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GREEN FUNCTION EBOOK

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Sarabandi

As mentioned earlier the applications of dyadic analysis facilitates simple manipulation

of field vector calculations. The source of electromagnetic fields is the electric current

which is a vector quantity. On the other hand small-signal electromagnetic fields satisfy

the linearity conditions and therefore the behavior of the fields can be described in terms

of the system impulse response. Since both the input (excitation current) and the output

(field quantities) of the system are vector quantities, the impulse response of the system

must be a dyadic quantity. In what follows the derivation of dyadic Greens function

(impulse response for free space) is presented. Then the Fourier representation of the

Greens function is derived which expresses the fields of an infinitesimal current source in

terms of a continuous spectrum of plane waves. This form of the dyadic Greens function

is useful for further development of dyadic Greens functions for more complicated media

such as a dielectric half-space medium or a stratified (multi-layer) dielectric medium.

Consider an arbitrary time-harmonic electric current distribution J e in an unbounded ho-

mogeneous medium with permittivity and permeability . Starting from the Maxwells

equation, the vector wave equation for the electric field can be obtained and is given by:

where J e (r) is the impressed volumetric current distribution. As shown previously the

electric field is usually calculated indirectly from the electric Hertz potential and is given

by:

E(r) = k 2 + e (r) (2)

where

iZ

Z

e (r) = J e (r )g(r, r )dv (3)

k v

The electric field expression given by (2) is valid for all r in this medium including source

points. Here

1 eik|rr |

g(r, r ) =

4 |r r |

1

is the scalar Greens function satisfying the scalar wave equation

2 + k 2 g(r, r ) = (r r ) (4)

x x

J e (r) = (r r ) = (r r ) (5)

i ikZ

According to (3) and (2) the resulting electric field can be obtained from

1

x

G (r, r ) = 1 + 2 g(r, r )

x

k

x

where G (r, r ) denotes the impulse response to an x-directed excitation. In a similar

manner the electric field in response to infinitesimal y-directed and z-directed currents

are given by

1

y

G (r, r ) = 1 + 2 g(r, r )

y

k

1

z

G (r, r ) = 1 + 2 g(r, r )

z

k

Using the compact dyadic notation, the electric field due to an arbitrary oriented

p

(along p) infinitesimal current ikZ (r r ) can be obtained from:

p =

E (r, r ) =G (r, r ) p

= x y z

where G (r, r ) = G (r, r )

x + G (r, r )

y + G (r, r )

z is referred to as the dyadic Greens

=

function of free-space. The explicit expression for G (r, r ) is given by

1

=

G (r, r ) = 1 + 2 g(r, r )(xx + yy + zz)

k

1

=

= 1 + 2 g(r, r ) I

k

= = =

where I is the unit dyad (idemfactor). Noting that I = I = for any

differentiable scalar function , the expression for the dyadic Greens function is given

by

2

= 1 =

G (r, r ) = I + 2 g(r, r ) (6)

k

= q

Referring to (1) each vector component of G (r, r ) G (r, r ); q = x, y, z satisfies

q q

G (r, r ) k 2 G (r, r ) = q(r r ) (7)

equations given by (7) and summing these equations, we obtain

= = =

G (r, r ) k 2 G (r, r ) =I (r r ) (8)

Greens Function

Consider a homogeneous medium bounded by a closed surface S which includes an

arbitrary electric current distribution J e (r). Using the vector wave equation (1) and (8)

in conjunction with the vector-dyadic Greens theorem given by

ZZZ = =

P Q ( P ) Q dv = (9)

v

ZZ = =

n P ) Q +(

( n P ) Q ds .

s

an explicit expression for the electric field due to the impressed electric current can be

= =

obtained. By letting P = E(r) and Q=G (r, r ) it can easily be shown that

=

ZZZ

E(r ) = ikZ Je (r) G (r, r )dv (10)

v

ZZ

= =

n E(r)) G (r, r ) + (

( n E(r)) G (r, r ) ds .

s

=

ZZZ

E(r ) = ikZ J e (r) G (r, r )dv (11)

v

ZZ

= =

ikZ(n H(r)) G (r, r ) + (

n E(r)) G (r, r ) ds

s

3

To find an expression for the magnetic field, we start with the vector wave equation for

the magnetic field given by

= =

Again by letting P = H(r) and Q=G (r, r ) in (9), we obtain

=

ZZZ h i

H(r ) = J e (r) G (r, r )dv (13)

v

ZZ

= =

n H(r)) G (r, r ) + (

( n H(r)) G (r, r ) ds

s

= = =

(a b ) = a b a b ,

ZZZ

= = =

ZZZ h i

Je (r) G (r, r )dv = Je (r) G (r, r ) + Je (r) G (r, r ) dv

v v

= =

ZZZ ZZ

Je (r) G (r, r ) dv = Je (r) G (r, r ) ds

n

v s

=

ZZ h i

= Je (r) G (r, r ) ds

n

s

=

ZZZ

H(r ) = J e (r) G (r, r )dv (14)

v

= =

ZZ h i

+
ikY n E(r) G (r, r ) (

n H(r)) G (r, r ) ds

s

4

2 Field Quantities Generated from Magnetic and

Electric Currents

Equations (11) and (14) provide the electric and magnetic field quantities in a bounded

region originated from an electric current distribution and a certain surface field quan-

tities at the surface of this bounded region. In this section these results are extended

to allow for the existence of both electric and magnetic currents. This can easily be

done by first obtaining the field expressions using a magnetic current distribution as

the excitation. The duality relations can be employed to find the field quantities for

a magnetic current excitation from those given by (11) and (14). We first point out

that the magnetic dyadic Greens function for an unbounded homogeneous medium is

the same as the electric one. Apply the duality relations to (11) and (14) the following

expressions are obtained

=

ZZZ

H m (r ) = ikY J m (r) G (r, r )dv (15)

v

ZZ

= =

n E m (r)) G (r, r ) + (

ikY ( n H m (r)) G (r, r ) ds

s

=

ZZZ

E m (r ) = J m (r) G (r, r ) dv (16)

v

ZZ

= =

n H m (r)) G (r, r ) + (

ikZ( n E m (r)) G (r, r ) ds

s

Superposition of (11) and (16) and (14) and (15) provides the total fields within S and

are given by

= =

ZZZ

E(r ) = ikZJ e (r) G (r, r ) J m (r) G (r, r ) dv (17)

v

ZZ

= =

n H(r )) G (r, r ) + (

ikZ( n E(r )) G (r, r ) ds

s

= =

ZZZ

H(r ) = J e (r) G (r, r ) + ikY J m (r) G (r, r ) dv (18)

v

ZZ

= =

+ n E(r)) G (r, r ) (

ikY ( n H(r)) G (r, r ) ds

s

The contribution from the surface integrals of (13) and (14) should vanish as the surface

approaches infinity according to the radiation condition first postulated by Sommerfeld.

5

The electric field far away from the source and observation points satisfies

n o

lim r E(r) ik

r E(r) = 0 (19)

r

x y

The magnetic field also satisfies an identical equation. Using (19) for G (r, r ), G (r, r ),

z

and G (r, r ) and by juxtaposing unit vectors x, y, and z at the posterior position of

each equation respectively and then adding the three resulting equations we get

= =

lim r G (r, r ) ik

r G (r, r ) = 0 (20)

r

which is known as the radiation condition for the free-space dyadic Greens function.

The compact form of the dyadic Greens function which is given by

= = 1 eik|rr |

G (r, r ) = I +

k2 4|r r |

can be expressed in any desired coordinate system. For example, in Cartesian coordinate

system, where

= x + y + z ,

x y z

the dyadic Greens function can be represented, in matrix form, in the following manner

2 2 2

k2 +

x2 xy xz

=

2 2 2 eik|rr |

k 2 + y

G (r, r ) = 2

(21)

yx

2 2

yz

2

4k 2 |r r |

zx zy

k 2 + z 2

=

It is quite obvious from (21) that G (r, r ) is a symmetric dyad, i.e.

T

= =

G (r, r ) = G (r, r ) (22)

= =

V G (r, r ) =G (r, r ) V

6

=

Also noting that = 0, G (r, r ) can easily be evaluated as follows

1

= = =

G (r, r ) = I + 2 g(r, r ) = I g(r, r )

k

=

= g(r, r ) I

0 z

y ik|rr |

e

=

G (r, r ) =

0 x (23)

z

4|r r |

y x

0

=

which is obviously anti-symmetric (any dyad of the form C I is anti-symmetric).

=

Another expanded form of G (r, r ) can be obtained by noting that

d 1

g(R) = g(R)R = (ik )g(R)R

dR R

1

= ik ,

g(R)R

R

where R = |r r | and

r r

R= .

|r r |

Hence,

1 + ik 1 g(R)R

g(R) = ik g(R) R , (24)

R R

can be calculated easily noting that,

R

!

= R (R) 1

(R) = + R

R R R

=

But (R) =I and therefore

1

=

= I R

(R) R

R

After some algebraic manipulations it can be shown that

7

= 3 3i + 1+ i 1

=

G (r, r ) = R

1 R I g(R) (25)

2

k R 2 kR kR k 2 R2

In the evaluation of fields away from the sources where |r r | is much larger than typical

dimension of the source, simple expressions for the field quantities are usually obtained.

Keeping only the terms of the order of R1 1r , the far-field expression for the free-space

dyadic Greens function can be obtained from (25) and is given by

= eik|rr |

=

G (r, r ) I r r (26)

4r

ikr

e

=

I r r eikrr

4r

Equation (26) indicates that the field quantities do not possess a radial component.

Greens Function

Another useful representation of the dyadic Greens function is its Fourier Transform

where the field response to an impulse excitation is expressed in terms of a continuous

spectrum (angular) of plane waves. This expansion in terms of plane waves is useful

since the scattering solution of many problems to plane wave excitation is known. Using

the plane wave solution together with the superposition principle, the solution to any

arbitrary source can be obtained.

The starting point is equation (4). Let us assume, without loss of generality, that the

source point is at the origin. Then

2 2 2

!

+ + + k02 g(r) = (r) (27)

x2 y 2 z 2

+

ZZZ

g(k) = g(r)ei(kx x+ky y+kz z) dx dy dz

8

Conversely g(r) in terms of its Fourier transform is obtained from

+

1

ZZZ

g(r) = g(k)ei(kx x+ky y+kz z) dkx dky dkz (28)

(2)3

+

1

ZZZ

(r) = ei(kx x+ky y+kz z) dkx dky dkz

(2)3

1

g(k) = (29)

kx2 + ky2 + kz2 ko2

transform can be used to express the field quantities

in terms of plane waves eikr , it is not usually used because all three components of

the propagation vector are independent, that is, the frequencies of these plane waves are

not necessarily the same. To constrain the propagation vector k the integration with

respect to one of the variables must be carried out. We consider integration of (28) over

kz , that is

+

1 1

Z

I(z) = eikz z dkz ; h2 = ko2 kx2 ky2 (30)

2 kz2 h2

Considering the behavior of g(r), we expect that I(z) approaches zero at z = . This

is justifiable if we let h to be complex with Im[h] > 0. Such assumption is common

and corresponds to a slightly lossy media. After evaluation of the integral, the lossless

condition is restored by allowing Im[h] 0. With this assumption the locations of the

poles of the integrand (30) are shown in Figure 1. The contour of integration is assumed

to be along the real axis. For z 0 the contour can be closed in the upper half-plane with

a semi-circle of a large radius (R ) noting that Im[kz ] > 0 (a radiation condition

requirement). In this case the integrand along the semi-circle contour is zero.

For z 0, the contour can be closed in the lower half-plane. Using Cauchys residue

theorem to the contour integrals, I(z) can easily be evaluated and is given by

(

i eihz z 0 i ih|z|

I(z) = = e

2h eihz z 0 2h

q

where h = ko2 kx2 ky2 . Replacing h with kz and keeping in mind that kz is no longer

an independent parameter, (28) takes the following form

9

Im [kz]

Path of integration

for z > 0

kz = h

Re [kz]

kz = h

i e dk

g(r) = 2

(31)

(2) 2kz

where

k = kx x + ky y

r = x

x + y y

q

kz = k 2 k2 , Im[kz ] > 0

k2 = kx2 + ky2

=

To find G (r), derivatives of g(r) must be evaluated, however, it should be noted that

the derivative of g(r) with respect to z is discontinuous, that is,

+

1 ZZ 1

ik r +ikz |z|

g(r) = e dk f (z)

z (2)2 2

(

1 z>0

f (z) =

1 z < 0

ZZ+

2 1

g(r) = eik r dk (z)

z 2 (2)2

10

ZZ+

i kz

eik r +ikz |z| dk f 2 (z)

(2)2 2

+

2 1

eik r dk = (x)(y) and therefore

RR

But f (z) = 1 and 2

(2)

ZZ+

2 i kz i(k r +kz |z|)

2

g(r) = (r) e dkx dky (32)

z (2)2

2

=

Substituting (31) in (6) and using (32) a simple expression for G (r) can be obtained.

Interchanging the order of differentiation and integration and noting that x , y and

z

can be replaced with ikz , iky and ikz ( + sign for z > 0 and sign for z < 0 )

respectively it can easily be shown that

+

=

i 1

I kk eikr d k z > 0

RR

z z

= 8 2 kz k2

G (r) = (r) + + (33)

k2

=

i 1

KK iKr

RR

8 2 kz I k2

e d k z < 0

where

k = kx x + ky y + kz z

K = kx x + ky y kz z

Equation (33) is the expansion of the free-space dyadic Greens function in terms of a

continuous spectrum of plane waves (monochromatic) propagating along the vectors k

and K which are in general complex quantities.

Propagation vector K is the mirror image

of k in x-y plane K = k 2(k z)z and represents plane waves propagating along the

z direction. Another useful representation appropriate for planar boundaries can be

=

obtained by decomposing the vectors in G (r) into TE and TM components. Recognizing

that k/k is a unit vector (k) the horizontal (TE) and vertical (TM) unit vectors are,

respectively, defined by

k z ky x kx y 1

e(kz ) = = q = (ky x kx y)

|k z| kx2 + ky2 k

z ) = e k = kz (

h(k

k

xkx + yky ) + z

kk k

The triplet h,

11

=

I k k = ee + h

h (34)

instead of k.

k

the horizontal and vertical unit vectors are given by:

K z

e(kz ) = = e(kz )

|K z|

h(k z) = e

K

and as before

=

K

I K = e(kz )

e(kz ) + h(k

z )h(kz ) (35)

Inserting (34) and (35) into (33) and translating the source from the origin to r , the

free-space dyadic Greens function takes the following form:

+

z )h(k

z ) eik(rr ) d k

h i

i 1

z > z

RR

ee + h(k

z z

= 2

8 kz

G (r, r ) = 2 (r r ) + + (36)

k i RR 1

h

ee + h(k

i

iK(rr )

d k z < z

z )h(kz ) e

8 2 kz

This form of the dyadic Greens function is usually not appropriate for numerical eval-

uation, especially when z z << . In this case the convergence rate of the integral

is very poor.

lems

In some electromagnetic scattering problems where the geometry of the problem is in-

dependent of one coordinate variable the formulation of the problem can be made some-

what simpler. Without loss of generality let us assume that the scatterer geometry is

independent of z. In this case the scatterer is a cylinder of arbitrary cross-section whose

axis is along z. Since there is no variation with respect to z, all field quantities take the

z dependence of the excitation. Suppose

J(r) = J()eikzi z

12

where = xx + y y. The differential operator can also be made explicit with respect to

z

which is replaced by ikzi, that is

= t + ikzi z

where t = x x + y y. Since the dependence of J(r) with respect to z is explicit, in

field calculations the integral with respect to z can be carried out. Therefore the 2-D

dyadic Greens function is given by

+ = 1 = 1 + eik|rr | ikzi z

Z

=

Z

ikzi z

G (, ) = G (r, r )e dz = I + 2 e dz

4 k |r r |

Using the identity

| |2 +(zz )2

+ eik

Z

(1)

q eikzi z dz = iH0 (k | |)eikziz (37)

| |2 + (z z )2

q

2

where k = k 2 kzi , the 2-D dyadic Greens function takes the following form:

= i = 1

2 (1) ik z

G (, ) = I + 2 t t + ikzit z + ikzi zt kzi zz H0 (k | |)e zi . (38)

4 k

1 2 1 2 ikzi

1+ k 2 x2 k 2 xy k 2 x

=

1 2 1 2 ikzi

i (1)

G (, ) = 1+ H (k | |)eikzi z (39)

k 2 yx k 2 y 2 k 2 y

4 0

ikzi ikzi k2

k 2 x k 2 y k02

tion

A procedure similar to what was shown for 3-dimensional dyadic Greens function can

be followed to obtain the Fourier representation of 2-D dyadic Greens function. The

Fourier representation can also be obtained in a simpler way using the following identity

(1)

q 1 Z + 1 ikx (xx )+iky |yy |

H0 (k (x x )2 + (y y)2 ) = e dkx (40)

ky

13

q

where ky = k2 kx2 . Substituting (40) in (39) and after some algebraic manipulations

it can be shown that

=

ieikzi z R + 1

I kk ei[kx (xx )+ky (yy ) dkx y > y

y y

= 4 ky k2

ik z

G (, ) = 2 ( )e zi +

R 1 =

(41)

k ieikzi z

KK

ei[kx (xx )ky (yy )] dkx y < y

ky I

4 k2

where

k = kx x + ky y + kzi z

K = kx x ky y + kzi z .

As before k can be considered as the propagation vector of a plane wave going along

positive y direction and K is that of a wave going along y direction. kzi is a fixed

known quantity.

Symmetrical property of dyadic Greens function allows for simple evaluation of the

dyadic Greens function when the locations of source and observation points are inter-

changed. To demonstrate this property the dyadic-dyadic Greens second identity given

by

= T

ZZZ = T

= =

Q P Q P dv = (42)

v

ZZ ( = T = T

)

= =

Q P + Q

n n

P ds

s

will be employed. Let us consider two situations where in each case the source location

is at r a and rb respectively. The dyadic Greens functions for each case must satisfy

= = =

G (r, r a ) k 2 G (r, r a ) = (r ra ) I (43)

= = =

2

G (r, rb ) k G (r, rb ) = (r rb ) I (44)

= = = =

Substituting G (r, r a ) for Q and G (r, rb ) for P in (42) and using the radiation condition

at infinity and equations (43) and (44) it can readily be shown that

14

T

= =

G (r a , r b ) = G (rb , ra ) (45)

That is, the dyadic Greens function when the source is at rb and the observation point

is at r a is the transpose of the Greens function when the source point is at ra and

the observation point is at r b . Although the proof is given for the free space Greens

function, (40) is a general result. Equations (21) and (25) show that the free space

Greens function is symmetric, i.e.,

T

= =

G (r, r ) = G (r, r )

= =

G (r, r ) =G (r , r) (46)

nous Media

In the previous sections we considered the properties of dyadic Greens function for

homogeneous media. In practice however, the medium of interest is often complex

which may be composed of many homogeneous media such as the one shown in Figure

2.

For these problems it is usually desired to derive the expression for a dyadic Greens

function which satisfies the necessary field boundary conditions at the interfaces.

The field quantities in response to a volumetric electric current distribution J e (r) in the

unbounded inhomogeneous medium are simply given by

=

ZZZ

E(r ) = ikn Zn J e (r) G (r, r ) dv (47)

v

=

ZZZ

H(r ) = [Je (r) G (r, r )]dv (48)

v

=

The simple form of (47) is obtained by imposing certain boundary conditions on G (r, r ).

To derive these boundary conditions consider a simple medium composed of two homo-

geneous media. Suppose the source exists only in medium 1 where we have

15

2 2

1 1

P.E.C.

3 3

electric conductors.

= (11)

Let us denote the expression for the dyadic Greens function in medium 1 by G (r, r )

which satisfies

= (11) = (11) =

G (r, r ) k12 G (r, r ) =I (r r ) (51)

= (21)

and the dyadic Greens function in medium 2 by G (r, r ) which satisfies

= (21) = (21)

G (r, r ) k22 G (r, r ) = 0 . (52)

The application of the vector-dyadic Greens second identity to (49) and (51) gives:

= (11)

ZZZ

E 1 (r ) = i1 J 1 (r) G (r, r )dv (53)

v

= (11) = (11)

ZZ

+ n1 H 1 (r1 )) G

i1 ( n1 E 1 (r)) G

(r, r ) + ( (r, r ) ds

s

16

The application of the vector-dyadic Greens second identity to (50) and (52) provides

= (21) = (21)

ZZ

n1 H 2 (r)) G

i2 ( (r, r ) + (

n1 E 2 (r)) G (r, r ) ds = 0 (54)

s

Noting that

n

1 H 1 (r) = n

1 H 2 (r)

n

1 E 1 (r) = n

1 E 2 (r)

= (21) = (21)

n

1 H 1 (r) G (r, r ) = H 1 (r) (

n1 G (r, r ))

= (21) = (21)

1 E 1 (r) G

n (r, r ) = E 1 (r) n

1 ( G (r, r ))

the contribution from the surface integral of (53) can be shown to vanish if

= (11) = (21)

1 n

G (r, r ) = 2 n

G (r, r ) (55)

and

= (11) = (21)

n

G (r, r ) = n

G (r, r ) (56)

Equations (55) and (56) are the necessary boundary conditions for the dyadic Greens

function.

On the surface of perfect electric conductors

(r) E(r) = 0

n

=

(r) G (r , r) = 0.

which mandates n

The symmetry property of the dyadic Greens function can be shown easily by following

the same procedure outlined for the free space dyadic Greens function. Let us consider

two experiments where in one experiment the source is placed at an arbitrary point ra

and the observation point is at r in the nth region. In the second experiment we place

the source point at an arbitrary point r b while keeping the observation point at the same

location r as shown in Figure 3. In both experiments the dyadic Greens functions satisfy

(51) (without the superscripts). Applying the dyadic-dyadic Greens second identity to

17

rb

r r

ra

n th n th

region region

Experiment #1 Experiment #2

for demonstrating the symmetry property of dyadic Greens function.

these dyadic Greens functions which satisfy the radiation condition, it can readily be

shown that

T

= =

G (r a , rb ) = G (rb , ra ) . (57)

It should be noted that it is not very easy to find a dyadic Greens function for a

general piece-wise homogeneous media with arbitrary boundaries. In such cases it is

more convenient to use the free space dyadic Greens function with surface integrals

given by (11) and (14).

In view of (57), equation (47) can be written as

=

ZZZ

E(r ) = i kn Zn

G (r , r) J e (r) dv

v

T

= =

J e (r) G (r, r ) = G (r, r ) J e (r)

and T

= =

G (r, r ) =G (r , r).

=

ZZZ

E(r) = ikn Zn G (r, r ) J e (r )dv (58)

v

18

11 Dyadic Greens Function For Inhomogeneous Me-

dia

Consider an inhomogeneous isotropic medium whose permittivity and permeability are

functions of position and are, respectively, denoted by (r) and (r). As before we are

seeking simple expressions for electric and magnetic fields for an arbitrary source using

the impulse response of the medium. It should be emphasized that the evaluation of the

dyadic Greens function for this type of problem, in general, is very complex; however,

here a formal analysis is provided1 . Taking the curl of the modified Ampers law, it can

be shown that the vector wave equation takes the following form

" #

1

E(r) 2 (r) E(r) = iJ e (r) (59)

(r)

Comparing (1) and (59)for this problem one can define a Greens function such that it

would satisfy

" #

1 = = 1 =

G (r, r ) 2(r) G (r) =

I (r r ) (60)

(r) (r)

Noting that

! !

1 1 1

P Q = QP P Q

(r) (r) (r)

1 1

P Q Q P dv = (61)

v

1n

ZZ o

= QP P Q n ds

s

from which the vector-dyadic Greens second identity can be obtained and is given by

1 = 1 =

P Q P Q dv (62)

v

(r) (r)

1 = =

ZZ

= P n Q n P Q ds

s

(r)

1

W.C. Chew, .

19

= =

Substituting E for P and G for Q in (62), applying (59) and (60), and using the radiation

condition it can easily be shown that

=

ZZZ

E(r) = i(r) J e (r ) G (r , r)dv (63)

v

The magnetic field can be obtained from the application of Faradays law (H(r) =

1

i(r)

E(r)).

1

=

ZZZ

H(r) = J(r) (r) G (r , r) dv (64)

(r) v

!#T

ZZZ " !

1 = =

T

= 1 =

Q P [Q] P dv =

v

(r) (r)

( )

1 = T = T

= =

ZZ

Q P + Q

n n

P ds

s

(r)

T

= =

(r ) G (r, r ) = (r) G (r , r) . (65)

20

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