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Case Study :

Life Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Production


From Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) and Jatropha
curcas (Jatropha curcas L.)

Dr.Kiman Siregar
ksiregar.tep@unsyiah.ac.id; +628128395848
Head of Working Group ILCAN_www.ilcan.or.id
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Syiah Kuala University

ILCAN Training on Introduction to LCA and Tools - Pullman Hotel Jakarta Central Park, 12-13 Oct 2016
OUTLINE :
Chapter 1.
1. Introduction
Chapter 2.
2. What LCA is ?
Chapter 3.
3. Inventory Data (LCI)
Chapter 4.
4. Impact Assessment (LCIA)
Chapter 5.
5. Potential Reduction of GHG Emission
Chapter 6. Interpretation

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World vegetable oil consumption Vegetables oil producer

(2011)

Sources: www.soystat.com Sources: www.oil world.de

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Palm oil production Importers of palm oil
90
Indonesia Malaysia World
80
70
60
50
M Ton

40
30
20
10
0
1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2015 2020
Source : Oil World (2010) and IPOA (2011) Sources: RSPO

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


INDONESIA BIODIESEL PRODUCTION 2009 - 2013

(*as of April 2013)

Sources: ESDM

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Top 10 Producers of Biodiesel in the world

Source US Energy Information Administration (2011) in Pehnelt et al. (2012)

Although a few facilities for esterification/biodiesel production have been established in


the countries of origin in South-East Asia, the process of esterification usually takes place
in facilities in the importing countries. Note that the first country that grows oil palms in a
significant manner, Thailand, ranks 6th, far behind countries in Europe and America. The
actual biodiesel production of Malaysia, as the second largest producer of crude palm oil
in the world, significantly falls behind those on top of the list. Indonesia, the worlds
largest palm oil producer, does not even appear on this list.
12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)
Global Issues
US EPA-NODA states that palm oil based biodiesel can only reduce
GWP emission by 17% compared to fossil-fuel based

EU introduced RED, threshold 35% emission saving, palm biodiesel


only 19%

Trade policies
US Sustainnability Criterion EU Sustainnability Criterion
Requires a 20% reduction in GHG emmision Biofules or feedstocks cannot come from
from conventional sources land with high biodiversity status as of 2008
Advanced biofuels must have 50% reduction Biofuels must have a GHG savings of at least
in GHG emmision 35% (rising to 50% in 2017 and 60% for new
facilities starting after 2016)
This condition could make barrier to Indonesia as one of the worlds largest CPO
producer
12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)
Sheehan, J., et.al. (1998)

12 Oct Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)
LCI database related to LCA agri-food
Type of
Country Institution LCI database Format/Software
database
Denmark DIAS (Aarhus University) LCA Food SimaPro
France INRA Agri-BALYSE ILCD
Japan NARO JALCA (NARO LCI) SimaPro (EcoSpold)
Agricultural
Switzerland ART SALCA TEAM, SimaPro
LCI database
USA USDA Digital Commons EcoSpold
World Food LCA
World ART, Quantis EcoSpold
Database
Australia ALCAS AusLCI n.a.
Germany PE GaBi Databases GaBi
LCI database Japan AIST (JEMAI) IDEA (MiLCA) Special format
with Malaysia National Project MY-LCID ILCD
agricultural Netherlands University of Amsterdam IVAM LCA Data SimaPro
production Switzerland ecoinvent Center ecoinvent EcoSpold
processes Switzerland ESU-services ESU database EcoSpold
Thailand National Project Thai National LCI
USA NREL USLCI EcoSpold

Indonesia hasn't done nationally, but some researchers have already done it

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


WHAT IS LCA ?
The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is compilation and evaluation of the
inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system
throughout its life cycle (ISO 14044:2006)

FOUR STAGES INVOLVED IN LCA :

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Case Study

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Goal and Scope Defenition

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Standard LCA: The Scope and Data Inventory (LCI)

Cradle-to-grave
Cradle-to-gate
Cradle-to-Cradle
Well-to-wheel

Data Inventory
Multidisciplinary character [Hofstetter,1998] :
1. Technosphere: Dealing with technical systems, such as production processes, transport
processes etc. Uncertainties are not greater than a factor 2, while almost all
measurements are verifiable and repeatable.
2. Ecosphere: Dealing with environmental mechanisms. Uncertainties are often one to
three orders of magnitude, and often verification is difficult or impossible.
3. Valuesphere: Dealing with subjective choices, includes weighting of impact
categoriesValue sphere is typically in the area of social sciences. In value sphere one
cannot really speak of uncertainties, as one can say a "single" truth does not exist.
Inventory Data (Life Cycle Inventory)
Goal
Goal and Scope Definition

Boundary of research
Research boundary
1. Land preparation
2. Seedling
3. Planting
4. Fertilizing
5. Protection
6. Harvesting
7. Palm oil mills/Oil extraction
8. Biodiesel production

The main difference between those two


feedstock is crude oil production Oil
palm by milling on other ways Jatropha
curcas by extraction
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Life Cycle Inventory

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Pembukaan Lahan (per ha) untuk Jarak Pagar

Contoh Sub
Sistem LCI :
Unit Proses
Pembukaan
Lahan

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Life Cycle Inventory (LCI)
Proses pengolahan biodiesel berbahan baku CPO/CJCO

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Keseimbangan Massa
Contoh Sub Sistem LCI :Unit Proses Produksi CPO

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


The detail description comparison of life cycle on BDF-CPO and BDF-CJCO
Inp. activities Component Oil palm Jathropa curcas
(1) Land Early land uses Primer & skunder forest Coarse grass forest
preparation Soil fertility Fertile Less fertile
Tree, diameter > 60 cm 26-100 trees/ha No trees
Tree, diameter > 30 cm Approx. 2500 trees/ha Approx. 500 trees/ha
Coarse grass 10-30 groups/m2 10-30 groups/m2
Soil tillage Effective soil depth 50-150 cm Effective soil depth 20-30 cm
Plant above the soil surface Nuts No plants, usually
(2) Seedling Seedling time 12 months 3 months
Seedling source Seed Seed, steck
(3) Planting Plants width space 9x9x9m 2x2x2m
Number of plants 136/ha 2500/ha
Number of hole 50 x 40 x 40 cm 40 x 40 x 40 cm
(4) Fertilizing Fertilizer compound N,P,K,Mg,B, organic fertilizer N,P, K, organic fertilizer
Intensity Very intensive Scarcely conducted
(5) Protection Plant pest Many kinds of pest presents Almost not present
(6) Harvesting Start to produce 30 months 4 months
Production on stable productivity 8 tons seed/ha 21.5 tons FFB/ha
Edible/non-edible Edible Non-edible
(7) Palm oil Production of crude oil By milling By extraction
mills or Value of FFA <2 >2
Extraction oil Ratio of FFB to crude oil 21% 26%
Produced biomass EFB, fruit fiber, shell, palm kernel Kernel pulp, shell, cake
(8) Biodiesel Reaction of biodiesel production Transesterification Esterification, transesterification
production Ratio of crude oil to BDF 92% 91%
Biodiesel source ILCAN Training Series onPulp,
20 21 April 2016 kernel
Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA) kernel
Catalyst Alkali Acid and alkali
INVENTORY PRIMARY DATA
INITIAL DATA BASE LCA FOR INDONESIA

LCI is grouped into eight sub-processes for LCI is grouped into eight sub-processes for oil
Jatropha curcas palm

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


INVENTORY SECONDARY DATA
INITIAL DATA BASE FOR INDONESIA
LCI for biodiesel from CPO, CJCO, rapeseed, soybean
LCI for OIL PALM and JATROPHA CURCAS based in the world i.e
based data Indonesia USA, EU, India, China, Malaysia, Thai

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA) more than 500 journals
LCI for Primary Data
Materials and energy used at each activity to produce 1 ton BDF
Input Oil Jatropha
activities Input names Unit Palm curcas Oil palm land preparation uses more
(1) Land Herbicide kg 0.861 0.624 pesticides than Jatropha curcas, diesel
preparation Diesel fuel for toppling & clearing L 0.703 1.208 fuel is used for machinerry (tractor)
(2) Seedling Fungicides kg - 0.852
Insecticides kg 0.00018 0.0057
Oil palm seedlings takes longer time
kg 0.00492 -
(about 12 months), compared to Jatropha
Chemical fertilizer Urea 0.2 %
Organic fertilizer kg 8.367 9.377
Kieserite (MgSO4) kg 2.008 - curcas (about 3 months),
Urea kg 0.00007 -
Herbicide kg 0.974 -
At this sub process of planting, Jathropa
Dolomite kg 2.949 - curcas trees need more fertilizer
Compound fertilizer kg 4.686 - compared to oil palms. It caused by
Electricity for Pump Water kWh 0.436 - jathropa trees need to be fertilized before
Pesticides kg 0.004 -
Transportation Diesel fuel for truck 5 ton L 1.004 1.189 planting and also there are more number
(3) Planting TSP/SP36 kg 13.387 79.562 of plants per hectare for jathropa (appr.
Organic fertilizer kg - 994.524 2500 trees) than oil palms (appr. 136
Rock Phosphate kg 22.887 -
KCl - 15.912 trees)
(4) Fertilizing Compound fertilizer kg 9.844 -
for five years Rock Phosphate kg 252.492 - At fertilizing : the materials and energy
ZA/Urea kg 279.464 87.518 utilization for oil palms are higher than
HGF Borate kg 3.347 -
TSP/SP36 kg 117.140 278.467 Jatropha curcas trees due to inheritance
MOP (K)/KCl kg 245.995 95.474 nature of oil palms
Kieserit kg 184.078 -
HGF Borate kg 3.347 -
Organic fertilizer kg - 994.524

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


LCI for Primary Data
Materials and energy used at each activity to produce 1 ton BDF
Input Oil Jatropha
activities Input names Unit Palm curcas At the stage of harvesting sub-
(5) Protection Herbicide kg 56.317 - process, the transport energy use for
for five years Insecticides (liquid & powder)
Pesticides
kg
kg
1.323
0.801
-
2.955
oil palms are higher than Jatropha
Diesel for power sprayer & fogging L 0.554 - curcas trees due to the difference of
(6) Harvesting harvesting yield. The yield of oil palms
Transportation Diesel fuel for truck 10 ton L 5.027 2.468
(7) Palm oil Electricity kWh 34.39 14.833 is higher than yield of Jatropha curcas
mills vs Oil Steam consumption kg 1325.40 - trees
extraction Water consumption m3 3.968 -
PAC kg 0.125 - In the case of crude oil
Flokulon kg 0.00053 - production, Jatropha curcas oil needs
NaOH kg 0.107 - only electricity and diesel fuel for its
H2SO4/HCl kg 0.109 -
Tanin Consentrate kg 0.045 - process. On the other hand, palm oil mills
Poly Perse BWT 302 kg 0.045 - need more materials and energy
Alkaly BWT 402 kg 0.043 -
Shell consumption kg 133.862 - At the stage of biodesel production sub-
Transportation Diesel fuel for truck 10 ton L 2.540 1.890 process, due to high average value of
(8) Biodiesel Methanol ton - 0.449 free fatty acids (FFA) in Jatropha curcas
production H2SO4 ton - 0.027
Esterification Electricity kWh - 1.285 oils, it needs esterification stage before
Trans- Methanol ton 0.269 - trans-esterification.
esterification Electricity kWh 15.645 15.645 Consequently, Jatropha curcas oils
NaOH ton 0.080 0.080
Water consumption L 1700.68 1719.180 needs more materials and energy
Diesel fuel for Boiler L 14.00 16.00

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


LCI for overall averaged data (primary + secondary data)
Process Mass and Energy Unit Palm oil Jatropha curcas Process Mass and Energy Unit Palm oil Jatropha
(1) Land Herbicide Kg 1,216 0,919 curcas
clearing Diesel oil L 0,675 0,011 (5)Protection Insektisida Kg 2,658 2,278
(2)Seedling Fungisida Kg 0,774 1,277 For five years Pestisida Kg 3,155 1,816
Insektisida Kg 0,053 0,057 (6) Harvesting Minyak solar L 5,027 2,468
Pupuk Meister Kg 0,081 - (7) Palm oil Listrik kWh 44,070 14,833
Pupukkimia Urea 0,2 % L 1,123 - mill/oil Konsumsi steam Kg 59,770 -
Pupuk organic Kg 3,400 12,503 extraction Konsumsi air m3 0,852 -
TSP/SP36 Kg 0,107 - PAC Kg 0,027 -
MuriatePhotash (K) Kg 0,001 - Flokulon Kg 0,0001 -
Dolomite Kg 0,002 - Na OH Kg 0,023 -
N-P-K-Mg (mixing) Kg 0,618 - H2SO4/HCl Kg 0,023 -
Listrikuntukpompa air kWh 26,70 - TaninConsentrate Kg 0,010 -
Pestisida Kg 0,183 - Poly Perse BWT 302 Kg 0,010 -
Transportation Minyak solar L 4,896 1,560 Alkaly BWT 402 Kg 0,009 -
(3) Planting TSP/SP36 Kg 9,640 79,562 cangkang (shell) kg 28,746 -
Pupuk organic Kg 0,162 1591,238 Transportation Minyak solar L 4,720 1,890
Rock Phosphate Kg 1,217 - (8) Biodiesel Methanol Ton - 0,449
KCl - 15,912 Production
(4) Fertilization Urea Kg 184,694 140,029 Esterification H2SO4 Ton - 0,027
For five years TSP/SP36 Kg 74,645 445,547 Trans Methanol Ton 0,269 -
Rock Phosphate (RP) Kg 153,685 - esterification Listrik kWh 15,645 16,925
SulphateAmonia (ZA) Kg 45,633 - NaOH Ton 0,080 0,080
Muriate Potash (K) Kg 202,001 152,759 Crude glycerol Ton 0,082 0,082
Kieserite (MgSO4) Kg 119,020 - Konsumsi air L 1700,68 1719,180
HGF-B (HGF-Borate) Kg 7,676 - Diesel fossil for L 14,000 16,000
CuSO4 Kg 3,651 - boiler
ZnSO4 Kg 1,582 -
LSD Kg 54,759 -
20 21 April 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)
Pupuk organic Kg - 1291,228
Restrictions and the assumption of this research

1. Transportation from seedling to plantation area and from plantation to


palm oil mills and from palm oil mills to biodiesel plant were also
considered
2. Material transportation such as fertilizer from the stores to location is
calculated
3. Calculation divided in two stages : before stable productivity (1-5 years),
after stable productivuty (6-25 years)
4. Palm oil mills assumed have implemanted methane capture
5. Excluding land use change
6. Calculation of methanol only for methanol that reacted with the
triglyceride

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Life Cycle Impact Assessment

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ENVIRONMENTA IMPACT
(Life Cycle Impact Assesment/LCIA)
LCIA was conducted using the software released by MiLCA-JEMAI ver.1.1.2.5 (regular
license) which refers to IPCC data and other common standards according to LCA-
ISO 14040 series

Point of interest for environmental impacts


in this study :
1. Global warming potential (GWP), 100-
year, IPCC,2007 (kg-CO2eq.)
2. Acidification, DAF, LIME 2006 (kg-
SO2eq.)
3. Waste, landfill volume, LIME
2006 (m3)
4. Eutrophication, EPMC, LIME 2006 (kg-
PO4eq.)

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA)

Metode CML _the midpoint and the endpoint level


EPS 2000 (Steen,1999)
(Heijung et al.,1992)
Eco-Indicator 99_ the endpoint level Metode CML _the midpoint approach, Guinee et al.,2002)
(Goedkoop & Spriensma,1999)
Metode EDIP (Hauchild & Wenzel, 1998)
Syiah Kuala University
Calculation by MILCA-JEMAI
(Multiple Interface Life Cycle Assessment-
Japan Enviromental Management Association for Industry)

By :
Kiman Siregar
ksiregar.tep@unsyiah.ac.id; +62812-8395848
Contact Person : Katsuyuki NAKANO, Ph.D (Trainer of JEMAI)
JEMAI-2-1,Kajicho 2-chome,Chiyoda-ku Tokyo, Japan 101-0044
Phone : +81-3-5209-7708, fax : +81-3-5209-7716
E-mail : nakano@jemai.or.jp; URL : http://www.jemai.or.jp

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


BROWSE (Step 1) : Search process

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


BROWSE : Additional information

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CREATE NEW (Step 2)

1. Browse

2. Create New

3. Creating a process
with co-product

4. Case Study

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


CREATE NEW : Add input intermediate flow

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Create New CASE STUDY (Step 3)

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


CASE STUDY : Edit subsystem

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


CASE STUDY : Create downstream subsystem

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


CASE STUDY : Add input intermediate flow defined process

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


CASE STUDY : Inventory analysis

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


CASE STUDY : Impact assessment

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


RESULT of Impact assessment

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Impact Evaluation Scenario
Impact evaluation is made and analyzed in 5 scenarios :

Scenario 1: Using primary data from PT.PN VIII Unit Kebun Kertajaya
Lebak Banten dan Jatropha Curcas Estate Center Pakuwon
Sukabumi
Scenario 2: Calculation for production is performed before stable
productivity (1-5 years), it does not include material
transportation from the stores to location
Scenario 3: Calculation is performed annually, from the year-1 to year-5
(before stable productivity) and from year-6 to year-25
(stable productivity). Using electricity data in Indonesia and
including the calculation for material transportation from the
stores to location
Scenario 4: Using organic fertilizer in fertilization phase, the other terms
are similar to Scenario 3
Scenario 5: 20% biodiesel utilization to substitute diesel for Indonesian
power plant, according to governments target by 2025
12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)
Scenario-1 : LCA Kelapa Sawit (sudah
memperhitungkan transportasi)

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


LCIA FOR SCENARIO 3
LCIA by MiLCA version 1.1.2.5 for oil palm on first, second and third year

LCIA by MiLCA version 1.1.2.5 for jatropha curcas on first year

eight stage sub-process : (1)land preparation, (2)seedling, (3)planting, (4)fertilizing,


(5)protection,(6)harvesting, (7)palm oil mills/extraction crude oil, (8) biodiesel production
LCIA FOR SCENARIO 3
LCIA by MiLCA version 1.1.2.5 for oil palm on year-6 to year-25 (stable productivity)

LCIA by MiLCA version 1.1.2.5 for jatropha curcas on year-6 to year-25 (stable productivity)

Only five stage : (1)freezing, (2)protection, (3)harvesting, (4)palm oil mills/extraction


crude oil, (5) biodiesel production
Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) by MiLCA version 1.1.2.5
LCIA of oil palm for first, second and third year
Land Palm oil Electricity Biodiesel Total
Impact category Total Unit preparation Seedling Planting Fertilizing Protection Harvesting mills production production transportation
Global warming 9429.40 kg-CO2e 16.975 24.967 38.498 8813.880 25.982 11.970 277.433 6.221 35.263 178.212
Acidification 11.43 kg-SO 2e 0.029 0.038 0.054 10.536 0.044 0.022 0.435 0.005 0.052 0.219
Waste 0.20782 m3 1.27E-05 5.34E-04 2.86E-04 2.06E-01 2.24E-05 4.14E-09 5.42E-04 5.02E-06 1.13E-06 8.97E-08
Eutrophication 0.00081 kg-PO4e 2.61E-06 3.01E-06 5.56E-06 7.78E-04 4.63E-06 3.58E-11 1.74E-05 5.97E-07 4.30E-07 7.76E-10
Energy_Non-Renewable fuel
157104.25 MJ 262.464 361.015 676.719 148183.442 410.378 159.708 3799.787 80.320 715.428 2454.984
Energy_Fossil fuel 156238.74 MJ 262.004 357.400 673.725 147328.597 409.564 159.708 3797.058 80.301 715.415 2454.973
Energy_Total 247345.68 MJ 374.175 506.783 981.470 237359.165 608.243 159.708 4058.110 109.130 733.904 2454.991
Energy_Renewable 90702.89 MJ 137.212 185.840 359.910 87040.785 223.046 58.566 1488.129 40.019 269.126 900.257
NEB -226193.11 MJ
NER 1.041
RI 0.366

Persentasi (%) 8 7 4 1 6 9 2 10 5 3
Global warming 100.00 % 0.18 0.26 0.41 93.47 0.28 0.13 2.94 0.07 0.37 1.89
Acidification 100.00 % 0.254 0.329 0.475 92.143 0.385 0.192 3.802 0.048 0.455 1.917
Waste 100.00 % 0.01 0.26 0.14 99.32 0.01 0.000002 0.26 0.00242 0.00054 0.000043
Eutrophication 100.00 % 0.322 0.371 0.684 95.787 0.570 0.000004 2.139 0.073 0.053 0.00010
Energy_Non-Renewable fuel 100.00 % 0.167 0.230 0.431 94.322 0.261 0.102 2.419 0.051 0.455 1.563
Energy_Fossil fuel 100.00 % 0.168 0.229 0.431 94.297 0.262 0.102 2.430 0.051 0.458 1.571
Energy_Total 100.00 % 0.151 0.205 0.397 95.963 0.246 0.065 1.641 0.044 0.297 0.993
Energy_Renewable 100.00 % 0.151 0.205 0.397 95.963 0.246 0.065 1.641 0.044 0.297 0.993
Rata-rata persentasi 100.00 % 0.17 0.26 0.42 95.16 0.28 0.08 2.16 0.05 0.30 1.12

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) by MiLCA version 1.1.2.5
LCIA of oil palm for sixth and until the twentieth five year
Land Palm oil Electricity Biodiesel Total
Impact category Total Unit preparation Seedling Planting Fertilizing Protection Harvesting mills production production transportation
Global warming 1511.96 kg-CO2e 307.282 9.314 81.401 952.417 25.098 128.597 7.851
Acidification 2.23 kg-SO2e 0.334 0.021 0.149 1.502 0.022 0.187 0.010
Waste 0.01 m3 0.009 9.35E-05 2.81E-08 1.79E-03 2.03E-05 4.38E-06 3.95E-09
Eutrophication 0.00009 kg-PO4e 2.49E-05 1.42E-06 2.43E-10 5.74E-05 2.42E-06 1.67E-06 3.42E-11
Energy_Non-Renewable fuel
22436.75 MJ 5079.547 142.310 1086.114 13031.471 324.230 2664.923 108.151
Energy_Fossil fuel 22404.22 MJ 5056.731 141.740 1086.111 13022.462 324.153 2664.874 108.150
Energy_Total 26777.43 MJ 8313.024 208.349 1086.116 13884.396 440.877 2736.516 108.151
Energy_Renewable 4340.68 MJ 1347.56 33.77385 176.062 2250.693 71.467 443.596 17.532
NEB 146948.08 MJ
NER 1.041
RI 0.162

Urutan dalam persentasi 2 6 4 1 5 3 7


Global warming 100.00 % 20.32 0.62 5.38 62.99 1.66 8.51 0.52
Acidification 100.00 % 15.029 0.933 6.706 67.516 0.989 8.394 0.434
Waste 100.00 % 82.57 0.86 0.00 16.35 0.19 0.04 0.00
Eutrophication 100.00 % 28.356 1.614 0.000 65.378 2.752 1.898 0.000
Energy_Non-Renewable fuel 100.00 % 22.639 0.634 4.841 58.081 1.445 11.877 0.482
Energy_Fossil fuel 100.00 % 22.570 0.633 4.848 58.125 1.447 11.895 0.483
Energy_Total 100.00 % 31.045 0.778 4.056 51.851 1.646 10.219 0.404
Energy_Renewable 100.00 % 31.045 0.778 4.056 51.851 1.646 10.219 0.404
Rata-rata persentasi 100.00 % 31.70 0.86 3.74 54.02 1.47 7.88 0.34

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) by MiLCA version 1.1.2.5
LCIA of Jatropha curcas for first year
Land Extraction Electricity Biodiesel Total
Impact category Total Unit preparation Seedling Planting Fertilizing Protection Harvesting crude oil production production transportation
Global warming 8317.96 kg-CO2e 12.301 12.764 182.028 7255.952 182.66 0.479 0.114 0.177 2.115 669.363
Acidification 12.37 kg-SO 2e 0.021 0.021 0.309 10.876 0.31 0.001 0.0002 0.0002 0.003 0.823
Waste 0.098 % 6.839E-06 0.0002 0.003 0.095 0.00017 1.66E-10 3.94E-11 1.43E-07 8.46E-08 3.37E-07
Eutrophication 0.00099 kg-PO4e 1.411E-06 1.3E-06 2.87E-05 0.001 0.00003 1.43E-12 3.41E-13 1.71E-08 3.23E-08 2.91E-09
Energy_Non-Renewable fuel
138025.18 MJ 183.546 188.807 2766.986 122721.622 2886.51 6.395 1.521 2.291 46.584 9220.911
Energy_Fossil fuel 137313.70 MJ 183.298 185.723 2751.026 122035.336 2880.66 6.395 1.521 2.291 46.583 9220.869
Energy_Total 233885.63 MJ 243.838 236.916 4841.834 215006.039 4277.07 6.395 1.521 3.117 47.970 9220.936
Energy_Renewable 95860.46 MJ 99.940 97.103 1984.476 88122.457 1753.001 2.621 0.623 1.278 19.661 3779.296
NEB -232196.78 MJ
NER 1.042
RI 0.411

Urutan dalam persentasi 6 5 3 1 4 8 10 9 7 2


Global warming 100.000 % 0.148 0.153 2.188 87.232 2.196 0.006 0.001 0.002 0.025 8.047
Acidification 100.000 % 0.17 0.17 2.50 87.95 2.52 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.02 6.66
Waste 100.000 % 0.007 0.167 2.933 96.715 0.178 1.70E-07 4.03E-08 0.0001467 0.0000866 3.45E-04
Eutrophication 100.000 % 0.143 0.136 2.898 93.530 3.287 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.000
Energy_Non-Renewable fuel 100.000 % 0.133 0.137 2.005 88.912 2.091 0.005 0.001 0.002 0.034 6.681
Energy_Fossil fuel 100.000 % 0.133 0.135 2.003 88.873 2.098 0.005 0.001 0.002 0.034 6.715
Energy_Total 100.000 % 0.104 0.101 2.070 91.928 1.829 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.021 3.942
Energy_Renewable 100.000 % 0.104 0.101 2.070 91.928 1.829 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.021 3.942
Rata-rata persentasi 100.000 0.12 0.14 2.33 90.88 2.00 0.0035 0.0008 0.0014 0.02 4.50

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


LCIA of Jatropha curcas for sixth and until the twentieth five year
Global warming potential
Category Characterization
Category 1 2 Category 3 Elementary flow LCI result Unit factor Equivalent GWP
Emissions Air Unspecified carbon dioxide (biogenic) 1.253 kg 0 0.000 0.000
Emissions Air Unspecified carbon dioxide (fossil) 341.777 kg 1 341.777 341.777
Emissions Air Urban air close to ground carbon dioxide (fossil) 13.180 kg 1 13.180 13.180
Emissions Air Troposphere carbon dioxide (fossil) 0.000 kg 1 0.000 0.000
Emissions Air Unspecified methane 0.314 kg 25 7.851 7.851
Emissions Air Urban air close to ground methane (fossil) 0.000 kg 25 0.005 0.005
Emissions Air Unspecified nitrous oxide 0.059 kg 298 17.669 17.669
Emissions Air Urban air close to ground nitrous oxide 0.000 kg 298 0.032 0.032
Emissions Air Unspecified PFC-14 0.000 kg 7390 0.002 0.002
Emissions Air Unspecified sulfur hexafluoride 0.000 kg 22800 0.000 0.000
380.517
Acidification
Category
Category 1 2 Category 3 Elementary flow LCI result Equivalent Acidification
Unit Characterization factor
Emissions Air Unspecified ammonia 4.29E-07 kg 5.98858 2.57E-06 2.56794E-06
Emissions Air Unspecified hydrogen chloride 9.09E-08 kg 2.61284 2.37E-07 2.37498E-07
Emissions Air Urban air close to ground nitrogen dioxide 1.66E-05 kg 0.716514 1.19E-05 1.18633E-05
Emissions Air Unspecified nitrogen oxides 0.24577 kg 0.716514 0.176097 0.176097
Emissions Air Urban air close to ground nitrogen oxides 0.02312 kg 0.716514 0.0165641 0.016564147
Emissions Air Troposphere nitrogen oxides 0 kg 0.716514 0 0
Emissions Air Unspecified sulfur dioxide 0.30179 kg 1 0.3017937 0.301793687
Emissions Air Urban air close to ground sulfur dioxide 8.35E-05 kg 1 8.35E-05 8.35289E-05
Emissions Air Troposphere sulfur dioxide 0 kg 1 0 0
Emissions Air Unspecified sulfur oxides 0.03644 kg 1 0.036 0.036
0.531
Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) by MiLCA version 1.1.2.5
LCIA of Jatropha curcas for sixth and until the twentieth five year
Land Extraction Electricity Biodiesel Total
Impact category All Unit preparation Seedling Planting Fertilizing Protection Harvesting crude oil production production transportation
Global warming 380.52 kg-CO2e 219.365 3.653 23.943 5.745 8.874 104.230 14.707
Acidification 0.53 kg-SO 2e 0.299 0.006 0.044 0.011 0.008 0.145 0.018
Waste 0.00 m3 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Eutrophication 0.00003 kg-PO4e 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Energy_Non-Renewable 6980.54 MJ 3930.878 57.737 319.461 76.656 114.645 2278.561 202.602
Energy_Fossil fuel 6959.63 MJ 3910.159 57.620 319.460 76.656 114.617 2278.516 202.601
Energy_Total 9554.87 MJ 6369.192 85.547 319.462 76.657 155.871 2345.535 202.603
Energy_Renewable 2574.33 MJ 1716.023 23.049 86.071 20.653 41.996 631.947 54.586
NEB 39334.79 MJ
NER 1.042
RI 0.270

Urutan dalam persentasi 1 6 3 7 5 2 4


Global warming 100.00 % 57.649 0.960 6.292 1.510 2.332 27.392 3.865
Acidification 100.00 % 56.350 1.172 8.265 1.983 1.465 27.357 3.406
Waste 100.00 % 99.397 0.144 0.000 0.000 0.292 0.166 0.000
Eutrophication 100.00 % 88.790 2.379 0.000 0.000 3.125 5.705 0.000
Energy_Non-Renewable 100.00 % 56.312 0.827 4.576 1.098 1.642 32.642 2.902
Energy_Fossil fuel 100.00 % 56.183 0.828 4.590 1.101 1.647 32.739 2.911
Energy_Total 100.00 % 66.659 0.895 3.343 0.802 1.631 24.548 2.120
Energy_Renewable 100.00 % 66.659 0.895 3.343 0.802 1.631 24.548 2.120
Rata-rata persentasi 100.00 % 68.500 1.013 3.801 0.912 1.721 21.887 2.166

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


LCIA of Jatropha curcas for sixth and until the twentieth five year
E m is s io n s t o a ir
E le c tr ic ity B io d ie s e l
C a te g o r y 1 C a te gCoar te
y 2g o r y 3 O u tp u t flo w A ll U n it F e r tiliz in g P r o te c tio n H a r v e s tin g E x tr a c tio n o fpcr roudduec tio
o il n p r o d u c tio n
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d 2 ,3 ,7 ,8 -te tr a c h lo r o d ib e n z o -p -d io x in 2 .8 5 E -1 3 kg 2 .5 5 E -1 3 6 .5 6 E -1 5 2 .5 2 E -1 9 6 .0 5 E -2 0 7 .7 5 E -1 5 1 .6 0 E -1 4
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d a m m o n ia 4 .2 9 E -0 7 kg 3 .8 0 E -0 7 1 .0 3 E -0 8 1 .1 3 E -1 2 2 .7 2 E -1 3 1 .3 5 E -0 8 2 .4 7 E -0 8
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d a r s e n ic 1 .2 4 E -0 6 kg 9 .9 6 E -0 7 2 .4 9 E -0 8 7 .0 5 E -1 2 1 .6 9 E -1 2 1 .5 8 E -0 7 5 .8 9 E -0 8
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d c a d m iu m 9 .5 3 E -0 8 kg 7 .6 1 E -0 8 1 .8 9 E -0 9 5 .6 5 E -1 3 1 .3 6 E -1 3 1 .2 8 E -0 8 4 .4 7 E -0 9
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d c a r b o n d io x id e (b io g e n ic ) 1 .2 5 2 8 7 kg 1 .2 4 9 5 1 4 0 .0 0 2 9 8 2 7 .9 2 E -0 7 1 .9 0 E -0 7 3 .5 1 E -0 5 0 .0 0 0 3 3 7 1
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d c a r b o n d io x id e (fo s s il) 3 4 1 .7 7 7 kg 2 0 5 .1 7 7 2 3 .4 9 8 0 6 6 2 3 .2 0 6 3 9 5 .5 6 8 4 9 2 9 8 .6 2 5 5 1 4 4 9 5 .7 0 1 7 0 7
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d c a r b o n d io x id e (fo s s il) 1 3 .1 7 9 7 kg 1 3 .1 6 7 6 5 0 .0 1 1 7 1 5 3 .0 4 E -1 6 7 .3 0 E -1 7 0 .0 0 0 3 2 3 9 3 .3 6 E -0 6
E m is s io n s A ir T r o p o s p h e r e c a r b o n d io x id e (fo s s il) 0 kg 0 0 0 0 0 0
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d c a r b o n m o n o x id e 0 .0 2 0 0 7 kg 0 .0 1 4 5 4 9 0 .0 0 0 2 4 6 5 .2 4 E -0 5 1 .2 6 E -0 5 0 .0 0 2 0 7 6 2 0 .0 0 3 1 3 0 3
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d c a r b o n m o n o x id e 0 .0 2 0 2 4 kg 0 .0 2 0 2 2 3 1 .8 0 E -0 5 5 .4 5 E -1 9 1 .3 1 E -1 9 4 .9 4 E -0 7 5 .7 5 E -0 9
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d c h lo r in e 1 .0 7 E -1 0 kg 9 .5 2 E -1 1 1 .7 1 E -1 2 1 .5 5 E -1 4 3 .7 1 E -1 5 1 .1 1 E -1 2 9 .2 2 E -1 2
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d c h r o m iu m 2 .1 0 E -0 6 kg 1 .6 7 E -0 6 4 .1 6 E -0 8 1 .2 4 E -1 1 2 .9 8 E -1 2 2 .8 2 E -0 7 9 .8 2 E -0 8
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d c o b a lt 3 .8 1 E -1 0 kg 3 .3 8 E -1 0 9 .1 7 E -1 2 1 .0 1 E -1 5 2 .4 2 E -1 6 1 .2 0 E -1 1 2 .2 0 E -1 1
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d co p p e r 1 .6 7 E -0 9 kg 1 .4 8 E -0 9 4 .0 0 E -1 1 4 .4 0 E -1 5 1 .0 6 E -1 5 5 .2 6 E -1 1 9 .6 1 E -1 1
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d C x H y ;h y d r o c a r b o n s ;C x H y 0 .0 0 9 2 2 kg 0 .0 0 6 1 1 1 3 .4 1 E -0 5 5 .8 5 E -0 5 1 .4 0 E -0 5 0 .0 0 0 1 6 8 2 0 .0 0 2 8 3 2
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d C x H y ;h y d r o c a r b o n s ;C x H y 0 .0 0 0 6 6 kg 0 .0 0 0 6 6 2 5 .8 8 E -0 7 3 .7 7 E -2 0 9 .0 4 E -2 1 3 .4 2 E -0 8 3 .9 8 E -1 0
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d H 2SO 4 5 .9 3 E -1 1 kg 5 .2 6 E -1 1 1 .4 3 E -1 2 1 .5 7 E -1 6 3 .7 6 E -1 7 1 .8 7 E -1 2 3 .4 2 E -1 2
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d h y d r o g e n c h lo r id e 9 .0 9 E -0 8 kg 8 .0 6 E -0 8 2 .1 9 E -0 9 2 .4 0 E -1 3 5 .7 6 E -1 4 2 .8 7 E -0 9 5 .2 4 E -0 9
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d h y d r o g e n flu o r id e 3 .5 9 E -0 9 kg 3 .2 1 E -0 9 8 .0 1 E -1 1 8 .8 3 E -1 5 2 .1 2 E -1 5 1 .0 6 E -1 0 1 .9 2 E -1 0
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d h y d r o g e n s u lfid e 2 .2 1 E -0 9 kg 1 .9 6 E -0 9 5 .3 2 E -1 1 5 .8 4 E -1 5 1 .4 0 E -1 5 6 .9 9 E -1 1 1 .2 8 E -1 0
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d le a d 5 .5 2 E -0 6 kg 4 .4 1 E -0 6 1 .1 0 E -0 7 3 .2 7 E -1 1 7 .8 5 E -1 2 7 .4 2 E -0 7 2 .5 9 E -0 7
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d m e rcu ry 1 .3 9 E -0 6 kg 1 .1 1 E -0 6 2 .7 7 E -0 8 8 .2 5 E -1 2 1 .9 8 E -1 2 1 .8 7 E -0 7 6 .5 3 E -0 8
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d m e th a n e 0 .3 1 4 0 5 kg 0 .1 4 4 8 3 9 0 .0 0 3 5 9 7 0 .0 2 4 9 7 5 0 .0 0 5 9 9 2 9 0 .0 0 4 7 6 4 0 .1 2 9 8 8 1 5
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d m e th a n e (fo s s il) 0 .0 0 0 2 kg 0 .0 0 0 2 0 3 1 .8 1 E -0 7 5 .0 5 E -2 1 1 .2 1 E -2 1 4 .3 4 E -0 9 4 .1 7 E -1 1
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d n ic k e l 2 .3 6 E -0 6 kg 1 .8 9 E -0 6 4 .6 9 E -0 8 1 .4 0 E -1 1 3 .3 6 E -1 2 3 .1 7 E -0 7 1 .1 1 E -0 7
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d n itr o g e n d io x id e 1 .6 6 E -0 5 kg 1 .6 5 E -0 5 1 .1 7 E -0 8 1 .3 1 E -1 2 3 .1 5 E -1 3 3 .7 9 E -1 0 1 .4 0 E -0 9
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d n itr o g e n o x id e s 0 .2 4 5 7 7 kg 0 .1 5 7 1 9 1 0 .0 0 2 5 5 2 0 .0 1 2 9 5 7 0 .0 0 3 1 0 9 2 0 .0 0 8 1 9 0 9 0 .0 6 1 7 6 8 5
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d n itr o g e n o x id e s 0 .0 2 3 1 2 kg 0 .0 2 3 0 9 5 2 .0 5 E -0 5 1 .8 8 E -1 8 4 .5 2 E -1 9 1 .7 1 E -0 6 1 .9 9 E -0 8
E m is s io n s A ir T r o p o s p h e r e n itr o g e n o x id e s 0 kg 0 0 0 0 0 0
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d n itr o u s o x id e 0 .0 5 9 2 9 kg 0 .0 4 0 4 4 8 0 .0 0 0 2 2 4 0 .0 0 0 3 7 5 9 .0 0 E -0 5 0 .0 0 0 4 3 4 2 0 .0 1 7 7 2 0 7
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d n itr o u s o x id e 0 .0 0 0 1 1 kg 0 .0 0 0 1 0 7 9 .5 2 E -0 8 5 .0 5 E -2 1 1 .2 1 E -2 1 4 .3 4 E -0 9 4 .1 7 E -1 1
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d n o n -m e th a n e v o la tile o r g a n ic c o m p o u n d 0s .0 0 1 3 4 kg 0 .0 0 1 0 6 4 1 .7 1 E -0 5 2 .9 7 E -0 8 7 .1 2 E -0 9 0 .0 0 0 2 2 5 3 .4 2 E -0 5
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d p a r tic le s (> P M 1 0 ) 0 .0 8 0 1 2 kg 0 .0 6 6 2 5 7 0 .0 0 0 2 9 0 .0 0 3 2 1 0 .0 0 0 7 7 0 4 3 .4 0 E -0 5 0 .0 0 9 5 6 1 8
E m is s io n s A ir T r o p o s p h e r e p a r tic le s (> P M 1 0 ) 0 kg 0 0 0 0 0 0
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d p a r tic le s (P M 1 0 ) 0 kg 0 0 0 0 0 0
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d p a r tic le s (P M 1 0 ) 0 .0 0 0 1 2 kg 0 .0 0 0 1 1 9 1 .0 6 E -0 7 2 .1 1 E -2 0 5 .0 7 E -2 1 1 .9 1 E -0 8 2 .2 3 E -1 0
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d P F C -1 4 3 .3 4 E -0 7 kg 3 .2 7 E -0 7 2 .4 9 E -0 9 3 .5 2 E -1 4 8 .4 4 E -1 5 1 .7 7 E -0 9 3 .1 9 E -0 9
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d s u lfu r d io x id e 0 .3 0 1 7 9 kg 0 .1 6 0 6 0 6 0 .0 0 4 0 1 6 0 .0 3 2 9 9 7 0 .0 0 7 9 1 7 7 7 .1 4 E -0 5 0 .0 9 6 1 8 6
E m is s io n s A ir U r b a n a ir c lo s e to g r o u n d s u lfu r d io x id e 8 .3 5 E -0 5 kg 8 .3 5 E -0 5 7 .4 2 E -0 8 1 .9 3 E -2 1 4 .6 3 E -2 2 2 .0 5 E -0 9 2 .1 3 E -1 1
E m is s io n s A ir T r o p o s p h e r e s u lfu r d io x id e 0 kg 0 0 0 0 0 0
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d s u lfu r h e x a flu o r id e 7 .7 8 E -0 9 kg 7 .7 5 E -0 9 4 .6 1 E -1 2 1 .2 2 E -1 5 2 .9 4 E -1 6 1 .6 5 E -1 1 6 .6 8 E -1 2
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d s u lfu r o x id e s 0 .0 3 6 4 4 kg 0 .0 2 7 4 0 9 0 .0 0 0 3 8 2 0 .0 0 1 6 0 7 0 .0 0 0 3 8 5 7 0 .0 0 1 8 3 8 7 0 .0 0 4 8 2 1
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d v a n a d iu m 5 .0 2 E -0 6 kg 3 .6 1 E -0 6 7 .9 9 E -0 8 5 .0 0 E -1 1 1 .2 0 E -1 1 1 .1 4 E -0 6 1 .8 2 E -0 7
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d v o la tile o r g a n ic c o m p o u n d 1 .3 3 E -0 7 kg 1 .1 8 E -0 7 3 .1 9 E -0 9 3 .5 0 E -1 3 8 .4 0 E -1 4 4 .1 9 E -0 9 7 .6 5 E -0 9
E m is s io n s A ir T r o p o s p h e r e w a te r v a p o u r 6 4 2 .9 9 6 kg 6 4 2 .9 6 5 7 0 .0 2 9 4 5 4 1 .4 3 E -0 7 3 .4 4 E -0 8 6 .3 4 E -0 5 0 .0 0 0 5 1 3 8
E m is s io n s A ir U n s p e c ifie d z in c 1 .3 7 E -0 5 kg 9 .0 8 E -0 6 1 .7 9 E -0 7 1 .7 5 E -1 0 4 .2 1 E -1 1 4 .0 1 E -0 6 3 .9 3 E -0 7
1 .0 0 E + 0 3
6 .3 0 %
LCIA of Jatropha curcas for sixth and until the twentieth five year

Emissions to water
Electricity Biodiesel
Category 1 CategoryCategory
2 3 Output flow All Unit Fertilizing Protection Harvesting Extraction ofproduction
crude oil production
Emissions Water Unspecified acid (as H+) 5.08E-10 kg 4.51E-10 1.22E-11 1.34E-15 3.22E-16 1.61E-11 2.93E-11
Emissions Water Unspecified ammonium 2.98E-11 kg 2.97E-11 4.84E-14 7.81E-18 1.87E-18 1.18E-13 2.12E-14
Emissions Water Unspecified arsenic 3.43E-09 kg 3.07E-09 7.79E-11 1.06E-15 2.54E-16 8.84E-11 1.91E-10
Emissions Water Unspecified biological oxygen demand 0.00209 kg 0.002081 6.05E-06 1.15E-10 2.77E-11 1.04E-07 1.19E-07
Emissions Water Unspecified boron 1.09E-08 kg 9.76E-09 2.46E-10 1.49E-15 3.59E-16 2.76E-10 6.06E-10
Emissions Water Unspecified C6 alkylbenzene 1.52E-12 kg 1.26E-12 1.63E-14 1.33E-17 3.20E-18 2.15E-13 2.86E-14
Emissions Water Unspecified cadmium 2.03E-11 kg 1.82E-11 4.58E-13 3.50E-18 8.40E-19 5.15E-13 1.13E-12
Emissions Water Unspecified chemical oxygen demand 0.00012 kg 0.000117 2.21E-07 2.70E-10 6.47E-11 2.54E-07 1.94E-07
Emissions Water Unspecified chromium 1.36E-10 kg 1.21E-10 3.12E-12 1.09E-16 2.61E-17 3.67E-12 7.63E-12
Emissions Water Unspecified cobalt 5.41E-11 kg 4.80E-11 1.30E-12 1.43E-16 3.43E-17 1.71E-12 3.12E-12
Emissions Water Unspecified copper 3.51E-09 kg 3.12E-09 8.45E-11 9.28E-15 2.23E-15 1.11E-10 2.03E-10
Emissions Water Unspecified CxHy;hydrocarbons;CxHy 3.04E-09 kg 2.69E-09 7.30E-11 8.03E-15 1.93E-15 9.61E-11 1.75E-10
Emissions Water Unspecified H2SO4 1.01E-07 kg 8.95E-08 2.43E-09 2.67E-13 6.40E-14 3.19E-09 5.83E-09
Emissions Water Unspecified hydrogen fluoride 1.65E-08 kg 1.48E-08 3.73E-10 2.35E-15 5.65E-16 4.19E-10 9.17E-10
Emissions Water Unspecified lead 1.38E-08 kg 1.22E-08 3.30E-10 3.48E-14 8.36E-15 4.31E-10 7.93E-10
Emissions Water Unspecified manganese 2.30E-09 kg 2.06E-09 5.19E-11 3.15E-16 7.57E-17 5.82E-11 1.28E-10
Emissions Water Unspecified mercury 3.09E-12 kg 2.74E-12 7.43E-14 8.16E-18 1.96E-18 9.77E-14 1.78E-13
Emissions Water Unspecified N total 0.0001 kg 9.20E-05 2.49E-06 2.74E-10 6.57E-11 3.28E-06 5.99E-06
Emissions Water Unspecified nickel 1.96E-08 kg 1.74E-08 4.71E-10 5.18E-14 1.24E-14 6.20E-10 1.13E-09
Emissions Water Unspecified nickel compounds 2.20E-09 kg 1.97E-09 4.97E-11 3.02E-16 7.24E-17 5.57E-11 1.22E-10
Emissions Water Unspecified P total 6.69E-10 kg 6.48E-10 4.07E-12 5.77E-16 1.38E-16 7.53E-12 9.64E-12
Emissions Water Unspecified phenol 1.98E-10 kg 1.97E-10 7.16E-14 5.87E-17 1.41E-17 9.46E-13 1.26E-13
Emissions Water Unspecified suspended solids 0.00011 kg 0.000106 2.18E-07 2.38E-10 5.71E-11 2.40E-07 1.97E-07
Emissions Water Unspecified treated water 14676.3 kg 12052.6 87.35716 4.546761 1.091019 0.8090231 2529.9408
Emissions Water Unspecified zinc 9.06E-10 kg 8.11E-10 2.06E-11 3.91E-16 9.38E-17 2.36E-11 5.06E-11
1.47E+04
92.41 %

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


LCIA of Jatropha curcas for sixth and until the twentieth five year
Emissions to ground
Electricity Biodiesel
Category 1 CategoryCategory
2 3 Output flow All Unit Fertilizing Protection Harvesting Extraction ofproduction
crude oil production
Emissions GroundSoil managed earth & sand (landfill) 0.20444 kg 0.196125 0.001022 1.86E-06 4.46E-07 3.39E-06 0.0072845
Emissions GroundSoil managed low-level radioactive waste 0.00816 kg 0.008087 4.59E-05 4.07E-07 9.76E-08 1.06E-05 1.77E-05
Emissions GroundSoil managed metal wastes (landfill) 1.17193 kg 1.164875 0.001686 3.94E-06 9.46E-07 0.0034222 0.0019453
Emissions GroundSoil managed slag (landfill) 0.00016 kg 0.000139 3.78E-06 4.15E-10 9.95E-11 4.96E-06 9.06E-06
Emissions GroundSoil managed sludge (landfill) 1.87509 kg 1.8638 0.002698 6.31E-06 1.51E-06 0.0054755 0.0031125
3.25978
0.02 %

Others
Electricity Biodiesel
Category 1 CategoryCategory
2 3 Output flow All Unit Fertilizing Protection Harvesting Extraction ofproduction
crude oil production
- - - animal and plant remains, recycable
0.00012 kg 0 0.00012 0 0 0 0
- - - bittern 0.02145 L 0 0.021448 0 0 0 0
- - - blast furnace gas (BFG) 1.53E-05 Nm3 0 1.53E-05 0 0 0 0
- - - coke oven gas (COG) 5.17E-05 Nm3 0 5.17E-05 0 0 0 0
- - - dust and soot, recycable 1.38E-05 kg 0 1.38E-05 0 0 0 0
- - - miscellaneous industrial waste1.60598 kg 1.389485 0.216495 0 0 0 0
- - - rubble and debris, recycable 197.402 kg 197.3938 0.008038 0 0 0 0
- - - sludge, recycable 0.44048 kg 0.440364 0.000113 0 0 0 0
- - - slug, recycable 0.11696 kg 0 0.116962 0 0 0 0
- - - spent acid, recycable 0.47123 kg 0 0.471233 0 0 0 0
- - - spent oil, recycable 1.69E-05 kg 0 1.69E-05 0 0 0 0
- - - steam 0.00856 kg 0 0.008562 0 0 0 0
- - - waste alkali, recycable 1.40392 kg 1.396601 0.007316 0 0 0 0
- - - waste glass and ceramic, recycable
1.73E-05 kg 0 1.73E-05 0 0 0 0
201.471
1.27 %

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Environmental Impact For Scenario 1
Calculation for GWP of plants for the first 5 years of each sub-processes
100-year GWP (IPCC,2007) of Palm Oil 100-year GWP (IPCC,2007) of Jatropha curcas
Land 1000
51.78 %
1000
900
902.9 35.15 % preparation
900
897.8 Land
preparation
Seedling
Seedling
800 800
602.1 Planting
kg-CO2 eq. /tonBD F

700 700 Planting

kg-CO 2 eq. /tonBDF


588.3
600 Fertilizing 600
511.3 Fertilizing
500 500
393.4 Protection Protection
400 400
300 Harvesting 300 Harvesting
204.4
200 200
Palm oil Palm oil
23.5 31.7 69.6
100 mills 100 mills
11.2 15.7 10.9 12.8 8.3 18.6
Biodiesel 0 Biodiesel
0
production production
Global Warming Potential Global Warming Potential

The GWP value for oil palms is higher than Jatropha curcas in every stages except for
planting and biodiesel production stages
The most significant environmental impact based on GWP value is caused by
fertilizing and biodiesel production stages both at oil palms and Jatropha curcas
Agro-chemical in form of fertilizer and plant protection, which is 50.46% and 33.50%
of the total for biodiesel produced from CPO and CJCO,respectively

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Environmental Impact For Scenario 2
Calculation for GWP of plants for the first 5 years of each sub-processes

100-year GWP (IPCC,2007) of PalmOil 100-year GWP(IPCC,2007) of Jatrophacurcas


1600 Land 1600
1,408 Land
preparation
1400 1400 preparation
Seedling
kg-CO 2eq. /ton BDF

Seedling
1200 1200
Planting Planting

kg-CO 2eq. /ton


1000 1000 868.80
Fertilizing Fertilizing
800 800 661.40
580.40 Protection Protection
600 600
Harvesting Harvesting
400 400 302.10
159.35 Palm oil Palmoil
200 94.39 200 70.15 mills
15.52 29.14 11.71 1.73 mills 8.25 24.93 0.85 11.15 Biodiesel
0 Biodiesel 0
production
production Global Warming Potential
Global Warming Potential

The GWP value for oil palms is higher than Jatropha curcas in every stages except
for planting and biodiesel production stages
Agro-chemical in form of fertilizer and plant protection, which is 68.14% and
37.56% of the total for biodiesel produced from CPO and CJCO,respectively

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Environmental Impact For Scenario 3
GWP, 100-year GWP(IPCC, 2007) Acidification, DAF(LIME,2006)
10000 14
9000
12
8000
10
kg-CO2 e / t on BDF

kg-SO2 e/ t on BDF
7000
6000 8
5000
6
4000
3000 4
2000
2
1000
0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516171819202122232425 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516171819202122232425
Year of Year of
Palm oil Jatropha curcas Palmoil Jatropha curcas

Eutropication, EPMC(LIME,2006) Waste,landfill volume(LIME,2006)


0.001 0.25

0.001 0.20
kg-PO4 e/ t on BDF

m3 / t on BDF
0.001
0.15
0.001
0.10
0.000
0.05
0.000

0.000 0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516171819202122232425 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Year of Year of
Palm oil Jatropha curcas Palm oil Jatropha curcas

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


LCIA FOR SCENARIO 3
National electrical fuel composition (based on Japan electrical fuel composition
statistic data from PT.PLN (Persero), 2011) (Widiyanto et al.,2003)
A kind of a power plant Percentage A kind of a power plant Percentage
and a source of fuel (%)
and a source of fuel (%)
Hydropower (PLTA) 7.23
Fossil fuel-HSD 22.46 Hydropower (PLTA) 9.60
Fossil fuel-IDO 0.03 Fossil fuel 9.20
Fossil fuel-MFO 6.83 Nuclear 34.30
Geothermal (PLTP) 2.44
Coal 18.40
Coal 38.50
Natural Gas 22.52 Natural Gas 26.40
Solar power plant 0.0005 Others 2.1

GHG (per kWh) Acidification (per kWh) Waste (per kWh) Eutrophication (per kWh) Energy consumption (per kWh)
No A kind of power GHG No A kind of Acidifica No A kind of power Waste No A kind of power Eutrophicat No A kind of power Energy
Urut plant kg- Urut power plant tion Urut plant m3 Urut plant ion kg- Urut plant Consm
CO2eq kg-SO2eq PO4eq .(MJ)

1 Coal 0.337 1 Fossil fuel- 0.003 1 Hydropower 2.8E-06 1 Nuclear 3.9E-07 1 Geothermal 10.06
IDO
2 Fossil fuel-IDO 0.308 2 Natural gas 0.0004 2 Nuclear 2.2E-06 2 Geothermal 2.4E-07 2 Nuclear 7.535
3 Fossil fuel-HSD 0.287 3 Coal 0.0002 3 Geothermal 5.2E-08 3 Hydropower 5.40E-08 3 Hydropower 4.355
4 Fossil fuel- 0.278 4 Fossil fuel- 0.00016 4 Coal 1.2E-09 4 Coal 1.3E-10 4 Fossil fuel-IDO 3.993
MFO HSD
5 Natural gas 0.186 5 Fossil fuel- 0.00014 5 Fossil fuel- 1.4E-10 5 Fossil fuel- 1.21E-12 5 Fossil fuel- 3.842
MFO MFO MFO MFO
6 Nuclear 0.039 6 Nuclear 0.00013 6 Fossil fuel-IDO 1.3E-10 6 Fossil fuel-IDO 1.10E-12 6 Fossil fuel-HSD 3.743
7 Hydropower 0.007 7 Hydropower 0.00006 7 Fossil fuel-HSD 1.2E-10 7 Fossil fuel-HSD 1.03E-12 7 Coal 3.616
8 Geothermal 0.003 8 Geothermal 0.000005 8 Natural gas 0.0E+00 8 Natural gas 0.0E+00 8 Natural gas 3.545

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA) 58


LCIA for fertilizer on Scenario 4
GWP (per kg) Acidification (per kg) Waste (per kg) Eutrophication (per kg) Energy consumption (per kg)
Jenis GWP Jenis Acidific. Jenis Waste Jenis Eutrophic. Jenis Energy
kg-CO2e 3
Urut Pembangkit Urut Pembangkit kg-SO2e Urut Pembangkit m Urut Pembangkit kg-PO4e Urut Pembangkit Cnsm.(MJ)
1 Chemical-N15%, 1 Chemical-N15%, 1 Miscellaneous 1 Fused 1 Nitrogenous &
P2O5 15%, K 2.626 P2O5 15%, K 0.0036 phosphatic acid 1.5E+01 phosphate 5.4E-07 phosphatic 45.585
2 Nitrogenous & 2 Miscellaneous 2 Fused 2 Miscellaneous 2 Chemical-N15%,
phosphatic 2.382 ammonia 0.0034 phosphate 2.0E-05 phosphatic acid 3.2E-07 P2O5 15%, K 43.621
3 Nitrogen 3 Miscellaneous 3 Phosphate 3 Chemical-N15%, 3 Nitrogen
fertilizer 2.181 phosphatic acid 0.0033 fertilizer 1.6E-05 P2O5 15%, K 2.38E-07 fertilizer 42.593
4 Miscellaneous 4 Fused 4 Chemical 4 Chemical-N 19%, 4 Miscellaneous
phosphatic acid 2.020 phosphate 0.00305 fertilizer 1.531E-05 P2O5 42% 1.68E-07 phosphatic acid 30.658
5 Miscellaneous 5 Nitrogen 5 Compound 5 Miscellaneous 5 Miscellaneous
ammonia 1.891 fertilizer 0.00203 fertilizer 1.526E-05 ammonia 1.50E-07 ammonia 29.111
6 Phosphate 6 Nitrogenous & 6 Mixed 6 Phosphate 6 Phosphate
fertilizer 1.222 phosphatic 0.00195 fertilizer 1.52E-05 fertilizer 1.37E-07 fertilizer 20.481
7 Chemical 7 Phosphate 7 Miscellaneous 7 Miscellaneous 7 Chemical-N 19%,
fertilizer 1.008 fertilizer 0.00177 chemical 1.4E-05 chemical 1.02E-07 P2O5 42% 18.112
8 Chemical-N 8 8 8 8
19%, P2O5 Chemical Miscellaneous Chemical Chemical
42% 1.005 fertilizer 0.00141 ammonia 1.1E-05 fertilizer 9.3E-08 fertilizer 17.189
9 Miscellaneous 9 Chemical-N 9 Nitrogen 9 Compound 9 Compound
chemical 0.987 19%, P2O5 0.00139 fertilizer 1.07E-05 fertilizer 8.57E-08 fertilizer 16.587
10 Fused 10 Compound 10 Nitrogenous 10 Nitrogenous & 10 Miscellaneous
phosphate 0.984 fertilizer 0.00133 & phosphatic 9.05E-06 phosphatic 8.02E-08 chemical 16.580
11 Compound 11 Miscellaneous 11 Chemical-N15%, 11 Mixed 11 Mixed
fertilizer 0.961 chemical 0.00127 P2O5 15%, K 7.67E-06 fertilizer 7.56E-08 fertilizer 15.692
12 Mixed 12 Mixed 12 Potassic 12 Nitrogen 12 Fused
fertilizer 0.890 fertilizer 0.00121 fertilizer 7.48E-06 fertilizer 6.87E-08 phosphate 11.692
13 Potassic 13 Potassic 13 Chemical-N 19%, 13 Potassic 13 Potassic
fertilizer 0.310 fertilizer 0.00072 P2O5 42% 3.66E-06 fertilizer 4.44E-08 fertilizer 4.947
14 Organic 14 Organic 14 Organic 14 Organic 14 Organic
fertilizer 0.080 fertilizer 0.00016 fertilizer 1.52E-06 fertilizer 1.71E-08 fertilizer 1.049

Organic fertilizers and related organic materials play an important role in


12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)
Environmental impact for Scenario 4
Previous GWP value of stable productivity is 1511,96 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF, decreases to
1211,97 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF for palm oil. For Jatropha curcas, previously it is 380,52
kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF, decreases to 207,88 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF for Jatropha curcas
The use of organic fertilizer reduces the GWP value on sub-process fertilizing from
307,28 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF to 11,66 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF for palm oil, and from 219,36
kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF to 46,72 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF for Jatropha curcas
Oil palm So that is the fertilizing become the order to 5 : (1)palm oil mills,
(2)biodiesel production, (3)harvesting, (4)electricity production, (5)fertilizing. Earlier on

scenario 2 stage fertilizing be il definitely come in to 2


Jatropha curcas So that is the fertilizing become the order to 2 : (1) biodiesel
production, (2)fertilizing, (3)harvesting. Earlier on scenario 2 stage fertilizing be il
definitely come in to 1

A summary GWP value for four scenario (kg-CO2eq. / ton-BDF / ha / year)


Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4
Jatropha Jatropha Jatropha Jatropha
The period Oil palm curcas Oil palm curcas Oil palm curcas Oil palm curcas
Unstable productivity 2568.82 1733.67 2300.24 1947.63 2575.48 3057.74 542.12 934.23
Stable productivity 1658.50 740.90 1109.42 662.85 1511.96 380.52 1211.97 207.88
Total Life cycle 1840.56 939.45 1347.58 919.81 1724.66 915.96 1078.00 353.15
LCIA for Scenario 5
No Jenis Sumber Bahan GWP
Urut Bakar Pembangkit kg-CO2eq./kWh
1 Coal 0.337
2 Fossil fuel-IDO 0.308
3 Fossil fuel-HSD 0.287
4 Fossil fuel-MFO 0.278
5 Bio Diesel-CJCO 0.209
6 Natural gas 0.186
7 Nuclear 0.039
8 Hydropower 0.007
9 Geothermal 0.003

GWP BDF-CJCO value throughout its life cycle is 0.916 kg-


CO2eq./kg-BDF-CJCO or 0.776 kg-CO2eq./liter-BDF-CJCO. To
produce 1 kWh electricity, it needs SFC (specific fuel consumption) for
about 0,27 (normal Diesel Power Plant), then its GWP value to
produce 1 kWh electricity is 0.209 kg-CO2eq
12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)
ENERGY ANALYSIS
NEB, NER, RI

Energy input Energy proces Energy output

Energiinput EnergiCPO Energi MeOH Energi NaOH Energi Energi


input CPO
Ein E1 E2

Energioutput Energibiodiesel Energiglyerol EnergiMeOH _ sisa


Energi output Energi biodiesel Energi glyerol
Eout Eout _ t arg et Eout _ sisa

Energy proses Energy fosil Energy renewable

E pr Energifosil Energinon fosil Energilistrik Energimekanik Energitermal

Energi
Re newable Index ( RI ) renewable
1
Energi proses

Energy output
Net Energy Ratio ( NER )
Energy input

Net Energy Balance ( NEB ) Energi output Energi proses


ENERGY ANALYSIS FOR SCENARIO 1
Calculation for energy consumption of plants for the first 5 years
of each sub-processes
Energy consumption, HHV(fossil fuel) for Palm oil Energy consumption, HHV(fossil fuel) for Jatropha curcas
28000 Land
28000
26000 preparation 25623.4 Land
26000
24000 Seedling preparation
24000
22000 Seedling
18240.0 22000
20000 Planting

MJ / ton-BDF
20000
MJ / ton-BDF

16169.1 Planting
18000 18000
16000 Fertilizing
16000 Fertilizing
14000 14000
Protection 10841.1
12000 12000 Protection
10000 10000
6211.6 7994.1 Harvesting
8000 8000 Harvesting
6000 6000
Palm oil
4000 3394.3 1178.6 Extraction
387.4 422.5 mills 4000
oil
2000 Biodiesel 2000
163.4 242.9 161.7 186.3 110.4 234.2 Biodiesel
0 production 0 production
Energy consumption Energy consumption

Energy consumption in biodiesel production sub-process of Jatropha curcas oil is higher than
that of palm oil due to higher free fatty acid (FFA) content which needs esterification process
prior to the transesterification process
The energy consumption value for oil palms is higher than Jatropha curcas in every stages
except for planting and biodiesel production stages
The highest energy consumption for Jatropha curcas is at biodiesel production sub-process.
Conversely, the highest energy consumption for oil palms is at fertilizing sub-process
12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)
ENERGY ANALYSIS FOR SCENARIO 2
Calculation for energy consumption of plants for the first 5 years
of each sub-processes
Energy consumption for Palm oil Energy consumption for Jatropha curcas
30000 30000
24,330 25950.00
25000 25000
20000 16490.00 20000
15000
MJ / ton-BD F

MJ / ton-BD F
15000
11,220
10000 10000
4,813
5000 2,704.5 5000
591 1,447.0 482 1,179.5 110.4 209.8
270 251 224.8 130
0 0
Energy consumption Energy consumption
Land preparation Seedling Planting Land preparation Seedling Planting
Fertilizing Protection Harvesting Fertilizing Protection Harvesting
Palm oil mills Biodiesel production Extraction oil Biodiesel production

The energy consumption value for oil palms is higher than Jatropha curcas in every
stages except for planting and biodiesel production stages.

The highest energy consumption for Jatropha curcas is at biodiesel production sub-
process. Conversely, the highest energy consumption for oil palms is at fertilizing
sub-process.

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


ENERGY ANALYSIS FOR SCENARIO 3
Energy consumption,HHV(fossil fuel) Energy consumption,HHV(non-renewable fuel)
180000 180000
160000 160000
140000 140000
MJ /t on BDF

MJ /t on BDF
120000 120000
100000 100000
80000 80000
60000 60000
40000 40000
20000 20000
0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516171819202122232425
Year of Year of
Palm oil Jatropha curcas Palm oil Jatropha curcas

Energy consumption,HHV(Renewable fuel) Energy consumption,HHV(all)


120000 300000

100000 250000
MJ / t o n BD F

MJ /t on BDF
80000 200000

60000 150000

40000 100000

20000 50000

0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516171819202122232425
Year of Year of
Palm oil Jatropha curcas Palm oil Jatropha curcas

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


NEB, NER, RI for Scenario 3
Net Energy Balance (NEB) Net Energy Ratio (NER)
200000 1.0420
150000
100000 1.0415
MJ /t on BDF

MJ /t on BDF
50000
0
1.0410
-50000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
-100000
-150000 1.0405

-200000
-250000 1.0400
-300000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Year of Year of
Oil palm Jatropha curcas Oil palm Jatropha curcas

Renewable Index (RI)


0.450 Increased production on palm oil and
0.400 Jathropa curcas shows increased required
fossil fuel as well as required diesel fuel
MJ /t on BDF

0.350

0.300 used in broiler. This condition can be


0.250 anticipated by using biomass produced by
0.200 biodiesel during its production in boiler
0.150
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Year of
Oil palm Jatropha curcas
Result of LCIA for energy consumption (fossil fuel) by BDF-CPO in year 6th

Charact.
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Elementary flow LCI result Unit factor Equiv.
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy crude oil, 44.7MJ/kg 361.62 kg 44.7 16164.64
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy hard coal, 25.7MJ/kg 40.29 kg 25.7 1035.35
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy metallurgical coal, 29.0MJ/kg 4.86 kg 29 140.90
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy Natural Gas Liquids, 46.5MJ/kg 0.00001 kg 46.5 0.00039
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy natural gas, 54.6MJ/kg 92.74 kg 54.6 5063.34
Total 22404.22

Result of LCIA for energy consumption (fossil fuel) by BDF-CJCO in year 6th

Charact.
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Elementary flow LCI result Unit factor Equiv.
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy crude oil, 44.7MJ/kg 64.38 kg 44.70 2877.74
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy hard coal, 25.7MJ/kg 23.77 kg 25.70 610.96
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy metallurgical coal, 29.0MJ/kg 1.042 kg 29 30.21
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy Natural Gas Liquids, 46.5MJ/kg 5.37E-08 kg 46.50 0.000002
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy natural gas, 54.6MJ/kg 63.0168 kg 54.60 3440.72
Total 6959.63
Result of LCIA for energy consumption (non-renewable fuel) by BDF-CPO in year 6th
Charact.
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Elementary flow LCI result Unit factor Equivalent
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy crude oil, 44.7MJ/kg 361.62 kg 44.7 16164.64
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy hard coal, 25.7MJ/kg 40.29 kg 25.7 1035.35
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy metallurgical coal, 29.0MJ/kg 4.86 kg 29 140.90
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy Natural Gas Liquids, 46.5MJ/kg 0.00001 kg 46.5 0.000393
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy natural gas, 54.6MJ/kg 92.74 kg 54.6 5063.34
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy uranium,U3O8 0.00007 kg 454662 32.52
Total 22436.75

Result of LCIA for energy consumption (non-renewable fuel) by BDF-CJCO in year 6th

Charact.
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Elementary flow LCI result Unit factor Equivalent
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy crude oil, 44.7MJ/kg 64.3791 kg 44.70 2877.74
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy hard coal, 25.7MJ/kg 23.7729 kg 25.70 610.96
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy metallurgical coal, 29.0MJ/kg 1.0416 kg 29.00 30.21
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy Natural Gas Liquids, 46.5MJ/kg 5.37E-08 kg 46.50 0.000002
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy natural gas, 54.6MJ/kg 63.0168 kg 54.60 3440.72
Resources Ground Non-renewable energy uranium,U3O8 4.60E-05 kg 454662.00 20.91
Total 6980.54
Result of LCIA for energy consumption (renewable fuel) by BDF-CPO in year 6th
LCI Charact.
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Elementary flow result Unit Factor Equivalent
Resources Ground Renewable energy primary energy from geothermics 1961.46 MJ 1 1961.46
Resources Water Renewable energy primary energy from hydro power 81.06 MJ 1 81.06
Resources Air Renewable energy primary energy from solar energy 2298.17 MJ 1 2298.17

Total 4340.68

Result of LCIA for energy consumption (renewable fuel) by BDF-CJCO in year 6th

LCI Charact.
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Elementary flow result Unit Factor Equivalent
Resources Ground Renewable energy primary energy from geothermics 1065.49 MJ 1 1065.49
Resources Water Renewable energy primary energy from hydro power 40.4326 MJ 1 40.43
Resources Air Renewable energy primary energy from solar energy 1468.41 MJ 1 1468.41

Total 2574.33

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Energy Analysis of NEB, NER, RI for Scenario 4
Sources NER
BDF-CPO BDF-CJCO BDF-Rapeseed
Lam et al. (2009) 2.27 1.92
Yee et al. (2009) 3.53 1.44

Energy Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4


parameter Oil palm Jatropha Oil palm Jatropha Oil palm Jatropha
curcas curcas curcas
NEB 408750.58 365350.47 146948.08 39334.79 155041.89 42649.83

NER 2.97 1.98 1.041 1.042 1.041 1.042


RI 0.80 0.41 0.162 0.270 0.06
0.45 0.116
0.74

NER value for oil palm and Jatropha curcas i.e. 1.041 and 1.042, respectively. It turns
that NER value appears to have constant value due to increased output value will
increase the input value, although the NER value can reach higher value if the produced
biomass energy is calculated as output energy.

The NER value of oil palm and Jathropa curcas is 2.97 and 1.98, respectively for
Scenario 2. NER value of oil palm is higher as its produced biomass is higher than
Jatropha curcas.
ENERGY ANALYSIS

Energy (kg-CO2eq./MJ)
The Period Scenario1 Scenario2 Scenario3 Scenario4
BDF-CPO BDF-CJCO BDF-CPO BDF-CJCO BDF-CPO BDF-CJCO BDF-CPO BDF-CJCO
Unstable productivity 0.059 0.044 0.053 0.049 0.060 0.077 0.013 0.024
Stable productivity 0.038 0.019 0.026 0.017 0.035 0.010 0.028 0.005
Total life cycle 0.043 0.024 0.031 0.023 0.040 0.023 0.027 0.009

UK Biodiesel LCA :
For each MJ of biodiesel produced 0.041 kg of GHG CO2eq. is released
Fossil diesel :
For each MJ of fossil diesel produced 0.095 kg of GHG CO2eq. is released
NEB, NER, RI FOR SCENARIO 1
J a tro p h a
In p u t a c tivitie s In p u t n am es U n it P a lm oil cu rcas
(7) Palm oil Electricity MJ 123.81 53.40
(1 ) L a n d H e rb icid e MJ 1 2 0 .0 1 8 6 .9 8 mills vs Oil Steam consumption MJ 3,658.10 -
p r e p a r a tion D i e s e l fu e l MJ 2 8 .9 4 4 9 .7 3
extraction Water consumption MJ 16.59 -
B i o m a s s a k a yu b e s a r MJ 3 6 2 ,2 2 2 .5 0 -
B i o m a s s a k a yu k e c i l MJ 2 5 4 ,6 8 7 .7 0 2 8 7 ,5 0 6 .2 5 PAC MJ 2.24 -
A l a n g -a l a n g / s e j e n i s n ya MJ - 8 ,1 7 7 .9 6 Flokulon MJ 0.01 -
(2 ) S e e d lin g H e rb icid e & F u n gicid e s MJ 1 3 5 .7 7 1 1 8 .7 6
In s e c t i c i d e s MJ 0 .0 3 7 .9 0 Na OH MJ 1.92 -
F e rtilize r M e iste r MJ - - H2SO4/HCl MJ 1.96 -
c h e m i c a l fe r t i l i z e r U r e a 0 ,2 % MJ 0 .2 8 -
o r g a n i c fe r t i l i z e r MJ 7 1 .1 2 7 9 .7 0 Tanin Consentrate MJ 0.81 -
K ie se rite (M gS O 4 ) MJ 1 8 .4 9 - Poly Perse BWT 302 MJ 0.81 -
U rea MJ 0 .0 0 -
D olom ite MJ 1 8 1 .4 5 - Alkaly BWT 402 MJ 0.77 -
C o m p o u n d fe r t i l i z e r MJ 2 2 9 .4 7 - Shell consumption MJ 2,040.06 -
E l e c t r i c i t y fo r P u m p W a t e r MJ 1 .5 7 -
P e sticid e s MJ 0 .5 6 - Transportation Diesel fuel for truck 10 ton MJ 104.56 77.80
T ra n sp orta tion D i e s e l fu e l MJ 4 1 .3 3 4 8 .9 4 CPO MJ 41,831.58 -
B i o m a s s a r u m p u t -r u m p u t / i l a l a n g MJ 8 1 7 .8 0 6 5 4 .2 4
(3 ) P la n tin g T S P /S P 3 6 MJ 1 2 3 .2 9 7 3 2 .7 7 Empty fruit bunch (23%) MJ 4,551.58 -
O r g a n i c fe r t i l i z e r MJ - 8 ,4 5 3 .4 5 Palm kernel shell (6%) MJ 962.53 -
R ock P h osp h a te MJ 3 8 .2 2 -
KCl MJ - 1 0 6 .4 5 Palm press fiber (29%) MJ 3,089.26 -
B i o m a s s a k a yu -k a yu k e c i l MJ 3 ,5 3 7 .3 3 1 4 ,3 7 5 .3 1 Kernel (11%) MJ 3,221.03 -
B i o m a s s a r u m p u t -r u m p u t / i l a l a n g MJ 1 0 0 .6 2 4 0 8 .9 0
( 4 ) F e r t i l i zi n g Z A /U re a MJ 1 5 ,9 0 9 .8 9 4 ,9 8 2 .4 0
CJCO MJ - 36,666.67
fo r fi v e ye a r s T S P /S P 3 6 MJ 6 8 7 .4 8 4 ,1 0 3 .4 8 Kulit biji jarak (23%) MJ - 3,894.67
R ock P h osp h a te (R P ) MJ 4 2 1 .6 6 -
S u lp h a te of A m on ia (Z A ) MJ 2 ,7 3 7 .9 7 -
Bungkil daging biji jarak (34%) MJ - 264.44
M u ria te of P ota sh (K )/K C l MJ 1 ,1 3 1 .5 8 4 3 9 .1 8 (8) Biodiesel Methanol MJ - 12,270.68
K ie se rite (M gS O 4 ) MJ 1 ,1 0 4 .4 7 - production H2SO4 MJ - 735.31
H G F -B ( H G F -B o r a t e ) MJ 8 .4 0 -
C o m p o u n d fe r t i l i z e r MJ 0 .1 7 - Esterification Electricity MJ - 4.63
ZnSO 4 MJ 0 .1 3 - Trans- Methanol MJ 7,765.49 -
LSD MJ 1 3 7 .4 5 -
O r g a n i c fe r t i l i z e r MJ - 8 ,4 5 3 .4 5 esterification Electricity MJ 56.32 56.32
B i o m a s s a r u m p u t -r u m p u t / i l a l a n g MJ 2 0 .1 2 8 1 .7 8 NaOH MJ 1,435.20 1,435.20
(5 ) P r ote c tion H e rb icid e s MJ 7 ,8 5 0 .0 3 3 8 0 .2 3
fo r fi v e ye a r s P e sticid e s MJ 1 1 1 .6 5 4 1 1 .9 0 Water consumption MJ 7.11 7.19
In s e c t i c i d e s ( l i q u i d & p o w d e r ) MJ 1 8 4 .4 1 - Diesel fuel for Boiler MJ 576.29 658.62
D i e s e l fu e l fo r p o w e r s p r a ye r & fo g g i n g M J 0 .8 9 1 .0 5
P e le p a h p oh on sa w it/ra n tin g2 ja ra k MJ 1 ,1 2 4 .5 8 8 2 .0 0 Biodiesel MJ 41,240.00 39,050.00
B i o m a s s a r u m p u t -r u m p u t / i l a l a n g MJ 2 0 .1 2 8 1 .7 8 Crude glycerol MJ 2,705.34 2,561.68
( 6 ) H a r v e s t i n g D i e s e l fu e l MJ 2 0 6 .9 3 1 0 1 .5 9
P e le p a h p oh on sa w it/ra n tin g2 ja ra k MJ 1 ,1 2 4 .5 8 7 9 .8 6 Pohon Kelapa Sawit/Jarak Pagar MJ 1,018,750.79 383,341.67
TBS : MJ - - E_Output : (BDF,Gly, Biomass) MJ 1,706,891.32 744,375.34
S e ra t in clu d e cru d e oil (5 0 % ) MJ 5 ,3 2 6 .3 2 -
N u ts (1 1 % ) MJ 3 ,2 2 1 .0 3 -
E_Proses : (fossil,renewable & Non) MJ 47,236.25 35,248.68
T an d an k oson g (2 3 % ) MJ 4 ,5 5 1 .5 8 - E_Input (CPO, Biji) MJ 50,378.93 51,296.67
C an gk an g (6 % ) MJ 9 6 2 .5 3 -
A ir (1 0 % ) MJ 0 .4 4 -
E_Renewable Ril digunakan MJ 5,769.27 16,986.61
B u ah Jarak : - - NEB (E_Output-E_Proces) MJ 1,659,655.07 709,126.66
B iji (5 7 % ) MJ - 1 4 ,6 3 0 .0 0
C an gk an g (2 3 % ) MJ - 3 ,8 9 4 .6 7
NER (Output/input) 33.88 14.51
A ir (2 0 % ) MJ - 0 .9 3 RI (Renewable/process) 0.12 0.48
Emission Reduction of CO2eq. Biodiesel vs Diesel Fossil
Scenario 3
before-stable productivity after stable productivity
CO 2 emissions reduction value of the fossil fuel CO2 emissions reduction value of the fossil fuel
Before stable productivity After stable productivity
4.0 10.07 % 4.0
24.251 % 3.400
3.400 reduction
3.5 reduction 3.5
3.058
3.0 3.0
2.575 55.531 %
2.5 2.5 menurun

kg-CO 2 / kg
2.0
kg-CO2/kg

2.0 88.81 %
1.512
1.5 1.5 menurun
1.0 1.0
0.5 0.381
0.5
0.0
0.0
Fuel source
Fuel source
Diesel oil BDF-Palm oil BDF-Jatropha curcas Diesel oil BDF-Palm oil BDF-Jatropha curcas

CO2 emissions reduction value of the fossil fuel


total productivity Sheehan et al. (1998) : BDF-
4.0
3.400 soybean can reduce CO2 of emission
3.5
3.0 49.27 %
= 78.45% (B100), dan 15.66% (B20)
Total life 2.5 reduction vs fossil fuel
cycle 2.0 1.725
73.06 %
kg-CO2/kg

reduction
1.5
0.916
US EPA NODA palm oil biodiesel
1.0
= 17%
0.5
0.0
Fuel source
EU-RED palm oil biodiesel =
Diesel oil BDF-Palm oil BDF-Jatropha curcas 19%
Interpretation
Conclusion
Third scenario is best represented, where the GWP value during
stable production is 1511.96 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF-CPO and
380.52 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF-CJCO.
Compared to diesel fuel, CO2eq. emission in the third scenario on
its life cycle is reduced up to 49.27% and 73.06% for BDF-CPO
and BDF-CJCO, respectively
Recommendation

Based on GWP value, biodiesel development using Jatropha


curcas is more recommended rather than oil palm
Utilization of organic fertilizer during cultivation period is
preferred from environmental point of view

12 13 Oct 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA)


Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA)

Goal and scope definition

Life Cycle inventory (LCI)

Life Cycle Impact


Exergy Analysis
Assessment (LCIA)

Interpretation

Cumulative Exergy Environmental


Consumption profile

Exergy (Extractable energy): is the minimum work required for a process to


occur or the maximum work obtainable from an energy generation system
Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment
Renewability Goal and scope definition
index?
Life Cycle inventory (LCI)

Life Cycle Impact


Exergy Analysis
Assessment (LCIA)

Interpretation

Cumulative Exergy
Consumption
Environmental
profile

Relationship?
Research Project :
Life Cycle Assessment Produksi Biodiesel Dari
Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis) Di Koridor
Ekonomi Sumatera (BLU BPDP Kelapa Sawit, NO.PRJ -
46 /DPKS/2016, 30-08-2016)
Kajian Perubahan Metode Analisa Life Cycle
Assessment (LCA) Menjadi Exergetic Life
Cycle Assessment (ELCA) Pada Produksi
Biodiesel Secara Katalis Dari Bahan Baku
Kelapa Sawit (Kemristekdikti, Nomor :
025/SP2H/LT/DRPM/II/2016, 17-02-2016)

20 21 April 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA) 77


Terima kasih
Thank you for your attention...
Arigatogozaimasu

Contact :
Dr.Kiman Siregar Cell : +628128395848
Head Working Group of ILCAN E-mail : ksiregar.tep@unsyiah.ac.id
Agricultural Engineering of Syiah Kuala University WA : +628111954822
TBS Setelah Ditimbang

Loading Ramp
DIAGRAM ALIR
PENGOLAHAN CPO TBS Dalam Lori
(Dari TBS CPO)
Sterilizer

Thresher Empty Bunch Press

Brondolan Buah
Tandan Kosong
Digester
Bahan Bakar Boiler/
Air Panas Lapangan
Pengencer 95OC Screw Press

Press Fluid Press Cake


A B
Cairan Kempa Ampas Kempa
A

Sand Trap
DIAGRAM ALIR
Vibrating Screen
PENGOLAHAN CPO
DIAGRAM ALIR PENGOLAHAN CPO

(Lanjutan...) Crude Oil Tank

Clarification Tank
Sludge Tank Oil Tank
Pasir
Sand Cyclone Berminyak Oil Purifier
Air Cucian
Sludge Berminyak Minyak

Sludge Separator

Sludge Oil Trap


Minyak Vaccum Oil Dryer
Mutu Sludge Pit Minyak
Rendah CPO
Air Limbah Air Limbah

Effluent Pond CPO Storage Tank

Air Limbah
DIAGRAM ALIR PENGOLAHAN CJCO
Diagram alir proses pembuatan biodiesel satu tahap (Transesterifikasi)

Minyak CPO/CJCO FFA <2%


KOH Metanol

Pemanasan
Pencampuran
Transesterifikasi

Separasi

Gliserol Crude Biodiesel kasar


Sludge Recovery
Purifikasi Purifikasi Metanol

Refined Gliserol Biodiesel

Recovery Metanol
Diagram alir proses pembuatan biodiesel dua tahap

Minyak CPO/CJCO FFA >2%


H2SO4 Metanol

Pemanasan
Pencampuran
Esterifikasi
KOH Metanol
Separasi
Pencampuran
Metanol Transesterifikasi
Recovery
Separasi
Metanol

Gliserol Crude Biodiesel

Purifikasi
Sludge Purifikasi
Biodiesel
Refined Gliserol
Recovery Metanol
Contoh : SUB UNIT PROSES
(Dari CPO BIODIESEL) Mixer 1

Immersed Coil Heater

Centrifuge 1
(memisahkan) Reaktor Esterifikasi

Centrifuge 2

A
SUB UNIT PROSES (Lanjutan...)
(Dari CPO BIODIESEL)

Mixer 2 A

Transesterfikasi-1
Centrifuge 3

Transesterfikasi-2
Centrifuge 4
SUB UNIT PROSES (Lanjutan...)
(Dari CPO BIODIESEL)

Tangki Pencucian Dekanter


(memisahkan)

PENYIMPANAN
BIODIESEL
Cooler
Evaporator
(menghilangkan air)
SUB UNIT PROSES (Lanjutan...)
(Dari CPO BIODIESEL) Heater

Destilasi Tray
Kondensor

Reflux Drum

Reboiler
Diagram Alir pemipaan pengolahan CPO/CJCO Menjadi
Biodiesel (Ilustrasi Instalasi Pabrik)
GBEP SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS
No ENVIRONMENTAL No SOCIAL No ECONOMIC
PILLAR PILLAR PILLAR
1 Life-Cycle Green House 1 Allocation and tenure of land 1 Productivity
Gas (GHG) for new bioenergy 2 Net energy balance
2 Soil quality production
3 Gross value added
3 Harvest level of wood 2 Price and supply of national
food basket 4 Change in consumption of
resources fossil fuel and traditional
4 Emission of non-GHG air 3 Change in income biomass
pollution, including air 4 Jobs in the bioenergy sector 5 Training and re-qualification
toxics 5 Bioenergy used to expand of the workforce
5 Water use and efficiency access to modern energy 6 Energy diversity
6 Water quality services
7 Infrastructure and logistic for
7 Biological diversity in 6 Change in mortality and distribution of bioenergy
landscape burden of disease
8 Capacity and flexibility of use
8 Land use and land use 7 Attributable to indoor of bioenergy
change related to smoke
bioenergy feedstock 8 Incidence of occupational
production injury, illness and fatalities
RESULT AND DISCUSSION : Life Cycle Inventory
Land Preparation :
Kelapa Sawit : Jarak pagar :
Lahan awal hutan primer Lahan awal padang alang-alang/lahan
Belum pernah dikelola, kerapatan marjinal
pohonnya masih tinggi Biasanya berupa lahan yang kurang subur
Jenis kayu keras jumlahnya masih banyak atau bekas areal pertanaman yang telah
lama ditinggalkan
Umumnya pohon-pohon berdiameter > 60
cm sebanyak 25-100 pohon/ha Biasanya banyak ditumbuhi alang-alang
atau sejenis : Ringan 10-30 rumpun/m2,
Pohon-pohon yang berdiameter < 30 cm
Berat 30-60 rumpun/m2
sejumlah 2500 pohon/ha
Pohon-pohon yang berdiameter < 30 cm
Pembukaan lahan dengan tenaga manusia
sejumlah 500 pohon/ha
dan traktor (kedalaman 20 s.d 30 cm)
Pembukaan lahan dengan tenaga manusia
Jarak tanam : 9 m x 9 m x 9 m
dan traktor
Lubang tanam : 50 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm
Jarak tanam : 2 m x 2 m x 2 m
Jumlah tanaman : 136 pohon/ha
Jumlah tanaman : 2500 pohon/ha
Lubang tanam : 40 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm
Electricity : Indonesia vs Japan
Japan
Impact category All Unit Hydropower Nuclear Fossil fuel Natural gas Coal
Global warming 0.83501 kg-CO2e 0.0080 0.0282 0.2759 0.1857 0.3373
Acidification 0.000845 kg-SO2e 0.000106 0.000044 0.000061 0.000441 0.000193
Waste 4.97E-06 m3 2.80E-06 2.17E-06 1.39E-10 0.00E+00 1.19E-09
Eutrophication 4.24E-07 kg-phosphate eq.
5.36E-08 3.70E-07 1.20E-12 0.00E+00 1.27E-10
(Energy consumption)
21.98376 MJ 4.358 6.671 3.812 3.545 3.597
Persentasi (%) % % % % %
Global warming 100.00 % 0.96 3.37 33.04 22.24 40.39
Acidification 100.00 % 12.50 5.24 7.20 52.20 22.88
Waste 100.00 % 56.30 43.67 0.0028 0.00E+00 0.02
Eutrophication 100.00 % 12.67 87.30 0.00028 0.00E+00 0.03
(Energy consumption) 100.00 % 19.83 30.34 17.34 16.13 16.36

Indonesia
Fossil fuel- Natural Fossil fuel- Fossil fuel-
Impact category All Unit Hydropower Nuclear MFO gas Coal Geothermal HSD IDO
Global warming 1.4439 kg-CO2e 0.007 0.039 0.278 0.186 0.337 0.003 0.287 0.308
Acidification 0.0041 kg-SO2e 5.86E-05 1.3E-04 1.39E-04 4.4E-04 2E-04 4.91E-06 1.58E-04 2.92E-03
Waste 5E-06 m3 2.80E-06 2.2E-06 1.40E-10 0.0E+00 1E-09 5.25E-08 1.19E-10 1.27E-10
Eutrophication 7E-07 kg-PO4e 5.40E-08 3.9E-07 1.21E-12 0.0E+00 1E-10 2.35E-07 1.03E-12 1.10E-12
(Energy consumption)40.691 MJ 4.355 7.535 3.842 3.545 3.616 10.062 3.743 3.993
Persentasi (%) % % % % % % % %
Global warming 100 % 0.48 2.69 19.25 12.86 23.36 0.20 19.84 21.31
Acidification 100 % 1.45 3.29 3.44 10.89 4.77 0.12 3.90 72.14
Waste 100 % 55.82 43.10 2.80E-03 0.0E+00 0.02 1.05 2.38E-03 2.53E-03
Eutrophication 100 % 7.97 57.28 1.79E-04 0.0E+00 0.02 34.73 1.52E-04 1.62E-04
(Energy consumption) 100 % 10.70 18.52 9.44 8.71 8.89 24.73 9.20 9.81
UK Biodiesel LCA
Biodiesel vs Fossil-diesel
CO2 Emissions
For each MJ of biodiesel produced 0.025Kg of CO2 is released.
For each MJ of fossil diesel produced 0.087Kg of CO2 is released.
GHG Emissions
For each MJ of biodiesel produced 0.041Kg of GHG CO2 equivalent is released.
For each MJ of fossil diesel produced 0.095Kg of GHG CO2 equivalent is released.
Energy Requirements
For each MJ of biodiesel produced 0.45 MJ is required.
For each MJ of fossil diesel produced 1.26 MJ is required.

NODA Notice of Data Avaibility


Report vs Calculation
From the report Calculation Note
CJO yield 1339.29 L-CJO/ha
Diesel CO2 86.4 kg-CO2/GJ-diesel
Diesel heat value 43.33 MJ-diesel/l-diesel
Please provide the heating value used for your calculation. (Almo
N CO2 1991 kg-CO2/t-N
P2O5 CO2 340 kg-CO2/t-P2O5
K2O CO2 408 kg-CO2/t-K2O
TSP 0-36-0 122.4 kg-CO2/t-TSP O
Urea molcular weight 60
N molcular weight 14
Urea CO2 929.13 kg-CO2/t-urea
Based upon N contents of urea. Please provide the emission fact
Herbicide CO2 4702.38 kg-C/t-herbicide 17242.06 kg-CO2/t-herbicide
Insecticide CO2 4931.93 kg-C/t-insecticide 18083.74 kg-CO2/t-insecticide
Fungicide CO2 5177.52 kg-C/t-fungicide 18984.24 kg-CO2/t-fungicide
Ele. from coal CO2 0.282 kg-C/kWh-e 1.034 kg-CO2/kWh-e
CJO Result Quantity CO2 emissions [kg-CO2/l-CJO]
Process Source Unit Collecting dataCalculation
Report Calculation
Plantation Urea kg-urea/ha 142 0.0920 0.0985
TSP 0-36-0 kg-TSP/ha 535.825 0.0087 0.0490
Herbicide kg-herbicide/ha 4.004 0.0721 0.0515
Pesticide kg-pesticide/ha 3.0073 0.0588 0.0406
Processing Diesel fuel l-diesel/ha 6.05 0.3076 0.0169
Total Total 0.5667 0.2565
Kesimpulan : Hasil kalkulasi lebih rendah dari report yang ada (masih perlu divalidasi)

Hasanudin, U.,2010
US Biodiesel LCA
1. Substituting 100% biodiesel (B100) for petroleum diesel in buses reduces the
life cycle consumption of petroleum by 95%. When a 20% blend of biodiesel and
petroleum diesel (B20) is used, the life cycle consumption of petroleum drops
19%.
2. Biodiesel yields 3.2 units of fuel product energy for every unit of fossil energy
consumed in its life cycle. The production of B20 yields 0.98 units of fuel
product energy for every unit of fossil energy consumed. By contrast, petroleum
diesels life cycle yields only 0.83 units of fuel product energy per unit of fossil
energy consumed. Such measures confirm the renewable nature of biodiesel.
3. Biodiesel reduces net emissions of CO2 by 78.45% compared to petroleum
diesel. For B20, CO2 emissions from urban buses drop 15.66%.
4. The use of B100 in urban buses results in substantial reductions in life cycle
emissions of total particulate matter, carbon monoxide and sulfur oxides (32%,
35% and 8% reductions, respectively, relative to petroleum diesels life cycle)
5. The use of B100 in urban buses increases life cycle emissions of NOx by 13.35%.
Blending biodiesel with petroleum proportionately lowers NOx emission. B20
exhibits a 2.67% increase in life cycle emissions of NOx

From Sheehan, et al. (1998) Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus, NREL/SR-580-24089 UC
Category 1503
Alur Proses PKS Kertajaya
Loading Ramp Timbangan

T=130-130oC: P=2,8=3,0 Kg/Cm2


Sterilizer

Tresher Fruits to
Empty bunch to
T=90-95C, P=30-50 bar

Land Aplication Empty Bunch Hooper Press Cake Digester


CrudeOil Cake To
T=90-950C

T=90-95OC Sand Trap Oil CBC

Vibrating Screen Depericarper


Fiber Fibre
Cyclone
Fuel
T=90-95OC Crude Oil tank Nut Hopper B
Oil o

T=90-95OC Settling Tank Ripple Mill


i
L
E
Oil Sludge R

Oil Tank Sludge Tank LTDS I Shell l


Fuel
T=90-950C T=90-950C Kernel
Shell Bin
Purifier Brush Strainer Grading Drum
T=90-950C

Vacum Drier Sand Cyclone LTDS II Shell


T=90-950C Kernel
T=Atas =70oC
Storage Tank Separator Kernel Drier T=tengah=60oC
T=40-450C Sludge T=bawah=50oC

Transport Decanting Basin Penyimpanan


Oil

Deoiling Pond Transport


Material Balance PKS Kebun Kertajaya :
TBS (Fresh Fruit
Bunch)
17.817.110 kg
100 %

Tandan Buah Rebus Water Condensate


15.941.681 kg 1.875.429 kg
89,47 % 10.53 %

Tandan Kosong
(Empty Bunch) Brondol Kotor
4.155.900 kg 11.785.781 kg
23,325 % 66,149 %

Kelopak Buah Brondol Murni Buah Gagal


1.260.686 kg 9.513.089 kg 1.012.006 kg
7,08 % 53,39 % 5,68 %

Kadar Air Kadar Air


50.427 kg Daging Buah Biji 42.201 kg
4 % 6.997.218 kg 2.515.871 kg 4,17 %
NOS 39,27 % 14,12 % NOS
38.703 kg 15.281 kg
3,07 % 1,51 %

Air Serabut
1.483.841 kg 1.434.574 kg
8,33 % 8,05 %

CPO Rendemen Kernel


4.078.803 kg Potensi (%) 721.623 kg
22,89 % 4,05 %

Oil Losses Kernel Losses


288.843 kg Losses (%) 131.253 kg
1,62 % 0,74 %

CPO Rendemen Aktual Kernel


3.790.160 kg (%) 590.370 kg
21,27 % 3,31 %
Materil Pengolahan di PKS Kebun Kertajaya :
No Urain Unit Bulan Ini s/d Bulan ini Standar Keterangan
I Data Produksi
1 Sortasi Panen
Buah Sangat Mentah Fraksi 00 5,67 2,32 0,00
Buah Mentah Fraksi 0 6,79 5,02 3,00
Buah Kurang Matang Fraksi 1
Buah Matang I Fraksi 2 74,11 80,44 85,00
Buah Matang II Fraksi 3
Buah Matang III Fraksi 4 8,07 8,08 10,00
Buah Kelewat Matang Fraksi 5 5,36 4,15
NSP (Nilai Sortasi Panen) :
- Kebun Inti/Seinduk 67,52 75,76 85,00 Minimum
- Kebun Plasma 13,19 33,84 85,00 Minimum
- NSP Gabungan 39,87 65,12 85,00 Minimum
Berondolan 4,65 6,99 12,00 Minimum
2 Bahan Olah
a Sisa TBS bulan lalu kg 0 0
b TBS diterima : kg
- TBS layak olah kg 17.817.110,00 71.526.630,00
- TBS kurang layak olah kg - -
- Jumlah TBS diterima kg 17.817.110,00 71.526.630,00
* TBS dari kebun sendiri kg 1.546.780,00 6.283.850,00
* TBS dari kebun plasma kg 3.841.430,00 13.718.160,00
* TBS dari kebun seinduk kg 12.428.900,00 51.524.620,00
Jumlah diterima (b) kg 17.817.110,00 71.526.630,00
c Jumlah TBS (a + b) kg 17.817.110,00 71.526.630,00
d TBS klaim
* TBS Kebun sendiri kg 120.390,00 262.470,00
* TBS Kebun seinduk kg 1.445.650,00 2.835.690,00
Jumlah dikirim (d) kg 1.566.040,00 3.098.160,00
e TBS diolah
- Layak olah kg 17.817.110,00 71.526.630,00
- Kurang layak olah kg - -
Jumlah TBS diolah (e) kg 17.817.110,00 71.526.630,00
f Sisa TBS belum diolah di pabrik (e-d) kg 16.251.070,00 68.428.470,00
Lanjutan :
3 Hasil Olah dan Pengiriman
a CPO/Minyak Sawit kg 3.790.160,00 14.898.450,00
* Rendemen % 21,27 20,83 22,00
* Stock CPO bulan lalu kg 799.820,00 2.000.290,00
* Selisih stoch opname/pengurasan kg 60,00 250,00
* Efisiensi pengutipan minyak % 92,92 92,78 93,00
* Pengiriman CPO kg 3.055.560,00 15.364.510,00
* Stock CPO (sisa belum dikirim) kg 1.534.480,00 1.534.480,00
b Kernel/Inti Sawit kg 590.370,00 2.524.240,00
* Rendemen % 3,50 3,53 4,00
* Stock Kernel bulan lalu kg 787.000,00 746.160,00
* Selisih stoch opname/pengurasan kg 90,00 870,00
* Efisiensi ekstraksi kernel (ektraksi) % 81,73 82,86 90,00
* Pengiriman Kernel kg 1.151.340,00 3.045.150,00
* Stock Kernel (sisa belum dikirim) kg 226.120,00 226.120,00
4 Pengolahan
a Jumlah hari olah hari 30,00 119,00
b Jam tersedia Jam 601,05 2.462,45
c Jam pengolahan efektif Jam 563,10 2.317,40
d Jam berhenti/stagnasi Jam 28,15 102,55
e Jumlah jam pengnolahan Jam 591,25 2.420,35
f Kapasitas olah ril Ton/Jam 30,00 30,00
g Kapasitas terpasang Ton/Jam 30,00 30,00
h Kapasitas operasi (terpakai) Ton/Hari 594,00 601,00
i Efisiensi pabrik % 100,00 99,00
j Indeks produktivitas pabrik (IPP) - -
* Tinggi 93,95 94,02 85,00
* Sedang - 60 s.d 80
* Rendah - 59,00
Lanjutan :

II MUTU HASIL JADI


1 CPO/Minyak Sawit (MS)
a ALB (Buah Rebus) % 3,62 3,75
b ALB Minyak Sawit Produksi % 4,23 4,42 3,5 s.d 4,0
c Kenaikan ALB % 0,61 0,67 0,30
d Kadari air Minyak Sawit di Oil Tank % 0,70 0,70 0,60
e Kadar air Minyak Sawit di Purifier % 0,40 0,39 0,45
f Kadar air Minyak Sawit di Produksi Akhir % 0,19 0,20 0,15
g Kadar kotoran Minyak Sawit Produksi % 0,020 0,021 0,02
2 Kernel (Inti Sawit)
a Kadar air % 7,89 7,71 7,00
b Kadar kotoran % 10,32 11,53 6,00
c Kernel/Inti pecah % 26,27 28,18 15,00
d ALB % 1,03 1,05 2,00
e Kadar minyak kernel % 48,66 48,68 46,00
III KEHILANGAN DALAM PENGOLAHAN
1 Kehilangan minyak pada
a Fatpit (sample) % 0,41 0,41 0,42
b Serabut (sample) % 0,51 0,51 0,56
c Tandan Kosong (sample) % 0,53 0,53 0,55
d Buah ikut tandan kosong (sample) % 0,10 0,10 0,04
e Biji (sample) % 0,07 0,07 0,08
f Total kehilangan minyak terhadap TBS % 1,62 1,62 1,65
2 Kehilangan Kernel pada
a Serabut (sample) % 0,20 0,20 0,18
b LTDS (sample) % 0,49 0,48 0,41
c Inti dalam Tandan Kosong (sample) % 0,05 0,05 0,01
d Jumlah kehilangan Kernel terhadap TBS % 0,74 0,73 0,60
IV TEKNIS OPERASIONAL
1 Tekanan Boiler atm 19,00 19,00 20 - 22
2 Tekanan Sterilizer atm 2,70 2,80 2,8 - 3
o
3 Temperatur Digester C 90,00 90,00 90 - 95
o
4 Temperatur CST C 72,00 72,00 90 -95
o
5 Temperatur Oil Tank C 85,00 81,00 90 -95
o
6 Temperatur di Sludge Tank C 90,00 89,00 90 -95
7 Konsumsi uap/ ton TBS kg 501,00 511,00 600,00
3
Lanjutan :
IV T E K N IS O P E R A S IO N A L
1 T ek anan B oiler atm 19,00 19,00 20 - 22
2 T ek anan S terilizer atm 2,70 2,80 2,8 - 3
o
3 T em peratur D igester C 90,00 90,00 90 - 95
o
4 T em peratur C S T C 72,00 72,00 90 -95
o
5 T em peratur O il T ank C 85,00 81,00 90 -95
o
6 T em peratur di S ludge T ank C 90,00 89,00 90 -95
7 K onsum si uap/ ton T B S kg 501,00 511,00 600,00
8 K onsum si air/ ton T B S m3 1,50 1,50 1,2 - 1,5
9 K onsum si listrik / ton T B S kW h 13,00 14,00 15 - 17
10 P restasi k erja per H K :
- T erhadap T B S k g/H K 4.604,00 4.659,00
- T erhadap C P O + K ernel k g/H K 1.132,00 1.135,00
11 P em ak aian B ahan K im ia S aldo ak hir (k g)
- PAC gr/ton T B S 47,32 57,25 40 - 60 696,00
- F lok ulon gr/ton T B S 0,20 0,20 0,2 - 0,4 1,50
- Na OH gr/ton T B S 40,41 43,18 26,67 - 53,33 660,00
- H 2S O 4/H C l gr/ton T B S 41,25 39,60 26,67 - 53,33 770,00
- T anin C onsentrate gr/ton T B S 16,89 18,47 13,33 - 33,33 957,00
- P oly P erse B W T 302 gr/ton T B S 16,89 18,47 13,33 - 33,33 992,00
- A lk aly B W T 402 gr/ton T B S 16,16 17,32 10,00 - 20,00 945,00
12 P em ak ain cangk ang k g/ton T B S 50,60 51,64
13 P em ak ain B ak teri A k tivator k g/ton Lim bah
14 B O D Lim bah C air ppm 37,50
15 C O D Lim bah C air ppm 82,70
N om or U raian A LB % K adar A ir % K adar K otoran %

V STOCK PRODUKSI DI
1 C P O /M inyak S aw it Jum lah (k g)
a T angk i I 171.510,00 4,46 0,25 0,022
b T angk i II 50,59 5,65 0,30 0,028
c T angk i III 1.312.380,00
d T angk i IV 1.534.480,00 4,04 0,22 0,020
2 K ernel/Inti S aw it Jum lah (k g)
a P ada K ernel B iji (T ak sasi) 226.120,00 2,53 9,63 14,51
b K arung
3 P engam bilan B ulan ini
a D O m inyak saw it belum diam bil kg 553,10
- S tock bebas m inyak saw it (1 - 3a) kg 981,38
b D O inti saw it belum diam bil kg 219,55
- S tock bebas inti saw it (2a - 3b) kg 6,57
c Jum lah pengam bilan C P O kg 3.055.560,00
d Jum lah P engam bilan K ernel kg 1.151.340,00
Kuliah
Kolokium TAHAPAN SIKLUS HIDUP

1. Metodologi LCA

2. Kerangka
Metodologi LCA

3. Scope and
Defenition

4. Life Cycle Inventory


(LCI)
-Bank Data
-
5. Life Cycle Impact
Assessment (LCIA)
(cradle to grave)
6. Interpretation

(cradle to gate)

@Kiman Siregar TEP


PASCA IPB, 2010
20 21 April 2016 ILCAN Training Series on Life Cycle Assessment (ITSoLCA) 103