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Test 2

SECTION 1 Questions 1-10
Questions 1-3
Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS for each.
1. How long will the customer's course last?
2. Which course has the customer already taken at the school?
3. How much discount can returning students qualify for?
Questions 4-6
Complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS for each.
4. The customer's address is ______ .
5. The customer can contact his former teacher by ______ .
6. There are ______ hours of classes each day, Monday to Friday.
Questions 7-10
Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
7. What is the customer's impression of the female Arabic teacher?
8. What other languages can the customer speak?
9. What does the customer decide is the third factor in choosing a school?
10. What does the customer say the reception area should be like?
SECTION 2 Questions 11-20
Questions 11-13
Complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND NUMBERS for each answer.
11. The Construction Education Centre has existed for ______ .
12. The CEC receives ______ visitors trainees and delegates each year.
13. Equipment is available for ______ days.
Questions 14-16
Complete the following information about the various rooms available at the CEC.
Name of room Capacity Usage

London Room seating 140 used for seminars, presentations,

reception 200 receptions divisible into 14 ______
Bloomsbury Room seating 72 used for seminars, lectures, receptions
reception 100
Holborn 1 15 ______ used for meetings, training classes,
Holborn 2 18 used for meetings, training classes,
Oxford Suite ------ used for 16 ______, presentations

Questions 17-20
Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND NUMBERS for each answer.
17. In which part of the CEC was the "Sustainable London" event held?
18. How many schemes were shown at the "Sustainable London" event?
19. When does the CEC expect to have 150 students?
20. What is in Russell Street?
SECTION 3 Questions 21-30
Questions 21-23
Choose the correct answer, A, B, C or D.
21. David says that he thinks a gap year is unsuitable for
A. a few people. B. some people.
C. the majority of people. D. almost all people.
22. Gap years began because Oxford and Cambridge
A. demanded all students take one.
B. demand all students take one.
C. only considered applicants whose results were known.
D. only consider applicants whose results are known.
23. Gap years are popular in
A. the UK and Australia. B. the UK, Australia and the USA.
C. the UK, Australia and most of Europe. D. developed countries.
Questions 24-27
Choose the correct answer or answers, A, B, C or D.
24. Students in most European countries
A. study 4-year courses at university.
B. have longer courses than British students.
C. have longer holidays than British students.
D. have less chance to earn money during a gap year.
25. David says that gap years cost 15000 to 20000 because that is
A. the total cost of travel, accommodation, food, insurance, etc.
B. the salary a new graduate can expect.
C. the cost of the gap year plus the salary a graduate can expect.
D. how much a person loses throughout their career by taking a gap year.
26. Kelly says that a gap year can benefit young people by
A. increasing motivation.
B. providing insights into their study field.
C. making their CV attractive to employers.
D. helping them get a higher salary after graduating.
27. David says that
A. useful non-academic skills can be learnt during a gap year.
B. most young people get good university degrees.
C. gap years don't teach young people useful skills.
D. employers think gap years are a waste of time.
Questions 28-30
Complete the sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
28. Kelly suggests working for a ______ .
29. Research shows employers appreciate young people who have lived outside ______ .
30. The graduate workplace requires flexibility and ______ .
SECTION 4 Questions 31-40
Questions 31-33
Complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
31. Prairie Dog barks have ______ meanings.
32. Prairie Dogs are able to invent ______ for things they have never seen before.
33. Prairie Dogs in Arizona and Colorado appear to speak different, but mutually-comprehensible ______ .
Questions 34-36
Complete the following notes on the criteria set by linguists for something to be a language.

Questions 37-40
Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
37. What did the researcher use to record Prairie Dog barks?
38. What kind of animal is the great-horned owl?
39. Why wouldn't the Prairie Dogs know of the European ferret?
40. What kind of animal is the coyote described as?

You should spend 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
Climate Change: Instant Expert
A Climate change is with us. A decade ago, it was conjecture. Now the future is unfolding before our eyes.
Canada's Inuit see it in disappearing Arctic ice and permafrost. The shantytown dwellers of Latin America and
Southern Asia see it in lethal storms and floods. Europeans see it in disappearing glaciers, forest fires and fatal
heat waves. Scientists see it in tree rings, ancient coral and bubbles trapped in ice cores. These reveal that the
world has not been as warm as it is now for a millennium or more. The three warmest years on record have all
occurred since 1998; 19 of the warmest 20 since 1980. And Earth has probably never warmed as fast as in the past
30 years--a period when natural influences on global temperatures, such as solar cycles and volcanoes should have
cooled us down.
B Climatologists reporting for the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) say we are seeing
global warming caused by human activities. People are causing the change by burning nature's vast stores of coal,
oil and natural gas. This releases billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2) every year, although the changes may
actually have started with the dawn of agriculture, say some scientists. The physics of the "greenhouse effect" has
been a matter of scientific fact for a century. CO 2 is a greenhouse gas that traps the Sun's radiation within the
troposphere, the lower atmosphere. It has accumulated along with other manmade greenhouse gases, such as
methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Some studies suggest that cosmic rays may also be involved in
C If current trends continue, we will raise atmospheric CO 2 concentrations to double pre-industrial levels during
this century. That will probably be enough to raise global temperatures by around 2 to 5. Some warming is
certain, but the degree will be determined by cycles involving melting ice, the oceans, water vapour, clouds and
changes to vegetation. Warming is bringing other unpredictable changes. Melting glaciers and precipitation are
causing some rivers to overflow, while evaporation is emptying others. Diseases are spreading. Some crops grow
faster while others see yields slashed by disease and drought. Clashes over dwindling water resources may cause
conflicts in many regions.
D As natural ecosystems--such as coral reefs--are disrupted, biodiversity is reduced. Most species cannot migrate
fast enough to keep up, though others are already evolving in response to warming. Thermal expansion of the
oceans, combined with melting ice on land, is also raising sea levels. In this century, human activity could trigger
an irreversible melting of the Greenland ice sheet. This would condemn the world to a rise in sea level of six
metres--enough to flood land occupied by billions of people.
E The global warming would be more pronounced if it were not for sulphur particles and other pollutants that
shade us, and because forests and oceans absorb around half of the CO 2 we produce. But the accumulation rate of
atmospheric CO2 has doubled since 2001, suggesting that nature's ability to absorb the gas could now be stretched
to the limit. Recent research suggests that natural CO 2 "sinks", like peat bogs and forests, are actually starting to
release CO2.
F At the Earth Summit in 1992, the world agreed to prevent "dangerous" climate change. The first step was the
1997 Kyoto Protocol, which came into force during 2005. It will bring modest emission reductions from
industrialised countries. Many observers say deeper cuts are needed and developing nations, which have large and
growing populations, will one day have to join in. Some, including the US Bush administration, say the scientific
uncertainty over the pace of climate change is grounds for delaying action. The US and Australia have reneged on
Kyoto. Most scientists believe we are under-estimating the dangers.
G In any case, according to the IPCC, the world needs to quickly improve the efficiency of its energy usage and
develop renewable non-carbon fuels like: wind, solar, tidal, wave and perhaps nuclear power. It also means
developing new methods of converting this clean energy into motive power, like hydrogen fuel cells for cars.
Other less conventional solutions include ideas to stave off warming by "mega-engineering" the planet with giant
mirrors to deflect the Sun's rays, seeding the oceans with iron to generate algal blooms, or burying greenhouse
gases below the sea. The bottom line is that we will need to cut CO 2 emissions by 70% to 80% simply to stabilise
atmospheric CO2 concentrations--and thus temperatures. The quicker we do that, the less unbearably hot our
future world will be.
Questions 1-4
The text has 7paragraphs (A-G). Which paragraph contains each of the following pieces of information?
1. The effects of global warming on animals.
2. The ways in which ordinary people can see the global climate is changing.
3. The science behind global warming.
4. Possible solutions to global warming.
Questions 5-8
Complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text.
5. Wars could be fought over reduced ______ .
6. Certain pollutants actually protect us from ______ .
7. ______ countries were not required to make cuts in emissions under the Kyoto Protocol.
8. Algal blooms feed on ______ .
Questions 9-13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the information in the text agrees with the statement
FALSE if the information in the text contradicts the statement
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
9. Volcanoes can influence the global climate.
10. Billions of people live near the sea.
11. Peat bogs usually absorb CO2.
12. Improving energy efficiency can be done quickly.
13. Burying greenhouse gases under the sea is not possible.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Britain's Canals-the Solution to Overcrowded Roads?
A It's hard to imagine that only a decade or so ago many of the nation's canals were little more than the last
resting place for abandoned shopping trolleys. There's still work to be done, but their transformation has been
remarkable. Projects such as Castlefield in Manchester and Brindley Place in Birmingham have transformed city-
centre canals from stagnant reminders of a fading industrial past to the epitome of urban cool. However, 21st-
century priorities dictate that the rehabilitation of this 18th-century motorway system cannot stop there. Canals
and navigable rivers form a major transport network, in need of only piecemeal investment, and with the spare
capacity to take away the need for hundreds of thousands of lorry journeys. In the second half of the 18th century,
canals drove the industrial revolution. Today, authorities want them to drive congestion off the roads. Last month,
for example, the European Commission proposed a seven-year plan to shift large amounts of freight from roads to
inland waterways.
B Europe's enthusiasm comes as no surprise. Freight traffic is expected to grow by a third in the next decade. The
cost of pollution and congestion is set to swallow one per cent of Europe's entire GDP by 2010. "With a fleet of
11000 vessels and a capacity equalling 10000 trains or 440000 trucks, inland waterways can make transport in
Europe more efficient, reliable and environmental friendly," says Jacques Barrot, vice-president of the European
Commission in charge of transport. "Europe cannot afford to leave that potential untapped."
C Mainland Europe has never, in fairness, left it completely untapped. The canals of the low countries and the
rivers of central and eastern Europe buzzed with the sound of freight barges long after British industry had thrown
in its lot with railways and roads. Attempts to revive freight on British canals have been hampered by the fact that
their heyday lasted barely 60 years, and they were first considered obsolete 150 years ago. For much of the
intervening period, many have simply been left to rot. "Our network was in decline for a long time compared to
much of Europe," says Eugene Baston of British Waterways. "Whereas other countries developed road and rail
transport but carried on using their waterways as well, our canals were neglected. In fact many European countries
actually enlarged their canals 100 years ago."
D That decline in Britain has been reversed, first by leisure seekers and more recently by industry. Boaters,
anglers, walkers and cyclists now benefit from around 4000 miles of navigable waterways and the paths and trails
that run alongside them. Waterside living is fashionable, and city-centre canals have been a focus for urban
renewal, And, despite our obsession with road transport, environmental considerations are forcing government and
business to mm the clock back 200 years and--at least in a minor way--get our waterways working again.
E In fact, industrial goods such as coal, steel, aggregates and petroleum have never completely disappeared from
large rivers and designated commercial waterways. Barges on the river Severn have recently started carrying the
equivalent of 34000 lorry loads of aggregates each year, the first freight traffic on the river for a decade. British
Waterways, which owns about half of the country's navigable inland waterways, carded the equivalent of 64000
25-ten lorry loads of freight in 2004. The organisation says these figures are certain to increase as new schemes
start, and environmentalists hope they will. Carrying freight by water uses about a quarter of the energy of an
equivalent road journey. In comparison to lorries, barges produce low emissions, low noise and are visually
unobtrusive. "We think that anything that can take freight off the roads needs to be fully explored," says Tony
Bosworth, transport campaigner for Friends of the Earth. "Canals can do that. They can help cut the pollution that
causes climate change."
F There is a limit to what canals can carry. The slow pace of water travel does not fit well with the limited shelf-
life of fresh produce. If supermarkets won't trust their cherry tomatoes to water, they might trust the waste paper
and plastic that protects them. Many of the proposals to utilise Britain's waterways are based around waste
management and recycling schemes. For example, a pilot scheme in Hackney, east London, has seen municipal
waste collected by truck and transferred to barge for transportation to a reprocessing plant. In the future, the
scheme could remove 300000 dustcart miles from the borough's streets every year. Current arrangements could be
just the tip of the iceberg.
G Planning permission has been given for a Powerday recycling plant at Willesden Junction, a site that sits on the
intersection of road, rail and canal networks. "The plant will have the capacity to handle a million and a half tons
of waste every year, but the amount carried by road will be capped at 500000 tons," says Ed Fox of British
Waterways London. "If they want to grow the business, they will have to work with us." Fox says getting freight
back on the canals has been "a nice idea" for 50 years, but until recently little more than an idea. "The Powerday
project, on the other hand, is proof of what really can be done."
H Though details have yet to be decided, British Waterways believes the most appropriate way to transport some
of the building materials destined for London's giant Olympic construction project is by the network of waterways
that links the Thames and east London. The Olympic Delivery Authority says: "It's being looked at and the final
solution could well involve some transportation by water. What exactly we do will be based on a range of factors,
but one of those will be sustainability." Their gentle pace will always make canals a niche player in a busy world,
but after 200 years of neglect, the tide is starting to turn.
Questions 14-17
The text has 8 paragraphs (A-H). Which paragraph does each of the following headings best fit?
14. Olympic transport
15. The decline of British canals
16. Modern leisure uses
17. Energy efficient
Questions 18-22
According to the text, FIVE of the following statements are true. Write the corresponding letters in answer boxes
18 to 22 in any order.
A Canals were important in the industrial revolution in Britain.
B The use of canals in Europe is expected to grow by a third over the next ten years.
C Britain was the only European country to let its canals decline.
D Canals in Britain have become a focus for city-centre renewal.
E Barges are less polluting than lorries.
F In London, most waste is transported on canals.
G The amount of waste that can be taken to the Powerday plant by road is limited.
H Canals will not become a major form of transport in the world.
Questions 23-26
According to the information given in the text, choose the correct answer or answers from the choices given.
23. Canals will require
A. relatively little investment.
B. considerable investment.
C. investment equal to 1% of Europe's transport budget.
24. The European canal network
A. transported most of Europe's goods for 60 years.
B. was built mostly about 150 years ago.
C. has actually been expanded in some countries over the last hundred years.
25. Suitable products for transportation by canal include
A. fresh fruit and vegetables.
B. waste materials for recycling.
C. fuels.
26. Waste can be transported to the Powerday project by
A. lorry.
B. train.
C. barge.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Are You Being Served?
The world's factory, it turns out, has a sizeable canteen attached, not to mention an office block and shopping mall.
Last month's official revision of China's gross domestic product revealed an economy worth 16 trillion yuan
(1.9 trillion) in 2004, 17% more than previously thought. Some 265 billion of the increase--93% of it--was
ascribed to the services sector. As a result, services' share of the economy has jumped by nine percentage points,
to 41%, compared with 46% for manufacturing and 13% for primary industries (mainly agriculture and mining).

Where has all this extra activity come from? The bulk of it is obvious to any traveller in China. As people grow
wealthier, they want more restaurants and bars, clothes stores, car dealerships, bookshops, private hospitals,
English language classes and beauty salons. In many of these businesses, however, turnover and profits have not
previously been captured by a statistical system geared to measuring factory production. The small, often private,
companies that dominate these areas have also often been at pains to escape notice--and therefore taxes.

Li Deshui, commissioner of China's National Bureau of Statistics, confirms that most of the newly unearthed GDP
comes from three categories. The first is wholesale, retail and catering; the second, transport, storage, post and
telecommunications. While postal and telecoms services are still state-controlled and thus readily measured, more
than a million small tracking and removal companies are not. The third activity is real estate, booming particularly
in the coastal cities and increasingly inland too, leading to an influx of private money--not least from overseas
speculators. Property development has, in turn, boosted demand for architects, decorators, do-it-yourself stores
and other building services.

There is more to China's services boom than dishing up stir-fries, shipping boxes and fitting out apartments.
Recent years have seen a surge in media and technology services, including the internet; in financial services such
as leasing; and in education and leisure. In a small way, for example, China is starting to rival India as an
outsourcing hub: less for call-centres that require excellent English than for such tasks as preparing reports and
patent filings. In October Microsoft took a stake in a Chinese software firm in Dalian, a city in north-east China
with a thriving outsourcing industry preparing tax returns and software for companies from Japan and South

China's rapid economic growth is fuelling demand for accountants, lawyers, bankers and all manner of
consultants, as Chinese companies expand and restructure. Specialists in marketing, advertising and public
relations advise on the relatively new area of marketing products and developing brands. The new wealth has
other consequences, too. China now has nearly a million security guards. It can offer its new rich everything from
cosmetic surgeons to pet salons.

Meanwhile, a huge new market is opening up for private education--fuelled by the combination of a poor public
system, the preoccupation of middle-class parents with giving their (often) only child the best chances, and
demand from business. Chinese families spend more on education than on anything except housing --the market
for courses, books and materials more than doubled from 2002 levels, to 90 billion in 2005. Richer households
have also caused a tourism boom, which is still chiefly domestic, though more mainlanders are venturing overseas
as visa restrictions are lifted. The World Travel & Tourism Council predicts that China's annual tourism market
will more than triple to 300 billion within a decade.

China's services sector, on this basis, is well-developed and roughly as large as those of Japan and South Korea
were at a similar stage of development, notes the HSBC bank. In reality, it is bigger still, since the GDP revision
cannot capture activities such as kerbside lending and tax-dodging cash transactions in property or entertainment--
all of which Dong Tao, chief Asia economist at CSFB, another bank, reckons add another 220 billion to the
economy. Even so, the 41% of GDP claimed by services in China remains below the 60-75% typical in developed
countries. It is smaller even than India's 52%.

One reason for this is a bias towards manufacturing--"China's 'real-men-make-stuff' attitude," as Gordon Orr of
McKinsey's Shanghai office puts it. This has led to a plethora of ill-thought-through regulations for services, made
worse by China's continuing suspicion of private business, which is mostly concentrated in the services sector.
The lack of a national trucking licence, for example, means hauliers must get approval from each province to
move goods across the country and unload them on to different trucks at each border--delaying delivery and
increasing spoilage and pilfering. In retailing, local governments often maintain inefficient supply chains, in part
to protect local jobs. David Wei, head of B&Q in China, says his 48 do-it-yourself stores on the mainland are
served by 1800 suppliers, compared with 600 suppliers in Britain for more than 300 stores.

Worse, though China took an early decision to invite foreign direct investment into manufacturing, it has been
reluctant to open up services. Diana Farrell, director of the McKinsey Global Institute, the consultancy's think-
tank, argues that allowing more foreign investment in services could bring not just capital and technology but a
competitive dynamic. The presence of Carrefour and Wal-Mart has led to domestic copycats, creating innovation
and productivity growth.
Questions 27-30
For each question, only ONE of the choices is correct. Write the corresponding letter in the appropriate box on
your answer sheet.
27. "The world's factory" refers to
A. the total mount of goods produced in the world.
B. China.
C. the United States.
28. It is not easy to measure the finances of
A. large state-owned companies.
B. foreign companies.
C. numerous small companies.
29. Real estate has helped increase the size of the service economy because
A. real estate is a service industry.
B. it involves a lot of investment from abroad.
C. developing real estate requires services.
30. The largest portion of household spending in China goes towards
A. education.
B. accommodation.
C. travel.
Questions 31-35
Complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text.
31. China is not really a ______ to India as a call-centre hub.
32. Most tourism in China is ______ .
33. Many transactions in the real estate and leisure industries are in cash and so avoid ______ .
34. Most private business in China is ______ in the service sector.
35. China has brought far less ______ into services, slowing development of that sector.
Questions 36-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the information in the text agrees with the statement
FALSE if the information in the text contradicts the statement
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
36. Officially, the largest sector in China is the service sector.
37. Some of the newly-discovered GDP comes from the education sector.
38. Dalian is a successful outsourcing center for Japan and Korea.
39. As visa restrictions are lowered, Chinese people are expected to spend more than300 billion on tourism.
40. China's services sector is about the same size as Japan's and South Korea's.
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The graphs show winter travel trends in the United States from 1999 to 2003. (Figures are shown in millions
of person-trips.)

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and by making comparisons where
Write at least 150 words.
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
At present, science is developing quickly, but some people still have a high opinion of artists.
What can the arts tell us of life that science cannot?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
Write at least 250 words.

The examiner asks the candidate about him/herself, his/her home, work or studies and other familiar topics.
What subject are you studying?
Which part of your studies do you like best?
What is the most difficult part of your studies?
How do you think studying this subject will help you in the future?
How often do you read books?
Who is your favourite writer?
When do you usually like to read?
Do you read more for pleasure or to get information?
Do you often buy books as gifts for family or friends?
Do you wear different clothes for study and for leisure?
Which kind of clothes do you prefer to wear?
Do you have a special set of clothes for special occasions?
Do you pay more attention to the quality of clothes you buy or to the price?
How important do you think it is to be fashionable?
Describe a restaurant that you have either been to or heard about.
You should say:
what kind of restaurant it is
what special dishes are served there
where it is located and explain why this restaurant is special.
You will have to talk about the topic for one to two minutes.
You have one minute to think about what you're going to say.
You can make some notes to help you if you wish.
Discussion topic:
Example questions
What kinds of food do people in your country like to eat?
Do you think that most people in your country eat healthily?
Do older people and younger people prefer the same kinds of food?
What kinds of food do you think will be more popular or less popular in the future?
Is food an important aspect of cultural life in your country?
Saleswoman: Good afternoon. Can I help you?
Customer: Yes, I'd like to sign up for the intermediate course in Arabic, please.
Saleswoman: Of course. There are three courses. One runs during the day--that's an intensive course that runs for
four weeks. Then there is the weekend course, which runs for eight weeks. Finally, the evening course runs for
twelve weeks.
Customer: I'd like to join the intensive course, please. My company is posting me to Syria in six weeks and I need
to improve on my basic conversational Arabic before then.
Saleswoman: I see. Have you taken a course here before?
Customer: Yes, I have. I took the Arabic refresher course during the summer. I really enjoyed it.
Saleswoman: Do you have your registration card for that course? If so, it will speed up registration and we can
give you a 5% discount too.
Customer: I think I have it in my handbag. ...Yes, here it is. A little dog-eared, I'm afraid.
Saleswoman: Thank you. ...Your name is David Ri...I'm sorry, the rest of your name is not clear.
Customer: Rivers--R I V E R S.
Saleswoman: Ah, yes. ...OK, I have your details on the computer.
Customer: Actually, my address has changed since I took the previous course. My new address is 38 Temple Way.
Saleswoman: Thank you. I'll just change that. Can I have your new postcode too, please?
Customer: Certainly--it's BM9 2EV. My new home telephone number is 698 45 37. My mobile number is the
same as before.
Saleswoman: That's 0987 375 633?
Customer: That's fight.
Saleswoman: It says here that the teacher was very impressed with you.
Customer: Really? Ahmed was a great teacher. Is he still here?
Saleswoman: I'm afraid not. He went back to Syria. Since you're going there, I'd love to give you his email
address, but I'm afraid it's against company policy.
Customer: That's OK. I think I have his email address written on the back of the registration card. I have it on my
laptop as well somewhere.
Saleswoman: I'm sure he'd be glad to hear from an ex-student.
Customer: I'm banking on it. I wouldn't mind having a friend in Syria when I go there.
Saleswoman: I'm sure he'll be glad to show you around. The course runs Monday to Friday from 10 to 12 and 1 to
3. Nine students have signed up so far. Is that OK?
Customer: No problem. And the cost?
Saleswoman: 380 pounds, after your discount.
Customer: Thank you. Here's my credit card. ...Will the course be held in this building, like last time?
Saleswoman: Yes, it will. In classroom 4. The teacher this time is Mrs Aziz.
Customer: Oh, I've met her. She seems well spoken and friendly. I'm looking forward to her class already.
Saleswoman: Oh, we've had very positive feedback from students about her classes. May I ask if you have a few
minutes to answer a few questions? We're conducting a survey of our clients. It won't take long, I promise.
Customer: Oh, I'm not in a hurry. Go ahead.
Saleswoman: The first question is about why you chose to study Arabic. I've got your answer to that one. How did
you first hear about our school?
Customer: Well, I saw a newspaper advertisement--I think it was in The Standard--and then I mentioned it in
conversation with a friend who had studied French here and she said she was very happy with the course.
Saleswoman: Oh, I see. What was your friend's name?
Customer: Mary Wright, with a 'W'.
Saleswoman: W R I G H T. Thank you. Do you think you would be interested in taking courses other than in
Customer: I doubt it. I need to speak a little French and German in my line of work, but I speak those languages to
an acceptable level, so further improvement is unnecessary. I've always been interested in learning an Oriental
language--like Chinese--but I don't really need either, so...
Saleswoman: What is important to you when selecting a school? Could you put these five items in order, please?
One indicates the most important.
Customer: Teachers is top of my list, for sure. Recommendations from others--yes, that's next. Teaching
materials? Mmm...no, location. Then admin staff. I think a good teacher can make use of even quite poor
materials, so that would be the least important to me.
Saleswoman: Any other important points that are not on the list?
Customer: A welcoming reception area, ...er...group size--perhaps up to a dozen students. That's a big attraction
for me. It creates a better atmosphere--friendlier, more personal. You know what I mean?
Saleswoman: Absolutely. Thank you very much for that. Here's a complimentary English-Arabic pocket dictionary
with our thanks.
Presenter: Welcome to this short--and you have my word, it will be short!--presentation on the conference and
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hand to ensure your event runs smoothly and our aim is to remove the normal worries and concerns from function
organisers so that events are both cost-effective and anxiety-free. Some our recent clients include Design for
Homes, the Association of Building Engineers, Learn Direct, the London Housing Federation and even the
College of Law.
A full range of equipment is available for use, including a slide projector, which is available for half or whole
days, video and monitor, 35mm carousel slide projector with infra red remote control and screen, flip charts and
accessories, laser pointers and lecterns. Other audio-visual equipment can be provided as well as access to
Broadband Internet services. Details are provided on request. My business card is attached to the brochures you've
been given.
Allow me to provide you with a brief introduction to our range of rooms. On this slide, you can see the main
conference room. We call it the London Room. Spacious, isn't it? This room has the advantage of central movable
panels, making it an ideal venue for seminars of up to 140 people or receptions for up to 200. The suite may also
be used for presentations. The room may be divided into three separate rooms if required. This slide shows you
the Bloomsbury Room. It is also ideally suited for seminars and lectures. There is seating for 72 people or it can
be used as a reception area for up to 100. Next, we have two rooms that are very similar. Indeed, we have given
them virtually identical names. We call them Holborn 1 and Holborn 2. They are both suitable for small meetings,
training classes and presentations. Hol-born 1 is slightly larger, capable of hosting 20-22 people, whilst Holborn 2
holds a maximum of 18 people. The Oxford Suite measures 12 by 6 metres and provides a more spacious and
luxurious environment for executive meetings and presentations. As you can see, it is particularly elegant and well
The Construction Education Centre also has an exhibition area, which is used by many clients when they hold a
conference or meeting. This can be used as a way of informing delegates of your company or as a visual launch
pad for your company or it's products and services. Recently, we held an exhibition entitled "Sustainable London"
from Friday 9th March until Saturday 28th April. Here are a few slides showing that exhibition. The "Sustainable
London" exhibition presented the challenge, the response and progress towards a sustainable 21st century city.
The exhibition featured over 60 different schemes from private houses to master plans and showed how local
government, architects and engineers are employing technology to reduce environmental impact and address
climate change. Here, we can see an example of a display of environmentally friendly technology by some of the
leading brands in the field.
I would also like to show you a few slides showing our educational activities. Here, you can see our vocational
students assessing construction plans. We currently have about 120 students here at the CEC and we hope to
increase that number to 150 over the next two years. We provide a wide range of essential mining for the people
who will hold key positions in the construction industry of tomorrow. In this slide, you can see students at work
on designing an environmentally friendly home. Their designs are later reviewed by experienced professionals and
have led to changes in the way that such homes are designed.
Finally, I'd like you draw your attention to this slide showing the location of the Construction Education Centre.
As you can see, it is located in the heart of London's East End in Story Lane, off Court Street. Limited metered
parking is available outside the CEC, but there is a car park nearby in Russell Street. The nearest underground
stations are Court Road and Russell Square. The Centre is also within walking distance from Queen's Cross train
Mary: So, do you think taking a gap year between leaving school and beginning uni is worth it? I was just reading
that it is estimated that at least 50000 young people here in Britain take one each year.
David: I think it's a good idea for some, but not for most.
Kelly: Oh, David, I disagree.
David: Well, Kelly, in the clamour to arrange a volunteer scheme placement or to book round-the-world plane
tickets, how many school leavers-or their parents for that matter--stop to think about the true worth of taking a
year out? Are gap years the life-changing, character-forming experience their proponents claim them to be, or are
they merely an excuse to waste time, burn money and delay the inevitable? How did the idea ever start anyway?
Mary: It says here that originally they were common mainly among Oxford and Cambridge applicants, who were
required to apply for a university place after already taking their A-levels. Once accepted, this gave them a further
nine months to travel or to do with as they wished.
Kelly: They are mostly a UK and Australian phenomenon In the US, the tendency is still to go to college straight
after leaving school. In most other European countries, gap years are rare, partly because students will often take
longer to complete their university courses and have more time during the academic year to take time off.
Mary: Well, David says they might not be worth it, so is there any way we can measure the cost?
Kelly: Well, the first thing to do is to assume that you will use the time available to travel abroad for a length of
time, working for a period beforehand to save up the money necessary. Let's see. Roughly speaking, you will
probably need about 500 for the plane ticket, depending on where you go. Then you'll need up to 200 for the
specialist travel insurance, and anything up to~5000 to pay for the cost of internal travel in the countries you visit,
plus food, accommodation and other sundries. Many gap-year travellers can make do with about 3000 in total,
although this means living on a fairly tight budget.
David: But then you need to add the above cost the foregone benefit of one year's salary after graduation. For
example, say your first job after leaving university were to pay 15000 to 20000 a year, that's what you lose
by taking a gap year.
Kelly: Well, that's not entirely fair. You can measure value through personal development as well as financially. A
gap year tends to broaden young people's horizons, helps them to mature and see things from a much wider
perspective. It can motivate them to focus on their studies. Research shows that students are more likely to be
satisfied with and complete their chosen course after taking a gap year. Many universities also say that they can
tell the difference between those students who have taken gap years and those who have not, in terms of attitude,
commitment and general insights that are less evident in those who come straight from school. These are all
benefits that a person will carry with him or her well past university. Many employers are on record as saying that
they welcome job applications from students whose CVs say they took a year off, either before going to university
or, in some cases, after graduating. They too are aware of the greater maturity and broader potential vision of
those who have used their time constructively and learned something about the world.
David: That's true. Employers want graduates who can work well in teams, think independently, communicate
effectively and make informed decisions, all of which can be learned by taking a gap year. This potential to
differentiate yourself from other applicants becomes all the more important at a time when up to 40% of young
people are taking degrees, often graduating with good results. The key here is ensuring two things: that the time
you have taken off is used constructively and that you make it clear in any job application what you have learned
from your gap year and how it applies to the post you are applying for. Swarming on a beach in Australia is hardly
likely to impress the average employer.
Kelly: There is no doubt that if you can show a practical approach, for example by volunteering with a charity,
you will gain brownie points from many employers. But equally, any situation in which a young person has been
required to learn new things, to act independently, to work for someone, to be able to mix with fellow travellers
and people in the countries they are visiting, will be seen as a positive experience.
Mary: It says here that academic research carried out for the Department for Education suggests that employers
recognise they stand to benefit from new recruits who, to quote one HR director, have "been out of their comfort
zones" and are thus more likely to have the flexibility and improvisation skills to deal with the demands of the
graduate workplace.
David: Again, I think that the key thing is to make sure that your employer is steered into appreciating whatever
experiences you have gained during that gap year. Clearly, telling a prospective boss that your six months on a
beach in Oz was "awesome" will put you at a disadvantage compared with another applicant who goes into great
details about the business skills learned by working in a caf6 in the same location.
Lecturer: Welcome to this presentation on Prairie Dogs. You can see a picture of these rather cute animals on
this slide. As you can see, they are about the size of a rabbit and they have a brown or clay-coloured coat with
black-tipped hairs and a black-tipped tail. The underside of the prairie dog is a light tan colour. They have short
legs and sharp claws to help them dig their homes. Their bodies are 12-15 inches long with a 3-4 inch tail and they
weigh 2-4 pounds.
I've been interested in these animals for a long time and would like to talk about a remarkable discovery. The
barks of prairie dogs have distinct, individual meanings. Prairie dogs have different "words" for tall human in
yellow shirt, short human in green shirt, coyote, deer, red-tailed hawk and many other creatures. They can even
coin new terms for things they've never seen before, independently coming up with the same calls or words,
according to research done over two decades by a professor from Arizona University, who can now not only call
himself a biology professor, but also a prairie dog linguist.
Prairie dogs of the Gunnison's species, which were studied intensely, actually speak different dialects in Arizona
and in Colorado, but they would probably understand one another, research indicates. So far, this is believed to
be...or prairie dogs appear to be demonstrating, the most sophisticated communication system that anyone has
shown in animals. Prairie dog chatter is variously described by observers as a series of yips, high-pitched barks or
eeks. And most scientists think prairie dogs simply make Sounds that reflect their inner condition. That means all
they're saying are things like "ouch" or "hungry" or "eek." But we now know that prairie dogs are communicating
detailed information to one another about what animals are showing up in their colonies, and maybe even
Linguists have set five criteria that must be met for something to qualify as language: It must contain words
with abstract meanings; possess syntax in which the order of words is part of their meaning; have the ability to
coin new words; be composed of smaller elements; and use words separated in space and time from what they
represent. The American researchers focussed their efforts on these five criteria to see if prairie dogs use a
language, as defined by human linguists, or not. Work was done in the field and in a laboratory. With digital
recorders, they recorded the calls prairie dogs make as they see different people, dogs and other animals of
different sizes and with different coat colours, such as hawks and elk. They then analysed the sounds using a
computer that dissects the underlying structure and creates a sonogram, or visual representation of the sound.
Computer analysis later identifies the similarities and differences.
The prairie dogs have calls for various predators but also for elk, deer, antelope and cows. It's as if they're trying
to inform one another what's out there. So far, the researchers have recorded at least twenty different "words."
Some of those words or calls were created by the prairie dogs when they saw something for the first time. Four
prairie dogs in the lab were shown a great-horned owl and European ferret, two animals they had almost certainly
not seen before, if only because the owls are mostly nocturnal and this kind of ferret is foreign. The prairie dogs
independently came up with the same new calls. In the field, black plywood cut-outs showing the silhouette of a
coyote, a skunk and a circular shape were randomly run along a wire through the prairie dog colony. Now, there
are no black ovals running around out there and yet they all had the same word for black circle. The researchers
believe that prairie dogs are genetically programmed with some vocabulary and the ability to describe things.
The researchers then played back a recorded prairie dog alarm call for coyote in a prairie dog colony when
no coyote was around. The prairie dogs had the same escape response as they did when the predator was really
there. In other words, there's no coyote present, but the prairie dogs hear this recording of prairie dogs barking,
"Hey, there's a coyote!" and they say, "Oh, coyote! Better hide." Computer analysis has been able to break down
some prairie dog calls into different components,, suggesting the creatures have yet another element of a real
language. The researchers are quietly confident that they will establish that the prairie dogs will meet the five
criteria set by linguists. Then, there will be conclusive proof that animals have language.
Answer key
Section L Questions 1-10
1. 4/four weeks
2. Arabic refresher (course)
3. 5%
4. 38 Temple Way
5. email
6. 4/four
7. well spoken, friendly
8. French (and) German
9. location
10. welcoming
Section 2, Questions 11-20
11. almost seventy/70 years
12. over 100000
13. half And/or whole
14. three/3 separate rooms
15. 20-22
16. executive meetings
17. (in/the) exhibition area/part
18. over 60
19. in two/2 years
20. (a) car park
Section 3, Questions 21-30
21. C
22. C
23. A
25. B
27. A
28. charity
29. their comfort zones
30. improvisation skills
Section 4, Questions 31-40
31. distinct, individual(NB just one of these two words is acceptable)
32. (new) terms
33. dialects
34. abstract meanings
35. smaller elements
36. use words
37. digital recorders
38. nocturnal
39. (it is) foreign
40. (a) predator
Reading Passage 1, Questions 1-13
1. D
2. A
3. B
4. G
5. water resources
6. global warming
7. Developing
8. iron
9. True
10. True
11. True
12. Not Given
13. Not Given
Reading Passage 2, Questions 14-26
14. H
15. C
16. D
17. E
23. A
24. C
Reading Passage 3, Questions 27-40
27. B
28. C
29. C
30. B
31. rival
32. domestic
33. tax
34. concentrated
35. foreign direct investment
36. False
37. Not Given
38. True
39. True
40. False
Model and sample answers for

The bar chart tells us how many winter person-trips were made in the USA for business and for leisure between
1999 and 2003.

The number of business person-trips was about 38 million in 1999, falling slightly to 37 million in 2000. Then
there was a bigger drop to 32 million in 2001 and a further fall to 30 million in 2002, followed by a slight rise to
31 million in 2003.

The number of leisure person-trips was far higher than the number of business ones. In 1999 148 million person-
trips were made. There was a small increase on this figure in 2000, when the number was 150 million. Between
2000 and 2001, there was a much larger increase, with 160 million person-trips being made in 2001. The number
of person-trips continued to rise, reaching 162 million in 2002 and then 164 million in 2003.

Overall, we see that the number of person-trips was always much higher for leisure than for business and that the
number of business person-trips showed a decline every year except for between 2002 and 2003. On the other
hand, the number of person-trips made for leisure showed a constant increase, with the most notable rise being
between 2000 and 2001.


It sometimes seems that the whole world is obsessed with science and business. Science has certainly told us a lot
about the world we live in, but artists, who work in the less tangible world of feelings and beauty, are still
respected by many, if not most, people. In this essay I would like to suggest why this is the case by examining
what arts can tell us of life that science cannot.

One obvious reason, I think, is that, whilst science has answered so many of our factual questions, it finds it much
harder to answer our more philosophical ones. Artists have long been associated with religion and philosophy,
either directly or indirectly. Leonardo da Vinci, famous for his scientific work (e.g. designing an airplane centuries
before one was constructed), also produced 'The Last Supper' and other religious works. Whilst art and artists
cannot provide us with answers to philosophical questions, they can give people ideas about what those answers
might be.

Artists are also provide us with beauty. Most people hang pictures in their homes. Many photographers provide us
with vivid images that we can even use as screensavers on our computers. Science is far less about beauty than
facts. People like beautiful things and those who can create beauty, whether by using paint, photography or
sculpture, are sure to be admired. Even when a work of art is not considered to be beautiful, it can still be
considered creative. Again, most people admire those who are creative.

To conclude, I think that artists encourage people to think about life in a more philosophical way than science.
Artists tell us that there is more to life than finding out facts. They tell us that there are many beautiful things in
the world and that creativity is an important part of what makes us human.
Model answers for speaking tests
Speaking Test 2
I'm studying medicine. It's something I've wanted to do ever since I was a little kid.
The thing I like doing most is reading about new developments in the medical field. There are some amazing
things happening and I really hope that one day I can also produce research.
The thing that I find most difficult is remembering medical terms for, problems, parts of the body and other
things. I need to write them down several times and use them often before I can remember them well. Some of the
other students in the class hear or see the words once and remember them forever. I'm so jealous!
Obviously, it will help me to become a doctor, which is my aim. The training we receive at he university is very
comprehensive and I'm sure I'll need it when I'm a doctor.
As a medical student, I need to read a lot of books, but I don't only read as part of my studies. I enjoy reading
thrillers and detective stories. I find them exciting and a useful way to relax after many hours of study. I usually
get through a book each week. I read my medical books every day, but have to read them more than once to be
sure that I have understood everything correctly.
My favourite writer is the American novelist, Alex Snow, who writes detective stories set in the poor areas of Los
Angeles. His books are full of characters--some good, some bad--who work for the Los Angeles Police
Department or who live in the poor areas where the crimes take place. He develops the characters well, including
all kinds of details about them. For example, he often includes information from their childhoods, which helps to
explain why they act the way they do.
I like to read when I'm travelling to or from the university or in a caf6 or bar after classes. I sometimes read a
newspaper rather than a book. Many people like to read a newspaper or magazine before they go to bed, but I
don't do that.
I suppose I mainly read to get information, since most of my reading is related to my studies and I read a
newspaper most days. As well as reading a printed newspaper, I often read the news on the Internet, as well as
searching for medicine related articles there.
Yes, I do, because most of my friends like reading, too. My mother and father read, but not as much as I do. I
often buy books for people at Christmas or on their birthdays--if I remember them! People I know often buy me
books too.
No, not usually. Most students just wear what they feel comfortable in. However, I do have to wear a white coat
when we are doing clinical work or practical work in a hospital. I think that's necessary for two reasons. First, we
need to demonstrate who we are to other people. If you see a man in a hospital wearing a white coat, it's
reasonable to assume that he works there. Occasionally, we also need to wear a white coat to prevent blood or
something getting onto and staining our clothes.
I like to wear smart casual clothes, such as a nice shirt with a jacket or perhaps a sweater. I like to wear darker
coloured clothes--dark blue or black. I have a few bright beach shirts, which I wear to bars in summer. I don't
mind wearing formal clothes, but I don't need to very often.
Yes. I have an expensive suit, which I bought a year ago in London. I really like I, but only get the chance to
wear it a few times a year. If I wore it to the university, I'd probably be mistaken for a very young professor!
Generally, I choose according to the price, like most students. In London, there is a wide variety of cheap
clothing available, so it is possible to get something of fairly good quality at a low price. I usually go to several
different shops before buying something.
For me, it's not important, but I think it must be more important for people whose work involves meeting a lot of
people. People care what you look like, especially in the business world. People like people who look modern and
cool. They respect them. That's fine, but I'm more concerned with my studies at the moment than with whether
people think I'm cool. I'm sure I'll change my mind when. I start looking for a girlfriend!
I'd like to describe my favourite restaurant, which is near my parents' home. They live in the countryside, in a
small village. The restaurant is within walking distance of their home and we go there quite often. The restaurant
has been open for several years. A man in the village lost his job and decided to start his own business. He had
studied cookery before, but had decided not to pursue a career in that direction. When he lost his job, he had a
second chance. The restaurant serves traditional English food--you know, roast beef, fish and chips, pies--and
some favourite foreign dishes such as spaghetti Bolognese. The owner uses local ingredients as much as possible
and the food really tastes great. The restaurant is small and the furniture is all made of wood. Next to the dining
area is a lounge with comfortable leather chairs where people can relax and read or chat after their meal.
In Britain, we now have a huge variety of international cuisine to choose from. The most popular kinds are
Indian, Chinese, Italian, French, Thai and Mexican. However, many people are turning back to British food. I
think it's a trend that will continue into the future. People will probably eat more and more British food, then go
back to foreign dishes and restaurants. Then they will probably go back to British food again.
Most people do. In the last few years, there has been a move towards healthy eating and people are becoming
used to questioning what exactly they are eating. I mean that they want to know how the dishes are prepared
before they order them in restaurants. When people buy food in supermarkets, they look more carefully at labels
before deciding which to buy. I think this is a good thing. However, there are some people who don't pay much
attention to what they eat. They eat a lot of fatty foods. Combined with a lack of exercise, this can lead to serious
health problems.
This might sound strange, but I think that younger people are more aware of what they eat. They want food that
is healthy. Older people often just eat the same food that they have eaten for years, without thinking about its
nutritional value. Many people still think that eating healthily must cost more money, but it's simply not true--ask
the students at my university. They are quite poor, but mostly eat healthily.
I think that the trend towards healthy foods will continue, but people will focus more on the quality of the food
and the way it is cooked rather than the actual ingredients. For example, I think that beef will still be popular in
Britain, as it has been for years, but that people will demand beef that is less fatty and has been cooked using less
oil. As I said, this trend has already begun.
Yes, it is! People love getting together for a meal whenever there is something to celebrate, like a birthday or
Christmas. People also discuss things like business matters over lunch or dinner.