeting those goals. Then you need to discipline yourself
to stick with your plan and accomplish your goals on schedule.

The Praxis Study Companion 23


Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan

5. Develop Your Study Plan


Develop a personalized study plan and schedule
Planning your study time is important because it will help ensure that you review all content areas covered on the
test. Use the sample study plan below as a guide. It shows a plan for the Core Academic Skills for Educators: Reading
test. Following that is a study plan template that you can fill out to create your own plan. Use the Learn about Your
Test and Test Specifications" information beginning on page 5 to help complete it.
Use this worksheet to:
1. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your test as defined in chapter 1.
2. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify your strengths and weaknesses in each content area.
3. Identify Resources: Identify the books, courses, and other resources you plan to use for each content area.
4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods.

Praxis Test Name (Test Code): Core Academic Skills for Educators: Reading (5712)
Test Date: 9/15/15

How well do What Where can I


Dates I will
Description I know the resources do I find the Date
Content covered study the
of content content? have/need for resources I completed
content
(scale 15) the content? need?
Key Ideas and Details
Draw inferences and
Middle school College library,
implications from the
Close reading 3 English middle school 7/15/15 7/15/15
directly stated content
textbook teacher
of a reading selection
Identify summaries or
Middle school College library,
paraphrases of the main
Determining Ideas 3 English middle school 7/17/15 7/17/15
idea or primary purpose
textbook teacher
of a reading selection
Identify summaries
Middle and College library,
or paraphrases of the
high school middle and
Determining Ideas supporting ideas and 3 7/20/15 7/21/15
English high school
specific details in a
textbook teachers
reading selection
Craft, Structure, and Language Skills
Determine the authors Middle and College library,
attitude toward material high school middle and
Interpreting tone 4 7/25/15 7/26/15
discussed in a reading English high school
selection textbook teachers
Middle and
Identify key transition College library,
high school
Analysis of words and phrases in a middle and
3 English 7/25/15 7/27/15
structure reading selection and high school
textbook,
how they are used teachers
dictionary
Identify how a reading College library,
High school
selection is organized course notes,
Analysis of textbook,
in terms of cause/effect, 5 high school 8/1/15 8/1/15
structure college course
compare/contrast, teacher, college
notes
problem/solution, etc. professor
Determine the role that College library,
High school
an idea, reference, or course notes,
textbook,
Authors purpose piece of information 5 high school 8/1/15 8/1/15
college course
plays in an authors teacher, college
notes
discussion or argument professor

(continued on next page)

The Praxis Study Companion 24


Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan

How well do What Where can I Dates


Description I know the resources do I find the I will Date
Content covered
of content content? have/need for resources I study the completed
(scale 15) the content? need? content
Determine whether College library,
High school
information presented course notes,
Language in textbook,
in a reading selection 4 high school 8/1/15 8/1/15
different contexts college course
is presented as fact or teacher, college
notes
opinion professor
College library,
Identify the meanings of High school
course notes,
Contextual words as they are used in textbook,
2 high school 8/1/15 8/1/15
meaning the context of a reading college course
teacher, college
selection notes
professor
College library,
High school
Understand figurative course notes,
Figurative textbook,
language and nuances in 2 high school 8/8/15 8/8/15
Language college course
word meanings teacher, college
notes
professor
Understand a range College library,
High school
of words and phrases course notes,
textbook,
Vocabulary range sufficient for reading at 2 high school 8/15/15 8/17/15
college course
the college and career teacher, college
notes
readiness level professor
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Analyze content
College library,
presented in diverse High school
course notes,
Diverse media and media and formats, textbook,
2 high school 8/22/15 8/24/15
formats including visually and college course
teacher, college
quantitatively, as well as notes
professor
in words
College library,
High school
Identify the relationship course notes,
Evaluation of textbook,
among ideas presented 4 high school 8/24/15 8/24/15
arguments college course
in a reading selection teacher, college
notes
professor
Determine whether College library,
High school
evidence strengthens, course notes,
Evaluation of textbook,
weakens, or is relevant 3 high school 8/27/15 8/27/15
arguments college course
to the arguments in a teacher, college
notes
reading selection professor
College library,
Determine the logical High school
course notes,
Evaluation of assumptions upon textbook,
5 high school 8/28/15 8/30/15
arguments which an argument or college course
teacher, college
conclusion is based notes
professor
College library,
High school
Draw conclusions from course notes,
Evaluation of textbook,
material presented in a 5 high school 8/30/15 8/31/15
arguments college course
reading selection teacher, college
notes
professor
Recognize or predict
College library,
ideas or situations that High school
course notes,
Comparison of are extensions of or textbook,
4 high school 9/3/15 9/4/15
texts similar to what has been college course
teacher, college
presented in a reading notes
professor
selection
College library,
High school
Apply ideas presented course notes,
Comparison of textbook,
in a reading selection to 2 high school 9/5/15 9/6/15
texts college course
other situations teacher, college
notes
professor

The Praxis Study Companion 25


Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan

My Study Plan
Use this worksheet to:
1. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your test as defined in chapter 1.
2. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify your strengths and weaknesses in each content area.
3. Identify Resources: Identify the books, courses, and other resources you plan to use for each content area.
4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods.

Praxis Test Name (Test Code): ____________________________________________________________


Test Date: _____________

How well do What Where can I


Dates I will
Description I know the resources do I find the Date
Content covered study this
of content content? have/need for resources I completed
content
(scale 15) this content? need?

(continued on next page)

The Praxis Study Companion 26


Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan

How well do What Where can I


Dates I will
Description I know the resources do I find the Date
Content covered study the
of content content? have/need for resources I completed
content
(scale 15) the content? need?

The Praxis Study Companion 27


Step 6: Review Study Topics

6. Review Study Topics


Review study topics with questions for discussion

Using the Study Topics That Follow


The English to Speakers of Other Languages test is designed to measure the knowledge and skills necessary for
a beginning teacher.

This chapter is intended to help you organize your preparation for the test and to give you a clear indication of
the depth and breadth of the knowledge required for success on the test.

Virtually all accredited programs address the topics covered by the test; however, you are not expected to be an
expert on all aspects of the topics that follow.

You are likely to find that the topics that follow are covered by most introductory textbooks. Consult materials
and resources, including lecture and laboratory notes, from all your coursework. You should be able to match up
specific topics and subtopics with what you have covered in your courses.

Try not to be overwhelmed by the volume and scope of content knowledge in this guide. Although a specific
term may not seem familiar as you see it here, you might find you can understand it when applied to a real-life
situation. Many of the questions on the actual test will provide you with a context to apply to these topics or
terms.

Discussion Areas
Interspersed throughout the study topics are discussion areas, presented as open-ended questions or
statements. These discussion areas are intended to help test your knowledge of fundamental concepts and your
ability to apply those concepts to situations in the classroom or the real world. Most of the areas require you
to combine several pieces of knowledge to formulate an integrated understanding and response. If you spend
time on these areas, you will gain increased understanding and facility with the subject matter covered on the
test. You may want to discuss these areas and your answers with a teacher or mentor.

Note that this study companion does not provide answers for the discussion area questions, but thinking about the
answers to them will help improve your understanding of fundamental concepts and will probably help you
answer a broad range of questions on the test.

The Praxis Study Companion 28


Step 6: Review Study Topics

Study Topics I. Understands the concepts of


sociolinguistics
An overview of the areas covered on the test, along 1. Identifies the definition of sociolinguistics,
with their subareas, follows. sociolinguistic failure, Schumanns social
distance, and social functions of language
J. Knows the concept of World Englishes
I. Foundations of Linguistics
1. Identifies a definition of World English
A. Understands phonetics, stress and
K. Understands the conventions of written
intonation patterns, and the effects of
English (i.e., mechanics)
phonetic environment on pronunciation
1. Identifies errors in the
1. Correctly identifies, stressed syllables, rising
and falling intonation, minimal pairs, and a. spelling
intonation patterns b. punctuation
c. capitalization
B. Is familiar with IPA (the International
d. formation of paragraph
Phonetic Alphabet)
L. Understands the rhetorical patterns and
1. Correctly identifies and transcribes phonetic
range of genres used in written English
symbols
C. Understands the various types of 1. Identifies correct genre and rhetorical devices
morphemes and how they are used in (e.g., alliteration, metaphor, simile, etc.)
word formation M. Understands communicative
competence
1. Correctly identifies derivational morphemes,
inflectional morphemes, and distinguishes 1. Identifies sociolinguistic competence,
between derivational and inflection grammatical competence, discourse
morphemes competence, and strategic competence
D. Understands the usage of English syntax N. Knows about the inconsistencies and
irregularities of the English language
1. Correctly identifies correct and incorrect
syntax in statements, questions, negations, 1. Identifies irregular verbs, irregular nouns
and converts active sentences to passive voice (plurals), and irregular spelling
E. Understands the parts of speech, Discussion Areas: Foundations of
including their structural, semantic, and Linguistics
functional characteristics
What is communicative competence?
1. Identifies parts of speech
F. Understands semantics and how What are two ways that spoken English
combinations of words convey meaning differs syntactically from written English?
1. Identifies the following What are common phonetic transcriptions of
a. collocations the vowel and consonant sounds in Standard
b. synonyms American English using the International
c. homophones Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)?
d. idioms
What kinds of words most frequently occur
G. Knows that languages differ from or are
in a reduced form in natural speech?
similar to each other in their phonology,
morphology, syntax, semantics, and What types of utterances have a rising
pragmatics intonation pattern?
1. Identifies cognates
What is an activity that could help ELLs
H. Understands the concepts of pragmatics identify word stress patterns in English?
1. Identifies the following
If an ELL consistently pronounces [z] as [s],
a. definitions of pragmatics
how can a teacher help the student learn to
b. implications
correct the error?
c. pragmatic failure
d. intended meaning

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Which suffix is best to teach when showing II. Foundations of Language Learning
students how to change an adjective to an A. Understands the distinction between
adverb? social and academic language functions
What is the root of the word unbelievable? 1. Identifies the following
a. registers
What five words could a teacher use in a
b. BICS and CALP as concepts
lesson on Greek or Latin roots in a secondary
c. rate of acquisition of BICS and CALP
school ESOL class?
B. Understands the similarities and
How are declarative and interrogative differences between first and second
sentences formed in English? language acquisition, and how learners
first language can affect their second-
How is the following sentence transformed language production and reception
into the passive voice? (The boy broke the
dish.) 1. Identifies the following
a. code-switching
What is an example of a tag question? b. positive/negative transfer
c. simultaneous/sequential bilingualism
How does the word treat function
d. external and environmental factors
differently in the following sentences? Let
me treat you to dinner versus Ice cream is a C. Understands the processes of second-
special treat. language acquisition, including research-
based models
Why is an indefinite article used in the
1. Identifies various types of research and
following sentence?
theories on how receptive skills precede
I would like an apple. productive skills, on the characteristics of
interlanguage, and on the definition of
In English, which verb tense is used for
interlanguage
actions that started in the past and continue
up to the present? D. Knows the different types of affective
factors and their implications for the
What is an idiom? Give some examples. second-language learning process
1. Identifies influence of anxiety of SLA and
What kind of lesson could help ELLs learn
various types of motivation
common phrasal verbs?
E. Understands the relationship between
What are three ways that intermediate-level English phonemes and graphemes and
ELLs could expand their repertoire of the rules of phonics
adjectives? 1. Identifies appropriate decoding skills and
invented spelling
What is one sound in English that is typically
problematic for speakers of each of the F. Understands the literacy development of
following languages? (Arabic, Spanish, and ELs
Mandarin). 1. Identifies stages of reading development,
stages of writing development, transfer from
How does word order in English compare L1 literacy to L2 literacy, purposes of reading,
with word order in a language other than and difference between simple decoding and
English that you know? comprehension
G. Understands how first-language literacy
influences the development of English
literacy
1. Identifies the features of first language literacy,
positive and negative transfer, rhetoric
patterns, orthographic systems, and structural
patterns

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H. Understands that, in addition to How does Vygotskys zone of proximal


language, student performance may be development relate to L2 learning?
affected by various factors (e.g.,
socioeconomic, physical, emotional) What are the notable features of the
following utterances in terms of
1. Can identify the impact of poverty and interlanguage, morpheme acquisition order,
characteristics of at-risk students and formulaic utterance?
Discussion Areas: Foundations of Language John no come.
Learning
What is one key finding of the L2 research on
What are the differences between basic
the order of morpheme acquisition in
interpersonal communication skills (BICS)
English?
and cognitive academic language
proficiency (CALP)? What is one classroom practice that could
foster intrinsic motivation for reading?
What is an activity that could help ELLs
become aware of appropriate register use in Why is portfolio assessment likely to have
common social interactions? positive effects on student motivation?
What is one lesson that could teach ELLs How does strategy training enhance
polite ways to refuse an invitation, to ask for motivation for learning?
information about an unclear assignment, or
to offer a critical comment? What is an ideal classroom environment for
ELLs? Give at least three features and explain
What is the function of English in a why they are important.
multilingual society? Give a specific example
of its use in one such society. What is phonemic awareness?

How could a teacher explain to a colleague What are three ways to spell the English
why a student from Jamaica was not placed phoneme /i/ ?
in the ESOL program at their school?
What is one lesson that could help
How is a classroom practice designed to beginning-level ELLs learn a word-decoding
foster communicative competence different skill?
from one used in another approach to
language learning? What are the stages of literacy development?

What is one example of an utterance that Why is oral language skill crucial for literacy
shows evidence of language transfer? development in English?

What psycholinguistic concept is associated What are sight words?


with the following student utterance?
How does the amount of schooling in an
I writed a letter yesterday. ESOL students native language affect
second- language acquisition?
What is a likely explanation for a students
pronunciation of the word people as What advice could an ESOL teacher give to
beople? the parents of primary-grade-level ELLs to
improve their literacy development?
What is code-switching?

What are the principal features of the


constructivist model of second-language
acquisition?

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III. Planning and Implementing Instruction I. Knows how to promote ELs acquisition
of receptive and productive skills
A. Knows the implication of dialect
variation for the instruction of English 1. Understands acquisition of receptive skills and
learners acquisition of productive skills
1. Understands colloquial language and different J. Knows how and when to apply a variety
language pronunciation of North American of strategies for teaching language skills
dialects, and confusion about meanings contextually or targeting them discretely
B. Understands various methods and 1. Understands lists of scaffolding techniques
approaches in teaching ELs and knows K. Knows how to promote autonomous
how to select the most appropriate learning through cognitive and
methods for the context metacognitive strategies with ELs
1. Understands prescriptive methods versus 1. Understands graphic organizers or best
scaffolded texts contextual technique to promote a skill
C. Knows a variety of instructional delivery L. Understands techniques that activate
models specific for ELs students prior knowledge and that build
1. Understands the following different delivery new knowledge to support acquisition of
models content and language
a. TPR 1. Understands scenario, learning theory, and
b. push-in strategy that demonstrate constructivism and
c. pull-out activate prior knowledge
d. inclusion M. Knows how to organize instruction that
D. Knows how to identify appropriate and provides students with meaningful
measureable objectives that align to opportunities to use language
language and content standards 1. Knows teaching strategies: grouping and
1. Understands lesson plans previewing
E. Knows how to design appropriate N. Understands effective practices for
classroom activities that connect to teaching literacy to English learners
learning objectives for ELs 1. Understands balanced literacy and best
1. Understands activities and lesson literacy practices for emerging learner
development O. Understands how to select, modify, and/
F. Knows how to design appropriate or create culturally responsive, age-
assessments that connect to learning appropriate, and linguistically accessible
objectives for ELs teaching materials and resources to
support ELs learning styles and needs
1. Understands learning objectives and
appropriate assessments 1. Understands scenarios that portray
appropriate activities
G. Is familiar with ways to collaborate with
other educators in designing classroom P. Is familiar with how technologies can be
activities appropriate to the proficiency used to support language development,
levels of English learners instruction, and learning

1. Understands effective ways to collaborate on 1. Understands scenarios that portray


formal/informal communication appropriate activities
H. Knows how to effectively integrate the Q. Understands how to create a secure,
four domains of language (i.e., speaking, supportive, and culturally respectful
listening, reading, and writing) into learning environment for ELs
instruction 1. Understands scenarios that portray
1. Understands the most effective use of appropriate activities
language domains

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

R. Knows how and when to use How do the significant aspects of Krashens
constructive feedback to facilitate Natural Approach apply to second-language
English-language learning acquisition?
1. Understands possible responses to student Which theorist is associated with the zone of
output proximal development, and how can the
S. Knows how to create a language-, text-, concept be used to guide learning?
and print-rich environment at a linguistic
and age-appropriate level that promotes What is a silent period in an ESOL students
academic growth language development, and what are some
activities that accommodate a student in
1. Understands print-rich environment
that stage?
classrooms
T. Understands how to differentiate What is sheltered instruction?
instruction for ELs based on individual
student needs and language proficiency What are the characteristics of a sheltered
levels ESL class?
1. Understands scenarios of different student What are the benefits of dual-immersion
supports programs?
U. Knows how to recognize and be
instructionally responsive to Students What is English for Specific Purposes (ESP),
with Interrupted Formal Education and what types of ESOL students are most
(SIFEs) likely to benefit from such a design?
1. Matches SIFE with the definition What are the core components of the SIOP
V. Understands that there are differences model?
between planning for ELs with learning
disabilities and is aware that instruction What is Total Physical Response?
will need to be adapted for ELs receiving
How does Krashens input hypothesis
special education or gifted services
support the Total Physical Response
1. Understands scenario or list of instructional technique with beginning ELLs?
adaptive strategies that are appropriate for
ELLs that are gifted as opposed to those with What kinds of activities are best suited for
learning disabilities kinesthetic learning?
W. Understands the importance of language
What instructional approaches reflect the
modeling, comprehensible input and
behaviorist theory of second-language
output, and scaffolding for English
acquisition?
language learning
1. Understands CALP versus BICS What different supplementary materials are
appropriate for each proficiency level of ESL?
Discussion Areas: Planning and
Implementing Instruction How does the Direct Method of language
What are strategies that ESOL and general instruction differ from the Audiolingual
education teachers can use to adapt Method?
instruction for ELLs at different proficiency
What is one lesson that could teach
levels?
beginning-level ELLs about the different
What can teachers do to select the most sounds that the letter combination th can
appropriate materials for their students? have?

What is the relationship between Chamot What is a lesson for beginning-level ELLs that
and OMalleys CALLA (Cognitive Academic could foster interaction in English with
Language Learning Approach) and Cummins English-speaking peers?
CALP?

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

What is one lesson that could teach an What types of activities best assist ESOL
aspect of CALP to intermediate-level middle students in their development of English
school ELLs? syntax?

What are the advantages and disadvantages What types of activities are most effective in
of ESL pull-out and push-in programs? teaching receptive skills and productive
skills?
What are some appropriate language-
learning resources that could be included in What are the elements of the following kinds
a classroom to create a print-rich of essays? Compare/contrast and
environment? classification definition.

What are the basic principles of content- What are the common genres of writing in
based instruction? English?

What is the role of English-language skill What are the components of a successful
development in content-area classes? literacy program?

What are some ways to adapt grade-level How can morphological knowledge be used
content-area teaching materials for different to build students vocabulary level?
proficiency levels?
What are strategies that teachers could use
What modifications can ESOL and general to help students focus on specific language
educators use to make a fourth-grade lesson needs, such as improving their pronunciation
on colonial life in the United States more or grammatical accuracy?
accessible to beginning-level ELLs?
What are some strategies for strengthening
What are appropriate materials for making a students oral comprehension?
unit on the American Revolution more
accessible to ELLs? What kinds of activities help students use
their knowledge of words to understand
What are various pre- and postactivities that unfamiliar vocabulary?
could be incorporated into effective content-
area instruction for ELLs? How might a lesson on prefixes and suffixes
help improve a students ability to derive
How can content and language standards be meaning from newly encountered words?
incorporated into a lesson?
What are some ways in which a teacher
What is an ongoing classroom activity that could lead students to analyze differences or
could help intermediate-level ELLs learn to similarities in vocabulary, sentence structure,
improve their reading fluency? spelling, and pronunciation between English
and their native languages?
What is an activity or series of activities that
could help intermediate-level ELLs What is one lesson that could teach students
understand a guest speakers talk on the rain how to monitor their own understanding as
forest? they read?

What specific activities help ELLs activate What kinds of activities help students
their prior knowledge? comprehend nonfiction texts?

What is one practice that a high school ESOL What kinds of skills are most beneficial for a
teacher could introduce to improve the teacher to focus on with a group of ESOL
written composition abilities of advanced- students who are almost ready to transition
level ELLs? into mainstream English classes?

What types of activities help ESOL students What is an activity that incorporates task-
monitor and improve their proficiency in based learning?
English pronunciation?
How is a jigsaw activity implemented?

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

How do different techniques maximize IV. Assessment and Evaluation


student interaction? A. Is familiar with the role of assessment in
What are the differences in techniques for the identification, placement, and exit
teaching a second language to students who from language-support programs
are literate and students who are illiterate in 1. Uses the United States Department of
their native language? Education (DOE) compliance guidelines for
identification, placement, and exit criteria of
What types of instructional techniques are ELs
most effective with newcomers?
B. Understands a variety of formal and
What are some specific guidelines for informal methods to assess receptive
student interaction and appropriate behavior and productive language skills
in the classroom? 1. Informal methodsrunning records, SOLOM,
checklists, anecdotal notes, rubrics, reading
From a classroom management perspective, inventories, subject area interest and attitude
why is it important that students respect inventories, portfolios, worksheets, homework
differences among their peers? assignments, etc.
How does the establishment of classroom 2. Formal methodsstatewide standardized
routines help ELLs learn both language and assessments, EOCs, teacher-generated formal
proper school behaviors? assessments (portfolio, unit test, reading
inventory, projects)
What is the value of collaborative learning? C. Knows how to develop and administer
formative and summative classroom
What are some strategies that teachers could assessments to determine ELs language
use to help students become independent skills, inform instruction, and document
learners? student growth
How do appropriate methods of correction 1. Through field placement experiences,
vary when a teacher is dealing with beginner teachers working with ELs would need to
ESOL students compared with advanced document daily and/or weekly student
ESOL students? performance on selected skills and be able to
take that information to inform subsequent
lessons and reteach as needed; this includes
teacher-made or commercially produced
summative unit tests and/or daily worksheets,
textbook assignments, etc.
2. Identifies tests that can be used for formative
and summative assessments
3. Takes information from instruction/objectives
to inform additional planning
D. Knows there are a variety of
accommodations for state-mandated
content-area testing for ELs
1. Knows that teachers can read exam questions
aloud to a student, (re)write and/or translate
exams/assignments for students, provides
extended time, allow use of word-for-word
language dictionaries, use of translation for
test directions (in students native language),
use DOE compliance guidelines, and make
sure that these questions are not state specific

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

E. Knows ways to adapt classroom I. Knows how to interpret assessment data


assessments for ELs and use it to assist in planning and
differentiating instruction for ELs
1. Appropriately adapts assessments by giving
ELs alternatives in responding, such as 1. If given a student profile with data, can
illustrating, oral response, fewer test questions, identify skills not mastered and determine
different formatting, and scaffolding the what group with similar challenges the
content-area testing student can be placed into, and reteach
F. Knows that some ELs may be eligible for J. Is familiar with strategies for
special education and/or gifted and communicating assessment data to
talented services and is familiar with English learners and their guardians
how to provide feedback and input about 1. Can use graphics to convey test data, provide
assessment data specific examples from the ELs work samples,
1. Documentation can be laws such as OCR; for modify teacher jargon when speaking with
example, providing a scenario with pieces of parents of ELs, uses interpreters to help
data and posing the question What data is convey test data; if sending information
missing/not evident? home, uses DOE compliance guidelines
2. Considers rewriting for clarification: knows Discussion Areas: Assessment and
that some ELs may be eligible for additional Evaluation
services (e.g., special education and gifted and
talented) and is familiar with how to provide What are the primary uses of individual and
feedback and input about assessment data of group literacy assessments?
said services
What are the advantages and disadvantages
G. Is familiar with assessment-related of each?
issues such as validity, reliability, and
language and cultural bias What are national requirements for exit from
1. Can identify cultural bias in test questions, a language-support program?
recognizes how validity and reliability can be When and how is a home-language survey
compromised and have most likely been field used?
tested with proficient English speakers,
thereby skewing test results What kinds of assessments best focus on
H. Knows the difference between norm- ESOL students comprehension skills in all
referenced and criterion-referenced four domains of language acquisition?
assessments and how they are used with
ELs What types of formative and summative
assessments are effective for measuring ELLs
1. Recognizes that norm-referenced tests knowledge and/or skills?
compare ELs with proficient English speakers
(and that population of test takers may not What is one test task that could be used to
reflect ELs level of English proficiency) and assess productive language skills?
how that has consequences for ELs in terms of
teacher perceptions of ELs level of intelligence How can a portfolio assessment be an
and grading, placement remedial, regular or effective tool to evaluate ELLs progress?
advanced class as well as possibly failing
What criteria should be taken into account
classes
when selecting the appropriate assessment
2. Recognizes that criterion-referenced tests instrument for ELL skills?
provide teachers with specific information
about whether an EL has mastered particular What is the difference between a needs
skills tested and whether teachers can group assessment and a diagnostic assessment?
students accordingly and reteach specific
skills What different means of evaluation can
teachers use to measure their students
progress toward meeting state and national
standards?

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

How do state and national requirements What criteria should be used to determine
affect the reporting of ESOL students scores whether an ESOL student is ready to be
on standardized tests? exited from an ESOL program?

What are some formal and informal What important factors contribute to the
techniques that could be used to assess how decision to advance an ESOL student to the
well students are progressing in content-area next level of instruction or retain the student
learning? for further instruction at the current level?

What is one assessment on the Industrial How can assessment results be


Revolution that is appropriate for an communicated to parents who are not
intermediate-level ELL? proficient in English?

Why is it important for teachers to model


techniques for self-assessment? V. Culture
A. Understands the interrelationship
What is the value of peer assessment?
between language and culture
How can language-proficiency skills affect 1. Nativists, nature versus nurture, decision to
the outcome of an assessment of cognitive use native language or not in the classroom,
achievement? oral traditions, how language affects behavior,
identifying cultural mistakes and scenarios,
What accommodations can be given to ESOL
eye contact, culture of gender/ethnicity/
students to accurately measure their
socioeconomic background, grouping
linguistic and academic proficiencies?
students who communicate differently based
How do special education needs factor into on their cultural backgrounds, variationist
decisions about ESOL student placement? perspective on sociolinguistics,
miscommunications/misconceptions based
What kind of evidence can indicate that an on culture, participation (or lack of
ELL might be a candidate for a gifted participation) based on cultural backgrounds,
program? and topics that could be offensive in the
classroom
What are examples of concrete evidence that B. Understands the ways cultural variables
indicate that an ELL has cognitive difficulties affect second-language acquisition and
in addition to language-learning difficulties? teaching
How might vastly different scores achieved 1. ELs usage of nonstandard English(es) in the
by the same ESOL student on the same test school setting and its implications on their
material be explained? academic performance, inductive versus
deductive, and rhetorical/logical patterns of
How can cultural bias affect the scores of thought
ESOL students on standardized tests?
C. Understands the ways students
What are the characteristics of a criterion- identities and learning styles will vary
referenced assessment? widely across and within cultures
1. Partnering students together based on
For what purposes are norm-referenced identities (gender, ethnicity, regional, etc.)
assessments used?
D. Understands the implications of cultural
How can assessment results be used to stereotyping, cultural bias, and cultural
modify classroom instruction to meet bullying in the school setting
students needs? 1. Dangers of ethnocentric mentalities
What are some factors that determine a
students candidacy for an ESOL program?

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E. Knows that cultural experiences What are some ways in which a teacher
influence student language development, could incorporate aspects of diverse cultures
disposition, and learning into a lesson?
1. Neighborhoods/communities that students How could a teacher help build positive
are coming from, exposure to community, relationships between students from
and culture shock different cultural backgrounds?
F. Understands that the teachers personal
and cultural experiences influence What are some potential effects of
teaching style stereotyping on students?
1. Understands that the teachers personal and What are some ways that a teacher could
cultural experiences influence teaching style introduce a discussion about the negative
G. Understands the difference between effects of stereotyping?
acculturation and assimilation
Why is it important for ESOL teachers to
1. Understands the varied origins of ELs in
serve as role models for other teachers
schools in the United States
regarding their interaction with ELLs?
Discussion Areas: Culture
How does the role of family vary between
What are some examples of cultural norms cultures, and how might that affect language
that affect communication? acquisition?
Why is it important for language learners to How can a teacher effectively work with a
also learn the cultural norms associated with newly arrived ELL who does not view formal
a language? education as a priority?
How do cultures vary in terms of norms What is one strategy a teacher could use to
concerning eye contact? work with ELLs whose views on gender roles
in their culture heavily affect their
How does the student-teacher relationship
educational experiences?
vary between cultures, and what kinds of
misunderstandings might the differences What is ethnocentrism?
create?
What are several strategies that could appeal
What are the primary differences between to learners from diverse cultural
individualist cultures and collectivist backgrounds?
cultures?
How have changes to immigration patterns
What is one example of nonverbal behavior in the United States affected ESOL
that differs from one culture to another education?
related to demonstrations of respect?
What constitutes an effective program
What are some approaches to learning that model for ESOL students based on
may vary from one culture to another? evaluation criteria from the United States
Department of Education?
How might different experiences with prior
schooling affect an ELLs academic success in What is the legal basis for initial identification
a new country? for an ESL program, advancement through
the program, exit criteria, and Adequate
What is one example of a cultural
Yearly Progress (AYP)?
expectation that explains why teachers may
approach teaching differently in two What are some school and community
different cultures? resources that could be of assistance to ELLs
and their families?
What is one way that a students behavior
varies from one culture to another? What are some different ways that an ESL
teacher could advocate for ELLs within the
school community?

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

What information about cultural differences F. Knows how to identify appropriate


might be useful to a general education strategies for planning and collaborating
teacher who is teaching ESOL students? with ELs, their families, and school and
community members
What is one situation in which an ESOL
1. Can identify scenarios in which appropriate
teacher could facilitate effective
strategies can be matched or ranked (e.g., by
communication between ELLs, their families,
their order in importance) in relation to a
and school staff?
particular stakeholder (e.g., relative of student,
What types of curricula are most likely to community member, etc.)
benefit ELLs with specific career goals? G. Understands ways to collaborate with
other school personnel regarding the
VI. Professionalism and Advocacy academic needs of ELs
1. Can identify optimum scenarios in which
A. Knows the possible differences between
successful collaboration occurs between
disabilities and typical language
school personnel (e.g., teachers and guidance
proficiency development
counselor) with regard to the academic needs
1. Able to identify a scenario in which a student of the ELs
might have a possibly disability, as opposed to H. Is familiar with ways that ELs and their
demonstrating typical development in families may benefit from a variety of
language proficiency outside resources (e.g., services,
B. Knows how to value and incorporate networks, organizations)
diverse cultures of students into 1. Can identify a variety of resources outside of
instruction the school context that can help ELs and their
1. Able to apply knowledge of culturally relevant families thrive in their community
pedagogy to scenarios in which the student I. Knows a variety of strategies for
population base is diverse consulting with guardians and
communicating with them about each
C. Understands the legal provisions and students progress and needs
ethical implications of laws and federal
court decisions related to the education 1. Understands a variety of ways to consult and
of ELs communicate with students progress and
needs
1. Has knowledge of various relevant laws (e.g.,
J. Knows the importance of engaging in
Plyler v. Doe, Castaeda v. Pickard)
professional development by continually
D. Understands the need to serve as a researching relevant and reliable
professional resource and advocate for resources and organizations in the field
ELs and families of teaching ESOL
1. Understands possible roles of ELL teacher 1. Can identify various acronyms/initialisms by
their names and functions (e.g., NABE, TESOL,
E. Understands the need to communicate
NIEA, TOEFL, ESL, EFL, SIOP)
with school personnel about the
characteristics and emotional, social, Discussion Areas: Professionalism and
and physical needs of ELs Advocacy
1. Can identify a scenario in which ELL teachers How can ESL teachers stay up-to-date on
appropriately respond to emotional, social, relevant developments in their field?
and physical needs of their students
What kind of information can various
organization offer ESOL teachers (e.g., TESOL,
CAL, ACTFL, and NABE)?

What are some relevant and reliable


resources that report on current research
pertaining to the education of ELLs, and
where can they be found?

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

What is TESOL, and what types of What are some reasons that ELLs and their
requirements are included in the TESOL families might have a need for resources
standards for ESOL students? provided by the community?

Why is it important for ESOL teachers to Why is it important to provide feedback to


pursue opportunities for growth in their parents/caregivers regarding their childrens
field? linguistic and academic progress?

What is one way that ESOL teachers in a What are several factors that could influence
district could collaborate on professional instructional planning based on feedback
development activities? from ELLs parents/caregivers?

What are some strategies for including What are some ways in which teachers could
various members of the school community communicate with parents of ELLs?
in meeting with ELLs and their families?
What are some factors that might hinder the
What are some examples of supplementary parent of an ELL from being more involved in
materials that could provide parents of ELLs a childs education?
with important information about their
children? What might a teacher do to ensure that a
student from a country at war feels
How can an ESL teacher effectively integrate supported in the classroom?
community resources into instruction?
What is one type of extra support that could
How might a teacher help an ELL who assist ELLs who have experienced previous
becomes frustrated when learning English? traumatic events in their lives, such as family
separation or life as a refugee?
What are some ways that paraprofessionals
contribute to the ESL classroom?

What are the integral factors for ESL and


content-area teachers to consider when
collaborating on planning instruction for
ELLs?

How can an ESL teacher effectively provide


information about available community
resources to ELLs and their families?

The Praxis Study Companion 40


Step 7: Review Smart Tips for Success

7. Review Smart Tips for Success


Follow test-taking tips developed by experts

Learn from the experts. Take advantage of the following answers to questions you may have and practical tips
to help you navigate the Praxis test and make the best use of your time.

Should I guess?
Yes. Your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly, with no penalty or subtraction for an
incorrect answer. When you dont know the answer to a question, try to eliminate any obviously wrong answers
and then guess at the correct one. Try to pace yourself so that you have enough time to carefully consider
every question.

Can I answer the questions in any order?


You can answer the questions in order or skip questions and come back to them later. If you skip a question,
you can also mark it so that you can remember to return and answer it later. Remember that questions left
unanswered are treated the same as questions answered incorrectly, so it is to your advantage to answer every
question.

Are there trick questions on the test?


No. There are no hidden meanings or trick questions. All of the questions on the test ask about subject matter
knowledge in a straightforward manner.

Are there answer patterns on the test?


No. You might have heard this myth: the answers on tests follow patterns. Another myth is that there will never
be more than two questions in a row with the correct answer in the same position among the choices. Neither
myth is true. Select the answer you think is correct based on your knowledge of the subject.

Can I write on the scratch paper I am given?


Yes. You can work out problems on the scratch paper, make notes to yourself, or write anything at all. Your
scratch paper will be destroyed after you are finished with it, so use it in any way that is helpful to you. But make
sure to select or enter your answers on the computer.

Smart Tips for Taking the Test


1. Skip the questions you find extremely difficult. Rather than trying to answer these on your first pass
through the test, you may want to leave them blank and mark them so that you can return to them later.
Pay attention to the time as you answer the rest of the questions on the test, and try to finish with 10 or
15 minutes remaining so that you can go back over the questions you left blank. Even if you dont know
the answer the second time you read the questions, see if you can narrow down the possible answers, and
then guess. Your score is based on the number of right answers, so it is to your advantage to answer every
question.

The Praxis Study Companion 41


Step 7: Review Smart Tips for Success

2. Keep track of the time. The on-screen clock will tell you how much time you have left. You will probably
have plenty of time to answer all of the questions, but if you find yourself becoming bogged down, you
might decide to move on and come back to any unanswered questions later.

3. Read all of the possible answers before selecting one. For questions that require you to select more
than one answer, or to make another kind of selection, consider the most likely answers given what the
question is asking. Then reread the question to be sure the answer(s) you have given really answer the
question. Remember, a question that contains a phrase such as Which of the following does NOT is
asking for the one answer that is NOT a correct statement or conclusion.

4. C
 heck your answers. If you have extra time left over at the end of the test, look over each question and
make sure that you have answered it as you intended. Many test takers make careless mistakes that they
could have corrected if they had checked their answers.

5. Dont worry about your score when you are taking the test. No one is expected to answer all of the
questions correctly. Your score on this test is not analogous to your score on the GRE or other tests. It doesnt
matter on the Praxis tests whether you score very high or barely pass. If you meet the minimum passing
scores for your state and you meet the states other requirements for obtaining a teaching license, you will
receive a license. In other words, what matters is meeting the minimum passing score. You can find passing
scores for all states that use the Praxis tests at
http://www.ets.org/s/praxis/pdf/passing_scores.pdf or on the Web site of the state for which you are
seeking certification/licensure.

6. Use your energy to take the test, not to get frustrated by it. Getting frustrated only increases stress
and decreases the likelihood that you will do your best. Highly qualified educators and test development
professionals, all with backgrounds in teaching, worked diligently to make the test a fair and valid measure
of your knowledge and skills. Your state painstakingly reviewed the test before adopting it as a licensure
requirement. The best thing to do is concentrate on answering the questions.

The Praxis Study Companion 42


Step 8: Check on Testing Accommodations

8. Check on Testing Accommodations


See if you qualify for accommodations that may make it easier to take the Praxis test

What if English is not my primary language?


Praxis tests are given only in English. If your primary language is not English (PLNE), you may be eligible for
extended testing time. For more details, visit www.ets.org/praxis/register/accommodations/plne.

What if I have a disability or other health-related need?


The following accommodations are available for Praxis test takers who meet the Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA) Amendments Act disability requirements:

Extended testing time


Additional rest breaks
Separate testing room
Writer/recorder of answers
Test reader
Sign language interpreter for spoken directions only
Perkins Brailler
Braille slate and stylus
Printed copy of spoken directions
Oral interpreter
Audio test
Braille test
Large print test book
Large print answer sheet
Listening section omitted

For more information on these accommodations, visit www.ets.org/praxis/register/disabilities.

Note: Test takers who have health-related needs requiring them to bring equipment, beverages, or snacks into
the testing room or to take extra or extended breaks must request these accommodations by following the
procedures described in the Bulletin Supplement for Test Takers with Disabilities or Health-Related Needs (PDF),
which can be found at http://www.ets.org/s/disabilities/pdf/bulletin_supplement_test_takers_with_
disabilities_health_needs.pdf.
You can find additional information on available resources for test takers with disabilities or health-related needs
at www.ets.org/disabilities.

The Praxis Study Companion 43


Step 9: Do Your Best on Test Day

9. Do Your Best on Test Day


Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident

You followed your study plan. You prepared for the test. Now its time to prepare for test day.

Plan to end your review a day or two before the actual test date so you avoid cramming. Take a dry run to the
test center so youre sure of the route, traffic conditions, and parking. Most of all, you want to eliminate any
unexpected factors that could distract you from your ultimate goalpassing the Praxis test!

On the day of the test, you should:

be well rested


wear comfortable clothes and dress in layers
eat before you take the test
bring an acceptable and valid photo identification with you
bring an approved calculator only if one is specifically permitted for the test you are taking (see Calculator
Use, at http://www.ets.org/praxis/test_day/policies/calculators)
be prepared to stand in line to check in or to wait while other test takers check in
You cant control the testing situation, but you can control yourself. Stay calm. The supervisors are well trained
and make every effort to provide uniform testing conditions, but dont let it bother you if the test doesnt start
exactly on time. You will have the allotted amount of time once it does start.

You can think of preparing for this test as training for an athletic event. Once youve trained, prepared, and
rested, give it everything youve got.

What items am I restricted from bringing into the test center?


You cannot bring into the test center personal items such as:

handbags, knapsacks, or briefcases


water bottles or canned or bottled beverages
study materials, books, or notes
pens, pencils, scrap paper, or calculators, unless specifically permitted for the test you are taking (see
Calculator Use, at http://www.ets.org/praxis/test_day/policies/calculators)
any electronic, photographic, recording, or listening devices

Personal items are not allowed in the testing room and will not be available to you during the test or during
breaks. You may also be asked to empty your pockets. At some centers, you will be assigned a space to store
your belongings, such as handbags and study materials. Some centers do not have secure storage space
available, so please plan accordingly.

Test centers assume no responsibility for your personal items.

The Praxis Study Companion 44


Step 9: Do Your Best on Test Day

If you have health-related needs requiring you to bring equipment, beverages or snacks into the testing
room or to take extra or extended breaks, you need to request accommodations in advance. Procedures for
requesting accommodations are described in the Bulletin Supplement for Test Takers with Disabilities or
Health-related Needs (PDF).

Note: All cell phones, smart phones (e.g., Android devices, iPhones, etc.), and other electronic, photographic,
recording, or listening devices are strictly prohibited from the test center. If you are seen with such a device, you
will be dismissed from the test, your test scores will be canceled, and you will forfeit your test fees. If you are
seen using such a device, the device will be confiscated and inspected. For more information on what you can
bring to the test center, visit www.ets.org/praxis/test_day/bring.

Are You Ready?


Complete this checklist to determine whether you are ready to take your test.
Do you know the testing requirements for the license or certification you are seeking in the state(s) where
you plan to teach?
Have you followed all of the test registration procedures?
Do you know the topics that will be covered in each test you plan to take?
Have you reviewed any textbooks, class notes, and course readings that relate to the topics covered?
Do you know how long the test will take and the number of questions it contains?
Have you considered how you will pace your work?
Are you familiar with the types of questions for your test?
Are you familiar with the recommended test-taking strategies?
Have you practiced by working through the practice questions in this study companion or in a study
guide or practice test?
If constructed-response questions are part of your test, do you understand the scoring criteria for
these questions?
If you are repeating a Praxis test, have you analyzed your previous score report to determine areas where
additional study and test preparation could be useful?

If you answered yes to the questions above, your preparation has paid off. Now take the Praxis test, do your
best, pass itand begin your teaching career!

The Praxis Study Companion 45


Step 10: Understand Your Scores

10. Understand Your Scores


Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores

Of course, passing the Praxis test is important to you so you need to understand what your scores mean and
what your state requirements are.

What are the score requirements for my state?


States, institutions, and associations that require the tests set their own passing scores. Visit
www.ets.org/praxis/states for the most up-to-date information.

If I move to another state, will my new state accept my scores?


The Praxis tests are part of a national testing program, meaning that they are required in many states for
licensure. The advantage of a national program is that if you move to another state that also requires Praxis tests,
you can transfer your scores. Each state has specific test requirements and passing scores, which you can find at
www.ets.org/praxis/states.

How do I know whether I passed the test?


Your score report will include information on passing scores for the states you identified as recipients of your
test results. If you test in a state with automatic score reporting, you will also receive passing score information
for that state.

A list of states and their passing scores for each test are available online at www.ets.org/praxis/states.

What your Praxis scores mean


You received your score report. Now what does it mean? Its important to interpret your score report correctly
and to know what to do if you have questions about your scores.

Visit http://www.ets.org/s/praxis/pdf/sample_score_report.pdf to see a sample score report.


To access Understanding Your Praxis Scores, a document that provides additional information on how to read
your score report, visit www.ets.org/praxis/scores/understand.

Put your scores in perspective


Your score report indicates:
Your score and whether you passed
The range of possible scores
The raw points available in each content category
The range of the middle 50 percent of scores on the test
If you have taken the same test or other Praxis tests over the last 10 years, your score report also lists the highest
score you earned on each test taken.

The Praxis Study Companion 46


Step 10: Understand Your Scores

Content category scores and score interpretation


Questions on the Praxis tests are categorized by content. To help you in future study or in preparing to retake
the test, your score report shows how many raw points you earned in each content category. Compare your
raw points earned with the maximum points you could have earned (raw points available). The greater the
difference, the greater the opportunity to improve your score by further study.

Score scale changes


ETS updates Praxis tests on a regular basis to ensure they accurately measure the knowledge and skills that are
required for licensure. When tests are updated, the meaning of the score scale may change, so requirements
may vary between the new and previous versions. All scores for previous, discontinued tests are valid and
reportable for 10 years, provided that your state or licensing agency still accepts them.

These resources may also help you interpret your scores:

Understanding Your Praxis Scores (PDF), found at www.ets.org/praxis/scores/understand

The Praxis Series Passing Scores (PDF), found at www.ets.org/praxis/scores/understand

State requirements, found at www.ets.org/praxis/states

The Praxis Study Companion 47


Appendix: Other Questions You May Have

Appendix: Other Questions You May Have


Here is some supplemental information that can give you a better understanding of the Praxis tests.

What do the Praxis tests measure?


The Praxis tests measure the specific knowledge and skills that beginning teachers need. The tests do not
measure an individuals disposition toward teaching or potential for success, nor do they measure your actual
teaching ability. The assessments are designed to be comprehensive and inclusive but are limited to what can
be covered in a finite number of questions and question types. Teaching requires many complex skills that are
typically measured in other ways, including classroom observation, video recordings, and portfolios.

Ranging from Agriculture to World Languages, there are more than 80 Praxis tests, which contain selected-
response questions or constructed-response questions, or a combination of both.

Who takes the tests and why?


Some colleges and universities use the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educators tests (Reading, Writing, and
Mathematics) to evaluate individuals for entry into teacher education programs. The assessments are generally
taken early in your college career. Many states also require Core Academic Skills test scores as part of their
teacher licensing process.

Individuals entering the teaching profession take the Praxis content and pedagogy tests as part of the teacher
licensing and certification process required by many states. In addition, some professional associations and
organizations require the Praxis Subject Assessments for professional licensing.

Do all states require these tests?


The Praxis tests are currently required for teacher licensure in approximately 40 states and United States
territories. These tests are also used by several professional licensing agencies and by several hundred colleges
and universities. Teacher candidates can test in one state and submit their scores in any other state that requires
Praxis testing for licensure. You can find details at www.ets.org/praxis/states.

What is licensure/certification?
Licensure in any areamedicine, law, architecture, accounting, cosmetologyis an assurance to the public that
the person holding the license possesses sufficient knowledge and skills to perform important occupational
activities safely and effectively. In the case of teacher licensing, a license tells the public that the individual has
met predefined competency standards for beginning teaching practice.

Because a license makes such a serious claim about its holder, licensure tests are usually quite demanding. In
some fields, licensure tests have more than one part and last for more than one day. Candidates for licensure
in all fields plan intensive study as part of their professional preparation. Some join study groups, others study
alone. But preparing to take a licensure test is, in all cases, a professional activity. Because a licensure exam
surveys a broad body of knowledge, preparing for a licensure exam takes planning, discipline, and sustained
effort.

Why does my state require the Praxis tests?


Your state chose the Praxis tests because they assess the breadth and depth of contentcalled the domain
that your state wants its teachers to possess before they begin to teach. The level of content knowledge,
reflected in the passing score, is based on recommendations of panels of teachers and teacher educators in

The Praxis Study Companion 48


Appendix: Other Questions You May Have

each subject area. The state licensing agency and, in some states, the state legislature ratify the passing scores
that have been recommended by panels of teachers.

How were the tests developed?


ETS consulted with practicing teachers and teacher educators around the country during every step of
the Praxis test development process. First, ETS asked them what knowledge and skills a beginning teacher
needs to be effective. Their responses were then ranked in order of importance and reviewed by hundreds of
teachers.

After the results were analyzed and consensus was reached, guidelines, or specifications, for the selected-
response and constructed-response tests were developed by teachers and teacher educators. Following these
guidelines, teachers and professional test developers created test questions that met content requirements and
ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness.*

When your state adopted the research-based Praxis tests, local panels of teachers and teacher educators
evaluated each question for its relevance to beginning teachers in your state. During this validity study, the
panel also provided a passing-score recommendation based on how many of the test questions a beginning
teacher in your state would be able to answer correctly. Your states licensing agency determined the final
passing-score requirement.

ETS follows well-established industry procedures and standards designed to ensure that the tests measure what
they are intended to measure. When you pass the Praxis tests your state requires, you are proving that you have
the knowledge and skills you need to begin your teaching career.

How are the tests updated to ensure the content remains current?
Praxis tests are reviewed regularly. During the first phase of review, ETS conducts an analysis of relevant state
and association standards and of the current test content. State licensure titles and the results of relevant
job analyses are also considered. Revised test questions are then produced following the standard test
development methodology. National advisory committees may also be convened to review and revise existing
test specifications and to evaluate test forms for alignment with the specifications.

How long will it take to receive my scores?


Scores for tests that do not include constructed-response questions are available on screen immediately after
the test. Scores for tests that contain constructed-response questions or essays arent available immediately after
the test because of the scoring process involved. Official score reports are available to you and your designated
score recipients approximately two to three weeks after the test date for tests delivered continuously, or two to
three weeks after the testing window closes for other tests. See the test dates and deadlines calendar at www.
ets.org/praxis/register/centers_dates for exact score reporting dates.

Can I access my scores on the Web?


All test takers can access their test scores via My Praxis Account free of charge for one year from the posting
date. This online access replaces the mailing of a paper score report.

The process is easysimply log into My Praxis Account at www.ets.org/praxis and click on your score report. If
you do not already have a Praxis account, you must create one to view your scores.

Note: You must create a Praxis account to access your scores, even if you registered by mail or phone.
*ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness (2014, Princeton, N.J.) are consistent with the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing,
industry standards issued jointly by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the
National Council on Measurement in Education (2014, Washington, D.C.).

The Praxis Study Companion 49


Your teaching career is worth preparing for, so start today!
Let the Praxis Study Companion guide you.

To search for the Praxis test prep resources


that meet your specific needs, visit:

www.ets.org/praxis/testprep

To purchase official test prep made by the creators


of the Praxis tests, visit the ETS Store:

www.ets.org/praxis/store

Copyright 2016 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the ETS logo, GRE,
and PRAXIS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS). MEASURING THE POWER OF LEARNING is a trademark of
ETS. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.