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Diagnostic Test

Overview of

fractions

Lesson Title: Ordering fractions and fraction Equivalence

Note: This lesson gives teachers a lot of different models for showing

fraction equivalences as well as the algorithm of multiplying numerator

and denominator by the same number to generate equivalent fractions.

The models include fraction strips, fraction circles, paper folding,

counters, an area model, fraction dominoes and a fraction tower. The

teacher may decide to use some or all of these depending on students

prior knowledge.

Prior Knowledge

fractions.

Students will have used fraction circles, fraction strips and the number line to

help visualise and order fractions.

Learning Outcomes

the number line and the use of 0, and 1 as benchmarks

review their understanding of equivalent fractions and consolidate their

mental images of same using paper folding

develop and understand the symbolic rule for finding equivalent fractions

by multiplying numerator and denominator by the same number

reverse this process when reducing a fraction to its simplest form by

dividing the numerator and denominator by the same number

1 1 2 1 3 1 1

, , , , , ,

Evaluate and know common equivalent fractions for 2 3 3 4 4 6 8

Materials:

Fraction circle transparencies for thirds, sixths and ninths

Narrow strips of paper (for paper folding) cut from the length of A4 sheets

rather than the width to facilitate folding into a greater number of parts.

Counters or any other discrete objects to show groups of objects and

reducing fractions

Uni fix cubes or transparency showing of one whole which is the same

length as 7/8 of another whole.

Fraction Towers to show equivalent fractions

Equivalent Fractions

Did you know that if you were on the moon gravity would be 1/6 of what it is on earth so you would feel 6 times lighter!

Students Learning Tasks: Teacher Input Student Activities: Teachers Support and Actions Checking Understanding

Possible and

Responses

Review of the last days work Give each student a sheet of If students can reason

ordering fractions. fraction strips / fraction circles. correctly on ordering the

Write this as a heading in your copy. 7/6 >1 and is the Move around the room and fractions then they can

Order the following fractions from biggest check students work. move on to equivalent

smallest to largest and explain your Where there are difficulties fractions and the

reasoning. Work in pairs and discuss 1/17 is the smallest. ask: operations of addition

and write down your reasons. Eighteenths are Which is the smallest? and subtraction.

Do not use common denominators. smaller parts but 7/18 Which is bigger or

Use fraction strips/circles/number line to is close to but less 7/18? If they are having

help visualise the answers. than it (9/18 = ) Could you describe 4/8 difficulty they must use

3 1 7 7 4 6 whereas 1/17 is close any other way? drawings of fraction

, , , , , to 0. circles/ strips/ the

4 17 6 18 8 7 , Remind students to use 0,

and 1 as benchmarks. number line and get

4/8 is the same as . Teacher writes the fractions in more practice with these

order as given by the students. ordering types of

is bigger than Pictorial representations questions.

and should overcome

I want one person from each pair to give 6/7 is only 1/7 away Students who have good

an explanation for the ordering they misconceptions due to

from 1 whereas is a whole number reasoning. fraction sense should be

have used. quarter less than 1 able to mentally

Different viewpoints should be

which is more than discussed with the class. visualise fractions in

1/7. Students who think 6/7 is relation to 0, and 1.

1/17, 7/18, 4/8, , bigger than because 6 is

Does everyone agree with the final 6/7, 7/6

positions and reasoning? bigger than 3 and 7 is bigger

Students explain in than 4 could be asked for

their own words the example if 6/12 is bigger than

position of a fraction .

Draft 01 Created by Teachers Locally Page 4 of 23

in the final list.

7/8, 8/9, 9/10 Ask students to look at the Can students reason that

6/7? Same number of sheet of fraction strips if they it should have smaller

parts but each one is are having difficulty. (Fraction parts and more of them?

smaller in the case of sheet on transparency also)

Why is 6/8 not bigger than 6/7? 6/8

Equivalent fractions class discussion different ways of saying using the sheet of fraction strips

Equivalent Fractions heading in Some students may Hand out the sheet of fraction Do students have good

your copy say that it means strips. mental images of why

In primary school you met equivalent different ways of fractions are equivalent?

fractions. What does this term mean? saying the same

Can you give examples? fraction.

Use the sheet of fraction strips to find , 2/4, 4/8 etc.

other ways of saying .

Give another way of saying which is 7/14, 8/16, 50/100 etc

not shown on the strips.

Why is = 4/8? The whole strip is Can students clearly

Why is 5/8? divided into 4 times explain what it means

as many parts with for two fractions to be

eights as with halves, equal and for two

so when you want fractions to be unequal.

one half you must

choose 4 eights.

Showing transparencies of thirds, sixths and ninths and overlaying them to show equivalence

Look at this fraction circle divided into Teacher shows transparencies

thirds. We will outline 2/3. This second Students see that 4/6 of fraction circles with thirds

transparency has the same size circle = 2/3 and sixths.

divided into sixths. Students see that 6/9

If we overlay them how many sixths in = 2/3

2/3? If we overlay the thirds circle with a

ninths circle how many ninths equal 2/3?

Show the same thing with fraction strips.

Draft 01 Created by Teachers Locally Page 5 of 23

Take 4/6 and compare to 2/3. How many Sixths is twice as Students should begin to see

times more equal parts is the circle many as thirds. the numerator and the

divided into with sixths than with thirds? Therefore need four denominator are multiplied by

Therefore if you want to keep the same sixths to make 2 the same number when

amount (2/3) how many times more thirds. forming equivalent fractions.

pieces must you choose? Both numerator and

What happens to the numerator and the denominator are

denominator of 2/3 to make 4/6? multiplied by 2

Can you explain in the same way why There are 3 times as Do students see the

2/3 =6/9 many parts in the pattern between the

Can you explain why = 2/8 circle with ninths numerator and

Can you explain why 2/8 = 4/16 compared to the denominator with

circle with thirds. To equivalent fractions?

choose the same

amount we need 3

times the number of

equal parts.

Both numerator and

denominator are

multiplied by 3.

Reducing fractions using story contexts and /or teacher /students could use counters to show groups of

Story context: In a class of 20, ten of 10/20 or This time we are splitting a Do students understand

the students are girls. What fraction of group into smaller equal that a fraction can be

the class are girls? groups with the same share, reduced to a simpler

In another class of 12 students one half 6/12 or hence dividing the numerator equivalent fraction when

are girls. Write the number of girls as a and denominator by the same the numerator and

fraction of the class in two different number to reduce the fraction. denominator are

ways. divisible by a common

(One out of every pair of students is a 6/30 or 3/15 or 1/5 value?

girl.)

On a hurling panel of 30 players, six of

the players are going to lose their place.

Write the number of players going to

lose their place as a fraction of the

whole panel in three different ways.

maybe using hair colour or gender to

make a fraction of the total number of

people in the class?

and denominator by

Could we divide the numerator and 10.

denominator by any other number? Divide by 2 giving

5/10 =1/2

Divide by 5 giving 2/4

=1/2

We call this reducing a fraction to its Divide the top and Can the students explain

lowest terms. bottom of the fraction this back to you, in their

Explain how you do it. by the same number own words?

until you cannot find

a common divisor.

Can anyone come up with a similar real I had 10 sweets and I In simple examples students Are students able to

life example to give an equivalent ate 2 so I ate 2/10 should look on 10 as 5 groups apply fraction

fraction for 1/5? or 1/5 of my sweets. I of 2. Where students have a equivalence ideas to

ate one in every 5 difficulty show this with concrete examples?

sweets in the bag. concrete examples e.g. e.g sweets, pizza,

counters chocolate.

If I cut a pizza into 8 slices and I ate 2 2/8 = Can students explain the

slices, give 2 equivalent fractions which rationale behind fraction

represent this situation. 2/8 2/2 = equivalence in different

Can you explain why 2/8 = examples.

Given that there are 20 dogs in a show, 4/20 = 1/5 Group work activity

4 of them are sheep dogs give two Can they come with an

equivalent fractions which represent this 4/20 4/4 = 1/5 example and explain the

type of dog in this show. rationale in their own

Can youexplain why 4/20 = 1/5 words.

Summarise what you mean by Fractions representing Teacher asks a few students to

equivalent fractions. the same amount even state in their own words what

if the partitions are equivalent fractions mean.

different. To find them

you either divide the

top and bottom of the

fraction by the same

number or else multiply

the top and bottom by

the same number.

Using paper folding to show what Some students may not

equivalent fractions mean and come need to do this but the

up with a symbolic rule for teacher will decide, based

generating them. Finding equivalent on the level students are at

fractions for and 2/3 by paper with fractions.

folding .

Fold one paper/ fraction strip into Students shade 3/4 Teacher distributes strips of

fourths and shade three fourths. paper to each pair of students

Make the fold creases clear.

Fold the strip to see how many eights 6 Some students may need help Students should see that

are equal to . with paper folding. really is the same as

Draw a diagram to show this also. First fold gave 2 halves, 6/8. Even though many

second fold gave 4 quarters know this from a rule a

and the third fold gave 8 mental picture will be

eights. We repeated folding in useful later on especially

= 6/8 half. in algebra.

The number of total parts went from 4 8 Teacher writes the explanation Do students see that

to? on the board as given by the when the total number

The number of shaded parts went from 3 6 students. of parts is doubled the

to? Multiply both of them 3 3 2 6 number of shaded parts

What do you do to 4 and 3 to make them by 2 is also doubled?

4 4 2 8

into 6 and 8? Students record this in

their copies

Draft 01 Created by Teachers Locally Page 8 of 23

Fold the next paper strip into thirds and Teacher distributes strips of

shade 2/3. paper to each pair of students.

Fold the paper strip to find out how To make thirds fold the paper

many ninths in 2/3. so that you have 1 loops.

How did you fold the paper strip to make It was folded into 3 Going from thirds to ninths

ninths? parts first and then may cause some students

each part folded into difficulty. They tend to

3 or repeatedly keep doubling. If they

folding into thirds. double, ending up with 6

parts ask them what would

you multiply 3 by to get 6.

Then what would you

multiply 3 by to get 9?

The number of total parts increased from 9 Teacher writes the explanation Do students see that

3 to? on the board as given by the when the total number

6 students. of parts is X3 the

The number of shaded parts increased 2 23 6 number of shaded parts

from 2 to? is also X3.

3 3 3 9

Record this in your copies

Fold the paper strip into thirds and

shade 1/3.

Fold the strip to find the missing number Students fold the 1 4 1 4 4 Do students see that

in this equation: paper in 3 and if each when the number of

3 ? 3 4 12

1 4 third is folded in 4 Students record this in shaded parts is X4, then

parts they have 12 the total number of parts

3 . What denominator is missing? their copies.

parts altogether. is X4.

Some students may note

this as multiplication by 1

but if they do not it need

not be emphasised at this

point. It is important that

they believe why certain

fractions are equivalent

and are aware of

Draft 01 Created by Teachers Locally Page 9 of 23

multiplying the top and

bottom by the same

number will generate

equivalent fractions.

The number of shaded parts increased 4 Have students been able

by how much? to show with fraction

The number of total parts increased by strips that = 6/8, 2/3

how much? 4 =6/9 and 1/3 = 4/12?

Multiplying by the identity 4/4 etc

Why was the amount 1/3 unchanged We multiplied it by Do students see that it is

even though we multiplied it by 4/4 which is 1 and only when you multiply

something? What did we multiply it by? when we multiply by the numerator and the

one we dont change denominator by 4 that

the value. the value remains

unchanged?

What else could we have multiplied by to 5/5, 6/6 or using any

generate equivalent fractions? number as long as we

multiply by the same

number top and

bottom.

Can you use the rule for generating The bottom line was Teacher writes some Are students able to

equivalent fractions to find equivalent multiplied by 3 to equivalent fractions on the reduce a fraction to a

12 give 18. Hence you board with missing numerators simpler form using the

= would divide by 3 to or denominators. rule they generated for

fractions to the following: 6 18 ?

go from 18 to 6 and equivalent fractions.

also divide 12 by 3. Ask the class and then ask an

individual student to explain,

writing the solution given on

the board.

The numerator and Circulate while students work Do students see that

6 24 denominator must be out the equivalent fractions in students need to work

= = multiplied or divided their copies. out the pattern given

9 3 ; 36 12 3

by the same number whether either the

to give and numerator or

2/4 = 1/ ; 7/8 = 21/ equivalent fraction. denominator is missing?

How many equivalent fractions can Students each Write up all the fractions on Do students realise that

be generated from 1 fraction. e.g. generate a different the board as they are given by there are an infinite

how many equivalent fractions is it fraction equivalent to students. number of equivalent

possible to write down for 2/3? Can I 2/3 by multiplying the fractions for any one

have one for everyone in the class? numerator and fraction?

denominator by the

same number.

They realise that they

an infinite number of

equivalent fractions

can be generated

from any one fraction.

Can 2/3 be reduced to a simpler form? No, it is not possible Best to avoid the word Do students see that

Explain. to find a whole cancelling as students often although a fraction

number which will use it erroneously. Here they cannot be reduced

divide evenly into the see why the procedure is being further, e.g. 2/3, it can

numerator and done. however have an

denominator. infinite amount of

equivalent fractions.

Student Activity

**A student claims that she can show The whole or unit is Teacher shows these 2 strips

that is the same as 7/8 using the different in both on a transparency or using uni

fraction strips below. cases. of one unit fix cubes.

is the same as 7/8 of

a different sized unit,

but when we speak of Students must always be

and 7/8 without aware of what the unit or

She says that they are the same length giving the unit we whole is when dealing with

and have the same area. assume the same size fractions, especially in word

Does this make sense to you? unit and then is not problems and in division of

equal to 7/8. fractions. of what = 7/8 of

what?

Working in pairs complete Student Students either use Students who know the rule for Can students move

Activities 1 the rule or partition forming equivalent fractions between the concrete

Do FRACTION DOMINOES activity first to find the will use the rule first and then and symbolic

missing number. decide how to partition the representations of

picture. The exercise will give equivalent fractions to

meaning to the rule for them. increase their

understanding?

Draft 01 Created by Teachers Locally Page 13 of 23

Draft 01 Created by Teachers Locally Page 14 of 23

Student Activity 1

1. Find the equivalent fraction in each case. Show on the fraction strip why your

answer makes sense.

3

5 15

2

3 12

5

6 24

9

12 4

2. Find

equivalent

fractions using the

multiplication

rule:

2 ; 1 ; 3 ; 2=

7 14 2 10 8 16 3 12

3. Fill in the missing numbers in these equivalent fractions

16

Write down 4 fractions equivalent to 3

24

1 1

Write down 3 fractions equivalent to 4 Write down 3 fractions equivalent to 6

1 2

Write down 6 fractions equivalent to 2 Write down 3 fractions equivalent to 3

3 1 3 12

12 16

5 4 =

1 = 5 =

12 4

Q: Jane got 10 out of 15 for her test and Mark got 15 out of 20 in his test. Anita

said that they both did equally well because they both got 5 wrong. Is Anita

correct? Explain your answer.

students can draw 5 rectangles/squares in a row using the template from their

geometry sets.

Shade in the same fraction in each rectangle using vertical dividing lines. E.g.

slice each square in fourths using vertical dividing lines. Shade in the same

fraction in each rectangle e.g.

shaded

in all

rectangl

es

Now slice each square into an equal number of horizontal slices. Each square is

sliced with a different number of horizontal slices anything from 1 to 8. The

same amount is still shaded.

For each sliced square write an equation showing the equivalent fraction of the

shaded part

shaded

in all

rectangl

3 3 2 6 es

4 4 2 8

= 24/32

Homework

1 1

1. Are there fractions between 7 and 8 ?

__________________________________

1 1

(Hint: Make a list of equivalent fractions for 7 and 8 )

2.

R

S

T

Teacher notes:

One fraction between 2/14 and 2/16 is 2/15 which is therefore between 1/7 and

1/8

Or students might get common denominators 1/7= 8/56 and 1/8 = 7/56 i.e.

16/102 and 14/102 and 15/102 lies between these 2.

fractions you actually get a fraction between the 2 fractions

another reason why it is not a valid method of addition.

Fraction Strips Activity Paper Folding Students should not be told exactly

how to make each unit fraction as in finding this out they will learn for example

that each third is 3 ninths etc.

from the longer side of an A4 sheet.

Each student labels 1 strip with the number 1 - the unit strip.

Fold the next strip in and label each section . Draw a line through the

fold so that it can be seen. It is important to be able to see the folds

clearly and if they are not done properly start with a new strip.

Fold the next strip into thirds by making 1 and loops and folding at the

ends. Label each section as 1/3 and again draw a line through the folds.

Fold a strip into half and in half again for quarters and again label and

draw lines.

To fold a strip into fifths make 2 loops and fold the ends then label and

draw lines on the folds.

To fold into sixths, fold into thirds first and then fold this in half or make 3

loops.

Sevenths can be made with 3 loops.

Eights can be got by folding in half 3 times.

Ninths can be made by making thirds first and then using 1 loops

again.

Tenths can be made by folding for fifths first and then folding in half.

To do:

1. Find as many ways as possible to make 1 using 2 and 3 fraction

bars .e.g. 4/8+3/12 +1/4 etc. Use the fifths as well as the others.

2. Use the fraction bars to make inequalities e.g 5/6 < 7/8 etc.

1 unit or 1 whole

1 1

2 2

1 1 1

3 3 3

1 1 1 1

4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1

5 5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1 1 1

6 6 6 6 6 6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7 7 7 7 7 7 7

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

1 unit or 1 whole

1 1

2 2

1 1 1

3 3 3

1 1 1 1

4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1

5 5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1 1 1

6 6 6 6 6 6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7 7 7 7 7 7 7

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

Fraction Circles

Draft 01 Created by Teachers Locally Page 23 of 23