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B & AT Technical Training

PDC Design Factors

Slide 1

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Designing a PDC Brill Bit
Defining the Design Objective:
Hole Size
Formations to be drilled
Single formation (homogeneous)
Multiple formations (Layered)
Interbedded formations (laminated)
Drive System to be used
Rotary
PDM
RSS : Point the bit / Push the bit
Turbine
Slide
Operational Parameters : WOB / RPM / Hole Inc.
2
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Designing a PDC Brill Bit

Reviewing the Application History


What has been tried before?
Is this a new application for a PDC drill bit?
Are there Offsets Records?

Determine the Design Base Line


Are we modifying an existing PDC design?
Are we replacing an existing PDC design?
Are we developing a new PDC design for the application?

Slide
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Design Parameters - Geometry

1. Bit Profile
2. Blade Configuration
3. Cutter Layout
4. Cutter Orientation
5. Nozzle Placement
6. Gauge Pad Considerations

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Bit Profile
Bit profile consists of:
Apex
Cone Gauge

Nose
Shoulder Apex
Shoulder
ODR-Taper
Cone
Gage Nose
ODR

Slide
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Design Factors Cone Angle

Apex - Geometrical center of bit


Cone - Described by its included angle
Deep cone (~90)
Medium cone (~115 )
Shallow cone (~150)

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Design Factors Cone Angle

Deep Cone Profiles


Advantages
High degree of bit stability
Increase diamond volume in center

Disadvantages
Decrease steerability.
Decrease cleaning efficiency.
Decrease in bit aggressiveness.

Slide
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Design Factors Cone Angle

Shallow Cone Profile


Advantages
Increased steerability.
Increased bit cleaning.
Increased aggressiveness.

Disadvantages
Decreased stability.
Decreased diamond volume.

Slide
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Design Factors Nose Radius

Large radius (R)


R
Hard transitional formation
Higher surface area for
better load distribution

Small or sharp radius (r)

Soft homogeneous formation r


Higher point loading for
increase penetration

Slide
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Location From Centerline
Side Cutting
Action
Nose location closer to the center
provides more surface area and L
1

cutter density on the shoulder


Suitable for soft but abrasive
formations

Nose location closer to the gauge L2


provides more surface area on the
bit face for better load distribution
Suitable for harder formation
Slide
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Design Factors Blade Profile

Long Parabolic
Medium Parabolic
Short Parabolic
Flat
Slide
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Bit Profile Types

Flat
Application:
Hard, non-abrasive Formation
(Limestone, dolomites)
Strong directional capability
Typical for sidetrack bits
Slide
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Bit Profile Types

Short Parabolic
Application:
Hard, medium abrasive formation
(Sandstone, limestone, some cherts)
Good directional capability
Rotary, Hi-Torque PDM and RSS

Slide
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Bit Profile Types

Medium Parabolic
Application:
Medium to hard and abrasive formation
(Sandstone, limestone, hard shales)
Moderated directional capability
Rotary, PDM, RSS & Turbodrill
Slide
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Bit Profile Types

Long Parabolic
Application:
Soft and abrasive formation
(Shales, Clays, mudstones)
Rotary, Hi Speed PDM, Turbodrill

Slide
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Number of Blades
3-20 Blades on Matrix Body Bits
3-8 Blades on Steel Body Bits

Slide
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PDC Nomenclature

MDi916PX

M: Matrix, i: IDEAS Blade Count / Cutter PX:


D: Directional Size Extra Gauge
916: 9 blades Protection
Slide
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16mm cutters
Symmetry

Symmetrical Asymmetrical

Slide
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Blade Geometry

Straight Vs. Spiral


Blade geometry and layout has an influence on bit vibration
reduction.
Straight Spiral

ai

ai+1
Slide
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Blade Geometry
Straight Vs. Spiral

With straight blades, the cutter radial forces are summed up as


whole on the gauge.
With spiral blades, only a component of each radial force is
used and the net effect on gauge is less than that of straight
blades. Fr Fr Fr Fr Fr Fr
1 2 3 4 5 6

S Fri

Fr 1 Fr 2 Fr 3
Fr 4

Fr 5

Fr
S Fri cos ai
6

S Fri cos ai <


S Fri
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Nozzle Placement

Fr Fr Fr Fr Fr Fr
1 2 3 4 5 6

Fr
1 Fr
2 Fr
3
Fr
4

Fr
5

Fr
6

Straight Vs. Spiral


Straight Blades have improved hydraulic cleaning
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Cutter Size & Cutter Layout

Slide
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Cutter Size
Various different Sizes (diameters)
Size defined in millimeters
Common Sizes
9, 11, 13, 16, 19, 22
Larger Diameter = More Aggressive Bit

Sharp Radius Blunter Radius


of Curvature of Curvature
Slide
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Cutting Structures

Key Points:

Bit behavior and drilling efficiency are directly influenced by the cutter
arrangement.

A multitude of arrangements are possible to achieve particular


performance and durability goals.

Slide
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Cutting Structures types

Single set
- One PDC cutter at each radial position

Forward
Reverse

Plural Set
- More than one PDC cutter at each radial position

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Spiral Configurations
Forward Spiral Reverse Spiral
Advance outward radially in Advance inward radially in
clockwise direction. counterclockwise direction.

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Types of Single Set Layouts
Spiral Configurations
Forward Spiral vs. Reverse Spiral
Forward Spiral Reverse Spiral
Advance outward radially in Advance outward radially in
clockwise direction. counterclockwise direction.

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Types of Single Set Layouts

Forward Spiral
Less stable than reverse spiral and harder for
designers to stabilize
More aggressive

Reverse Spiral
Considered very stable
Less aggressive than Forward Spiral
Slide
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Cutter Layout

Number of Cutters at
Single Set vs Plural Set each radius

Single Set
One PDC cutter in each radial
position

Plural Set
More than one PDC cutter in
each radial position

Cutter Location Number


Slide
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Back Rake

Angle at which a PDC cutter attacks the formation

B.R

Slide
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Design Factors Back Rake

Low back rake High back rake

More aggressive Less aggressive

10 30

Slide
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Design Factors Back Rake

Most Smith Bits PDC have variable back rake angle

Back Rake
20 25 Distribution
15
30

Slide 6 blades / 16mm cutters


39 12.25 M616VPX, ER20091
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Side Rake Angle

Smaller Side Rake Angle = More Aggressive


Used for radial force balancing

Side Rake Angle

Slide
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Review

1) Short or Medium Parabolic profiles are typically


used on PDC designs.
T F

2) Which is preferred:
Asymmetric or Symmetric blade layout
Why?

3) What is a MDi516?

Slide
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Review

On the figure, indicate the PDC cutter aggressiveness:


1. less aggressive; 2. medium; 3. more aggressive

15 30 20

Slide
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