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Operations Management
Twelfth Edition

William J. Stevenson
Saunders College of Business
Rochester Institute of Technology

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This book is dedicated to you.


Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright 2015 by McGraw-Hill
Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions 2012, 2009, and
2007. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in
a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education including, but not
limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the
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The McGraw-Hill Series in Operations

and Decision Sciences

Operations Management Hayen, SAP R/3 Enterprise Software: Chain: Concepts, Strategies, Case Studies,
An Introduction, First Edition Third Edition
Beckman and Rosenfield, Operations,
Strategy: Competing in the 21st Century, Hill, Manufacturing Strategy: Text Sterman, Business Dynamics: Systems
First Edition & Cases, Third Edition Thinking and Modeling for Complex
Hopp, Supply Chain Science, First Edition World, First Edition
Benton, Purchasing and Supply Chain
Management, Second Edition Jacobs, Berry, Whybark, and Vollmann, Stevenson, Operations Management,
Manufacturing Planning & Control for Twelfth Edition
Bowersox, Closs, Cooper, and Bowersox,
Supply Chain Logistics Management, Supply Chain Management, Sixth Edition Swink, Melnyk, Cooper, and Hartley,
Fourth Edition Jacobs and Chase, Operations and Supply Managing Operations Across the Supply
Management: The Core, Third Edition Chain, Second Edition
Brown and Hyer, Managing Projects:
A Team-Based Approach, First Edition Jacobs and Chase, Operations and Supply Thomke, Managing Product and Service
Management, Fourteenth Edition Development: Text and Cases, First
Burt, Petcavage, and Pinkerton, Supply
Management, Eighth Edition Jacobs and Whybark, Why ERP? First
Edition Ulrich and Eppinger, Product Design and
Cachon and Terwiesch, Matching Supply
Development, Fourth Edition
with Demand: An Introduction to Larson and Gray, Project Management:
Operations Management, Third Edition The Managerial Process, Sixth Edition Zipkin, Foundations of Inventory
Management, First Edition
Cooper and Schindler, Business Research Leenders, Johnson, and Flynn, Purchasing
Methods, Twelfth Edition and Supply Management, Fourteenth
Edition Quantitative Methods
Finch, Interactive Models for Operations
and Management Science
and Supply Chain Management, First Olson, Introduction to Information
Edition Systems Project Management, Second Hillier and Hillier, Introduction to
Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimmons, and Bordoloi, Edition Management Science: A Modeling
Service Management: Operations, Schroeder, Goldstein, Rungtusanatham, and Case Studies Approach with
Strategy, Information Technology, Eighth Operations Management: Contemporary Spreadsheets, Fifth Edition
Edition Concepts and Cases, Sixth Edition Stevenson and Ozgur, Introduction to
Gehrlein, Operations Management Cases, Seppanen, Kumar, and Chandra, Process Management Science with Spreadsheets,
First Edition Analysis and Improvement, First Edition First Edition

Harrison and Samson, Technology Simchi-Levi, Kaminsky, and Simchi-Levi,

Management, First Edition Designing and Managing the Supply

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The material in this book is intended as an introduction to the New material and more emphasis have been devoted to
field of operations management. The topics covered include these topics:
both strategic issues and practical applications. Among the Service
topics are forecasting, product and service design, capacity Supply chain management
planning, management of quality and quality control, inven- Sustainability
tory management, scheduling, supply chain management, and Step-by-step problem solving
project management.
Throughout the text, there are new, updated readings,
My purpose in revising this book continues to be to pro-
and photos to provide students with a motivating view of
vide a clear presentation of the concepts, tools, and appli-
the critical importance of operations management today.
cations of the field of operations management. Operations
management is evolving and growing, and I have found Connect Plus for Operations Management is now
updating and integrating new material to be both reward- available with LearnSmart, McGraw-Hills adaptive
ing and challenging, particularly due to the plethora of new learning component. LearnSmart provides assignable
developments in the field, while facing the practical limits on modules that help students master core concepts and
the length of the book. come to class better prepared.
This text offers a comprehensive and flexible amount
of content that can be selected as appropriate for different Acknowledgments
courses and formats, including undergraduate, graduate, and I want to thank the many contributors to this edition. Review-
executive education. ers and adopters of the text have provided a continuously
This allows instructors to select the chapters, or portions improving wealth of ideas and suggestions. It is encourag-
of chapters, that are most relevant for their purposes. That ing to me as an author. I hope all reviewers and readers will
flexibility also extends to the choice of relative weighting of know their suggestions were valuable, were carefully consid-
the qualitative or quantitative aspects of the material and the ered, and are sincerely appreciated. The list includes post-
order in which chapters are covered because chapters do not publication reviewers.
depend on sequence. For example, some instructors cover
project management early, others cover quality or lean early, Robert Aboolian, California State University
etc. San Marcos
As in previous editions, there are major pedagogical fea- Pamela Barnes, Kansas State University
tures designed to help students learn and understand the Greg Bier, University of Missouri
material. This section describes the key features of the book,
Gary Black, University of Southern Indiana
the chapter elements, the supplements that are available for
teaching the course, highlights of the eleventh edition, and Jeff Brand, Marquette University
suggested applications for classroom instruction. By pro- Cenk Caliskan, Utah Valley University
viding this support, it is our hope that instructors and stu- Cem Canel, University of North CarolinaWilmington
dents will have the tools to make this learning experience a
Jen-Yi Chen, Cleveland State University
rewarding one.
Robert Clark, Stony Brook University
Whats New in This Edition Dinesh Dave, Appalachian State University
This edition has been revised to incorporate and integrate Abdelghani Elimam, San Francisco State
changes in the field of Operations Management, and the Kurt Engemann, Iona College
many suggestions for improvement received from instructors Michael Fathi, Georgia Southwestern State
around the world who are using the text. The following are
Warren Fisher, Stephen F. Austin State University
key among the revisions:
Gene Fliedner, Oakland University
New examples, discussion questions, and problems have
Theodore Glickman, George Washington University
been incorporated throughout.
Haresh Gurnani, University of Miami
Some content has been rewritten or added to include
current information, improve clarity and help Johnny Ho, Columbus State University
understanding. Ron Hoffman, Greenville Technical College


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viii Preface

Lisa Houts, California State UniversityFresno State University; Scott Dellana, East Carolina University;
Stella Hua, Western Washington University Kathy Dhanda, DePaul University; Xin Ding, University
of Utah; Ellen Dumond, California State University at Ful-
Neil Hunt, Suffolk University
lerton; Richard Ehrhardt, University of North Carolina at
Faizul Huq, Ohio University Greensboro; Kurt Engemann, Iona College; Diane Ervin,
Richard Jerz, St. Ambrose University DeVry University; Farzaneh Fazel, Illinois State Univer-
George Kenyon, Lamar University sity; Wanda Fennell, University of Mississippi at Hatties-
burg; Joy Field, Boston College; Warren Fisher, Stephen
Casey Kleindienst, California State UniversityFullerton
F. Austin State University; Lillian Fok, University of New
John Kros, East Carolina University Orleans; Charles Foley, Columbus State Community Col-
Anita Lee-Post, University of Kentucky lege; Matthew W. Ford, Northern Kentucky University;
Nancy Levenburg, Grand Valley State University Phillip C. Fry, Boise State University; Charles A. Gates Jr.,
Aurora University; Tom Gattiker, Boise State University;
F. Edward Ziegler, Kent State University
Damodar Golhar, Western Michigan University; Robert
Other contributors include accuracy checkers: Gary Black, Graham, Jacksonville State University; Angappa Gunas-
University of Southern Indiana, Michael Godfrey, University ekaran, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth; Haresh
of Wisconsin at Oshkosh, and Richard White, University of Gurnani, University of Miami; Terry Harrison, Penn State
North Texas; Test Bank: Alan Cannon, University of Texas at University; Vishwanath Hegde, California State Univer-
Arlington; PowerPoints: David Cook, Old Dominion Univer- sity at East Bay; Craig Hill, Georgia State University; Jim
sity; Data Sets: Mehdi Kaighobadi, Florida Atlantic Univer- Ho, University of Illinois at Chicago; Seong Hyun Nam,
sity; Excel Templates and ScreenCam tutorials: Lee Tangedahl, University of North Dakota; Jonatan Jelen, Mercy Col-
University of Montana; Instructors Manual: Michael Godfrey. lege; Prafulla Joglekar, LaSalle University; Vijay Kannan,
Special thanks goes out to Larry White, Eastern Illinois Utah State University; Sunder Kekre, Carnegie-Mellon
University, who helped revise, design, and develop interactive University; Jim Keyes, University of Wisconsin at Stout;
content in Connect Operations Management for this edition: Seung-Lae Kim, Drexel University; Beate Klingenberg,
Finally I would like to thank all the people at McGraw- Marist College; John Kros, East Carolina University;
Hill/Irwin for their efforts and support. It is always a plea- Vinod Lall, Minnesota State University at Moorhead; Ken-
sure to work with such a professional and competent group of neth Lawrence, New Jersey Institute of Technology; Jooh
people. Special thanks go to Thomas Hayward, Senior Brand Lee, Rowan University; Anita Lee-Post, University of
Manager; Wanda Zeman, Senior Development Editor; Kristin Kentucky; Karen Lewis, University of Mississippi; Bing-
Bradley, Project Manager; Debra Sylvester, Buyer; Heather guang Li, Albany State University; Cheng Li, California
Kazakoff, Senior Marketing Manager; Srdjan Savanovic, State University at Los Angeles; Maureen P. Lojo, Califor-
Designer; Rachel Townsend, Content Project Manager; Keri nia State University at Sacramento; F. Victor Lu, St. Johns
Johnson, Senior Photo Research Coordinator, and many University; Janet Lyons, Utah State University; James
others who worked behind the scenes. Maddox, Friends University; Gita Mathur, San Jose State
I would also like to thank the many reviewers of previ- University; Mark McComb, Mississippi College; George
ous editions for their contributions. Vikas Agrawal, Fay- Mechling, Western Carolina University; Scott Metlen, Uni-
etteville State University; Bahram Alidaee, University of versity of Idaho; Douglas Micklich, Illinois State Univer-
Mississippi; Ardavan Asef-Faziri, California State Uni- sity; Ajay Mishra, SUNY at Binghamton; Scott S. Morris,
versity at Northridge; Prabir Bagchi, George Washington Southern Nazarene University; Philip F. Musa, University
State University; Gordon F. Bagot, California State Uni- of Alabama at Birmingham; Roy Nersesian, Monmouth
versity at Los Angeles; Ravi Behara, Florida Atlantic Uni- University; Jeffrey Ohlmann, University of Iowa at Iowa
versity; Michael Bendixen, Nova Southeastern; Ednilson City; John Olson, University of St. Thomas; Ozgur Ozluk,
Bernardes, Georgia Southern University; Prashanth N. San Francisco State University; Kenneth Paetsch, Cleve-
Bharadwaj, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Greg Bier, land State University; Taeho Park, San Jose State Univer-
University of Missouri at Columbia; Joseph Biggs, Cal sity; Allison Pearson, Mississippi State University; Patrick
Poly State University; Kimball Bullington, Middle Ten- Penfield, Syracuse University; Steve Peng, California
nessee State University; Alan Cannon, University of Texas State University at Hayward; Richard Peschke, Minne-
at Arlington; Injazz Chen, Cleveland State University; sota State University at Moorhead; Andru Peters, San Jose
Alan Chow, University of Southern Alabama at Mobile; State University; Charles Phillips, Mississippi State Uni-
Chrwan-Jyh, Oklahoma State University; Chen Chung, versity; Frank Pianki, Anderson University; Sharma Pil-
University of Kentucky; Robert Clark, Stony Brook Uni- lutla, Towson University; Zinovy Radovilsky, California
versity; Loretta Cochran, Arkansas Tech University; State University at Hayward; Stephen A. Raper, Univer-
Lewis Coopersmith, Rider University; Richard Crandall, sity of Missouri at Rolla; Pedro Reyes, Baylor University;
Appalachian State University; Dinesh Dave, Appalachian Buddhadev Roychoudhury, Minnesota State University

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Preface ix

at Mankato; Narendra Rustagi, Howard University; Herb at San Bernardino; Timothy Vaughan, University of Wis-
Schiller, Stony Brook University; Dean T. Scott, DeVry consin at Eau Claire; Emre Veral, Baruch College; Mark
University; Scott J. Seipel, Middle Tennessee State Uni- Vroblefski, University of Arizona; Gustavo Vulcano, New
versity; Raj Selladurai, Indiana University; Kaushic Sen- York University; Walter Wallace, Georgia State University;
gupta, Hofstra University; Kenneth Shaw, Oregon State James Walters, Ball State University; John Wang, Mont-
University; Dooyoung Shin, Minnesota State University at clair State University; Tekle Wanorie, Northwest Missouri
Mankato; Michael Shurden, Lander University; Raymond State University; Jerry Wei, University of Notre Dame;
E. Simko, Myers University; John Simon, Governors State Michael Whittenberg, University of Texas; Geoff Wil-
University; Jake Simons, Georgia Southern University; lis, University of Central Oklahoma; Pamela Zelbst, Sam
Charles Smith, Virginia Commonwealth University; Ken- Houston State University; Jiawei Zhang, NYU; Zhenying
neth Solheim, DeVry University; Young Son, Bernard M. Zhao, University of Maryland; Yong-Pin Zhou, University
Baruch College; Victor Sower, Sam Houston State Uni- of Washington.
versity; Jeremy Stafford, University of North Alabama;
Donna Stewart, University of Wisconsin at Stout; Dothang
Truong, Fayetteville State University; Mike Umble, Baylor
University; Javad Varzandeh, California State University William J. Stevenson

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A number of key features in this text have been specifically designed
to help introductory students learn, understand, and apply Operations
concepts and problem-solving techniques.

Examples with Solutions

Throughout the text, wherever a quantitative or
analytic technique is introduced, an example is
included to illustrate the application of that tech-
nique. These are designed to be easy to follow.

Sales of new houses and three-month lagged unemployment are shown in the following table. EXAMPLE 10
Determine if unemployment levels can be used to predict demand for new houses and, if so,
derive a predictive equation. x
e cel

Period ................................ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Units sold .......................... 20 41 17 35 25 31 38 50 15 19 14
Unemployment %
(three-month lag) ..... 7.2 4.0 7.3 5.5 6.8 6.0 5.4 3.6 8.4 7.0 9.0

1. Plot the data to see if a linear model seems reasonable. In this case, a linear model seems SOLUTION
appropriate for the range of the data.


Units sold, y




2 4 6 8 10
Level of unemployment (%), x

2. Check the correlation coefficient to confirm that it is not close to zero using the Web site
template, and then obtain the regression equation:
r .966

This is a fairly high negative correlation. The regression equation is

y 71.85 6.91x
Note that the equation pertains only to unemployment levels in the range 3.6 to 9.0,
because sample observations covered only that range.

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Solved Problems
At the end of chapters and
chapter supplements, solved
Problem 1 The tasks shown in the following precedence diagram are to be assigned to workstations with the
problems are provided to intent of minimizing idle time. Management has designed an output rate of 275 units per day. Assume
440 minutes are available per day.
illustrate problem solving
a. Determine the appropriate cycle time.
and the core concepts in b. What is the minimum number of stations possible?
the chapter. These have c. Assign tasks using the positional weight rule: Assign tasks with highest following times
(including a tasks own time) first. Break ties using greatest number of following tasks.
been carefully prepared to d. Compute efficiency.
help students understand
0.3 minute 0.4 minute 0.2 minute 0.1 minute 0.5 minute 0.3 minute
the steps involved in solving a c e g h i
different types of problems.
The Excel logo indicates that
b d f
a spreadsheet is available on
0.6 minute 1.2 minutes 0.6 minute
the texts Web site, to help
solve the problem. Solution a. Cycle time
Operating time
Desired output

440 minutes per day
275 units per day
1.6 minutes per unit

TABLE 16.5 Excel solution for Example 2a

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Where applicable, the
examples and solved prob-
lems include screen shots
of a spreadsheet solution.
Many of these were taken
from the Excel templates,
which are on the texts
website. Templates are
programmed to be fully
functional in Excel 2013
and earlier.


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Within each chapter, you will find the following elements that are
designed to facilitate study and learning. All of these have been
carefully developed over many editions and have proven to be

Chapter Outlines
Every chapter and supplement includes
an outline of the topics covered.

4 Product and
Service Design

CHAPTER OUTLINE Reuse: Remanufacturing, 145 Production Requirements, 161

Recycle, 146 Component Commonality, 162
4.1 Introduction, 136
What Does Product and Service Design
4.8 Other Design Considerations 149 4.11 Service Design, 162
Do?136 Strategies for Product or Service Life Overview of Service Design, 163
Stages,149 Differences between Service Design and
Key Questions, 136
Degree of Standardization, 151 Product Design, 163
Reasons for Product or Service Design or
Redesign, 137 Designing for Mass Customization, 151 Phases in the Service Design
Process, 164 The essence of a business organization is the products and services it offers, and every aspect
4.2 Idea Generation, 139 Reliability, 153 LO4.1 Explain the strategic
Robust Design, 154 Service Blueprinting, 164 of the organization and its supply chain are structured around those products and services.
4.3 Legal and Ethical Considerations, 141 importance of product and
Characteristics of Well-Designed Service
Organizations that have well-designed products or services are more likely to realize their
Degree of Newness, 155 service design.
4.4 Human Factors, 142 Systems, 165 goals than those with poorly designed products or services. Hence, organizations have a stra-
Quality Function Deployment, 155
4.5 Cultural Factors, 143 Challenges of Service Design, 166 tegic interest in product and service design. Product or service design should be closely tied to
The Kano Model, 158 an organizations strategy. It is a major factor in cost, quality, time-to-market, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage.
4.6 Global Product and Service Design, 143 Guidelines for Successful
4.9 Phases in Product Design and Consequently, marketing, finance, operations, accounting, IT, and HR need to be involved. Demand forecasts and projected
4.7 Environmental Factors: ServiceDesign,166
Development, 159 costs are important, as is the expected impact on the supply chain. It is significant to note that an important cause of operations
Sustainability, 144 4.12 Operations Strategy, 167
4.10 Designing for Production, 160 failures can be traced to faulty design. Designs that have not been well thought out, or incorrectly implemented, or instructions
Cradle-to-Grave Assessment, 144 Operations Tour: High Acres Landfill, 170
Concurrent Engineering, 160 for assembly or usage that are wrong or unclear, can be the cause of product and service failures, leading to lawsuits, injuries
End-of-Life Programs, 144 and deaths, product recalls, and damaged reputations.
Computer-Aided Design, 160 Chapter Supplement: Reliability, 171
The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, 144 The introduction of new products or services, or changes to product or service designs, can have impacts throughout the
Reduce: Value Analysis, 145 organization and the entire supply chain. Some processes may change very little, while others may have to change consider-
ably in terms of what they do or how and when they do it. New processes may have to be added, and some current ones may
be eliminated. New suppliers and distributors may need to be found and integrated into the system, and some current suppliers
and distributors may no longer be an appropriate fit. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account projected impact on demand
LEARNING OBJECTIVES as well as financial, marketing, and distribution implications. Because of the potential for widespread effects, taking a big
After completing this chapter, you should be able to: LO4.7 Explain the purpose and goal of life cycle assessment. picture systems approach early and throughout the design or redesign process is imperative to reduce the chance of missing
LO4.1 Explain the strategic importance of product and service design. LO4.8 Explain the phrase the 3 Rs. some implications and costs, and to understand the time it will take. Likewise, input from engineering, operations, marketing,
LO4.2 Describe what product and service design does. LO4.9 Briefly describe the phases in product design and development. finance, accounting, and supply chains is crucial.
LO4.3 Name the key questions of product and service design. LO4.10 Discuss several key issues in product or service design. In this chapter you will discover insights into the design process that apply to both product and service design.
LO4.4 Identify some reasons for design or redesign. LO4.11 Discuss the two key issues in service design.
LO4.5 List some of the main sources of design ideas. LO4.12 List the characteristics of well-designed service systems.
LO4.6 Discuss the importance of legal, ethical, and sustainability LO4.13 List some guidelines for successful service design.
considerations in product and service design.

Learning Objectives Opening Vignettes

Every chapter and supplement lists the Each chapter opens with an introduction to the
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learning objectives to achieve when studying important operations topics covered in the chapter.
the chapter material. The learning objectives This enables students to see the relevance of
are also included next to the specific material operations management in order to actively engage
in the margins of the text. in learning the material.


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Figures and Photos

The text includes photographs and
graphic illustrations to support
student learning and provide interest
and motivation. Approximately 100
carefully selected photos highlight the
twelfth edition. The photos illustrate
FIGURE 6.1 Inputs Outputs
applications of operations and supply Process selection and capacity
Facilities and
chain concepts in many successful planning influence system design Forecasting

companies. More than 400 graphic Capacity

illustrations, more than any other
text in the field, are included and all Product and
service design

are color coded with pedagogical

consistency to assist students in Selection

understanding concepts. Technological Work

change design

A major key to Apples

continued success is its ability
to keep pushing the boundaries
of innovation. Apple has
demonstrated how to create
growth by dreaming up products
so new and ingenious that they
have upended one industry after

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Icons are included in the text, to point out relevant applications in a discussion or concept.
These include: Excel icons x to point out Excel applications; and ScreenCam Tutorial
e cel

icons to link to the tutorials on the texts website.


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5.12 OPERATIONS STRATEGY Operations Strategies

The strategic implications of capacity decisions can be enormous, impacting all areas of the
An Operations Strategy section
organization. From an operations management standpoint, capacity decisions establish a set is included at the ends of most
of conditions within which operations will be required to function. Hence, it is extremely
important to include input from operations management people in making capacity decisions.
chapters. These sections discuss
Flexibility can be a key issue in capacity decisions, although flexibility is not always an option, how the chapters concepts can
particularly in capital-intensive industries. However, where possible, flexibility allows an organi- be applied and how they impact
zation to be agilethat is, responsive to changes in the marketplace. Also, it reduces to a certain
extent the dependence on long-range forecasts to accurately predict demand. And flexibility makes the operations of a company.
it easier for organizations to take advantage of technological and other innovations. Maintaining
excess capacity (a capacity cushion) may provide a degree of flexibility, albeit at added cost.
Some organizations use a strategy of maintaining a capacity cushion for the purpose of
blocking entry into the market by new competitors. The excess capacity enables them to pro-
duce at costs lower than what new competitors can. However, such a strategy means higher-
than-necessary unit costs, and it makes it more difficult to cut back if demand slows, or to
shift to new product or service offerings.
Efficiency improvements and utilization improvements can provide capacity increases.
Such improvements can be achieved by streamlining operations and reducing waste. The
chapter on lean operations describes ways for achieving those improvements.
Bottleneck management can be a way to increase effective capacity, by scheduling non-
bottleneck operations to achieve maximum utilization of bottleneck operations.
In cases where capacity expansion will be undertaken, there are two strategies for deter-
mining the timing and degree of capacity expansion. One is the expand-early strategy (i.e.,
before demand materializes). The intent might be to achieve economies of scale, to expand
market share, or to preempt competitors from expanding. The risks of this strategy include an
oversupply that would drive prices down, and underutilized equipment that would result in
higher unit costs.
The other approach is the wait-and-see strategy gy (i.e., to expand capacity only after demand
materializes, perhaps incrementally). Its advantages ges include a lower chance of oversupply due
to more accurate matching of supply and demand,, and Dutch Boy Brushes
higher capacity Up Its
utilization. ThePaints
key risks READING
are loss of market share and the inability to meet demand if expansion requires a long lead time.
Sherwin-Williams Dutch Boy Group has put a revolutionary spin on
wall/house painting with its new square-shaped Twist & Pour paint-
delivery container for the Dirt Fighter interior latex paint line. The four-
piece square container could be the first major change in how house
paint is packaged in decades. Lightweight but sturdy, the Twist & Pour
bucket is packed with so many conveniences, its next to impossible

Readings to mess up a painting project.

Winning Best of Show in an AmeriStar packaging competition spon-
sored by the Institute of Packaging Professionals, the exclusive, all-
Readings highlight impor- plastic paint container stands almost 7 in. tall and holds 126 oz., a bit
less than 1 gal. Rust-resistant and moisture-resistant, the plastic bucket
tant real-world applications, gives users a new way to mix, brush, and store paint.
A hollow handle on one side makes it comfortable to pour and
provide examples of production/ [carry]. A convenient, snap-in pour spout neatly pours paint into a tray
operations issues, and offer with no dripping but can be removed if desired, to allow a wide brush to
be dipped into the 5-in.-dia. mouth. Capping the container is a large,
further elaboration of the text twist-off lid that requires no tools to open or close. Molded with two lugs
for a snug-finger-tight closing, the threaded cap provides a tight seal to
material. They also provide a extend the shelf life of unused paint.
While the lid requires no tools to access, the snap-off carry bail is
basis for classroom discussion assembled on the container in a locked-down position and can be pulled
up after purchase for toting or hanging on a ladder. Large, nearly 4-in.-
and generate interest in the tall label panels allow glossy front and back labels printed and UV-coated
The labels are applied automatically, quite a feat, considering their
subject matter. Many of the to wrap around the cans rounded corners, for an impressive display.
Jim MacDonald, co-designer of the Twist & Pour and a packaging
complexity, size, and the hollow handle they likely encounter during
application. MacDonald admits, Label application was a challenge. We
end-of-chapter readings include engineer at Cleveland-based Sherwin-Williams, tells Packaging Digest
had to modify the bottle several times to accommodate the labeling
that the space-efficient, square shape is easier to ship and for retail-
assignment questions. ers to stack in stores. It can also be nested, courtesy of a recess in the
machinery available.
bottom that mates with the lids top ring. The new design allows for Source: Dutch Boy Brushes Up Its Paints, Packaging Digest, October 2002.
one additional shelf facing on an eight-foot rack or shelf area. Copyright 2002 Reed Business Information. Used with permission.

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For student study and review, the following items are provided at the
end of each chapter or chapter supplement.

Chapters contain summaries that provide an
overview of the material covered.
1. Demand forecasts are essential inputs for many business decisions; they help managers decide how KEY POINTS
much supply or capacity will be needed to match expected demand, both within the organization and
in the supply chain.
2. Because of random variations in demand, it is likely that the forecast will not be perfect, so managers
Key Points
need to be prepared to deal with forecast errors.
3. Other, nonrandom factors might also be present, so it is necessary to monitor forecast errors to check
for nonrandom patterns in forecast errors.
The key points of the chapter are emphasized.
4. It is important to choose a forecasting technique that is cost-effective and one that minimizes forecast

Key Terms
Taking Stock and Critical Key terms are highlighted in the text and then
Thinking Exercises repeated in the margin with brief definitions for
emphasis. They are listed at the end of each
These activities encourage analytical thinking and
chapter (along with page references) to aid in
help broaden conceptual understanding. A question
related to ethics is included in the Critical Thinking
Discussion and Review Questions
This item appears at the end of each chapter. It is intended to focus your attention on three key issues for TAKING STOCK
Each chapter and each supplement have a
business organizations in general, and operations management in particular. Those issues are trade-off
decisions, collaboration among various functional areas of the organization, and the impact of technol-
ogy. You will see three or more questions relating to these issues. Here is the first set of questions:
list of discussion and review questions. These
1. What are trade-offs? Why is careful consideration of trade-offs important in decision making? precede the problem sets and are intended to
2. Why is it important for the various functional areas of a business organization to collaborate?
3. In what general ways does technology have an impact on operations management decision making? serve as a student self-review or as class dis-
This item also will appear in every chapter. It allows you to critically apply information you learned in CRITICAL
cussion starters.
the chapter to a practical situation. Here is the first set of exercises:
1. Many organizations offer a combination of goods and services to their customers. As you learned in EXERCISES
this chapter, there are some key differences between production of goods and delivery of services.
What are the implications of these differences relative to managing operations?
2. Why is it important to match supply and demand? If a manager believes that supply and demand
will not be equal, what actions could the manager take to increase the probability of achieving a
3. One way that organizations compete is through technological innovation. However, there can be
downsides for both the organization and the consumer. Explain.
ste24102_ch03_074-133.indd 115 11/10/13 5:10 PM

PROBLEMS 1. Determine the utilization and the efficiency for each of these situations:
a. A loan processing operation that processes an average of 7 loans per day. The operation has a
design capacity of 10 loans per day and an effective capacity of 8 loans per day.
Problem Sets b. A furnace repair team that services an average of four furnaces a day if the design capacity is six
furnaces a day and the effective capacity is five furnaces a day.
c. Would you say that systems that have higher efficiency ratios than other systems will always
Each chapter includes a set of problems have higher utilization ratios than those other systems? Explain.
2. In a job shop, effective capacity is only 50 percent of design capacity, and actual output is
for assignment. The problems have been 80percent of effective output. What design capacity would be needed to achieve an actual output of
eight jobs per week?
refined over many editions and are intended 3. A producer of pottery is considering the addition of a new plant to absorb the backlog of demand
that now exists. The primary location being considered will have fixed costs of $9,200 per month
to be challenging but doable for students. and variable costs of 70 cents per unit produced. Each item is sold to retailers at a price that
averages 90 cents.
Short answers to most of the problems are a. What volume per month is required in order to break even?
b. What profit would be realized on a monthly volume of 61,000 units? 87,000 units?
included in Appendix A so that students can c. What volume is needed to obtain a profit of $16,000 per month?
d. What volume is needed to provide a revenue of $23,000 per month?

check their understanding and see immedi-

ately how they are progressing.
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Operations Tours
These provide a simple walkthrough of an opera-
tion for students, describing the company, its product
or service, and its process of managing operations.
Companies featured include Wegmans Food Markets,
Morton Salt, Stickley Furniture, and Boeing.

Bruegger's Bagel Bakery OPERATIONS TOUR

Bruegger's Bagel Bakery makes and sells a variety of bagels, includ- output at each step in the process. At the stores,
ing plain, onion, poppyseed, and cinnamon raisin, as well as assorted employees are instructed to watch for deformed
flavors of cream cheese. Bagels are the major source of revenue for bagels and to remove them when they find them. (D (Deformed
f d bbagels
the company. are returned to a processing plant where they are sliced into bagel
The bagel business is a $3 billion industry. Bagels are very popular chips, packaged, and then taken back to the stores for sale, thereby
with consumers. Not only are they relatively low in fat, they are filling, reducing the scrap rate.) Employees who work in the stores are care-
and they taste good! Investors like the bagel industry because it can be fully chosen and then trained so that they are competent to operate
highly profitable: it only costs about $.10 to make a bagel, and they can the necessary equipment in the stores and to provide the desired level
be sold for $.50 each or more. Although some bagel companies have of service to customers.
done poorly in recent years, due mainly to poor management, Brueg- The company operates with minimal inventories of raw materials
ger's business is booming; it is number one nationally, with over 450 and inventories of partially completed bagels at the plant and very little
shops that sell bagels, coffee, and bagel sandwiches for takeout or on- inventory of bagels at the stores. One reason for this is to maintain a
premise consumption. Many stores in the Bruegger's chain generate an high degree of freshness in the final product by continually supplying
average of $800,000 in sales annually. fresh product to the stores. A second reason is to keep costs down;
Production of bagels is done in batches, according to flavor, with minimal inventories
inven mean less space is needed for storage.
each flavor being produced on a daily basis. Production of bagels at
Questions ons
Bruegger's begins at a processing plant, where the basic ingredients
of flour, water, yeast, and flavorings are combined in a special mixing 1. Bruegger's gger maintains relatively little inventory at either its plants
Harvey Industries machine. After the dough has been thoroughlyCASE mixed, it is transferred reta stores. List the benefits and risks of this policy.
or its retail
to another machine that shapes the dough into individual bagels. Once 2. Quality ty is very important to Bruegger's.
Background the bagels Industrial
have beencustomers
formed, they include General
are loaded ontoMotors,
refrigerated trucks hat features
a. What f of bagels do customers look at to judge their
Ford, Chrysler,
for shipping Deltastores.
to individual Airlines, United
When theParcel
reach a store, they ality
Harvey Industries, a Wisconsin company, specializes in the assembly of high-
and Shell Oil Company.
pressure washer systems and in the sale of repair parts for these systems.
Although the industrial applications are a significant part of its sales,
The products range from small portable high-pressure washers to large
Harvey Industries is primarily an assembler of equipment for coin oper-
industrial installations for snow removal from vehicles stored outdoors during
ated self-service car wash systems. The typical car wash is of concrete
the winter months. Typical uses for high-pressure water cleaning include:
block construction with an equipment room in the center, flanked on
Automobiles Airplanes either side by a number of bays. The cars are driven into the bays where
Building maintenance Barns the owner can wash and wax the car, utilizing high-pressure hot water
Engines Ice cream plants and liquid wax. A dollar bill changer is available to provide change for the
Lift trucks Machinery use of the equipment and the purchase of various products from dispens-
Swimming pools ers. The products include towels, tire cleaner, and upholstery cleaner.


Sales Manufacturing Purchasing

manager manager manager

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Assembly Stockroom Quality

foreman foreman engineer

The text includes short cases. The cases were
selected to provide a broader, more integrated
thinking opportunity for students without taking
a full case approach.
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Online Learning Center (OLC)
The Online Learning Center provides complete materials for study and review. At this books
website, instructors have access to teaching supports such as electronic files of the ancillary
materials: Solutions Manual, Instructors Manual, test bank, PowerPoint Lecture Slides, Digi-
tal Image Library, and Excel Lecture scripts.
Instructors Manual. Prepared by Michael Godfrey, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh,
with contributions from William J. Stevenson, this manual includes teaching notes, chapter
overview, an outline for each chapter, and solutions to the problems in the text.
Test Bank. Prepared by the Alan Cannon, University of Texas-Arlington, the Test Bank
includes over 2,000 true/false, multiple-choice, and discussion questions/problems at varying
levels of difficulty.
EZ Test Online. All test bank questions are available in EZ Test Online, a flexible elec-
tronic testing program. The answers to all questions are given, along with a rating of the
level of difficulty, chapter learning objective met, Blooms taxonomy question type, and the
AACSB knowledge category.
PowerPoint Lecture Slides. Prepared by David Cook, Old Dominion University, the
PowerPoint slides draw on the highlights of each chapter and provide an opportunity for the
instructor to emphasize the key concepts in class discussions.
Digital Image Library. All the figures in the book are included for insertion in PowerPoint
slides or for class discussion.
Excel Lecture Scripts. Prepared by Lee Tangedahl, University of Montana, the scripts
provide suggestions on using Excel and the Excel templates in class.

Operations Management Video Series

The operations management video series, free to text adopters, includes professionally devel-
oped videos showing students applications of key manufacturing and service topics in real
companies. Each segment includes on-site or plant footage, interviews with company manag-
ers, and focused presentations of OM applications in use to help the companies gain competi-
tive advantage. Companies such as Zappos, FedEx, Subaru, Disney, BP, Chase Bank, DHL,
Louisville Slugger, McDonalds, Noodles & Company, and Honda are featured.

Online Learning Center (OLC)
Students have access to study materials created specifically for the text.
Quizzesself-grading to assess knowledge of the material.
PowerPoint Slidesgive an overview of the chapter content.
Excel Data Filesimport into Excel for quick calculation and analysis.
Study Outlinesprovide a framework for taking notes.
Screencam Tutorialsdescribe how to solve problems in the text (see below).


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Excel Templatesprovide a handy Excel-based tool for solving problems in the text
(see below).
And more ...

ScreenCam Tutorials
These screen movies and voiceover tutorials explain key chapter
content, using Excel and other software platforms.

Trend-Adjusted Exponential Smoothing

A variation of simple exponential smoothing can be used when a time series exhibits a linear
trend. It is called trend-adjusted exponential smoothing or, sometimes, double smoothing, Trend-adjusted exponential
to differentiate it from simple exponential smoothing, which is appropriate only when data smoothingVariation of expo-
vary around an average or have step or gradual changes. If a series exhibits trend, and simple nential smoothing used when
smoothing is used on it, the forecasts will all lag the trend: If the data are increasing, each a time series exhibits a linear
forecast will be too low; if decreasing, each forecast will be too high. trend.
The trend-adjusted forecast (TAF) is composed of two elements: a smoothed error and a
trend factor.
TAFt 1 St Tt (311)
StPrevious forecast plus smoothed error
TtCurrent trend estimate LO3.12 Prepare a trend-
adjusted exponential smoothing
and forecast.
St TAFt ( At TAFt )
Tt Tt 1 (TAFt TAFt 1 Tt 1 ) (312)

Excel Templates
Templates created by Lee Tangedahl, University of Montana, are included on the OLC. The templates, over 70 total,
include dynamically linked graphics and variable controls. They allow you to solve a number of problems in the text
or additional problems. All templates have been revised to allow formatting of all cells, hiding rows or columns, and
entering data or calculations in blank cells. Many ofthe templates have been expanded to accommodate solving larger
problems and cases.

TABLE 3.1 Excel solution for Example 5

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CourseSmart (ISBN: 0077640403)

CourseSmart is a convenient way to find and buy eTextbooks. At CourseSmart you can save
up to 60 percent off the cost of a print textbook, reduce your impact on the environment,
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from a wide variety of higher education publishers. CourseSmart eTextbooks are available in
one standard online reader with full text search, notes and highlighting, and e-mail tools for
sharing notes between classmates. Visit for more information.


McGraw-Hill Connect Operations Management
McGraw-Hill Connect Operations Management is an online assignment and assessment
solution that connects students with the tools and resources theyll need to achieve success
through faster learning, higher retention, and more efficient studying. It provides instructors with
tools to quickly pick content and assignments according to the topics they want to emphasize.
Online Assignments. Connect Operations Management helps students learn more
efficiently by providing practice material and feedback when they are needed. Connect
grades homework automatically and provides feedback on any questions that students may
have missed.

Integration of Excel Data Sets. A convenient feature is the inclusion of an Excel data
file link in many problems using data files in their calculation. The link allows students to eas-
ily launch into Excel, work the problem, and return to Connect to key in the answer.


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Student Resource Library. The Connect Business Statistics Student Library is the place
for students to access additional resources. The Student Library provides quick access to
recorded lectures, practice materials, eBooks, and more.

Guided Examples. These narrated video walkthroughs provide students with step-by-step
guidelines for solving problems similar to those contained in the text. The student is given
personalized instruction on how to solve a problem by applying the concepts presented in the
chapter. The narrated voiceover shows the steps to take to work through an exercise. Students
can go through each example multiple times if needed.
LearnSmart. LearnSmart adaptive self-study technology with Connect Operations Man-
agement helps students make the best use of their study time. LearnSmart provides a seam-
less combination of practice, assessment, and remediation for every concept in the textbook.
LearnSmarts intelligent software adapts to students by supplying questions on a new concept
when students are ready to learn it. With LearnSmart students will spend less time on topics
they understand and instead focus on the topics they need to master.
Simple Assignment Management and Smart Grading. When it comes to studying,
time is precious. Connect Operations Management helps students learn more efficiently by
providing feedback and practice material when they need it, where they need it. When it
comes to teaching, your time also is precious. The grading function enables you to:
Have assignments scored automatically, giving students immediate feedback on their
work and side-by-side comparisons with correct answers.
Access and review each response; manually change grades or leave comments for stu-
dents to review.
Student Reporting. Connect Operations Management keeps instructors informed about
how each student, section, and class is performing, allowing for more productive use of lec-
ture and office hours. The progress-tracking function enables you to:
View scored work immediately (Add Assignment Results Screen) and track individual
or group performance with assignment and grade reports.
Access an instant view of student or class performance relative to learning objectives.
Collect data and generate reports required by many accreditation organizations, such as


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Instructor Library. The Connect Operations Management Instructor Library is your repos-
itory for additional resources to improve student engagement in and out of class. You can
select and use any asset that enhances your lecture. The Connect Business Statistics Instructor
Library includes:
PowerPoint presentations


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Test Bank
Instructors Manual
Digital Image Library
Connect Plus Operations Management includes a seamless integration of an eBook and
Connect Operations Management with rich functionality integrated into the product.
Integrated Media-Rich eBook. An integrated media-rich eBook allows students to
access media in context with each chapter. Students can highlight, take notes, and access
shared instructor highlights/notes to learn the course material.
Dynamic Links. Dynamic links between the problems or questions you assign to your stu-
dents and the location in the eBook where that problem or question is covered.
Powerful Search Function. A powerful search function to pinpoint and connect key
concepts in a snap. This state-of-the-art, thoroughly tested system supports you in prepar-
ing students for the world that awaits. For more information about Connect, go to www. or contact your local McGraw-Hill sales representative.
SmartBook SmartBook is the first and only adaptive reading experience avaible today.
SmartBook changes reading from a passive and linear experience, to an engaging and
dynamic one, in which students are more likely to master and retain important concepts, com-
ing to class better prepared. Valuable reports provide instructors insight as to how students are
progressing through textbook content, and are useful for shaping in-class time or assessment.
This revolutionary technology suite is available only from McGraw-Hill Education. To learn
more, go to or contact your representative for a demo.


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Tegrity Campus: Lectures 24/7

Tegrity Campus is a service that makes class time available 24/7 by automatically capturing
every lecture in a searchable format for students to review when they study and complete
assignments. With a simple one-click start-and-stop process, you capture all computer screens
and corresponding audio. Students can replay any part of any class with easy-to-use browser-
based viewing on a PC or Mac.
Educators know that the more students can see, hear, and experience class resources, the
better they learn. In fact, studies prove it. With Tegrity Campus, students quickly recall key
moments by using Tegrity Campuss unique search feature. This search helps students effi-
ciently find what they need, when they need it, across an entire semester of class recordings.
Help turn all your students study time into learning moments immediately supported by your
lecture. To learn more about Tegrity, watch a two-minute Flash demo at http://tegritycampus.

Online Course Management

No matter what online course management system you use (WebCT, BlackBoard, or eCollege),
we have a course content ePack available for your course. Our new ePacks are specifically
designed to make it easy for students to navigate and access content online. For help, our
online Digital Learning Consultants are ready to assist you with your online course needs.
They provide training and will answer any questions you have throughout the life of your
adoption. McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard have teamed up. What does this
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1. Single sign-on. Now you and your students can access McGraw-Hills Connect and
Create right from within your Blackboard courseall with one single sign-on.
2. Deep integration of content and tools. You get a single sign-on with Connect and
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Connect assignments, all the tools you need are right where you want theminside of
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Blackboard is no longer necessary. When a student completes an integrated Connect
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4. A solution for everyone. Whether your institution is already using Blackboard or you
just want to try Blackboard on your own, we have a solution for you. McGraw-Hill
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book is easy. You, as an instructor, can: third party resources. Creating your own custom book
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Select, then arrange the content in a way that makes the most sense for your course.
Combine material from different sources and even upload your own content.
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Edit and update your course materials as often as youd like.
Receive your PDF review copy in minutes or a print review copy in just a few days.
Begin creating now at

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McGraw-Hill Customer Experience Contact Information

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Many educational institutions today are focused on the notion of assurance of learning, an
important element of some accreditation standards. Operations Management is designed spe-
cifically to support your assurance of learning initiatives with a simple, yet powerful, solution.
Each test bank question for Operations Management maps to a specific chapter learning
outcome/objective listed in the text. You can use our test bank software, EZ Test and EZ Test
Online, or Connect Operations Management to easily query for learning outcomes/objectives
that directly relate to the learning objectives for your course. You can then use the reporting
features of EZ Test to aggregate student results in similar fashion, making the collection and
presentation of assurance of learning data simple and easy.

McGraw-Hill Education is a proud corporate member of AACSB International. Understand-
ing the importance and value of AACSB accreditation, Operations Management recognizes
the curricula guidelines detailed in the AACSB standards for business accreditation by con-
necting selected questions in the test bank to the six general knowledge and skill areas in the
AACSBs Assessment of Learning Standards.
The statements contained in Operations Management are provided only as a guide for
the users of this textbook. The AACSB leaves content coverage and assessment within the
purview of individual schools, the mission of the school, and the faculty. While Operations
Management and the teaching package make no claim of any specific AACSB qualification
or evaluation, we have within the test bank labeled questions according to the six general
knowledge and skill areas.


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Note to Students
The material in this text is part of the core knowledge in your 4. Recognize applications of the concepts and techniques
education. Consequently, you will derive considerable ben- covered.
efit from your study of operations management, regardless 5. Discuss the subject matter in some depth, including its
of your major. Practically speaking, operations is a course in relevance, managerial considerations, and advantages
management. and limitations.
This book describes principles and concepts of operations
management. You should be aware that many of these prin- You will encounter a number of chapter supplements. Check
ciples and concepts are applicable to other aspects of your with your instructor to determine whether to study them.
professional and personal life. You can expect the benefits of This book places an emphasis on problem solving. There
your study of operations management to serve you in those are many examples throughout the text illustrating solutions.
other areas as well. In addition, at the end of most chapters and supplements you
Some students approach this course with apprehension, will find a group of solved problems. The examples within
and perhaps even some negative feelings. It may be that they the chapter itself serve to illustrate concepts and techniques.
have heard that the course contains a certain amount of quan- Too much detail at those points would be counterproductive.
titative material that they feel uncomfortable with, or that Yet, later on, when you begin to solve the end-of-chapter
the subject matter is dreary, or that the course is about fac- problems, you will find the solved problems quite helpful.
tory management. This is unfortunate, because the subject Moreover, those solved problems usually illustrate more and
matter of this book is interesting and vital for all business different details than the problems within the chapter.
students. While it is true that some of the material is quan- I suggest the following approach to increase your chances
titative, numerous examples, solved problems, and answers of getting a good grade in the course:
at the back of the book will help you with the quantitative 1. Look over the chapter outline and learning objectives.
material. As for factory management, there is material
2. Read the chapter summary, and then skim the chapter.
on manufacturing as well as on services. Manufacturing is
important, and something that you should know about for a 3. Read the chapter and take notes.
number of reasons. Look around you. Most of the things 4. Look over and try to answer the discussion and review
you see were manufactured: cars, trucks, planes, cloth- questions.
ing, shoes, computers, books, pens and pencils, desks, and 5. Solve the problems, referring to the solved problems and
cell phones. And these are just the tip of the iceberg. So it chapter examples as needed.
makes sense to know something about how these things are
6. Take the quizzes on the texts website.
produced. Beyond all that is the fact that manufacturing is
largely responsible for the high standard of living people Note that the answers to many problems are given at the
have in industrialized countries. end of the book. Try to solve each problem before turning to
After reading each chapter or supplement in the text, the answer. Remembertests dont come with answers.
attending related classroom lectures, and completing assigned An Online Learning Center (
questions and problems, you should be able to do each of the is also available, containing many of the same study tools
following: found in the text.
And here is one final thought: Homework is on the High-
1. Identify the key features of that material.
way to Happiness! Enjoy the journey!
2. Define and use terminology.
3. Solve typical problems. W.J.S.


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Chapter-by-Chapter Revisions for the Twelfth Edition

All Chapters and a table; add a solved problems and three new problems; and
Major sections within each chapter are numbered for easy provided additional guidance in the use of several formulas.
reference. Chapter 8: Added content on automation; added a reading
Learning objectives are positioned with related content and deleted several readings; and moved the Clicks or Bricks
within each chapter. reading to the supply chain chapter.
Many minor changes have been made to improve clarity Chapter 8S. This supplement has been moved to the
and understanding. Online Learning Center.
The Bibliography & Additional Reading sections have Chapter 9: Rearranged the sequence of some topics to
been updated/revised. improve the flow; shortened the chapter; Deleted several read-
ings; and added material on Six Sigma.
Most Chapters Chapter 10: Modified several diagrams to improve under-
standing; added a Critical Thinking Exercise; and modified
Learning Objectives have been revised to incorporate new the formula summary table to make it easier to select the
content. Questions have been added to some readings that did appropriate formula.
not have questions. Chapter 10S: This supplement has been moved to the
Online Learning Center.
Additional Changes Chapter 11: Added more explanation of aggregation;
Chapter 1: Updated product examples to make them more added three new problems and renumbered some problems;
current; changed the sequence of some content; updated and added an excel screenshot.
the reading on why manufacturing matters; added opera- Chapter 12: Revised the introduction completely; added
tions management job descriptions; added new readings on detail to the starting tree diagram; added new material on
analytics and agility; and added a format to guide problem ERP, including a new figure; added a setup guide for devel-
solving. oping an MRP plan; added a new solved problem and a new
Chapter 2: Added examples of Balanced Scorecard fac- problem; and deleted the last part of problem 9.
tors; added new reading on productivity advantage; and added Chapter 13: Revised the chapter opening material;
the USPS sustainability scorecard to the USPS reading updated Example 3; added more explanation of the EPQ
Chapter 3: Added a simpler example to illustrate seasonal model; and added a new problem 1 and revised problems 2,
computations; revised Discussion and Review question 4; 11, 27 and 28.
revised problems 2, 5, and 23; renumbered problems 8-18; Chapter 14: Added a description of the characteristics of
added new problem 13. lean systems; added benefits and risks of lean systems;
Chapter 4: Added a reading; added several Discussion deleted a reading; added a reading; and added more material
and Review Questions; and updated Problem 1. on value stream mapping.
Chapter 5: Added formula (and renumbered the formulas); Chapter 15: Added new sections on risk and resiliency,
added a new example; added a new Solved Problem; added a shortening the supply chain, and small businesses; added a
new Critical Thinking Exercise; and added five new problems. new reading; added material on ERP and the supply chain;
Chapter 6: Modified the introduction to process selection added some material on CPFR and SCORE; and added the
and the figure that relates volume and variety to process type; Clicks and Bricks reading from chapter 8.
added content on RFID tags; added a reading and deleted two Chapter 16: Added some excel screen shots for clarity.
readings; added material on restaurant and hospital layouts Chapter 17: Revised the description of project cycle and
and a reading on the hospital room of the future; and added a definition of terms; added a new Solved Problem; revised
Critical Thinking Exercise. problems so they can be solved using either AOA or AON.
Chapter 7: Changed the sequence of topics slightly to Chapter 18: Deleted readings on hotels and waiting at
improve the flow; shortened the chapter by deleting a few lists stop lights; added some starter problems.


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Brief Contents
Preface vii
1 Introduction to Operations Management 2
2 Competitiveness, Strategy, and Productivity 40
3 Forecasting 74
4 Product and Service Design 134
SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 4: Reliability 171
5 Strategic Capacity Planning for Products and Services 184
SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 5: Decision Theory 216
6 Process Selection and Facility Layout 236
7 Work Design and Measurement 288
SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 7: Learning Curves 325
8 Location Planning and Analysis 336
9 Management of Quality 366
10 Quality Control 410
11 Aggregate Planning and Master Scheduling 456
12 MRP and ERP 494
13 Inventory Management 546
14 JIT and Lean Operations 604
SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 14: Maintenance 640
15 Supply Chain Management 648
16 Scheduling 688
17 Project Management 730
18 Management of Waiting Lines 782
19 Linear Programming 822

Appendix A: Answers to Selected Problems 854

Appendix B: Tables 867
Appendix C: Working with the Normal Distribution 872
Photo Credits 877
Company Index 878
Subject Index 880


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Preface vii Reading:
1 Introduction to Operations AMAZON Tops in Customer Service 45
Management 2 Operations Strategy 51
Introduction 3 Reading:
Production of Goods Versus Providing Services 7 Productivity Gains Curb Inflation 53
Why Learn About Operations Management? 9 Implications of Organization Strategy for Operations
Career Opportunities and Professional Societies 11 Management 54
Process Management 12 Transforming Strategy into Action: The Balanced
The Scope of Operations Management 14 Scorecard 54
Reading: Productivity 56
Why Manufacturing Matters 17 Readings:
Why Productivity Matters 59
Operations Management and Decision Making 17
Reading: Dutch Tomato Growers Productivity
Analytics 20 Advantage 60
The Historical Evolution of Operations Productivity Improvement 62
Management 21 Summary 62
Key Points 62
Operations Today 24 Key Terms 63
Reading: Solved Problems 63
Agility Creates a Competitive Edge 26 Discussion and Review Questions 64
Taking Stock 64
Key Issues for Todays BusinessOperations 27 Critical Thinking Exercises 65
Readings: Problems 65

Universities Embrace Sustainability 28 Cases:

An American Tragedy: How a Good Company
Diet and the Environment: Vegetarian vs.
Died 66
Nonvegetarian 29
Summary 36 Home-Style Cookies 67
Key Points 36 Hazel Revisited 69
Key Terms 36
Discussion and Review Questions 36 Your Garden Gloves 69
Taking Stock 37 Operations Tour:
Critical Thinking Exercises 37
The U.S. Postal Service 70
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 73
Hazel 37
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 38
Problem-Solving Guide 38
3 Forecasting 74
Introduction 75
2 Competitiveness, Strategy, Features Common to All Forecasts 77
and Productivity 40 Elements of a Good Forecast 78
Introduction 41 Forecasting and the Supply Chain 78
Competitiveness 42 Steps in the Forecasting Process 79
Mission And Strategies 44 Forecast Accuracy 79


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Contents xxix

Reading: Readings:
High Forecasts Can Be Bad News 80 Best Buy Wants Your Junk 145
Approaches to Forecasting 82 Kraft Foods Recipe for Sustainability 146
Qualitative Forecasts 82 Xerox Diverts 2 Billion Pounds of Waste from
Forecasts Based on Time-Series Data 84 Landfills through Green Initiatives 147
Associative Forecasting Techniques 100 Recycle City: Marias Market 148
Monitoring Forecast Error 106 Other Design Considerations 149
Choosing a Forecasting Technique 110 Reading:
Lego A/S in the Pink 151
Using Forecast Information 112
Computer Software in Forecasting 112 Phases in Product Design and Development 159
Designing for Production 160
Gazing at the Crystal Ball 113 Service Design 162
Summary 114 Reading:
Key Points 115 The Challenges of Managing Services 166
Key Terms 117
Operations Strategy 167
Solved Problems 117
Summary 167
Discussion and Review Questions 123
Key Points 168
Taking Stock 124
Key Terms 168
Critical Thinking Exercises 124 Discussion and Review Questions 168
Problems 124 Taking Stock 169
Cases: Critical Thinking Exercises 169
M&L Manufacturing 132 Problems 169
Operations Tour:
Highline Financial Services, Ltd. 133
High Acres Landfill 170
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 133
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 170

SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 4: Reliability 171

4 Product and Service Design 134
Introduction 136 5 Strategic Capacity Planning for Products
Readings: and Services 184
Design as a Business Strategy 136 Introduction 185
Product Redesign, Not Offshoring, Holds Cost Reading:
Advantage for U.S. Manufacturers 137 Excess Capacity Can Be Bad News! 186
Dutch Boy Brushes Up Its Paints 138 Capacity Decisions Are Strategic 187
Idea Generation 139 Defining and Measuring Capacity 188
Reading: Determinants of Effective Capacity 189
Vlasic on a Roll with Huge Pickle Slices 140 Strategy Formulation 191
Legal and Ethical Considerations 141 Forecasting Capacity Requirements 192
Human Factors 142 Additional Challenges of Planning Service
Cultural Factors 143 Capacity 194
Global Product and Service Design 143 Do it In-House or Outsource It? 195
Reading: Developing Capacity Strategies 196
Do You Want Pickled Beets with That? 143 Reading:
Environmental Factors: Sustainability 144 My Compliments to the Chef, er, Buyer 196

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xxx Contents

Constraint Management 201 Methods Analysis 299

Evaluating Alternatives 201 Motion Study 303
Operations Strategy 207 Work Measurement 305
Summary 207 Operations Strategy 316
Key Points 208
Summary 317
Key Terms 208
Key Points 317
Solved Problems 208
Key Terms 318
Discussion and Review Questions 211
Solved Problems 319
Taking Stock 211
Discussion and Review Questions 319
Critical Thinking Exercises 211
Taking Stock 320
Problems 212
Critical Thinking Exercise 320
Case: Problems 320
Outsourcing of Hospital Services 215 Case:
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 215 Making Hotplates 323
SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 5: Decision Theory 216 Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 324

SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 7: Learning Curves 325

6 Process Selection and Facility Layout 236
Introduction 237 8 Location Planning and Analysis 336
Process Selection 238 The Need for Location Decisions 337
Technology 244 The Nature of Location Decisions 338
Reading: Global Locations 340
Foxconn Shifts Its Focus to Automation 246 General Procedure for Making Location
Process Strategy 249 Decisions 342
Strategic Resource Organization: Facilities Identifying a Country, Region, Community, and Site 343
Layout 250 Reading:
Reading: Innovative MCI Unit Finds Culture Shock in
A Safe Hospital Room of the Future 260 Colorado Springs 344
Designing Product Layouts: Line Balancing 262 Service and Retail Locations 351
Reading: Reading:
BMWs Strategy: Flexibility 270 Site Selection Grows Up: Improved Tech Tools
Designing Process Layouts 271 Make the Process Faster, Better 352
Summary 275 Evaluating Location Alternatives 353
Key Points 276 Summary 358
Key Terms 276 Key Points 358
Solved Problems 276 Key Terms 359
Discussion and Review Questions 280 Solved Problems 359
Taking Stock 280 Discussion and Review Questions 360
Critical Thinking Exercises 280 Taking Stock 360
Problems 281 Critical Thinking Exercises 361
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 287 Problems 361
7 Work Design and Measurement 288 Hello, Walmart? 364
Introduction 289 Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 364

Job Design 289

Quality of Work Life 294 9 Management of Quality 366
Reading: Introduction 367
Choosing Incentive Plans 298 The Evolution of Quality Management 368

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Contents xxxi

Reading: Statistical Process Control 417

Whatever Happened to Quality? 368 Process Capability 435
The Foundations of Modern Quality Management: Operations Strategy 440
The Gurus 369 Reading:
Insights on Quality Management 372 Bar Codes Might Cut Drug Errors in Hospitals 441
Readings: Summary 441
Key Points 441
The Sounds of Quality 374 Key Terms 441
Hyundai: Kissing Clunkers Goodbye 378 Solved Problems 443
Discussion and Review Questions 447
Quality Awards 380 Taking Stock 448
Reading: Critical Thinking Exercises 448
Problems 448
Rework and Morale 380
Quality Certification 381
Toys, Inc. 454
Quality and the Supply Chain 383
Tiger Tools 454
Total Quality Management 384 Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 455
Improving Quality and Reducing Risk in 11 Aggregate Planning and Master
Offshoring 384 Scheduling 456
Problem Solving and Process Improvement 388 Introduction 458
Reading: Reading:
What Keeps Six Sigma Practitioners Up at Duplicate Orders Can Lead to Excess Capacity 462
Night? 391 Basic Strategies for Meeting Uneven Demand 465
Quality Tools 392 Techniques for Aggregate Planning 468
Reading: Aggregate Planning in Services 475
Benchmarking Corporate Web Sites of Fortune 500 Disaggregating the Aggregate Plan 477
Companies 400 Master Scheduling 477
Operations Strategy 400 The Master Scheduling Process 478
Summary 400 Summary 483
Key Points 401 Key Points 483
Key Terms 401 Key Terms 484
Solved Problem 401 Solved Problems 484
Discussion and Review Questions 402 Discussion and Review Questions 487
Taking Stock 403 Taking Stock 487
Critical Thinking Exercises 403 Critical Thinking Exercise 487
Problems 403 Problems 487

Cases: Case:
Chick-n-Gravy Dinner Line 405 Eight Glasses a Day (EGAD) 492
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 492
Tip Top Markets 406
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 408 12 MRP and ERP 494
Introduction 495
10 Quality Control 410 An Overview of MRP 495
Introduction 411 MRP Inputs 496
Inspection 412 MRP Processing 500
Reading: MRP Outputs 507
In the Chips at Jays 415 Other Considerations 508

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xxxii Contents

MRP in Services 510 Cases:

Benefits and Requirements of MRP 510 UPD Manufacturing 596
MRP II 511 Harvey Industries 596
Capacity Requirements Planning 513 Grill Rite 598
ERP 516 Farmers Restaurant 599
Readings: Operations Tours:
The ABCs of ERP 518 Brueggers Bagel Bakery 600
The Top 10 ERP Mistakes 522 PSC, Inc. 601
Operations Strategy 524 Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 603
Summary 524
Key Points 524
Key Terms 525 14 JIT and Lean Operations 604
Solved Problems 525 Introduction 606
Discussion and Review Questions 534
Taking Stock 534 Reading:
Critical Thinking Exercises 535 Toyota Recalls 608
Problems 535 Supporting Goals 609
Building Blocks 610
Promotional Novelties 540
DMD Enterprises 541 General Mills Turns to NASCAR to Reduce
Operations Tour: Changeover Time 612
Stickley Furniture 541 People Firms Boost Profits, Study Shows 617
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 544
Lean Tools 627
Transitioning to a Lean System 629
13 Inventory Management 546 Reading:
Introduction 547 Nearby Suppliers Match Fords Mix 629
The Nature and Importance of Inventories 548 Lean Services 630
Requirements for Effective Inventory Reading:
Management 551 To Build a Better Hospital, Virginia Mason Takes
Lessons from Toyota Plants 632
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags 553 JIT II 633
Inventory Ordering Policies 557 Operations Strategy 633
Summary 634
How Much to Order: Economic Order Quantity Key Points 635
Models 557 Key Terms 635
Solved Problems 635
Reorder Point Ordering 569
Discussion and Review Questions 636
How Much to Order: Fixed-Order-Interval Model 573 Taking Stock 636
The Single-Period Model 576 Critical Thinking Exercises 636
Problems 636
Operations Strategy 581 Case:
Summary 581
Key Points 581 Level Operations 637
Key Terms 582 Operations Tour:
Solved Problems 583
Discussion and Review Questions 588 Boeing 638
Taking Stock 588 Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 639
Critical Thinking Exercises 588
Problems 589 SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 14: Maintenance 640

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Contents xxxiii

15 Supply Chain Management 648 Cases:

Introduction 649 Master Tag 685
Reading: B&L Inc. 686
Veggie Tales 652 Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 687
Trends in Supply Chain Management 653
Reading: 16 Scheduling 688
At 3M, a Long Road Became a Shorter Road 655 Scheduling Operations 690
Global Supply Chains 656 Scheduling in Low-Volume Systems 693
ERP and Supply Chain Management 656 Scheduling Services 711
Ethics and the Supply Chain 657 Readings:
Small Businesses 657 Servicing Passenger Planes 713
Summary 716
Management Responsibilities 658
Key Points 716
Procurement 660 Key Terms 716
Solved Problems 716
E-Business 663 Discussion and Review Questions 721
Readings: Taking Stock 721
IBMs Supply Chain Social Responsibility 663 Critical Thinking Exercises 721
Problems 722
Desperately Seeking E-Fulfillment 665 Case:
E-Procurement at IBM 666
Hi-Ho, Yo-Yo, Inc. 728
Supplier Management 667 Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 728
NestlUSA and Ocean Spray Form Strategic
17 Project Management 730
Operations Alliance 669
Inventory Management 670 Introduction 732
Project Life Cycle 732
Order Fulfillment 671
Behavioral Aspects of Project Management 733
Logistics 672
Operations Tour:
Project Managers Have Never Been More
Wegmans Shipping System 673
Critical 737
Work Breakdown Structure 739
Springdale Farm 675
Planning and Scheduling with Gantt Charts 739
RFID Tags: Keeping the Shelves Stocked 675
PERT and CPM 740
Active RFID vs. Passive RFID 676
Deterministic Time Estimates 743
Rise of the 3PL 677 A Computing Algorithm 744
Creating An Effective Supply Chain 678 Probabilistic Time Estimates 751
Reading: Determining Path Probabilities 754
Clicks or Bricks, or Both? 679
Simulation 756
Strategy 683 Budget Control 757
Summary 683
Key Points 684 TimeCost Trade-Offs: Crashing 757
Key Terms 684 Advantages of Using PERT andPotential Sources
Discussion and Review Questions 684 ofError 760
Taking Stock 684
Critical Thinking Exercises 685
Critical Chain Project Management 761
Problems 685 Other Topics in Project Management 761

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xxxiv Contents

Project Management Software 762 Taking Stock 815

Critical Thinking Exercises 815
Risk Management 763 Problems 816
Summary 764
Key Points 765
Key Terms 765 Big Bank 819
Solved Problems 765 Readings:
Discussion and Review Questions 772
Taking Stock 772 Stopped at a Light? Why Not Read This, You May
Critical Thinking Exercises 772 Have Time 819
Problems 772 Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 821
The Case of the Mexican Crazy Quilt 779
19 Linear Programming 822
Time, Please 781
Introduction 823
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 781
Linear Programming Models 824
Graphical Linear Programming 826
18 Management of Waiting Lines 782
The Simplex Method 838
Why is There Waiting? 784 Computer Solutions 838
Managerial Implications of Waiting Lines 785 Sensitivity Analysis 841
Goal of Waiting-Line Management 785 Summary 844
Reading: Key Points 844
New Yorkers do not Like Waiting in Line 785 Key Terms 844
Characteristics of Waiting Lines 786 Solved Problems 844
Measures of Waiting-Line Performance 790 Discussion and Review Questions 847

Queuing Models: Infinite-Source 790 Problems 847

Queuing Model: Finite-Source 805
Son, Ltd. 851
Constraint Management 810
Custom Cabinets, Inc. 852
The Psychology of Waiting 811
Selected Bibliography and Further Readings 853
David H. Maister on the Psychology of Appendix A Answers to Selected Problems 854
Waiting 811
Managing Waiting Lines at Disney World 812
Appendix B Tables 867
Operations Strategy 812 Appendix C Working with the Normal Distribution 872
Summary 812
Key Points 813 Photo Credits 877
Key Terms 813 Company Index 878
Solved Problems 813 Subject Index 880
Discussion and Review Questions 815

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