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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LABORATORY

Name :
Regd. No : .
Year & Semester : ..
Academic Year : .

GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE


SESHADRI RAO KNOWLEDGE VILLAGE: GUDLAVALLERU
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

Department of Civil Engineering


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE
SESHADRI RAO KNOWLEDGE VILLAGE::GUDLAVALLERU

DEPARTMENT
OF
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Engineering Geology - Lab Manual

Department of Civil Engineering


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB

GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE


SESHADRI RAO KNOWLEDGE VILLAGE:: GUDLAVALLERU
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

INDEX

S.no Date Name of the Experiment Signature


of the
faculty

10

11

12

Department of Civil Engineering


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB

MINERALS
QUARTZ (Sio2)
Habit and crystal system : Crystaline and hexagonal system
Colour and huster : Variety colourless, transparent, snow white, viterous, transchent
Scratch ability and hardness : Cannot be scratched by knife, H=2.5 to 2.7
Streak : White
Cleavage : Nil
Fracture : Un even at place conchoidel
Specific gravity : Crystalline, habit, horizontal, faces, piezo electric, absence of
cleavage through crystalline breaks with sharp cutting edges,
conchoidal faces.
Uses / Importants : Important rare forming mineral 7 th standard mineral in Mohrs
scale, glass making electronic lenses, wireless apparates,
radar watches and clocks, industrial and agro granures and
powder glass cutting.

OPAL (Sio2.H2O)
Habit and crystal system : Massive
Colour and huster : Milk white, dirty white resinous
Scratch ability and hardness : Cannot be scratched by knife, H=4.5 to 5.5
Streak : White
Cleavage : Nil
Fracture : Uneven at Many places, conchoidal
Specific gravity : Low 1.9 to 2.3
Special properties : Resembles Magnetic, alkali gravity, some varities
Uses / Importants : Filler, translucent, variety cats eye, used in jewellary.

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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB

MAGNETITE (Fe304)
Habit and crystal system : Crystalline, isometric system, octahedron and also
massive
Colour and huster : Iron, Block, Metallic
Scratch ability and hardness : It cannot be scratched by knife hardness H=5.5
Streak : Block
Cleavage : Four sets of oblique cleavage, massive
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : High 5.5
Special properties : Strongly Magnetic
Uses / Importants : Ore of Iron, Ferrite rod, radio Antina

HEMATITE (Fe203)
Habit and crystal system : Crystalline, hexagonal, massive
Colour and huster : When fresh bright steel gray when altered reddish brown,
metallic
Scratch ability and hardness : It cannot be scratched and hardness H = 5.5
Streak : Reddish brown, cherry brown
Cleavage : Oblique cleavage
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : High 5.5
Special properties : Heavy, cherry red colour, some varities are magnetic due
to branches of magnetic
Uses / Importants : Ore of Iron, dyes.

BAUXITE (Al203.2H20)
Habit and crystal system : Massive commonly pisolitic
Colour and huster : Dry white, stained, reddish brown, yellowish by wides,
dull sometimes resinous
Scratch ability and hardness : Can be scratch easily by knife
Streak : White
Cleavage : Nil
Fracture : Uneven earthy
Specific gravity : Low 2.3 to 2.5
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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB
Special properties : Pisolitic habit, some varities, low specific gravity

Uses / Importants : Chief ore of alumina, oil refining, bauxite cement,


refractory bricks, water purification, paper making,
ceramics, chemicals, mineral salts.

MUSCOVITE MICA [H2KAL3 (sio4)3]


Habit and crystal system : Flaky, monoclinic system, pseudo hexagonal
Colour and huster : Colourless, transparent, silver white, in bulk with dark
brown pearly
Scratch ability and hardness : Scratched by fingernail and hardness H = 2 2.5
Streak : White shining
Cleavage : One set of perfect basal cleavage
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 2.7 to 3
Special properties : Extremely thin, elastic, transparent. Colourness flakes,
bad conductor of elasticity
Uses / Importants : Electric and electrical issulator, gas light. Chimes,
spinker, fancy points, ornements.

BLOTITE MICA [H3K (mgfe3)AL(sio4)3]


Habit and crystal system : Flaky, Monoclinic system, pseudo hexagonal
Colour and huster : Brownish block, transparent, peerly
Scratch ability and hardness : Scratched by nail and hardness H = 2 to 2.5
Streak : Pale yellow
Cleavage : One set of perfect basal cleavage along with thin flaker
separate of easily
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 2.9 to 3.1
Special properties : Brownish block to black colour
Uses / Importants : Important rock forming, minerals boiler funnanas window
screed

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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB

ORTHOCLASE [FELDSPAR [KAL.(Si308)]


Habit and crystal system : Massive, commonly monoclinic system
Colour and huster : White, Pinc, Viterous
Scratch ability and hardness : Cannot be scratched by knife and hardness [H = 6]
Streak : White
Cleavage : Two sets perpendicular
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6
Special properties : Alkaline 2 sets perpendicular
Uses / Importants : 6 standard mineral in Mohrs scale, glass making, glazing
agent, electric issulation, ceramics etc.

AUGITE [ Complex silicate of Ca, Al, Mg, F3]


Habit and crystal system : Crystalline, monoclinic system, crystal are short and
shout eight sided cubical cleavage fracture
Colour and huster : Dark gray, grayish block, block, viterous
Scratch ability and hardness : Can be scratched by knife and harness H = 5.5
Streak : greenish white
Cleavage : 2 sets almost perpendicular
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 3.2 to 3.5
Special properties : Nearly perpendicular cleavage
Uses / Importants : Important rock forming mineral

CHLORITE (Hydrous maAl silicate)


Habit and crystal system : Foliated
Colour and huster : Greenish white to greenish block resinous
Scratch ability and hardness : Can be scratched with difficulty by finger nail. Easily by
knife and hardness H = 2.0 2.5
Streak : Plane greenish white
Cleavage : Nil (Non crystalline)
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6 to 2.9
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Special properties : Soft can be cut, curved
Uses / Importants : Earning
CALCITE (CaC03)
Habit and crystal system : Crystalline, hexagonal system
Colour and huster : White, grey, pink, transulent, colourless transparent
Scratch ability and hardness : Scratched easily by knife and hardness H = 3
Streak : White
Cleavage : 3 sets of oblique perfect Rhombo hedral
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 2.7
Special properties : Perfect Rhombo hedral cleavags, reacts readily with
dilute - HCL
Uses / Importants : Third standard mineral on Mohrs scale of hardness nicol
prism is Range findeis, polarizing mica microscopes Co 2,
calcium carbide, nitro line cost lime nitrogen (Cacol)
bleaching powder, soil tooth paste, glass, scap, paper
printess, flux in smelting

GARNET (Complex silicate of Ca mg & fe)


Habit and crystal system : Crystalline, Isometric system, Decahydral system (12
Rhombic facis)
Colour and huster : Brownish block, Reddish brown, honey brown, when fresh
viterous to metallic.
Scratch ability and hardness : Cant be scratched by knife and hardness H = 6.5 to 7.5
Streak : Reddish brown when altered
Cleavage : Inter obtained, very distinct, parallel to deca hydral faces
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium to high 3.2 to 4.5
Special properties : Crystal frequently distributed
Uses / Importants : Seramic stones

TALC
Habit and crystal system : Massive, Foliated
Colour and huster : Pale green, Apple green, pearly
Scratch ability and hardness : It can be scratched by knife and hardness H = 1 1.5
Streak : Pale white
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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB
Cleavage : Nil
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 2.7 to 2.8
Special properties : Very soft and smooth
Uses / Importants : 1st standard mineral in Mohrs scale of hardness, filer material
in paper

DOLOMITE ( Camg (C03)2)


Habit and crystal system : Crystalline, hexagonal system
Colour and huster : White, grey pink, colourless, transparent, pearly
Scratch ability and hardness : Can be scratched by knife and hardness H = 3
Streak : White
Cleavage : 3 sets of oblique perfect Rhombo - hydral
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 2.7
Special properties : Rhombo hydral cleavage, colourless varieties
Uses / Importants : 3rd standard mineral in Mohrs scale of hardness, Nicol prism
in Range findess.

MAGNESITE (MgCo3)
Habit and crystal system : Crystalline, besagoral
Colour and huster : White, grey, pink and pearly
Scratch ability and hardness : Scratched with knife and hardness H = 3.5 to 4
Streak : White
Cleavage : 3 sets of oblique cleavage, Rhombo hedron
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 1.7 to 1.8
Special properties : Pearly Luster, Reacts with concentrated - HCL
Uses / Importants : Refractory at 17000c, special cements, fertilizers

GALENA (pbs)
Habit and crystal system : Crystalline, Isometric system, cubes, cleavage
fragmentsColour and huster : Lead grey, silver grey, bright and metallic
Scratch ability and hardness : Can be scratched easily by knife and hardness
H = 2 to 2.5
Streak : Lead grey
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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB
Cleavage : 3 sets of mutually perpendicular cubic cleavage
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 2.8
Special properties : Soft heavy and diamagnetic
Uses / Importants : Ore of heal Alloys, crystals used in Radio sets, heavy
aggregate concrete for protective walls in atomic and
Nuclear Reactors.

JASPER
Habit & Coastal system : Massive
Colour & Iustude : Red colour
Scratchability & Hardness : Nearly 7 cannot be scotched by knife
Streak : Light pink
Cleavage : Absent
Fracture : Cancodial
Specific gravity : Medium (2.57 2.67)
Special properties : ---
Uses (or) Importance : ---

OLIVINE
Habit & Coastal system : Massive
Colour & Iustude : Olive green, Lusture (dull)
Scratchability & Hardness : Hardness (6-7) cannot be scratched y knife
Streak : Light green, pale colour
Cleavage : Absent
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium (3.2 3.5)
Special properties : Commonly unsaturated mineral
Uses (or) Importance : ---

HORNBLENDE
Habit & Coastal system : Granular form (or) Prismatic aggregate
Colour & Iustude : Dark greenish black, Vitreacy to sub vitreours, nearly
opaque
Scratchability & Hardness : Scratchble by knife, Hardness (5-6)
Streak : Light green (or) pale green (or) white
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Cleavage : 2 sets, prismatic
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium (3 3.5)
Special properties : Most common type of amphibde
Uses (or) Importance : ---

BIOTITE
Habit & Coastal system : Flask, lamellor, Monoclinc system, psevdo
Colour & Iustude : Brownish block, Transperent, Pearly, dark greenish block
(or) block
Scratchability & Hardness : Scratched by nail & hardness (2 -2.5)
Streak : Pale yellow, white colour
Cleavage : one set of perfect basal cleavage along with thing flakar
Fracture : Uneven, Still havag
Specific gravity : (2.9 3.1)
Special properties : Brownish block, Block colour, common rock forming mica
Uses (or) Importance : Important rock forming minerals, boiler furnaces, windows
serect

ASBESTOS
Habit & Coastal system : Fibrous
Colour & Iustude : Pale, green, silky
Scratchability & Hardness : Can be scratched by knife & hardness (2-2.5)
Streak : Nil
Cleavage : Nil
Fracture : Nil
Specific gravity : 2.2 low 2
Special properties : Fiber, Fine, Strong, Easily separated, Fire proof, Heat
proof
Uses (or) Importance : Asbestos break & clutch, theatures, curtens, bamb proof
structures, paper, air & as it fiteration

KYANITE
Habit & Coastal system : Bladed, Radiating fibrus
Colour & Iustude : Blue with dart patches vitrious to sub-vitrious

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Scratchability & Hardness : Can not be scratched by knife along length H=4-5 (5.5-
6.5) is along width.
Streak : White
Cleavage : Present 2 sets
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : Medium 3.6
Special properties : Bladed form a common refraction mineral
Uses (or) Importance : ---

PYRITE
Habit & Coastal system : Crystaline, Iso metric system cubes, pentogaral, deca
hydral also grounlar, massive
Colour & Iustude : Light golden yellow, bright metalic
Scratchability & Hardness : It can not be scratched by knife & harness H: (6-6.5)
Streak : Greenish block
Cleavage : Cubic indistinct
Fracture : Uneven
Specific gravity : High 5
Special properties : Mutually year in adjacent sides resembles, gold, soluble
in HNO3.
Uses (or) Importance : Eretracting sulphar, preparation of sio 2, H2So4,
peotilizers, dyes, wooden preservative.

PYROLUSITE
Habit & Coastal system : Massive, Spangy, apaque
Colour & Iustude : Dart brownish balck, dull
Scratchability & Hardness : Variable
Streak : Light (or) Pale colour
Cleavage : Indistinct
Fracture : Un even
Specific gravity : High 4.5 - 5
Special properties : Soils the fingeres, important magneas ore mineral
Uses (or) Importance : Nil

GRAPHITE
Habit & Coastal system : Massive, granular, apaque
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Colour & Iustude : Black, Shining greasy
Scratchability & Hardness : Can be scratched by finger nail H = 1 to 2
Streak : Dull
Cleavage : Present, not distint
Fracture : Un even
Specific gravity : Low ( 2 to 2.3)
Special properties : Macs paper
Uses (or) Importance : Used in pencils

CHROMITE
Habit & Coastal system : Crystalline, Isometeric, Commonly occurred granulars
Colour & Iustude : Dark grey, Metallic
Scratchability & Hardness : Cant be scratched H = 4.5
Streak : Brownish, Black
Cleavage : Nil
Fracture : Un even
Specific gravity : High ( 3.7 to 4.7)
Special properties : Slightly magnetic due to iron content
Uses (or) Importance : Cheap ore of chromium refractions

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Seshadri Rao Knowledge Village :: Gudlavalleru
Department of Civil Engineering
Geology Lab
GREU GRANITE (Flutonic and igneous rocks)
Colour : Grey, grewish white, pink, some varieties multicolored
Structure and grain size : Equigranular, Medium grained
Mineral Composition : Accessional minerals 1.Quartz 2.Orthoclase 3. Plagioclase
4. Biotite mica
Accessory mineral : Magnetite
Cementing material : Nil
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6
Special properties : Presence of abundant quartz it can be cut and curved, it gives
excellent polish like merror surface
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Uses / Importants : Building ornamental stones, moments, railway ballast, road metal,
roller concrete, slabs, door steps, pillars.

PINK GRANITE (FLUTONIC IGNEOUS ROCK)


Colour : Pink, Reddish brown, blush red
Structure and grain size : equi-granula, medium grained
Mineral Composition : Accessional minerals 1.Quartz 2. Orthoclase 3. Plagio clase
4. Horn blende.
Accessory mineral : Magnetite
Cementing material : Nil
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6
Special properties : Pink, Red colour abundant Quartz, it can be cut curved, excellent
Quartz giving mirror surface
Uses / Importants : Ornamental stones, monuments stones

GABBRO (PUTONIC BASIC IGNEOUS ROCKS)

Colour : Dark grey to block


Structure and grain size : Equigranular, coarse graned
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals
(1) Plagio clase (Twineed plate) (2) Accessory minerals
(3) Iron Pyrites bright golden grains (4) Magnatite
Cementing material : -
Specific gravity : 2.8 to 2.9
Special properties : Dark grey colour, Coarse grained plagioclase, can be cut, curved,
polished, ferro magnetic
Uses / Importants : Ornamental, Rood metal, Concrete aggregate, railway road.

PEGMATITE (HYPER BASSAL ACID AND IGNEOUS ROCKS)


Colour : White at places pink, multi coloured
Texture and grain size : Pagmatatie or graphic coarse, very coarse grained
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals
(1) Quartz (2) Orthoclase white or pink
(3) + Biotite mica atered to chlorite Accessory minerals
(a) Manetite (b) Iron pyrites
Cementing material : -
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6
Special properties : Graphic or pegmatic, inter growth between Quartz and orthoclase
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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB
Uses / Importants : Worked (or) valuable minerals like Quartz, orthoclase.

DOLERITE (DIABASE, HYPER BASALT BASIC IGNEOUS)

Colour : Dark grey to block


Texture and grain size : Optic texture, fine to medium grained
Mineral Composition : Assential minerals (i) plagio clas (2) Pigate
Accessory mineral : Iron pyrates
Cementing material : Nil
Specific gravity : Medium 2.9
Special properties : Heavy takes excellent, polish queering mirror surface it can be cut
curved.
Uses / Importants : ornamental, memorial, concrete agragate, Door steps, Road metal etc

COMPACT BASALT (VOLCANIC AND IGNEOUS ROCKS)


Colour : Dark Gray
Texture and grain size : Compact, fine grain
Mineral Composition : Assential mineral (1) Plagio clase (2) Augite
Accessory mineral : Magnetite
Cementing material : Nil
Specific gravity : Medium 2.9 to 3.1
Special properties : Dark gray, fine grained ferro magnetic
Uses / Importants : Road metal, Concrete aggregate, Building stones, Railway stations.

CONGLO METERE (MECHANICALLY FORMED SEDIMENTARY)


Colour : Reddish brown, chocolate brown
Texture and grain size : Redisheous texture, coarse grain
Mineral Composition : Assestial mineral (1) Smooth rounded pebbles
Accessory mineral : Nil
Cementing material : 203
Specific gravity : Medium 2.7 to 2.8
Special properties : Smooth rounded pebbles of minerals and Rocky, cemented by Fe205
Uses / Importants : Worked for tasper, (1) Ornamental purpose.

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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGINEERING GEOLOGY LAB
RED SAND STONE (MECHNICALLY FORMED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS)
Colour : Reddish brown, brick, red, pink
Texture and grain size : Arnaceous, medium grained
Mineral Composition : Essential mineral (1) Sand particles (2) Orthoclase (3) Muscovites
Accessory mineral : Nil
Cementing material : Nil
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6 to 3.0
Special properties : Armaceous, Sand particles
Uses / Importants : Building, ornamental structural, road ballast stones

SHALE (MECHANICALLY FORMED SEDIMENTRY ROCKS)


Colour : Reddish brown, Brick red
Texture and grain size : Argillaceous
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals (1) Clay (2) Fine grained sediments
Accessory mineral : -
Cementing material : Fe203
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6
Special properties : Lamination, Soft Rein points
Uses / Importants : Films, cement manufacture, light weight materials

LIME STONE (FORMED FORM SEDIMENTARY ROCK)


Colour : Reddish brown, Brick red, multi colored
Texture and grain size : Concretionary
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals (1) Clay (2) Fe203
Accessory mineral : -
Cementing material : Loss and self cemented
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6 to 2.8
Special properties : Concretionary, coarse, soft it can be cut and curved
Uses / Importants : Building stone, Road metal poor grade concrete Iron ore

LATERITE
Colour : White, Pink, green
Texture and grain size : Granular, Medium grained
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals (1) Calcite (2) CaCo 3
Accessory mineral : -
Cementing material : -
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6 to 2.8
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Special properties : Reacts really with HCL, soft it can be cut and curved
Uses / Importants : Ornamental, decorative gums, panels.

QUARTIZITE
Colour : Greenish yellow, pale white, Lusterous
Texture and grain size : Chistose
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals (1) Talc
Accessory mineral : -
Cementing material : -
Specific gravity : 2.7 to 2.8
Special properties : Very soft
Uses / Importants : Filter, cosmetics grassing

SLATE
Colour : Grey, dark grey, rarely pink
Texture and grain size : Schistose, granular
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals
(1) Sencitic mica (2) Quartz (3) Chlorite (4) Felspar (5) Clay
minerals
Cementing material : -
Specific gravity : Medium 2.8 to 2.9
Special properties : Rock, cleavage, can be split, cut, planned, drilled
Uses / Importants : Roofing, granular, school bags, boards, table taps

GNEISS
Colour : Grey banded, pink, greenis
Texture and grain size : Gneissose fine to medium
Mineral Composition : Light coloured band (1) Quartz (2) Orthoclase dark coloured horn
blend
Cementing material : -
Specific gravity : Medium 2 - 7
Special properties : Banded, can cut curved
Uses / Importants : Building stones (1) ornamental rail roads

CHARCONITE
Colour : Greywish white, bluish grey
Texture and grain size : Granulose, medium grained
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals (1) Quartz (2) Orthoclase (3) Plagio clase
(4) Hypostnese
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Cementing material : -
Specific gravity : Medium 2.6 to 2.7
Special properties : Bluish grey, Quarts also blue granite
Uses / Importants : Building stones, ornamental structural, orna stone

CHARNOLITE
Colour : White, grey, pink, brick rod
Texture and grain size : Granular, fine, medium to coarse grained
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals (1) Quality
Specific gravity : 2.7
Special properties : Brittle, breaks, easily, sharp, edges, vitreous
Uses / Importants : Road metal, Rail road, Ballast, Glass cutting

MARBLE (CRYSTALLINE LIME STONE)


Colour : White, pink, grey, green, multi colored
Texture and grain size : Granulose medium grained
Mineral Composition : Essential minerals (1) Calcite CaCo 3
Accessory mineral : -
Cementing material : -
Specific gravity : -
Special properties : Reacts readily with HCL. Soft can be cut curved sculptured
Uses / Importants : Ornamental, decorative, germs, panels, status, mortars, shape etc.

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