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Pushover

, 2013
Version 1.0.24
2 Pushover

1 3

1.1 ............................................................................................. 3
1.1.1 ...................................... 4
1.1.2 ........................................ 4
1.1.3 Pushover ............................. 5
1.1.4 u/1 .................................................................. 5
1.1.5 Pushover....................................... 7
1.2 ................................................................................ 8
1.2.1 ................................................. 9
1.2.2 ..................................................... 9
1.2.3 ................................................11
1.3 ............................................ 13
1.3.1 ...............................................................13
1.3.2 ...............................................................................15
1.4 ............................................. 17
1.4.1 -...........................................17
1.4.2 - (-).....................................18
1.4.3 -..............................................................26
1.4.4 ...................................................................32
1.4.5 ..................................................................................33
1.4.6 2 ....................................................................34
1.5 ........................... 38
1.5.1 F- ..........................................................................38
1.6 .................................................................. 40
1.6.1 ......................................................................................40
1.6.2 .....................................................................40
1.6.3 ...........................................................................45
1.7 ........................................................... 52
1.7.1 C8 ( N2).......................................................52
1.7.2 KAN.E. ( ) ........................58
1.7.3 ........................................................60
1.8 ........................................................ 63
1.8.1 ..................................................63
1.8.2 ........................................................64
1.8.3
.................................................65
Pushover 3

1
Pushover

1.1


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( 8, 2004),

(ASCE, 2007)
(., 2012)

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1.1.1


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1.1.2

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1.1.3 Pushover

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u/1 1.1.4. u/1
q .

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( 1.7).

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1.1.4 u/1
q
u/1, (EC8-1,
5.2.2.2). EC8
:
6 Pushover

1. ,

.
2. ,
(Pushover)
:
1 =

(
).
u=

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1,
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Pushover 1.3, ,
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1.5, Pushover
. - 1.1.

V. u u

u
V. 1 1 1

1.1: .
Pushover 7

1.1.5
.1.5 Pushover

1.2: Pushover
8 Pushover


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1.2.

( )
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FESPA.

1.2


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Pushover 9

1.2.1

A.
,

EC8-1 (4.3.3.4.1 (5)P).
B.

.
C. ( - ..
), (5.7.3.1)
,
.
D.
, ,

.

.

1.1: ..
.

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1.1.

1.2.2

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( ). (EC8-3, .. 5.7.3.3 ).
EC8-1
4.3.3.4.1(7) . 5.7.3.1().

8 .
10 Pushover


EC8-1 4.3.3.5.1 .
. ,

..
. ,
, 100/30,
100% 30%
.

1.3:
.


1. (EC8-3 4.4.4.1): 1


1.4.

1.4: T .

2. (EC8-3 4.4.4.1): 2
,
.
Pushover 11

1.5: .

3. : 3


.

1.6: .

1.2.3


(.. 2.4.3.4 EC8-1 4.2.2).
( )

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: (.. 5.1.2)
12 Pushover

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..
.
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(,
..) .


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c, s.
()
. (EC8-3
2.2.1 .. . 4.1).

B
(SD) (NC).

, , ,
. (EC8-3 3.2.2. &
A.3.2.3 .. 9.3.1).
(DL)
.



. (.. 2.1.4.2). ,

-
[EC8-1, 4.2.2(5)].
Pushover 13

1.3

.
EC8
.
.


.

1.3.1
.

.

,
.
H fc fc,cube
EC2-1-1 .3.1 :
fcm = fcm,cube/1.25

. EC2-1-1
3.1.2(6):
fcm(t) = cc(t)fcm
cc(t) 10 30
1.201.25.
:
fcm(t) = fcm,cube1.25/1.25= fcm,cube

,
:

fcm =fck +8 MPa , EC2 3.1

fcm =min fck +5 MPa , 1.20 fck , . 4.2


14 Pushover


:

..



fck
[MPa] [MPa] fcm [MPa]
160 16 16
225 22.5 22.5
300 30 30
C16/20 16 2330
C20/25 20 2935

1.2:

500(C ) :

f ym =1.15f yk , EC8-2 E.2.2

f ym = 1.10 1.05 f yk 16 18, . 4.1

()
:

f ym =550560(MPa)

su
6% C.
1.3
.
Pushover 15

B500C S500s StIII StI


S500
B500C S400 S220

fym = fym = fym = fym =
fyk fym fyk = 500
550 575 550 575 460 480 260 290
[MPa]


6.0 7.5% 10% 5% 5% 10 12%
suk
sum

1.3:

.

1.3.2


.
1.3.2.1 ( EC8-3)

. ,

, 1.7.
EC8-3 A.3.1.1.
:

sx f yw
0.86

fcc =fc 1+3.7


fc
fc (MPa)
fyw
,
:
16 Pushover

s h bi 2
sh
= 1- 1- 1-
2b o 2h o 6h o b o
sx
x .
A sw
sx =
bw sh

sh
fcc
c2 :

fcc
cc = c2 1+5 -1
fc
,

.

:

sx f yw
cu =0.004+0.5
fc
c
fcc fcc*

fc fc

c2 cu2 c2,c
cu2,c

1.7: -

Pushover 17

Fespa
Fespa
EC8-3. > Pushover >

EC8-3
.

1.4

1.4.1 -

.
F ( )
( ).
,

.
F ,
o F
. - 1.8.

1.8: M-.


-.
18 Pushover

-
- - :
1. .
y y
1.4.3.
2. .
um,
.
3.
1.8.
.
Fespa
-

FESPA
1.8, 20%Mu.

1.4.2 - (-)
1.4.2.1


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, 1.9.

1.9:
Pushover 19

u
y

y u

1.10: -
.



( )
.
-

1.10.
1.4.2.2

- ( 1.10)

.




..( 7) :
:

My 2
y y v Es
= 1/r y E c 0.5(1+')- + (1- y )+( y -')'+ 6 (1-') (1-') 2
3
3
bd 2
(1/r)y (
)
:
20 Pushover

fy
(1/r)y =
E s (1- y )d .

c 1.8fc -
(1/r)y =
yd Ec yd
.

1.4:

.
:
, , y, ,

=d/d

d

d
fc

.
fy

.
Es, Ec
y ,
..

..
7.


-
,
(
Pushover 21

), .

( 1.11)
.

1.11:
-.



:
(y)=0 y (1.4.1)

,
y .
=0
, .
,
.
:
N
0 = (1.4.2)
A c Ec +A s Es

0 ,
,
.

( 0 ).

.
22 Pushover

N= dA (1.4.3)
A

M= ydA (1.4.4)
A

.
(1.4.1) (1.4.3) (1.4.4)
,
, .
n
E A i Et A y i
n

N i=1 t
0
i
= n i=1
(1.4.5)
M
Et A i y i Et A i yi2
n

i=1

i=1
n , Et
i, i i yi
i .
k :
1. :
k =k1 +k (1.4.6)

,
Nnk 0 . 0
1 (1.4.5)
k-1.
( n) k
Nnk 0 .

2. ..
:
n n1 n
0 0 0
= + (1.4.7)
k k 0 k
3. (1.4.5)
-
.
4. Nnk
(1.4.5).
Pushover 23

5. Nnk tol tol ,


2.
k 2 (1.4.5).

M- 1
k .
-
M- 1.12.

1.12: -
.

Fespa
Fespa

.


-

.
- FESPA


.
24 Pushover


-
:
)

(Balance point- 1.13).
)
- ,
(
1.13).
) 3 5
2 4 .
)
.
1.13
.

1.13: - .

1.14
.
-
.
.
Pushover 25

1.14:
-



:
P P P

5
1 B(alance point) 2 3 B(alance point) 3 4 B(alance point)
G+2Q 1 2
G+2Q 1 G+2Q
M M M

= 1 = 3 = 5

1.15: - .
,
.

1 G+0.3Q
3 ( Balance point 2
)
5 ( Balance point 4
)
26 Pushover

1.4.3 -
,

.

,
.


.

,
.
.

1.16: .

1.16
.
2. ,
B
. ,
Pushover 27


.

B = 1 - 2 = - 2
L

=
L

1.17: .

1.17 Lv,
i .


.
,
1.18.
,
28 Pushover

y y.
.

1.18: .
(),

()
().


(EC8-2 2.3.5.3):


=
LV


.

:
u
=
y



.

Pushover 29

1.19.
u
Lp
.

1.19:
.

, y
:

L L x2 L
y 1 v 1 v y

y v
y = = x xdx= dx=
Lv L L 0 L 3
v 0
v v




Fespa.


1.5. (.. 7.2.2)
30 Pushover

L v +a v z h 1/r y d b f y
y = 1/r y +0,0014 1+1,5 +
3 Lv 8 fc

L v +a v z 1/r y d b f y
y = 1/r y +0,0013+
3 8 fcm

1.5: - .

:
1/ry y,

.
Lv
Fespa
Lv

.
v 1
( )
0.
My/Lv.
h
.
(
), h
, 2
.
,
.
z o
0.9
y
db
Pushover 31

fy fc MPa.
,
fcm, 1.3.1.
-
( 1.5)

y

Lv

.
(
) (.. 7.2.4.1, EC8-
3, A.3.2.2(4)).

max 0.01:'
0.225 f yw


as
as
v 0.35 f 100
um =0.016 0.3 fc 25 1.25 d

max 0.01:
1

1 0.5L pl
2 um = y + u - y L pl 1-
el Lv

1.6:

as s=M/Vh
, (

).
v =N/bhfc (b ).
s =sh/bwsh:
.
d .

el 1.7 1 [EC8-A.3.2.2(9)]
32 Pushover

y
u
y
Lv ,
.
Lpl ,

,

u.

,
(EC8-3, A3.2.2(8)):

Lv d f y MPa
L pl = +0.2h+0.11 b
30 f c MPa

db .

,
.
Fespa

Fespa.
um 1
1.6, 2.

1.4.4
Lv
.. (7.2.3) :
M y Lv
EIeff
3 y

My, y , ,
(
).

Pushover 33

1.4.5

VR - . EC8-3 (.12),
.. (7.1)
h-x
VR =
1
el

2LV

min N; 0.55Ac f c + 1-0.05min 5; pl

L
0.16max(0.5; 100 tot ) 1-0.16min 5; V f c Ac +Vw
h

:
h ( D ),
x .
N ( , )
Lv .
Ac , bwd
bw d, Dc2/4 ( Dc
)
.
fc (Pa).
tot (,
).
Vw , :
- bw:
Vw = w b z fyw
:
w ,
z ( d-d
, , 0.8h
)
fyw .
34 Pushover

- :
sw
Vw f yw D-2c
2 s
:
Asw ,
s
c .

VR,max -
. EC8-3 (.15), ..
(7.4)


0.85 1-0.06min 5; pl
1+1.8min(0.15;
N
VR,max =
el A c fc

L
1+0.25max(1.75; 100tot ) 1-0.2min(2; V fc bw z
h

VR,max -
. EC8-3 (.16),
.. (7.5)
s = Lv/h 2,0


4 7 1.00-0.02min 5, pl
1.00+1.35
N
VR,max =
el A cfc
1+0.45 100 tot min 40,f c b w zsin2

Fespa

.

1.4.6 2
1
.
.
2
Pushover 35

1.20: 2
.

, 2
( 5.4.7)
.
2 ,
.

.
, ,

.
1.21

P
.
36 Pushover

P P

P P

P P

1.21: P- .

2
( Pushover)

1.22.
2
1400 kN.
2
1300kN
,
Pushover. 2
7%.
Pushover 37

P 1600
1400
1200
1000 P-
800
P-
600
400
200
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
d

1.22:
2 .

2

.
.

Fespa
FESPA P-
(Pushover 2
P-).

.
.
38 Pushover

1.5

1.5.1 F-
(EC8-3, )
-

- .
, y
:

y Ls
y =
3EI
u,
,
y
.
, 0,30,

1.7

DL SD NC

1 1,0 y 6,0 y 8,0 y

2 0,25 y 2,0 y 3,0 y

1.7:

0,30.


F-
F .
Pushover 39


,

, c. (
)

1.8.
Pcr L
c =
EA

DL SD NC

1 0,25 c 4,0 c 6,0 c

2 0,25 c 1,0 c 2,0 c

1.8:
( )


,

, t. (
) 1 2,

1.9.

fyL
t =
E


DL SD NC

0,25 t 7,0 t 9,0 t

1.9:
( ).
40 Pushover



,
, t. (
) 1 2,

1.10.


DL SD NC

0,25 t 3,0 t 5,0 t

1.10:
(
).

1.6

1.6.1


,
.

,
.

.
.
EC8-1, 4.3.3.4.2.3(1), (2).

1.6.2

,
.
(Load control)
(Displacement control).
Pushover 41



. -

-
Newton-Raphson ( 1.23).
P P

Pi Pi
Pi-Fi(1) Pi-Fi(1)
(1) (1)
Fi Ki(2) Fi
Ki(2)

Ki(1) Ki(1)
Pi-1 (2) Pi-1 ui(2)
ui (1)
ui ui(1)

ui ui

u u
ui-1 ui ui-1 ui
(a) (b)
1.23: : (a) Newton-Raphson
(b) Newton-Raphson.

O -
P

. -

. i
.
ui(1) 1
.
P=K i(1) u i(1) (1.4.8)

i(1)
j i-1, i-1(j),

ki-1(j).
.
u i(1) =u i-1 +u i(1) (1.4.9)
42 Pushover




ki(1).


.
Fi(1) =k i(1) u i(1)
(1.4.10)
Fi(1) =Fi-1 +Fi(1)

Fyi
Mi
Fxi
Fyk
Mk (i) Ml
Fyl
Fxk Fxl
(k) (l)

1.24:

( -
) .
Pi(1) =Pi -Fi(1) (1.4.11)


.
, Newton-
Raphson :
Newton-Raphson:
Ki(2)
.
Newton-Raphson:
Ki(2)= Ki(1).
Pushover 43

2
ui(2)
Pi(1)

Fespa :

:
|{u}i(j)| tol

o :
({u}i(j)) Pi(j) tol

1.23, Newton-Raphson
,

,
.
-
. ,
Newton-Raphson
.

M


.

v .

( )
.
44 Pushover

(1)
P u i
(2)

Pi+1

i(1) P
Fi(1)
(1)
K i
Pi

ui(1)

ui ui+1 u

1.25: .


.
1 (ui(1)=c),
(ui(j)=0 j2), ( 1.25).

:
ui,
ui(1) Ki(1)
. ,
P .
Ki(1)
u i
P .
(1) u i
P=K (1.4.12)
i

i(1)
Pi+1(1):
u i(1)
i(1) = (1.4.13)
u i
Pushover 45

(1)
Pi+1 =Pi + i(1) P (1.4.14)


Fi(1).
(2)
u i :
(2)
(1)
Pi+1 -Fi(1) =K i u i (1.4.15)


2 .
(2)
(2)u i
=-
i (1.4.16)
u i

( 1.25),
.
-
:
+: .
-: .

:
+: .
-: .

Fespa
Fespa
Newton-Raphson .
, ,
,
.

1.6.3

.

.
46 Pushover

-
1.6.2
/.
1. ( 1.26) V1,
.


-
.


.

1.26:

2. ( 1.27) V2

.
-

.
,
.
.
Pushover 47

1.27: 1

3. ( 1.28) V3

.
,

.

1.28: 2



.

( .. )
. 1.29
48 Pushover

.
.


.

1.29: -

FESPA
1.30.
1 u
Pushover
.
,
, ,
u /1.
Pushover 49

- - F-d

F(KN)
6052.0
u
5501.9
4951.7
4401.5
3851.3
1
3301.1
2750.9
2200.7
1650.6
1100.4
550.2
0.0

0.00 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 0.18 0.21 0.25 0.28 0.32 0.35 0.39

d(m)
>y
: K7(3)
>0.75u , 270.00
>u :0.234m 5065.97kN
V>VRmax
u/1=1.65

1.30: FESPA.


Fespa
.
CS (Current Step), 1 u
1.1.4.
1.

. CS
1.
50 Pushover

1.31:
Fespa

2.
-

.
CS 1.

1.32:
Fespa
Pushover 51

3.

. CS
1.

1.33:
Fespa

4.


.
52 Pushover

1.34:
Fespa

1.7
1.7.1 C8 ( N2)





.

:
mi i
Fi=V N
(1.7.1)
m
j1
j j

i, j , V , i
i mi .
i .
Pushover 53

O
.
(1.7.1)
:
Q=Q* (1.7.2)

Q*
Q
[EC8-
1 (B.3)]:

mi i
= (1.7.3)
2
mi i

O (1.7.3)
m*.

(1.7.2),
.
.


, Pushover
(ADRS). .
54 Pushover

1.35:

V
Sa = (1.7.4)
m tot


Sd = (1.7.5)
top

V .
mtot .
top .
.
a
,
,

.

mi i *
m
= (1.7.6)
m tot m tot

-

EC8-1, :
Pushover 55

V
F* = = Sa m* (1.7.7)


d* = = Sd (1.7.8)


.

1.36:
ADRS.



EC8-1

.
56 Pushover

,
.

, 1.37.
,
dy* :
E*
d*y =2 d*m - m* (1.7.9)
Fy

m*
.
.

1.37:
. (EC8-1)


[EC8-1 (B.7)]:
* *
* m dy
=2 (1.7.10)
*
Fy




,
:
Pushover 57

2
*
*
T2
d et =Se T* (1.7.11)

Se(T*) T*.
d*t
:
1. T*<TC ( ):
Fy*/m* Se(T*),
d*t =d*et

Fy*/m*<Se(T*),

d*et TC Se T* m*
*
d = 1+ q u -1 * d et q u =
*

q u
t
T Fy*

2. T*TC ( )

d*t =d*et


d*t
d*m ,

d*m d*t ( Fy* ) (1.7.9).

1.7.1.1
.

:
d t =d*t (1.7.12)
58 Pushover

1.7.2 KAN.E. (
)


.


.

, s.
2
.

e

Ki.
e,
:

m
2
e Ke Ki
= Te = Ti (1.7.13)
Ti m Ke
2
Ki



:
Te 2
= C0 C1 C2 C3 Sa (1.7.14)
4 2
5.7.4.1
:
C0 ,
Sd .
C0 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4
1.5 1, 2, 3, 5 10 .
C1
, :
Pushover 59

C1 = 1 T Ts
Ts
1+ R -1 (1.7.15)
Te
C1 =
R T < TS

C1 1,5 Te 1sec

Ts

, .
Ts=T2 EC8 Ts=Tc.
R
:
Vel
R= (1.7.16)
Vy

Vel
Vy

= C1 R
2.
C2
.
5.1 .. 1.


.
C3
P-.
- 0.1
C3 = 1+ 5 (1.7.17)
e

,
.

:
60 Pushover

Pi i
= max( i ) = max( ) (1.7.18)
Vi h i

Pi i
i
,
Vi i


hi
<0.1
C3 .
C2=C3=1 2.

Fespa
Fespa,
.
EC8-1-


,
.

1.7.3
(
)
.
,
.
:
(Damage Limitation - DL)

- ,
,

.
:
Pushover 61

< DL = y

(Severe Damage - SD)



-
.

u. To
:

<SD =
y + u

2 Rd

<SD =
y + u

2

(Near Collapse - NC)



-

. To
:
u
< NC =
Rd
< NC = u

, SD,NC

.. 9 (4.3).

..

EC8, .

10% 50 . , ,
,
. 1.11

3, 2, 1 DL, SD, NC .
62 Pushover


() ..

/
() 50 .
(/50) g
(DL) (SD) (NC)

975 5%/50 0 0 0 0 0.203

2.1
0.16

..
475 10%/50 1 1 1 1


72 50%/50 2
0.085
2
2

2


31 80%/50 3 3 3 3 0.064

EC8 DL SD NC

y (y+u)/2Rd u/Rd
( )

1.11:

1.38
3
.

.
3

.
Pushover 63

DL () SD () NC ()

y (y+u)/2Rd u/Rd
( )

NC
SD
DL
g/g,R=(R/LR)0.33

Sa(T*)(m/s2)

1 (NC) DL SD NC
u

2 (SD)


A3 (DL) NC

SD
DL

Sd(cm)

1.38: - ADRS
FESPA.




,
.
.
1.8.

1.8

1.8.1

.
1.39 ,

.

64 Pushover

,
.


.
(
)
, .
.

Sa [m/s2]

(NC)


Sd [cm]

1.39:

1.8.2
,
-
.


. ,



.
Pushover 65

V
= , = (1.7.19)
lim VR


.
(
1.40) . ,

.
:



.

Sa [m/s2]

(NC)


Sd [cm]

1.40:

1.8.3


Pushover


. ,
66 Pushover


.

.

8
475 (10% 50 ).
8 (EC8-2, )

.
1/3
agc T
RC (1.7.20)
ag , R TNCR
gc
g,R .
( 8.1).
TRC (.. , 72
)
TNCR (TNCR=475 )


. ,

Pushover.
.


.

.
ag max
'

ag max max ( 1.41).



.

.
Pushover 67

1.41:
.

,
(1.7.20) TRC .,

:
TL

PRC 1 e TRC
(1.7.21)

PRC
TRC
TL (TL=50 )
TRC
, (1.8.2).