Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

1

The Soroban / Abacus Handbook


is 2001-2003 by David Bernazzani
Rev 1.0 - March 9, 2003

,
7,



( .
.
)

,
.
:
1). 1 9 ;
2). 1 9 ;
3). ;
,
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
.




. .
, .
21.
2

G . , 2
G, 1 , ,
. 21 . (
, . ,

, .)

6.

, ,
(
21 ) (
6). ,
.
,
21 6 27.
.
27 ( ) 15.
G , 1 15.

5 15.
7, :
," 5",
" 10" G.
,
()
3

.
(H), (G)
, 42,
27 15.

,
, .
14 ( , ,
; G).

, G,
. 14 .

. , 14+1
( - ),
, .

: 14+1=15

, . ,
.
3345+6789 (=10134)
3345 :
4

, " 6" 6789 .

9345 , ,
! " 7" F.
, . ,
" 10 3" , " 7".
F ( 3),
1 ( 10 ) .
,
, .
.
:

10045. . . ,

. " 8"
G. . " 2,
10". , G
F.
:
5

10125. !
"9". 9 H.
" 10, 1"
1 " 5" " 4".
, 1 G.
:

, 10134, 3345+6789
,

,
. ( ),
.
-
.
"1"
() .
.
47:
6

21. G " 2"


2 .
27 ( )

" 1"
. 26.

Now let's subtract 4 from this. We can go right to the units rod and "Subtract
4" except that there are not enough single earth beads (worth 1 each) to

4 .
" 4",
, " 5, 1".
,
. 22. ( 26-4):
7

"". 22
14. 1 G, .
( ) :

" 4" H.
, "
10, 6" .
G ( ,
"" 10 , )
" 6" H.
, (5+1=6). 8
!

. ,
23 ,
.
. . ,
.
.
8

2347. 23
, 47 .
( 23) .
, 47 ()
,
.

, ,

( 3)
34=12. 12
( FG)


37=21, 21
, ( GH ) :

3, ,
(E )
9

2.
. (24=08)
EF.
2 ,
08, ,
:

2 7
14 FG
F 1, ,
, 1 (E),
9. G 4

23x47=1081

( )
.
,

, " -
"
.
, 8/2=4, 8 , 2
, 4

, .
10

- ,
. ,
. .

1. 837 3 = ?
1: 837 (
G,H,I) 3 ( B)
, 7 ( )
:

Step 1

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
0 3 0 0 0 0 8 3 7 0 0 0 0

2: .. ,
D,
F. 837 3 8 3
2 . 2 D. 2 3
6, 6 8 2
:
Step 2
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
0 3 0 0 0 0 8 3 7 0 0 0 0
2
- 6
0 3 0 2 0 0 2 3 7 0 0 0 0

3: 237 GHI.
23 3. 3 23 7 .
7 . 73 21, 21 23
2.

Step 3
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
0 3 0 2 0 0 2 3 7 0 0 0 0
7
- 2 1
0 3 0 2 7 0 0 2 7 0 0 0 0

4 : 27 H I.
3 27. 3 27 .
11

9 F. 93=27, 27 27
0. 9
F
279
Step 4
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
0 3 0 2 7 0 0 2 7 0 0 0 0
9
- 2 7
0 3 0 2 7 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2. 6308 83 = ?
1: 6308 (
F,G,H,I) 83 ( )
, "8"

:
Step 1

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
8 3 0 0 0 6 3 0 8 0 0 0 0

2: , 83 6, 63, 630,
.
,
F
2a 6308 83,
8 63. 8 Step 2a
63 . 7 A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. 78=56, . . . .
56 63, 7. 8 3 0 0 0 6 3 0 8 0 0 0 0
2b. 708 G,H,I. 7
"8" 83 7, - 5 6
"3" 83 7. 73=21. 8 3 0 0 7 0 7 0 8 0 0 0 0
21 70 49.
12

Step 2b
2 2b:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
8 3 0 0 0 0 7 0 8 0 0 0 0
7
- 2 1
8 3 0 0 7 0 4 9 8 0 0 0 0

3a: 498 Step 3a


G,H,I. . A B C D E F G H I J K L M
8, . . . .
49. 8 49 . 8 3 0 0 7 0 4 9 8 0 0 0 0
6 F. 6
68=48. 48 49 - 4 8
1. 8 3 0 0 7 6 0 1 8 0 0 0 0
3b: 18 H I 6 3
. 63=18. . 18 18 0.
, 6 76 .
76
Step 3b
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
8 3 0 0 7 0 0 1 8 0 0 0 0
6
- 1 8
8 3 0 0 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3: 554 71 = ?
1: 554 (
G,H,I) ( A,B)
:

Step 1

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
7 1 0 0 0 0 5 5 4 0 0 0 0

2. , 71 5, 55, 554.

. F.
.
13

Step 2a
2a: 554 71 7 A B C D E F G H I J K L M
55 . 7 . . . .
55 . 77=49, 7 1 0 0 0 0 5 5 4 0 0 0 0
49 55, 6. 7
- 4 9
7 1 0 0 0 7 0 6 4 0 0 0 0
2b: H,I 64 7
1 . 71=7. 7 64 57.
2a, 2b:
Step 2b
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
7 1 0 7 0 0 0 6 4 0 0 0 0
7
- 7
7 1 0 0 0 7 0 5 7 0 0 0 0

3: . ,
J. .
3a: Step 3a
, 570 A B C D E F G H I J K L M
H,I,J. 7 . . . .
57. 7 57 7 1 0 0 0 7 0 5 7 0 0 0 0
. 8 G. 8
87=56, 56 57, - 5 6
1. 7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 1 0 0 0 0
3b: I,J 10 8 1
. 81=8. 8 10, 2 (, 8
G)
3a & 3b:
Step 3b
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
7 1 0 0 0 7 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
8
- 8
7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 0 2 0 0 0

4: . 2 J.
, .
20. 20 71,
L , ,
H)
4a: 200 J,K,L. Step 4a
200 71. . 7 A B C D E F G H I J K L M
, 20 . 7 . . . .
20 . 7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 0 2 0 0 0
2 I. 27=14. 2
14
14 20. 6.
- 1 4
4b: 60 K,L.
7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 2 0 6 0 0
2 1 .
21=2. 2 60, 58.

4a & 4b:
Step 4b
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 0 0 6 0 0
2
- 2
7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 2 0 5 8 0

5: 58 K,L.
. ( ,
)
5a: 580 K,L,M
Step 5a
. 7
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
58 . 7 . . . .
58 . 8 7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 2 0 5 8 0
J. 87=56. 56 8
58. 2. - 5 6
7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 2 8 0 2 0

5b: 20 L,M. 8 1
8. 8 20 12.
, .
, .
7.8028 F J. ( 12
L,M ),
, 7.803

Step 5b
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
. . . .
7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 2 8 0 2 0
8
- 8
7 1 0 0 0 7 8 0 2 8 0 1 2

.
, .
, ,
(!)
15

3- 4-
2- 3- . ,
. ,
. .

:

.
( "+"),
,
.

Оценить