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Chapter

Australian Curriculum
content descriptions:
ACMMG243
ACMMG244

Measurement and Geometry

Review of
345
1 congruence and
2
78
6 similarity

42
9
42 0
This chapter reviews our knowledge of geometry. In particular, we review
congruence tests and similarity tests for triangles.

8
Congruence and similarity are extremely useful tools in geometrical arguments.
Both congruence and similarity have many applications and you will meet some

0
of these in this chapter.

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8A Review of triangles

An initial discussion of the properties of triangles appeared in ICE-EM Mathematics Year 8


and ICE-EM Mathematics Year 9. We briefly review them here.

Triangles
We recall:
The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180.
An exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the opposite interior angles.

Isosceles and equilateral triangles


The base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal.
Conversely, if two angles of a triangle are equal, then the sides opposite those angles
are equal.
Each interior angle of an equilateral triangle is 60.
Conversely, if the three angles of a triangle are equal, then the triangle is equilateral.

Polygons
The angle sum of a quadrilateral is 360.
The sum of the interior angles of a convex polygon is (n 2)180.
The sum of the exterior angles of a convex polygon is 360.

Exercise 8A
1 Find the values of x, y, a, b and g.
a A b A c L
x 5
45 120
6 x
y B C
C 30 120

6 M N
B
d A e A f C
Q
x 8
N x
6 30 6 15
4 5

45
C B P 5
P 45
B C B A
6 15

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2 Find the values of x, y, a, b, g and q. Give reasons in your solutions. Points marked O are
the centres of circles.
a A b R S c F

75 x
y

B C H


G 6m
T

d 80 X e R f K

3 cm 60
x
80
Y 7 cm
J 60 x
12 cm
W
60
P y Q
I
g L h H

F
5 G


N y Q M A 70 D
B C

i A
E j D
H
F J

A
B D
125 C 55
G
G
C
I B
H F
E

k F l J

E K
C D

40
B
A
L M

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m E D n A

130 O
C 2m
y 60
A
B C

o A p C
D D
2
95
2
O
3


A B
B C

q B C r C D
2 40

B 110

D
60
A
80

s B t B C

A C
60
A D

E D

3 The exterior angles of a regular polygon are each 60. How many sides does the
polygon have?
4 Three angles of a pentagon are each 156 and the remaining angles are equal. Find the
size of the two remaining angles.

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8B Congruence

In ICE-EM Mathematics Year 8 and Year 9 we introduced the idea of congruent figures.

Congruent figures
Two plane figures are called congruent if one figure can be moved on top of the other
figure, by a sequence of translations, rotations and reflections, so that they coincide
exactly.
Congruent figures have exactly the same shape and size.
When two figures are congruent, we can match up every part of one figure with the
corresponding part of the other, so that:
matching angles have the same size
matching intervals have the same length
matching regions have the same area.

The congruence arguments used in this chapter involve only congruent triangles. In ICE-EM
Mathematics Year 8 and Year 9 we developed four tests for two triangles to be congruent, as
follows.

The four standard congruence tests for triangles


Two triangles are congruent if:
SSS: the three sides of one triangle are respectively equal to the three sides of the other
triangle, or
AAS: two angles and one side of one triangle are respectively equal to two angles and
the matching side of the other triangle, or
SAS: two sides and the included angle of one triangle are respectively equal to two sides
and the included angle of the other triangle, or
RHS: the hypotenuse and one side of one right-angled triangle are respectively equal to
the hypotenuse and one side of the other right-angled triangle.

The statement Triangle ABC is congruent to triangle PQR is written as


ABC PQR,
where the vertices are written in matching order.
When a congruence test is used to justify the congruence, the tests initials are placed in
brackets after the congruence statement, as in Example 1 on the next page.

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Example 1

If the two triangles are congruent, write down a congruence statement and the
congruence test used to justify it.
If they are not, explain why not.
a 11 cm b M
A B
55
6 cm 28 42
L 12 cm N
E
C R
6 cm
55 42 12 cm
D 11 cm F 110
P
Q

c B d Q

34 mm 26 mm
30 70
A C S
15 cm
X 15 cm P R
Y
80
T
70 34 mm
Z 26 mm

Solution

a ABC DFE (SAS)


b In PQR, RQP = 180 (42 + 110)
= 28
so LMN QPR (ASA)
c In ABC, ABC = 80. In XYZ, ZXY = 30. XZ 15 cm, since XYZ
is not isosceles. Hence, ABC is not congruent to XYZ, because AC XZ.
d PQR UST (RHS)

Quadrilaterals
The sum of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is 360.
Congruence of triangles is used to establish properties of special quadrilaterals.

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Parallelograms
A parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel.
A parallelogram has the following properties, as proved in ICE-EM Mathematics Year 9
Book 1, Chapter 7:
B C
The opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal.
The opposites sides of a parallelogram are equal.
The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. A D
Here are four well known tests for a parallelogram. Proofs of these are given in ICE-EM
Mathematics Year 9 Book 1, Chapter 7.
If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral are equal, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
If one pair of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal and parallel, then the quadrilateral
is a parallelogram.
If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

Rhombuses
A rhombus is a quadrilateral with four equal sides. A rhombus is a parallelogram. (We also
note that because the opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal, it is always sufficient to
establish that just two adjacent sides are equal.)
B
The following are properties of a rhombus, as were proved in
ICE-EM Mathematics Year 9 Book 1, Chapter 7.
The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles.
The diagonals of a rhombus bisect the vertex angles through A C
which they pass.
Here are two tests for whether a quadrilateral is a rhombus.
Proofs of these are given in ICE-EM Mathematics Year 9 Book 1,
Chapter 7.
D
If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram with two adjacent sides equal,
then the parallelogram is a rhombus.
If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other at right angles, then the quadrilateral
is a rhombus.

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Rectangles
A rectangle is a quadrilateral in which all angles are right angles.
The following are properties of a rectangle, as proved in ICE-EM Mathematics Year 9 Book 1,
Chapter 7:
B C
A rectangle is a parallelogram.
Its opposite sides are equal and parallel.
Its diagonals bisect each other.
The diagonals of a rectangle are equal.
A D
Here are three tests for a rectangle:
A parallelogram with one right angle is a rectangle.
If all angles of a quadrilateral are equal, then the quadrilateral is a rectangle.
If the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect each other, then the quadrilateral
is a rectangle. B

Kites
A C
A kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent equal sides.

Example 2

Congruence is used to prove many results with quadrilaterals and triangles.


In the kite ABCD, B
A
DA = DC and BA = BC.
Prove that BAD = BCD. D

Solution

Join D to B. B
A
In the triangles ABD and CBD,
BA = BC (given) D
DA = DC (given)
DB is common,
C
so BDA BDC (SSS)
Hence, BAD = BCD. (matching angles of congruent triangles)

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Exercise 8B
Example 1 1 In each part, find a pair of congruent triangles. State the congruence test used.
a B Q Y
3 cm 3 cm 3 cm
35 40 35
A C P R X Z
5 cm 5 cm 5 cm

b B Q X 4 cm Y

4 cm

80
50 50
A C P R
4 cm Z
c B C P 5 cm
Z Y
5 cm
3 cm 3 cm
5 cm
Q R
A 4 cm X

d C A P 20 mm
40 X Y
40
70
20 mm
70
Q
B
20 mm Z
R
e B P Q Y
43 20
43
12 cm 12 cm
20 R
C 20 12 cm
A

63
X
Z
2 In each part, it is known that ABC DEF. Determine the unknown angles and side
lengths. (Side lengths are given correct to one decimal place.)
a B b B

100
5.0 cm
40 F 1.1 cm D
A 4.6 cm C 40
F D 40130 4.2 cm
40 A C 10
3.0 cm 3.0 cm
E E

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c A C d B F
62
8.0 cm
15.0 mm 32
17.0 mm A 37
F E
14.1 cm 111 D
8.0 mm
9.1 cm
B
D C E

e A F
30.0 mm

B 46
38.3 mm

67
C E D

A B
Example 2 3 In the diagram at the right, ABCD is a square and DE = EC.
a Draw a diagram and prove that ADE BCE.
b Prove that AE = BE.
4 PRSV is a square. The midpoint of PV is X and T is the midpoint of SV. D C
E
a Draw a diagram and prove that RX = RT.
b Join RV and prove that TRV = XRV.
A B
5 The diagonals of a rectangle ABCD meet at O and BOC = 56.
a Give reasons why OB = OC. O
56

b Use this to find: D C


i AOD ii AOB iii OBC iv ABO
6 The diagonals of the parallelogram ABCD intersect at O. B C
A line through O meets the sides AB and CD at X and Y X
O
respectively. Prove that OX = OY.
Y
A D

7 In a parallelogram ABCD, P is the midpoint of BC. Both DP Q


and AB are produced to meet at Q. Prove that AQ = 2AB.
P
B C

A D

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8 Two parallelograms, ABCD and ABXY, are on the same base, D C
AB. Prove that DCXY is a parallelogram.
A B
9 The diagonals of a square ABCD meet at O. The point K lies on
AB such that AK = AO. Prove that AOK = 3BOK.
Y X
10 Recall that a kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent equal
sides. Prove the following properties of a kite. You will need to draw a separate diagram for
each point.
a If one diagonal of a quadrilateral bisects the two vertex angles through which it
passes, then the quadrilateral is a kite.
b If one diagonal of a quadrilateral is the perpendicular bisector of the other diagonal,
then the quadrilateral is a kite.
11 Draw a diagram and prove that, in a parallelogram, opposite sides are equal and opposite
angles are equal.
12 Draw a diagram and prove that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.
13 Draw a diagram and prove that the diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular.
14 Draw a diagram and prove that diagonals of a rectangle are equal.
15 ABCD is a rhombus. The bisector of ABD meets AD at K. Prove that AKB = 3ABK.
B C

A K D

16 ABCD is a rectangle. Equilateral triangles ABX and DAY are drawn outside ABCD. Draw
a diagram and prove that triangle CXY is equilateral.
17 Draw a diagram and prove that if each angle of a quadrilateral is equal to the opposite
angle then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
18 Draw a diagram and prove that if each side of a quadrilateral is equal to the opposite side
then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

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8CEnlargements
Enlargements and similarity

An enlargement stretches a figure by the same factor in all directions.


An enlargement transformation is specified by its centre of enlargement and its
enlargement factor.
When a figure is enlarged:
matching lengths are in the same ratio and
matching angles are equal.
A C
The image is thus a scale drawing of the
original figure.
In the diagram at the right, O is A C
the centre of enlargement.
ABC is an enlargement
by factor 2 of ABC.
O B B
Since the enlargement factor
AB BC C A
is 2, = = = 2.
AB BC CA

Similarity
Two figures are called similar if we can enlarge one figure
so that its enlargement is congruent to the other figure. In
simple term, this means that by enlarging or shrinking one
of two items, we get the other item, perhaps translated,
rotated or reflected.
Thus, similar figures have the same shape, but not
necessarily the same size, just as a scale drawing has the
same shape as the original, but has a different
size.

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Similar figures
Two figures are called similar if there is an enlargement of one figure that is congruent
to the other figure.
Matching lengths in similar figures are in the same ratio, called the similarity ratio.
Matching angles in similar figures are equal.

Similarity tests for triangles


As with congruence, most problems involving similarity come down to establishing that two
triangles are similar. In this section we review the four similarity tests for triangles. For each
congruence test there is a corresponding similarity test.

The AAA similarity test


If the angles of one triangle are respectively equal to the angles of another triangle,
then the two triangles are similar.

Note: When using this test, it is sufficient to prove that just two pairs of angles are
equal the third pair must then also be equal since the angle sum of any triangle
is 180. Thus, the test is often called the AA similarity test.
This similarity test corresponds to the AAS congruence test.

Similarity statements
B
Arguments using similar triangles depend on a
statement that two triangles are similar. As with
congruence, always give the similarity test in brackets Q
A C
afterwards, and be particularly careful to name the
vertices in matching order.
P R
Thus, for the triangles shown, we write
ABC is similar to PQR (AAA).

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Example 3

For each diagram, write a similarity statement beginning with ABC is similar to
and state the test you used.
Be careful to name the vertices in matching order.
a A b A

C

B
B

M


P
C

Solution

a ABC is similar to CPB (AAA)


b ABC is similar to BMC (AAA)

The SSS similarity test


If we can match up the sides of one triangle with C
the sides of the other so that the ratio of matching 5 4
lengths is constant, then the triangles are similar.
A 6 B
R
1
72
6

P 9 Q

The statement that the two triangles shown in the box above are similar is thus written as
ABC is similar to PQR (SSS).
3
The similarity factor is .
2
The SSS similarity test corresponds to the SSS congruence test.

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Ratios between triangles and ratios within triangles
When two triangles are similar we can read off the ratios of the matching lengths between the
triangles in the box on the previous page. That is,
PQ RQ PR 3
= = =
AB CB AC 2
Alternatively, we can read off the ratios within the triangles. Thus, for the triangles on the
previous page,
PQ AB 6
= =
PR AC 5
PQ AB 3
and = =
RQ CB 2
RQ CB 4
and = =
PR AC 5

a x a b
Note that = is equivalent to = because both statements are equivalent to ay = bx.
b y x y
That is, equal ratios between the triangles is equivalent to equal ratios within triangles.
It does not matter whether you use ratios between triangles or ratios within triangles.

Example 4

a Prove that the two triangles in the diagram are similar.


b Which of the two marked angles are equal?

Solution

a In the triangles ABC and CBD:


A
AB
= 2 (given)
CB

BC 18
=2 (given)
BD 12

CA 9 B
=2 (given) C
DC 6 1
42
so ABC is similar to CBD (SSS). D

b Hence, g = q. (matching angles of similar triangles)

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The SAS similarity test
There are two ways of stating the test:
Q
If the ratios of two pairs of matching sides 1
are equal and the included angles are
P R
equal, then the two triangles are similar. 22
1

OR B

If the ratio of the lengths of two 2


sides of one triangle is equal to
the ratio of the lengths of another A 5
C
triangle and the included angles
are equal, then the two triangles
are similar.

The statement that the two triangles in the box above are similar is thus written as
ABC is similar to PQR (SAS).
Consider PQR and ABC, as shown in the box above. The ratios of matching lengths are:
AC AB
= =2
PR PQ

PR AC 5
The ratios within the triangles are = = .
PQ AB 2

The RHS similarity test


There are two ways of stating the test:
B Q
If the ratio of the hypotenuses and the ratio of one
pair of sides of a right-angled triangle are equal, 2
then the triangles are similar. 3
OR A C
1
If the ratio of the hypotenuse and one side of one
right-angled triangle is equal to the ratio P 1
12 R
of the hypotenuse and one side of another right-angled
triangle, then the two triangles are similar.

The statement that the two triangles in the box above are similar is thus written as
ABC is similar to PQR (RHS).

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Consider ABC and PQR as shown in the box on the previous page. The ratios of
matching lengths are:
PR QP 3
= =
AC AB 2

The ratios within the triangles are:


BA QP
= =2
AC PR

Example 5
14
Determine whether the triangles A B
80
shown are similar and, if they are,
11.2
state the appropriate similarity test.
X Y
C
8 80 10

Solution

In ABC and YZX,


ABC = YZX = 80.
AB 14 7
= = and
YZ 10 5
BC 11.2 7
= =
ZX 8 5
ABC is similar to YZX (SAS).
Alternatively,
BA 14
= = 1.25
BC 11.2
ZY 10
= = 1.25 and
ZX 8
ABC = YZX = 80
so ABC is similar to YZX (SAS).

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Example 6

Determine whether the triangles shown are similar and, if they are, state the
appropriate similarity test.
B U 9 V Y
105 10

X 35
30
35 105 40
A 8 C W Z

Solution

ABC has angles 35, 40, 105.


UVW has angles 45, 105, 30.
XYZ has angles 35, 105, 40.
Hence, ABC is similar to XZY (AAA),
but UVW is not similar to either of the other two.

Example 7

Determine whether the triangles shown are similar and find the values of the
pronumerals. (The lengths are correct to the nearest whole number.)
25
75 15
50 x
18
J K
20 L
75 45 75
60
12

Solution

a = 55, b = 60 and g = 45 (angle sum of a triangle)


Thus, triangles K and L are similar (AAA), but triangle J is not similar to K or L.
The matching side lengths in triangles L and K are 12 and 15 (since they are opposite
the 45 angle) and x and 18 (since they are opposite the 60 angle).

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Method 1 Method 2
Using ratios between the triangles. Using the ratios within each triangle.
x 12 x 18
= =
18 15 12 15
12 18
so x = 18 so x = 12
15 15
x = 14.4 x = 14.4

Similar figures can be used to calculate magnitudes of angles and lengths in practical
situations, as in the following examples.

Example 8

Some students estimate the height of an electricity pylon using the following method.
One student holds a 3-metre pole vertical while another student sights from ground
level. The pole is moved until the top of the pole lines up with the top of the pylon,
asshown in the diagram. t pylon
h
sig
The distances x metres and y metres are measured and eo
f
it is found that x = 4.2 and y = 75.6. lin hm
pole
Using similar triangles, calculate the approximate height 3m
of the pylon.
level ground
xm ym

Solution

The two triangles are similar (AAA).


h x+y
Thus, =
3 x
79.8
=

4.2
79.8
h = 3 = 57 hm
4.2
3m
Hence, the height of the pylon
is 57 metres. 4.2 m 79.8 m

C h a p t e r 8 R e v i e w o f c o n g r u e n c e a n d s i m i l a rit y 309
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Example 9
C
A builder constructs a frame, as shown in the diagram,
where AC = 9 metres and BC = 6 metres. A strut, DE, is 1m
added so that EC = 1 metre. The builder wants to D E
know the position of D so that DE and AB 9m 6m
are parallel.

A B

Solution

Let CD = y m.
Since AB is parallel to DE, DCE is similar to ACB (AAA).
CD CE
Hence, = (matching sides of similar triangles).
CA CB
C C
We see that:
ym 1m
y 1
= so y = 1.5
9 6 D E
Thus, D is 1.5 m from C. 9m 6m

A B

Example 10

In the figure shown, P


PTQ = PRS = a. Prove that
Q
PQ PR = PT PS.

T

S R

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Solution

In PTQ and PSR,


PTQ = PRS (given)
TPQ = SPR (same angle)
so PTQ is similar to PRS (AAA).
PQ PT
Hence, = (matching sides of similar triangles)
PS PR
PQ PR = PT PS

Exercise 8C
Examples 37 1 Determine whether the triangles in each pair are similar. If they are similar, state the
appropriate similarity test.
a A b L
7 cm 3 cm P
2 70

P 30 80 80
B 5 cm C
M N 70 Q
15
cm
2 9 cm
2
R
Q 21 R
cm
4

c S d 4 cm M
L 30

X 4 cm
N
U T S 6 cm
30 T

Z Y 6 cm

U
e B f G
10.5

H 8 I
F 12
C 7
A E
J

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g O h Q
N
100 R

100
K L M U S
T

i D j (Compare all three triangles)


F
9 8

E C
4.5 4 50 40
I H G
A B

2 a State why these two triangles A


7 cm
are similar.
B D
x cm
b Calculate x.
8 cm
C
E 10 cm

5 cm

F
3 a State why these two triangles F
12 cm
are similar. E
C
13 cm
b Calculate y. 10 cm
y cm 12 cm D


A B
15.6 cm

4 a State why these two triangles L 20 cm K


are similar. 49 a

13 cm 15 cm
b Find a and find a, then b in terms of b. I
b
9 cm 7.8 cm J

G 12 cm H

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5 a In the diagram shown, name two D
triangles that are similar and state 1.6 m
why they are similar.
2.2 m C
b Write down the three equal ratios. 1.7 m
xm
c Calculate the value of x. E
0.2 m B
A 3m
6 a List the three pairs of equal angles D
in the figure.
b Find the length of AB. A 3 cm 5 cm

c Find the length of DC. C


4 cm E
5.4 cm

B
7 a In the diagram shown, are the 56 A
two triangles similar? If so, why?
E 48
b If AD = 6 cm, DB = 4 cm and D
AE = 7 cm, calculate AC. 76
C B

8 a State why LMP is similar to PMN. P

b If PM = 10 cm and MN = 6 cm, calculate LM.

28 62
L M N

Example 8 9 At a certain time of day, a flagpole casts a shadow 15 m long, and at the same time
a stick 30 cm high casts a shadow 24 cm long. Assuming that both the stick and the
flagpole are perpendicular to the horizontal ground, find the height of the flagpole.
10 This diagram represents a river (shaded) with a tree on the bank at A
point A. A man stands directly opposite A, on the opposite bank,
at point B. He then walks 100 m along the bank, to point C, where
he places a peg. He then walks a further 50 m to point D, turns 90 D
and walks 65 m to point E, where he finds that E, C and A are in a C B
straight line. Find the width of the river.
E
11 A tower standing on level ground casts a shadow 40 m long. At
the same time, a vertical stick 4m high casts a shadow 6 m long. Find the height of the
tower.
12 A line from the top of a church steeple to the ground just passes over the top of a
pole 3 m high, and meets the ground at a point A, 2 m from the base of the pole. If the
distance of A from a point directly below the church steeple is 22 m, find the height of
the steeple.

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13 In the diagram opposite, AE || DC and C
CD = 2AE. Prove that BD = 2AB.
A

E
D
14 In the figure opposite, the line OC is perpendicular to
D
line OD and OA = 2OC. B is a point on OD and AB || CD.
A
Prove that AOB is similar to COD and hence prove
O C
that OB = 2OD.

15 In the figure shown, ABC is a triangle, right-angled at B, and B


BD AC. Prove that:
a ABD is similar to ACB
A D C
b BCD is similar to ACB
16 In the figure shown, AB AC and CD AC. D

A point P lies on the line AC such that APB = CPD. B

a Prove that BAP is similar to DCP.


qx A P C
b If AB = x, CD = y, AP = b and CP = q, prove that y = .
b
17 ABCD is a parallelogram and E is the midpoint of AD. D C
The intervals BE and AC intersect at P. Prove that:
E P
a APE is similar to CPB
b AC = 3AP A B

Example 10 18 In ABC, D lies on AB and E lies on the interval AC such A


that EDB and ACB are supplementary angles. D
E
a Prove that ADE is similar to ACB.
AE AD B C
b Prove that . =
AB AC
19 In the figure shown, ABC is isosceles with AB = AC. A
The point F lies on BC such that AF BC. The point P
lies on BC and the point D lies on AB such that DP AB. D
a Prove that PBD is similar to ACF.
FC AC
b Prove that = . B F C P
DB PB

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20 In the diagram shown, AB = AC and L, M and N are midpoints A
of AB, BC and CA respectively. Prove that LM = NM.
L N

B M C

21 Complete the following proof of Pythagoras theorem. B

a Show that ABC is similar to ADB. c b


x
b Show that a2 ay = c2.
c Show that ABC is similar to BDC. A C
D y
a
d Show that ay = b2.
e Deduce that a2 = b2 + c2.

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8D Similarity and intervals
within a triangle
Similarity is a useful tool to analyse an interval joining points on two sides of a triangle, as in
the example below.

Example 11

In triangle ABC, A
14 7
AP = 14, PB = 6, AQ = 7 and QC = 3.
P Q
6
a Prove that ABC is similar to APQ. 3
B C
b Prove that PQ is parallel to BC.
c Find the ratio PQ:BC.

Solution

a In triangles APQ and ABC,


AB AC 10
= =
AP AQ 7
BAC = PAQ
ABC is similar to APQ (SAS).
b Since the triangles are similar, ABC = APQ.
Therefore, corresponding angles are equal.
Thus, BC || PQ.
c PQ:BC = 7:10 (matching sides of similar triangles)

Exercise 8D
1 Prove that the interval joining the midpoints of two B
sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half
its length.
M N

A C

2 Prove that the line through the midpoint of one B


side of a triangle parallel to another side meets
the third side of the triangle at its midpoint.
M N

A C

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3 Prove that the intervals joining the midpoints of the sides of a triangle dissect the triangle
into four congruent triangles, each similar to the original triangle.
4 Prove that the midpoints of the sides of a quadrilateral form the vertices of a
parallelogram.
C
Point N is the midpoint of BC N

Point Q is the midpoint of CD B


Q
Point P is the midpoint of AD M
Point M is the midpoint of AB
A P D

5 Draw a diagram of a triangle ABC with a point P on AB and a point Q on AC such that
AP = 12, PB = 9, AQ = 4 and QC = 3.
Prove that PQ || BC.
6 Draw a diagram of a triangle ABC with a point P on AB and a point Q on AC such that
AP = 9, PC = 15, AQ = 6 and PQ || BC.
Find the length QB and the ratio PQ:BC.
B
7 The point S is the intersection point of two lines. Points
A and B are the points of intersection of the first line with A
two parallel lines, such that B is further away from Sthan
A. Similarly, points C and D are the intersections of the
S C D
second line with the two parallel lines, such that D is
further away from S than C.
Prove that:
a SA:AB = SC:CD b SB:AB = SD:CD c SA:SB = SC:SD
8 The point S is the intersection point of two lines. Points B
A and B are the points of intersection of the first line with A
two other lines, such that B is further away from S than A.
Similarly, points C and D are the intersection points of the
second line with the two other lines, such that D is further S
away from S than C. Prove that if SA:AB = SC:CD, then C D
the two intercepting lines AC and BD are parallel.

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Review exercise

1 Find the value of a, b and g in the diagram at the right. 37

80
(3 + 3)

2 a Name the similar triangles in the diagram at the right. P

b Find x. A
x cm
3 cm

C 6 cm B 4 cm Q

3 In the parallelogram ABCD, E is a C


E
F
point on CD, and BE and AD are D
produced to meet at F. B
A
a Prove that triangle BEC is similar to triangle FED.
b Given that CD = 3ED, AB = 6 and BC = 8:
i find ED ii find DF
4 Find the value of the Greek letters in each diagram.
a b 24
C E
A F
114 102 G

134
B 44
I H

c A d E F
38

H G

4
B C
e C f E
B 3

2 D
F

H

A 230

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5 In the diagram at the right, ABC is isosceles with AB = AC, A
ABC = 55, AD || EG || FI and DI || AC.
E
a Find BAC and ACB. D G
b Find FIC and prove that FIC is isosceles. F
c Prove that DB = DI. 55
C
d If GD = GI and FGI = 34, find GIF and EFG. B I

6 For each pair of triangles below, write a congruence statement, including the appropriate
congruence test.
a N 10 cm
O
130

20 Y
10 cm
X 20 130
M
Z

b B R 7 cm S

25 cm 25 cm

A 7 cm C T

7 In the parallelogram ABCD, E lies on CD, and C F


E
BE and AD are produced to meet at F. D
B
The interval CE is 2 units longer than DE and DF A
is 3 units longer than DE. Let DE = x.
a Find BC in terms of x.
b Given that AF = 15 cm, find the length of DE.

8 AB and DC are parallel sides of a trapezium ABCD. The diagonals of the trapezium
BO AO
intersect at O. Prove that = .
OD OC
BE AB
9 BE and CF are altitudes of a triangle ABC. Prove that = .
CF AC

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10 Find the value of x in each diagram.
a A b E

x cm 11 cm

C x cm B
B C D 17 cm
8 cm 6 cm

10 cm A

D 16 cm E

c A d A

7
6
D
B C
15 x
3

B 2E 3 C

11 ABCD is a rectangle with A 12 D


AD = 12 and DC = 5, and BE and x E

DF are perpendicular to AC.


5
a Find AC. b Find EF. x
F
B C

12 In triangle ABC, AB = 8 cm, BC = 5 cm and CA = 6 cm. The side AB is produced to D so


that BD = 16 cm, and AC is extended to E so that CE = 26 cm. Find DE.

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Challenge exercise

1 Attic space in a particular house has the shape A


of a triangular prism.
Triangle AFC is isosceles with AF = AC = 4 m and FC = 3 m.
A box in the form of a rectangular prism is placed G B
in the attic, touching both sides.
A cross section is shown in the diagram opposite,
where the face EGBD of the box is shown.
The box is 204 cm wide; that is, ED = GB = 204 cm. F E X D C

a Find the length of AB.


b Find the length of AX, where X is the midpoint of FC.
c Find the height, EG, of the box.
d A box in the shape of a cube is to be placed on top of this box.
Find the length, correct to the nearest cm, of an edge of the largest cube that could fit.
2 The diagonals of a square ABCD are AC and BD, which intersect at O. The bisector of
BAC cuts BO at X and BC at Y. Prove that CY = 2OX. (Hint: Let AY meet CD at Z and
consider ACZ.)
3 A, B, C and D are points on a straight line so that AB = BC = CD. Also, BPQC is a
parallelogram. If BP = 2BC, prove that PD is perpendicular to AQ.
4 In triangle ABC, AB = AC and ABC = 2BAC. The segment BC is produced to D so
that 2CAD = BAC. The point F lies on AB so that CF is perpendicular to AB. Prove
that AD = 2CF. (Hint: Find an extra isosceles triangle and draw an altitude.)
5 X and Y are the mid-points of the sides PS and SR of a parallelogram PQRS. Prove that
the area of triangle SXY is one eighth the area of the parallelogram.
6 a In ABC, AD bisects BAC. A
BD BA
Prove that = .
DC AC
Hint: Construct CE parallel to DA to
meet BA extended at E.
B D C

b The bisectors of the angle A and the angle C of a quadrilateral ABCD meet at
point E on the diagonal BD.
AD CD
Prove that = .
AB CB
c The bisectors of the angles A, B and C of ABC meet the opposite sides
at D, E and F.
BD CE AF
Prove that = 1.
DC EA FB

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7 Triangle ABC is right-angled at C. This question B
leads you through another proof of Pythagoras
c
theorem using enlargements. a

a Enlarge triangle ABC by a factor of b to form


A
triangle ABC and mark the side lengths of each C b
side on a diagram of triangle ABC.
b Enlarge triangle ABC by a factor of a to form triangle ABC, and show the side
lengths of each side on a diagram of triangle ABC.
c Join triangle ABC and ABC along sides BC and CA with
C and C coinciding.
d Show that the new triangle formed is similar to triangle ABC.
e What is the enlargement factor that transforms triangle ABC to this triangle?
f Deduce Pythagoras theorem.
8 Prove that the lines joining the midpoints of opposite sides of any quadrilateral bisect
each other.

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