You are on page 1of 107

-

. .


2009
510.5(075)
1273-1
570

. . : . / . .
-. , 2009. 107 .

ISBN 978-5-94356-799-5

-
. ,
1- - -
,
: ,
, , -
, , .
1- -
, , -
.


. .-. . .

- -
,
, , -
.

c

, 2009
ISBN 978-5-94356-799-5 c
. ., 2009

I. 4
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

II. 12
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

III. 34
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
14. vs . . . . . . . . . 54
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

IV. 68
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

V. 88
23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
25. P NP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
26. NP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

106
I

1.
, , . -
, . , -
. , .
, , , -
.
-
- ZF. ZF -
()
.
() .
, -
ZF,
. ZF
[2], [3].
-
. -
A, x A , x
A.
.
. , A B,
A B, x(x A x B). , A B,
A B.
A B .
: A = B , x(x A
x B). , A B , A B B A.

.
: , . . -
, .
,
.
: A B ,
{A, B}, .
1. 5

: A , A = {x |
x y y A}, A.
: A , P (A) = {B |
B A} A.
: A , (x, y)
x, y , x y, -
(x, y), {y | (x, y)
x A}.
, , -
, , {}, {, {}}, {, {}, {, {}}} . . (
), -
0, 1, 2, 3 . .
, , -
, . ,
, -
.
: = {0, 1, 2, 3, . . .} -
.
, ,
.
- , , -
( ).

. A B ,
A B = {x | x A x B}, A B = {x | x A x
B}, A \ B = {x | x A x
/ B}.
-
U , A = U \ A A
( U ).
A A = {x | B
A(x B)}. A
A = {x | B A(x B)}.

, -
, . , A, B ,
{A, B},
A B = {A, B}. , -
, , A B = {y | (y A y B y =
x) x A B}.
{a, b}. -
, {a, b} = {b, a}.
, a = b, {a, b} {a}.
- ,

. a b ha, bi =
{{a}, {a, b}}. -
: a , b . ha, bi 6= {a, b}!
6 I.

1. a, b, c, d : ha, bi = hc, di
, a = c b = d.

. .

. n , n > 1. n- ( n) -
: ha1 i = a1 , ha1 , . . . , an1 , an i = hha1 , . . . , an1 i, an i.
0.

2. ha1 , . . . , an i = hb1 , . . . , bn i ,
a1 = b1 , . . . , an = bn .

. .

. A1 , . . . , An -

A1 . . . An = {ha1 , . . . , an i | a1 A1 , . . . , an An }.
n- A An = |A .{z
. . A}.
n
n = 0 A0 = {}.

. R A1 . . . An
() A1 , . . . , An . hx1 , . . . , xn i R, , -
R x1 , . . . , xn , R(x1 , . . . , xn ), ,
R x1 , . . . , xn , R(x1 , . . . , xn ).
R An n- ()
A.

. R1 A B R2 B C
R1 R2 = {ha, ci | b(ha, bi R1 hb, ci R2 )}.

. R A B -
R1 = {hb, ai | ha, bi R}.

. f A B (),
a A b B , ha, bi f .
a A, b B ha, bi f , ,
f (a) b, f (a) , ,
f (a) , f (a) .
f dom(f ) = {a A | f (a) }.
f range(f ) = {f (a) | a A, f (a) }.

. f : A B , X, Y -
f X Y , dom(f ) = A range(f ) B.
, f A B.

. , f : A B (-
11
), f : A B, b B a A
, f (a) = b.

. , f : A B (-

), f : A B, range(f ) = B.
2. 7

. , f : A B (-
11
), f : A B, f .

. f AB, g BC , f g AC
. , f g
.
11
. f : A B ,

f 1 . , f 1
11
f 1 : B A.

. f : X A, X An n- -
A.

. , 0- -
f = , f =
{h, ai} a A. -
a, . . f = a.

2.
, ,
. .
, .
, , ,
, .
, , -
.
, . . , -
, .

.
A = {a0 , . . . , an }. , .

. n A
ha1 , a2 , . . . , an i n, a1 , . . . , an A. -
a1 a2 . . . an . , 0
.

. a1 a2 . . . an , -
, n = 0 .
, . . ha1 , . . . , an i = {a1 , . . . , an } = n = 0.

. A, , -
A . A
A+ , . . A+ = A \ {}.

. w A |w|.
8 I.

. u v, w1
w2 , v = w1 uw2 , u v
hw1 , u, w2 i. , u
v.
. u v, v = uw
w. u v, v = wu w.
. A:
() u v uv,
u v .
() u n : u0 = ,
un+1 = un u.
() u = a1 a2 . . . an , a1 , a2 , . . . , an A, -
uR = an . . . a2 a1 .
. kein mehrheit keinmehrheit.
, ,
mehrheitkein. ei keinmehrheit,
: 2- ,
10- . mehrheit tiehrhem.
kein , kein, keinkein, keinkeinkein . .
.
. L A
A.
. A:
() L1 L2 L1 L2 L1 L2
- .
() L L = A \ L.
() L1 L2 L1 L2 = {uv | u L1 , v L2 }.
() L n : L0 =
{}, Ln+1 = Ln L. S n
() L L = L . ,
n

L = {w | w = w1 w2 . . . wn n w1 , w2 , . . . , wn L}.

, L ( n = 0).
. ,
A .
.
. ,
.
, A = {a, b}, -
a, {b} {a}{a, b} . ,
a, . . bn aw, n ,
w A. , bn aw
{b} {a}{a, b} .
3. 9

,
{aa, ab, ba, bb} . , w
, w = w1 . . . wn -
n wi , 2, . .
wi {aa, ab, ba, bb}.
, -
, . . {a, b} \ {aa, ab, ba, bb} , -
, a, ,
({b} {a}{a, b} ) {aa, ab, ba, bb} .
, a,
, {bb} {aa, ab, ba}{aa, ab, ba, bb} .

3.


F . -
-
-
11 12 13 14 15 .
10 18 17 16 -
9 ,
6 . , -
22 21 8 7 4 3 2 -
? 19 5 1 . , -
,
20 6 0
( ) ,
, .
, , -
, .
-
, ,
. , -
.
,
.
, -
, .
. ,
. , -
. , ,
, ( -
F, . ).
, ,
, , ,
, F. -
, ,
10 I.

. ,
, ,
.
, -
. .
:

0) 0. (1).

1) , , , , .
, (5). , (2).

2) , (, ,
) . , (3). ,
(4).

3) -
. ,
, .
.
(1).

4) , . . -
, .
(2).

5) . . -
, .

. -
, , , ,
0 n, -
, . . . ,
, -
. ,
, , ,
. (5) .

,
:

) -
, . . .
6 , -
.

) ,
. . -
.
(0)(5), -
.
3. 11

, (
, . .
).

) .
, ,
. ,
, .

)
, . . , -
, .
,
8 8, .

) ( )
, . . -
, .
.
, -
,
. , -
,
(3). ,
( ), -
() :
,
, (0)(5).
, .
II

4.
. -
-
. ,
. , -
, ,
.
. ,
. -
, . ,
,
.

.

: :

HH HH
:
:
r2 r3 = (r2 , s3 )
- -
A AA
s1 s2 s3 s4 . . . sk s1 s2 s3 s4 . . . sk

-
, -
true false.
. .
. , -
. -
, : .
, -
, .
4. 13

,
, .
, . -
.
, : -
, true
, false
.
,
, , , -
. -
:
.
, . . .

(
).
.

. ( ...) -
A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i, -
:

) Q = {q0 , . . . , qm } ;

) A = {a0 , . . . , an } ;

) : Q A Q ;

) q0 Q ;

) F Q () .


,
:
H
i ;
i
d ;

i ; H
i
d
;
i a - i ,
q q0 (q, a) = q 0 ;
i
a ,
q (q, a) = q.

. , A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i, A = {0, 1}, Q = {q0 , q1 , q2 },


F = {q2 },

(q0 , 0) = q0 , (q1 , 0) = q0 , (q2 , 0) = q2 ,


(q0 , 1) = q1 , (q1 , 1) = q2 , (q2 , 1) = q2 ,
14 II.

:
0

1
H i? si 1 - i d
k 0, 1
q0 q1 q2
0
. A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i
hr0 , s1 , r1 , . . . , sk , rk i, r0 , . . . , rk Q,
s1 , . . . , sk A (ri , si+1 ) = ri+1 i < k. hr0 , s1 , r1 , . . . , sk , rk i
,
s1 s2 sk
r0 r1 . . . rk

, w = s1 s2 . . . sk . -
, hr0 i,
.

. A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i ...
: Q A Q :

(q, ) = q, (q, wa) = ( (q, w), a),

q Q, w A , a A.

. , ... A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i w A ,
(q0 , w) F .
, w = s1 s2 . . . sk , -

s1 s2 sk
q0 = r0 r1 . . . rk F
, q0 ,
s1 s2 . . . sk (
w) .

. T (A) = {w A | (q0 , w) F }
, A.

. L A ,
A , L = T (A).

().
{0, 1}, 11, . . T (A) = {w {0, 1} |
w 11}. , w -
, ,
, q0 q1 ( 1), ,
q1 q2 ( 1), , w
.
5. 15

5.
- iq1
a
, q
q i a - iq a
2
( ) ,
a - i q3 (q, a). -
,
, .
, -
,
qi (q, a). (q, a) , -
q,
. , -
,
, ,
.
, -
.

. ( ...)
A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i, Q, A, q0 , F -
, ,
: Q A P (Q), P (Q) -
Q (. 1).



, . -
( ) ,
. , q, -
q 0 , a,
, q 0 (q, a).

. , A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i, A = {0, 1}, Q = {q0 , q1 , q2 },


F = {q2 },

(q0 , 0) = {q0 }, (q1 , 0) = , (q2 , 0) = ,


(q0 , 1) = {q0 , q1 }, (q1 , 1) = {q2 }, (q2 , 1) = ,

:
0,
1
? 1 - i
H i 1 - i
d

q0 q1 q2

. A=hQ, A, , q0 , F i
, ,
(ri , si+1 ) = ri+1 ri+1 (ri , si+1 ).
16 II.

. , ... A=hQ, A, , q0 , F i s1 s2 . . . sk
A , q0 = r0 , r1 , . . . , rk ,

r1 (r0 , s1 ),
r2 (r1 , s2 ),
.. ..
. .
rk (rk1 , sk ),

rk F .
, w = s1 s2 . . . sk , -

s1 s2 sk
q0 = r0 r1 . . . rk F

, q0 ,
s1 s2 . . . sk (
w) .

. , T (A) , -
A.

().
{0, 1}, 11, . . T (A) = {w {0, 1} |
v {0, 1} (w = v11)}. , , -
1 1
, q0 q1
q2 .
, , A,
11. ,
, ,
. , , ,
11 .

3 ( ). -
A A , T (A) =
T (A).

. A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i ... -
... A = hQ, A, , q 0 , F i (. ):
) Q = P (Q);
S
) (q, a) = (r, a), q Q a A;
rq
) q 0 = {q0 };
) F = {q Q | q F 6= }.

A: a
a

A:
H i ? a, b - i
d H i a - i
d?
{q0 , q1 }
q0 q1 HH
{q }Z
0 Zb
Z b
Z
~?
Z d a, b - i
i
a, b

{q1 }
5. 17

, T (A) = T (A), : T (A) T (A) T (A) T (A).


w = s1 . . . sk T (A). ,
r0 , r1 , . . . , rk Q,

q0 = r0 ,
r1 (r0 , s1 ),
r2 (r1 , s2 ),
.. ..
. .
rk (rk1 , sk ),
rk F.

, w A.

s1 s2 sk
H
i - i - - i
d
r0 r1 rk

w A.
:
r0 = q 0 , r1 = (r0 , s1 ), . . . , rk = (rk1 , sk ).
i 6 k, ri ri .

10 . : r0 = q0 {q0 } = q 0 = r0 .
S
20 . ri ri . , (ri , si+1 ) (r, si+1 ).
S rr i
ri+1 (ri , si+1 ) (r, si+1 ) = (ri , si+1 ) = ri+1 . , ri+1 ri+1 .
rri
.

, i 6 k ri ri . , rk rk .
rk F , rk F 6= . , rk F . , w T (A),
T (A) T (A) .
w = s1 . . . sk T (A), -
A

r0 = q0 , r1 = (r0 , s1 ), ..., rk = (rk1 , sk ),

rk F .
rk F , rk F 6= ,
S rk rk F .
rk rk = (rk1 , sk ) = (r, sk ), rk1 rk1 ,
rrk1
rk (rk1 , sk ).
rk1 rk1 , rk2 rk2 ,
rk1 (rk2 , sk1 ).
.
r0 , r1 , . . . , rk Q ,
i {1, . . . , k} ri1 ri1 ri (ri1 , si ). r0 r0 = q 0 = {q0 },
r0 = q0 . , rk F .
, w T (A). , T (A) T (A) .
18 II.

. , (.,
, [4],[12]) -
, ,
: Q(A{}) P (Q).
-, , .
, , q q 0 ,
, , q, q 0 , -
. , ,
q q 0 .
.
w = s1 s2 . . . sk , si , --
,
t1 t2 tm
r0 r1 . . . rm
, r0 , -
rm , t1 t2 . . . tm = s1 s2 . . . sk ,
m > k, . . t1 , . . . , tm .
.
-
, . . -
( )
, -
-. , , -
,
-, .

6.
- -
, , .
.
. , ... A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i ,
q Q, a A (q, a) 6= q0 , . .
.
4 ( ). ... A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i ... A0 =
hQ0 , A, 0 , q0 , F 0 i , T (A) = T (A0 ) A0 .
. , -
A
A0 (. ):

A: c
A0 :
H i ? a - i H i a - i

q0Z
} q1 HH q0
>
Z a q1
Z c
bZZ - ?


i c i i
q2 q0 b q2
6. 19

) A q0 . q0 , q0
.
) q0 q1 6= q0 q0
q1 .
) q0 q0 q0 q0
.
) , q0 q2 ( q0 q0 )
, q2 q0 .
A0 =hQ0 , A, 0 , q0 , F 0 i. -
, A0 . () A0 -
. T (A) = T (A0 ) , w A -
A, q0
r F , , ()(),
A0 , q0 , r0 F 0 ,
w, , w
A0 , q0 r0 F 0 , ,
, A, q0 ,
r F , w.

. , X A
f : An A, x1 , . . . , xn X f (x1 , . . . , xn ) X.

5. , -
, , .

. ,
, , , -
. ,
3
.
. A1 , A2 -
A. A , T (A) = T (A1 ) T (A2 ).
, A1 A2 .
, , A1 A2 ,
.
A (. ):
) A1 A2 , -
. -
A. ,
( ) .
) A -
A1 A2 .
) A ,
.

i
d i H i d
i HH d
i i d
i
A1 H A2 A1 A2
A
20 II.

A. A1 A2 -
, A,
,
A1 A2 . , , A,
, A1 A2 . , ,
A1 A2 , , A. , A -
.
. ... A = hQ, A, , q0 , F i L, . .
w A w L (q0 , w) F .
w / L (q0 , w) / F . ,
w A \ L (q0 , w) Q \ F . , .. A0 =

hQ, A, , q0 , Q \ F i L = A \ L.
. -
, -
A B = A B.
. A1 , A2 -
A. , A2 .
A, T (A1 )T (A2 ), (.
):
) A1 A2 ,
.
, (
).
) -
A1 .
) -
A2 . .

i
d i A2 d
i

H i HH
A1 i
d H i A2 d
i H i A1 i A2 d
i

i
d i A2 d
i

,
,
. A1
() A1 .
A2
. , T (A) = T (A1 )T (A2 ).
. A ..., .
A0 , (T (A)) , (.
):
) A, ,
q a, : -
, ,
6. 21

q a ( A,
).
) A0 A.
) A0 -
A. , (
).

A A0
a - i HH a - i a
H
i d
i H
i
d d
i
q q

, (T (A)) = T (A0 ).
(T (A)) T (A0 ). w (T (A)) . w = , w T (A0 )
(). w 6= , w w = w1 . . . wn ,
wi T (A) 1 6 i 6 n. , 1 6 i 6 n wi
A:

si1 i si2 siki i


q0 = r0i r1 . . . rki F,

rki i . ()
2 6 i 6 n A0 , rki1 i1
,
i i
r1 s1 . , 2 6 i 6 n
wi A0 :

si1 i si2 siki i


rki1
i1
r1 . . .
rki F.

, -
A0 , ,
, w. , w T (A0 ).
T (A0 ) (T (A)) . w T (A0 ).
, w 6= ( ). , w
A0 , q0 -
q 0 . ,
q0 6= q 0 , q 0 A.
k , . . , ().
1 6 i 6 k . i- ,
si
, pi ri , . . pi ,
ri si . , pi .
w0 , ,
q0 p1 . 1 6 i 6 k 1 wi , -
, pi pi+1 .
wk , , pk
q 0 . w0 T (A),
, . 1 6 i 6 k i-
si si
pi ri q0 ri A (
22 II.

), , -
q0 , , -
wi . , wi T (A). , w = w0 w1 . . . wk ,
wi T (A), . . w (T (A)) .

. -
, ,
... A1 = hQ1 , A, 1 , q01 , F1 i A2 = hQ2 , A, 2 , q02 , F2 i, ... A1 A2 ,
, -
: A1 A2 = hQ1 Q2 , A, , hq01 , q02 i, F1 F2 i, (hq1 , q2 i, a) =
h1 (q1 , a), 2 (q2 , a)i q1 Q1 , q2 Q2 , a A. ,
T (A1 A2 ) = T (A1 ) T (A2 ).

6. .

. ) ,
, {}, {a}, a .
) () 5 () , {w}, w
, .
) () 5 () ,
.

7 ( ). L . n > 1
, w L, |w| > n,
w = xyz, y 6= , |xy| 6 n xy i z L i > 0.

. A ... , T (A) = L, n -
A. w L |w| > n.
, w = s1 . . . sn sn+1 . . . sm , si .
w A, A, -
, ,
w.

s- q q sn+1
H
i
1 ... - i -. . . - i - . . . sn
- i -. . . sm
- i
d

x y z

n , n
w. , ,
n + 1, q,
.
x s1 . . . sn , -
q; y s1 . . . sn ,
q q; z
w (. ). y 6= |xy| 6 n. , y -
q. ,
. ,
xy i z T (A) i > 0.

8. .
7. 23

. L = {am bm | m } {a, b}. -


, L . , n > 1 .
an bn L. |an bn | > n. , -
an bn = xyz, y 6= , |xy| 6 n xy i z L i > 0. ,
k > 1 , y = ak , x b. ,
xz = ank bn L, , n k < n. , L
.

.
.
. ,
, {am bm | m
}. ,
. , -
. , -

.

7.

. , ,
.

. A , (, ), , .
A:

10 . , , a, a A, .

20 . , (), ( ) ( )
.

, A{(, ), , } ,
10 20 .

. -
A:

10 . , , a, a A, -
.

20 . , (), ( ), ( ) ()
.

. ( )
,
, , :
, , , . ,
((( )) (())).
24 II.

. L
A A :

L() = ,
L() = {},
L(a) = {a}, a A,
L() = L()L(),
L( ) = L() L(),
L( ) = L() ,
L() = A \ L().

. L A () ,
() A , L() =
L. , L.
. L = {w {0, 1} | w 11} ,
(0 10) 11(0 1) . ,
() (-
) , . , L
(0 1) 11(0 1) -
11.
9. .
. , .
L A. , -
, L. ,
L .
10 . , a, a A, . . L = , L = {}
L = {a}, 6 L .

20 . (), ( ) ( ), , -
, , L1 = L()
L2 = L() . L = L1 L2 , L = L1 L2 , L = L1
. 5 , L .
, . L -
. , ... A = hQ, A, , q1 , F i -
Q = {q1 , . . . , qn } , T (A) = L. , L .
1 6 i 6 n, 1 6 j 6 n 0 6 k 6 n :

R(i, j, k) = {w A | w A,
qi , qj
qk+1 , qk+2 , . . . , qn }.

( qi qj -
, qi qj . ,
,
.)
7. 25

, k = n R(i, j, n) ,
, qi qj . , ,
[
L = T (A) = R(1, j, n).
qj F

, -
, R(i, j, k) . k.

10 . k = 0 R(i, j, 0) , ,
qi qj . .
a, R(i, j, 0) = {a}. qi = qj ,
R(i, j, 0) = {}. qi 6= qj , R(i, j, 0) = .
.

20 . , k 1, . . R(i, j, k 1)
. w R(i, j, k),
, qi , ( 0 ) qk
qj . qk , -
R(i, j, k 1), . . w R(i, j, k 1). qk ,
u w, ,
qi qk ; w1
w, , qk
qk ; . . . ; ws w,
, qk -
qk ; , , v
w, ,
qk qj .

qi qk qk qk qk qj
i -. . . - i -. . . - i -. . . - i -. . . - i -. . . - i
......
u w1 ws v

u R(i, k, k 1), w1 , . . . , ws R(k, k, k 1) v R(k, j, k 1).


, w = uw1 . . . ws v R(i, k, k 1)R(k, k, k 1) R(k, j, k 1).
, , R(i, j, k)
R(i, j, k 1) R(i, k, k 1)R(k, k, k 1) R(k, j, k 1). ,
. ,

R(i, j, k) = R(i, j, k 1) R(i, k, k 1)R(k, k, k 1) R(k, j, k 1).

, -
, -
, R(i, j, k) . -
.

10. , -
.
26 II.

. L , , , L -
, .
, L , , 5 (-
), , ,
, L . , L .
,
.
. , -
,
, .

. sh -
A :

sh() = 0,
sh() = 0,
sh(a) = 0, a A,
sh() = max{sh(), sh()},
sh( ) = max{sh(), sh()},
sh( ) = sh() + 1,
sh() = sh().

sh() .

. L A :

sh(L) = min{sh() | , L() = L},


gsh(L) = min{sh() | , L() = L}.

sh(L) L, gsh(L)
L. , gsh(L) 6 sh(L).

. L = {w {0, 1} | w
11}. , -
. ,
L, , , L,
. , sh(L) > 1. , L
(0 1) 11(0 1) ,
1. , sh(L) = 1.
gsh(L) = 0, L
11, .

. , n L ,
sh(L) = n.
L , gsh(L) > 1, .
8. 27

8.
, -
.
. ,
, . -
.
,
. -
, .
, .
, , , -
.
.

. -
.
.
,
:
1) , , , -
.
2) , -
{ad, de, dis, in, prae, suc, ...}.
3) , {albi, capill,
cub, fect, it, laborat, ...}.
4) ,
{bu, re, ur, ...}.
5) { a, o, orum, nt,
s, us, ...}.
(1)(5) , -
:
1) ()()()()()
2) () ()in
()ad ()prae
()de ()suc
()dis
3) ()(1)(2) (2)
(1)albi (2)albi
(1)capill (2)capill
(1)cub (2)cub
(1)fect (2)fect

4) () ()re
()bu ()
ur

28 II.

5) () a ()o
() orum ()nt
()s ()us

, albicapillus () -
:

() ()()()()
()()() (1)(2)()()
albi(2)()() albicapill()()
albicapill() albicapillus.

adit
urus ( ) :

() ()()()()
ad()()() ad(1)(2)()()
adit(2)()() adit()()
aditur() adit
urus.

incubus ( ) :

() ()()()()
in()()() in(1)(2)()()
incub(2)()() incub()()
incub() incubus.

succubus ( ) :

() ()()()()
suc()()()
suc(1)(2)()()
succub(2)()() succub()()
succub() succubus.

. =
hV, T, P, Si, :
) V () ;
) T , V T = ;
) P , . . , ,
(V T ) , V ;
) S , S V .
. = hV, T, P, Si , , (V T ) .
, ,
, 0 , 1 , , , = 0 1 , = 0 1 ,

P .
8. 29

. , ,

, 0 , . . . , k ,

k =

0 1 . . . k . ()

() .
. = hV, T, P, Si . L() = {w

T | S w} , .

. .
V = { (), (-
), (), (1), (2), (), () }, -
T = { ad, de, dis, in, prae, suc, albi,
capill, cub, bu, ur, a, nt, o, . . .}.
(1)(5). ().
. ,
-
T = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}.
0, -
.
, ( 0) -
, , .
P :
S 0 A
S 1A A 0A
S 2A A 1A

S 9A A 9A
, V = {S, A} .
S , .
A .
( ). = hV, T, P, Si -
:
) , ||6||;
) -, A , A V ,
(V T ) , || > 1;
) , A aB A a,
A, B V , a T .
. -.
- . -
, -
-
, . . .
30 II.

9.
, -
. ,
a1 a2 . . . ak A, a1 , . . . , ak -
, A ,
a1 a2 . . . ak . ,
-
. .

11. :
1) L , L .
2) L , L \ {} -
.

. . L -
= hV, T, P, Si. -
A :

) V {q}, q
, . . q
/ V.

) T .

) S.

) q.

) A .
a
A aB .
A B
a
A a .
A q

, L = T (A). w = a0 a1 . . . ak T .
:
w L S a0 A0 a0 a1 A1 . . . a0 . . . ak1 Ak1

a0 . . . ak1 ak w . P

S a0 A0
A0 a1 A1
... ... ...
Ak2 ak1 Ak1
Ak1 ak

H a0 - i a1 - i a2 - . . . ak1- i ak - i
i d
S A0 A1 Ak1 q
9. 31

w = a0 a1 . . . ak T (A). .
. L
A. , A
. A A0 , -
, A. , L \ {} = T (A0 ). A0 =
hQ, A, , q0 , F i. :

) Q.

) A.

) q0 .

) . -
a
q1 aq2 . ,
q1 q2
q2 , -
q1 a.

, L \ {} = L(). ,
. w = a1 . . . ak A .
:
w L A0
H a1 - i a2 - i a3 - . . . ak1- i ak - i
i d
q0 q1 q2 qk1 qk

w.

q0 a1 q1
q1 a2 q2
... ... ...
qk2 ak1 qk1
qk1 ak

q0 a1 q1 a1 a2 q2 . . . a1 . . . ak1 qk1 a1 . . . ak1 ak



w . w L(). .

. ,
, -
. -
, .
, . -
,
.

,
. L A
, w A
, w L .
32 II.

, -
.
,
; -
,
; .
|V T | -
V T .
12. = hV, T, P, Si .

, . . . , |||V T |||

.
. = 0 1 . . . n = .

, 1 6 |0 | 6 |1 | 6 . . . 6 |n |.
, :

. . . i0 i0 +1 . . . i1 . . . ik1 +1 . . . ik ,
|0 {z } | {z } | {z }
|0 | |0 |+1 |n |

k = |n | |0 | ik = n.
, m. ,
m V T |V T |m . , -
, |V T |m ,
i = j , i < j. , ,
i . . . j . , , -
, , m
, |V T |m .
m,
,

|V T ||0 | + |V T ||0 |+1 + . . . + |V T ||n | 6


6 |V T ||n | + |V T ||n | + . . . + |V T ||n | =
| {z }
|n ||0 |+1

= (|n | |0 | + 1) |V T ||n | 6 |n | |V T ||n | .

.
13. = hV, T, P, Si .
L() , . . , w T
, w
.
. w T .
. k = |w| |V T ||w| .
A1 , A2 , . . . , Ak
:

A1 = {S}, An+1 = An {v (V T ) | v
u An }.
9. 33

, 1 6 n 6 k An ,
, n. -
w L() w Ak . ,
w Ak , w ,
.

14. L , L
:
a) , - ;
) , ;
) .

. () () 13.
L , ,
() 11. L L,
() 11 L1 = L \ {} . , L =
L1 {} , L1 .
III

-
, . , n-
f : X , X n , n .
, -
.
, . , -
, [8], [13].

10.
-
, -

: .
0: 0 ,
1: 1 .
H
H
2: 2
-
...
:
n: n
1) -
, -
0, 1, 2, . . .
AA
-
r0 r1 r2 ...... rk rk+1 . . . . . . ,
. . . ...... . . . . . . . . .
#0 #1 #2 #k #k+1

. ,

. ,
.

2) , ,
. -
, .
0.
10. 35

3) , . -
, -
0 n .
, .
,
. -
, .
:
1) INC i
i- -
1,
.
2) DEC i, n
i-
0, 1 n . -
i- 0,
1.
, ,
.
, , . . -
.
-
, INC i DEC i, n.
, -
, , -
INC i DEC i, n. ,
, .
, : P
, P , -
. ,
, .
P ,
m, :
1) m, ( )
P .
2) P ,
.
3) P , m + 1
. P ,
.
, -
(
). -
.
36 III.

. 0 : INC 0 1 : DEC 0, n
n , .
,
n, n .

. 0 : DEC i, 0 i-
. , , ZERO i.

. i, j, k , i 6= k j 6= k.
[i] [j], (k) , i-
j- , k- . i-
. , i 6= j,
:

0: DEC j, 0
1: DEC k, 1
2: INC 0
3: DEC 0, 6
4: INC j
5: INC k
6: DEC i, 4
7: INC 0
8: DEC 0, 10
9: INC i
10 : DEC k, 9

i = j , ,

0: INC 0
1: DEC 0, 2

. P Q , -

-
, .

, -
, .
, -
.

15 ( ). -
, .

. , -
Q Q0 , ,
Q. ,
, .
P Q.
Q0 , P P , ,
:
10. 37

) ,
0;

) DEC i, n Q P , n
C Q P , DEC i, m, m
C;

) DEC i, n Q, n Q ,
DEC i, m, m , -
;

) DEC i, n P , n P ,
DEC i, m, m ,
P .

. ADD [1] TO [0], (3) , -


1- 0- . -
1- , 3- .
, , :

0: DEC 3, 0
1: INC 0
2: DEC 0, 5
3: INC 0
4: INC 3
5: DEC 1, 3
6: INC 0
7: DEC 0, 9
8: INC 1
9: DEC 3, 8

, -
1- 2-
0- :

0: DEC 0, 0
1: INC 0
2: DEC 0, 4
3: ADD [1] TO [0], (3)
4: DEC 2, 3

, -
,
:
38 III.

0: DEC 0, 0
1: INC 0
2: DEC 0, 13
3: DEC 3, 3
4: INC 0
5: DEC 0, 8
6: INC 0
7: INC 3
8: DEC 1, 6
9: INC 0
10 : DEC 0, 12
11 : INC 1
12 : DEC 3, 11
13 : DEC 2, 3

. k- f : M k -
, P
, x1 , . . . , xk :

) f (x1 , . . . , xk ) , -
x1 , . . . , xk 1, . . . , k
, -
0- f (x1 , . . . , xk );

) f (x1 , . . . , xk ) , -
x1 , . . . , xk 1, . . . , k
.

. f , -
x1 , . . . , xk , P
.

. f k- ,
P .

f ([i1 ], . . . , [ik ]) [j], s

, f -
i1 , . . . , ik , j-
s- , j- . -
,
.

, -
f ([i1 ], . . . , [ik ]) [j], s. , , P , -
P . m , i1 , . . . , ik , j, s
, P . , , ,
P ,
, m1. (
):
11. 39

[0] [m + 1], (m) 0-


(m 1)-
[m 1] [m + m], (m) m + 1 2m
[m + 1 + i1 ] [1], (m)

[m + 1 + ik ] [k], (m)
ZERO 0 P
ZERO k + 1

ZERO m 1
P f
[m + 2] [1], (m)
1 m 1
[m + m] [m 1], (m)
[0] [j], (m) j-
[m + 1] [0], (m) j 6= 0,
0- ( j = 0,
!)
s,
, .

11.
-
. ,

. , -
, -
.

, . . f : X , X n
, n . 0-
f = a a .
f = ,
.
f n-, g m- ,
x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , ym f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = g(y1 , . . . , ym ) ,
,
.
. 0,
o(x) = 0, s(x) = x + 1 n- -
n
Im (x1 , . . . , xn ) = xm m, n , 1 6 m 6 n.
. , f (x1 , . . . , xn )
S h(y1 , . . . , ym ), g1 (x1 , . . . , xn ), . . . , gm (x1 , . . . , xn ),
x1 , . . . , xn :
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = h(g1 (x1 , . . . , xn ), . . . , gm (x1 , . . . , xn )).
40 III.

.
,
. f -
h, g1 , . . . , gm , f (x1 , . . . , xn )
. x = hx1 , . . . , xn i -
y1 = g1 (x), . . . , ym = gm (x).
, f (x) . y1 , . . . , ym ,
h. h(y1 , . . . , ym )
, f (x) , f (x) = h(y1 , . . . , ym ) -
.
. , f (x1 , . . . , xn , y) -
R g(x1 , . . . , xn ) h(x1 , . . . , xn , y, z),
x1 , . . . , xn , y :
(
f (x1 , . . . , xn , 0) = g(x1 , . . . , xn )
f (x1 , . . . , xn , y + 1) = h(x1 , . . . , xn , y, f (x1 , . . . , xn , y))

. -
, , ( -
). f g h,
f (x, y) . x -
g(x), f (x, 0). -
, f (x, y) , , x, 0 f (x, 0) h,
h(x, 0, f (x, 0)), f (x, 1).
, f (x, y) , x, 1 f (x, 1)
h, . ,
f (x, y).
h , f (x, y) .
. , f (x1 , . . . , xn ) -
M g(x1 , . . . , xn , y) f (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
y[g(x1 , . . . , xn , y) = 0], x1 , . . . , xn :

y,


g(x1 , . . . , xn , 0), . . . , g(x1 , . . . , xn , y 1)
0,
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) =

g(x1 , . . . , xn , y) 0,


.
.
, : -
, , -
. g(x, y) = 0.
f (x) .
x, 0 g(x, 0). , f (x)
. g(x, 0) = 0, 0
. g(x, 0) 6= 0, x, 1
g(x, 1). , f (x) .
g(x, 1) = 0, 1 . -
g(x, 1) 6= 0, .
11. 41

g(x, y) = 0, .
: g -
, g(x, y) y, .

. f (x1 , . . . , xn )
( ),
f0 , . . . , fm = f , i 6 m fi ,
S, R M
( S R).

. -
.

. : ...
, ... , ..
.
, f ...
(...) S, R M (S R), f ...
(...).
, , -
- :

. , o(x)
-
. , o(x) 0- 0 2-
I22 (x, y) .

16 ( ... ). -
.

. f ... , -
f0 , . . . , fk = f , i 6 k
fi , -
S, R M . k , f
.
k = 0, f , . . 0,
n
o(x), s(x), Im (x1 , . . . , xn ). -
(0 o(x)
):
n
0 o(x): 0:ZERO 0 s(x): 0:INC 1 Im (x): 0:[m] [0]
1:[1] [0]
k > 0. f ...
. .
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) h(y1 , . . . , ym ),
g1 (x1 , . . . , xn ), . . . , gm (x1 , . . . , xn ),
h, g1 , . . . , gm . -
f :
42 III.

0: g1 ([1], . . . , [n]) [n + 1]

m1 : gm ([1], . . . , [n]) [n + m]
m: h([n + 1], . . . , [n + m]) [0].
f (x1 , . . . , xn , y)
g(x1 , . . . , xn ) h(x1 , . . . , xn , y, z), -
, f :
0 : g([1], . . . , [n]) [0]
1 : [n + 1] [n + 2]
2 : ZERO n + 1
3 : INC 0
4 : DEC 0, 8
5 : h([1], . . . , [n], [n + 1], [0]) [n + 3]
6 : [n + 3] [0]
7 : INC n + 1
8 : DEC n + 2, 5
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) -
g(x1 , . . . , xn , y),
f :
0: INC 0
1: DEC 0, 3
2: INC 0
3: g([1], . . . , [n], [0]) [n + 1]
4: DEC n + 1, 2
.

12. -

,
16. -
. x hx1 , . . . , xn i, n = 0
.

17.
.

. a . .
a = 0, ,
... a > 0, a = s(s . . . s(0) . . .), . . a
| {z }
a
0 s(x) a- S.

18. :
) f (x, y) = x + y;
) f (x, y) = x y;
12. 43

) f (x, y) =(xy ( 00 = 1);


0, x = 0;
) sg(x) =
1, x > 0;
(
1, x = 0;
) sg(x) =
0, x > 0;
(
0, x = 0;
) f (x) = x 1=
x 1, x > 0;
(
0, x 6 y;
) f (x, y) = x y=
x y, x > y;
) f (x, y) = |x y|

. ) f (x, y) = x + y
:
(
f (x, 0) = x,
f (x, y + 1) = (x + y) + 1 = s(f (x, y)) = s(I33 (x, y, f (x, y))),

. . f (x, y) R ... g(x) = x = I11 (x) ...


h(x, y, z) = s(I33 (x, y, z)), , ,
s I33 S.
) f (x, y) = x y -
:
(
f (x, 0) = 0,
f (x, y + 1) = xy + x = (xy, x) = (I33 (x, y, f (x, y)), I13 (x, y, f (x, y))),

(u, v) = u + v ... , . . f (x, y)


R ... g(x) = 0 = o(x) ... h(x, y, z)=(I33 (x, y, z), I13 (x, y, z)),
, , ... , I33 , I13 S.
) -
.
) :
(
sg(0) = 0,
sg(x + 1) = 1 = s(0) = s(o(I12 (x, sg(x)))).

, sg(x) R 0- 0,
, 2- s(o(I12 (x, y))),
..., .
) :
(
sg(0) = 1,
sg(x + 1) = 0 = o(I12 (x, sg(x))).

, sg(x) R 0- 1,
... , 2- o(I12 (x, y)),
..., .
44 III.

) .

) f (x, y) = x y. :
(
f (x, 0) = x = I11 (x),

f (x, y + 1) = x (y + 1) = (x y) 1 = (f (x, y)),

(u) = u 1 ... . -

x(y + 1) = (x y) 1, x, y .

) , |x y| = (x y) + (y x)
.

19. g(x, y) ... (...), f (x, y) =


P
y Q
y
g(x, i) h(x, y) = g(x, i) ... (...).
i=0 i=0

. () f
() 18 :
(
f (x, 0) = g(x, 0),
f (x, y + 1) = f (x, y) + g(x, y + 1).

h ()
18.

. , f (x) -
g(x, y) h(x), f (x) =
y 6 h(x)[g(x, y) = 0], x :
(
y, g(x, i) 6= 0 i < y, g(x, y) = 0, y 6 h(x),
f (x) =
h(x) + 1, .

20 ( ). g h -
f g h -
, f .

P
h(x) Q
i
. 18, 19 f (x) = sg g(x, j) .
i=0 j=0

, .
-
, , ,
.

. () R n (-
),
(
1, hx1 , . . . , xn i R,
XR (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
0, hx1 , . . . , xn i
/R

( ).
12. 45

, hx1 , . . . , xn i R R(x1 , . . . , xn ) ,
R x1 , . . . , xn . hx1 , . . . , xn i / R,
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) , R x1 , . . . , xn .
. P, Q n n- -
:

P &Q = {x n | P (x) , Q(x) },


P Q = {x n | P (x) , Q(x) },
P Q = {x n | P (x) , Q(x) },
P = {x n | P (x) }.

, R n+1 (n + 1)-
:

i 6 y R(x, i) = {hx, yi n+1 | i 6 y , R(x, i) },


i 6 y R(x, i) = {hx, yi n+1 | i 6 y R(x, i) },
i < y R(x, i) = {hx, yi n+1 | i < y , R(x, i) },
i < y R(x, i) = {hx, yi n+1 | i < y R(x, i) }.

. - P &Q
P Q, P Q P Q,
P n \ P . , P Q =
P Q.
21. P (x) Q(x) ( -
), P (x)&Q(x), P (x) Q(x), P (x), P (x) Q(x) -
( ).
. 18 :

XP &Q (x) = XP (x) XQ (x), XP Q (x) = sg(XP (x) + XQ (x)), XP (x) = sg(XP (x)),
XP Q (x) = XP Q (x) = sg(sg(XP (x)) + XQ (x)).

22. =, 6=, <, >, 6, >


.
.
18

X= (x, y) = sg|x y|, X6= (x, y) = sg|x y|,



X< (x, y) = sg(y x), X> (x, y) = sg(x y),

X6 (x, y) = sg(xy), X> (x, y) = sg(yx).

23. R(x, i) ( ),
i 6 y R(x, i), i 6 y R(x, i), i < y R(x, i), i < y R(x, i)
( ).
46 III.

. P (x, y) = i 6 y R(x, i)
19
X
y
XP (x, y) = sg XR (x, i) .
i=0

21, 22 -

i 6 y R(x, i) i 6 y R(x, i),


i < y R(x, i) i 6 y(R(x, i) & i 6= y),
i < y R(x, i) i < y R(x, i).

24 ( ). R0 , . . . , Rk n -
( ) , , R0 . . . Rk = n
Ri Rj = i 6= j. f0 (x1 , . . . , xn ), . . . , fk (x1 , . . . , xn )
( ) .


f0 (x), R0 (x),
F (x) =


fk (x), Rk (x)

( ).

. , F (x) = f0 (x)XR0 (x)+. . .+fk (x)XRk (x).

. R(x, y) , h(x) .
y[R(x, y)] y[|XR (x, y)1| = 0], y 6 h(x)[R(x, y)]
y 6 h(x)[|XR (x, y) 1| = 0]. , R(x, y) ,
y[R(x, y)] ... , 20 , R(x, y)
h(x) , y 6 h(x)[R(x, y)] ...

25. ) [ xy ], xy , -
( , [ x0 ] = x).

) Div(x, y), , x y, -
.

) Prime(x), , x
, .

. (). -
[x/y] = z (y = 0 & x = z) (y 6= 0 & z 6 x/y < z + 1)
(y = 0 & x = z) (y 6= 0 & zy 6 x < (z + 1)y) (y = 0 & x = z) (y 6=
0 & z , , x < (z + 1)y). , , [x/y] 6 x. -
:
h i
[x/y] = z 6 x (y = 0 & x = z) (y 6= 0 & x < (z + 1)y) .
12. 47

, [x/y]
, , ...
() () :

Div(x, y) z 6 y(xz = y)

Prime(x) (x > 2) & y 6 x Div(y, x) (y = 1 y = x) .

26. ) f (x) = px , p0 = 2, p1 = 3, p2 = 5, . . .
, -
.

) ex(i, x), pi
x , (
ex(i, 0) = 0).
n
. ) n , pn 6 22 . -
i
, i 6 n , pi 6 22 .

0 1 n n
p0 p1 . . . pn + 1 6 22 22 . . . 22 + 1 = 21+2+...+2 + 1 =
n+1 1 n+1 1 n+1 1 n+1
= 22 + 1 6 22 + 22 = 22 .
n+1
, N = p0 p1 . . . pn +1 22 , ,
p0 , p1 , . . . , pn . , N
n+1
pk k > n + 1. , , pn+1 6 pk 6 N 6 22 .
.
, f (x) = px
(
p0 = 2,
x+1
px+1 = y 6 22 Prime(y) & y > px .
x+1
g = 2 h(x, z) = y 6 22 Prime(y) & y > z
, f (x) ...
) ex(i, x)

ex(i, x) = y 6 x[Div(py+1
i , x) x = 0].

. ()
x
px 6 22 . , ,
n > 1 n + 1, n + 2, . . . , 2n ,
px 6 2x+1 .
. ... (x) px 6 (x).
48 III.

13.
, -
, , .
:
,
(. . , -
) .
,
. , -
, , , ,
, .
-
. , -
x x = pa00 pa11 . . . pann (
). -
.
. x0 , . . . , xk1 -
xk1 +1
px0 0 +1 px1 1 +1 . . . pk1 ,
< x0 , . . . , xk1 >. 1.
. x =< x0 , . . . , xk1 > ,

lh(x) = i 6 x[ex(i, x) = 0],
i- , . . xi ,


(x)i = ex(i, x) 1.
27. Seq(x), , x -
, .
. x -
, x -
, . . pi
, p0 , . . . , pi1 -
. ,

Seq(x) (x 6= 0) & i 6 x ex(i, x) 6= 0 j 6 i(ex(j, x) 6= 0) .

, , .
, Seq(x) .
. :
(INC i) =< 0, i >
(DEC i, j) =< 1, i, j >
, c0 , . . . , ck1 , -
:
< (c0 ), . . . , (ck1 ) >
13. 49

28. Com(x), , x
, .

. Com(x) Seq(x) & ((x)0 =0 & lh(x)=2) ((x)0 =1 & lh(x)=3) .
. ,
Com(x) .

29. Prog(x), , x
, .

. x , x
,
. ,

Prog(x) Seq(x) & i < lh(x) Com((x)i ) .

, 27 28, -
.

30 ( ). f0 (x, y), f1 (x, y)


:


f0 (x, 0) = g0 (x)

f (x, 0) = g (x)
1 1

f0 (x, y + 1) = h0 (x, y, f0 (x, y), f1 (x, y))


f1 (x, y + 1) = h1 (x, y, f0 (x, y), f1 (x, y)).

gi (x), hi (x, y, z0 , z1 ), i = 0, 1, ,
f0 (x, y), f1 (x, y) .

. f0 (x, y) f1 (x, y) ,

F (x, y) =< f0 (x, y), f1 (x, y) >= 2f0 (x,y)+1 3f1 (x,y)+1 .

, F (x, y) ..., , , f0 (x, y) = (F (x, y))0 ,


f1 (x, y) = (F (x, y))1 ...
, F (x, y) ..., :
(
F (x, 0) =< g0 (x), g1 (x) >
F (x, y + 1) =< h0 (x, y, (F (x, y))0 , (F (x, y))1 ), h1 (x, y, (F (x, y))0 , (F (x, y))1 ) >

. ,
F (x, y) ... .

.
( -
), - .
.
50 III.

, -
. -
, ,
,
. , ,
. ,
x (x)i < x. ,
:
ex(i,x)
(x)i = ex(i, x) 1 6 ex(i, x) < 2ex(i,x) 6 pi 6 x.
, e , m -
, e ,
e > m. , e -
, 1- k-, k, ,
.
, ,
e, , 1- k-,
, e + k. ,
, e + k, ,
.
. 3- :


y, :



(a) e P,





() x =< x1 , . . . , xk >



,

ct(e, x, n) = () y



n P,



0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0, 0, . . . ,








0 .


< r0 , . . . , re+k >, :



(a) e P,





() x =< x1 , . . . , xk >



,


() ri (0 6 i 6 e + k) i-
rg(e, x, n) =

n



P,





0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0, 0, . . . ,







0 .
ct(e, x, n) n -
, rg(e, x, n) n
.
13. 51

31. ct(e, x, n) rg(e, x, n) .

. , ct(e, x, n) rg(e, x, n) -
... -
n, . . ,
.
n = 0 ct(e, x, 0) = 0, rg(e, x, 0)
:


< 0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0 . . . , 0 >, e ,

x =< x1 , . . . , xk >
rg(e, x, 0) =

,


0 .

:
(

ex(i 1, x), 1 6 i 6 lh(x),
(i, x) =
1 .

rg(e, x, 0) (. . ,
e x) :


Q
e+lh(x)
(i,x)
pi , Prog(e) & Seq(x),
rg(e, x, 0) = i=0

0, Prog(e) Seq(x).

, ct(e, x, n) rg(e, x, n) .
y = ct(e, x, n). ct(e, x, n + 1)
:


y + 1, Prog(e), Seq(x),



ct(e, x, n) INC i,



j, Prog(e), Seq(x),





ct(e, x, n) DEC i, j



i- > 0,

ct(e, x, n + 1) = y + 1, Prog(e), Seq(x),



ct(e, x, n) DEC i, j



i- = 0,





y, Prog(e), Seq(x),



ct(e, x, n),



0 .

,
, e, x, ct(e, x, n) rg(e, x, n):
52 III.


ct(e, x, n) + 1,



Prog(e),Seq(x), ct(e, x, n) < lh(e),



(e)ct(e,x,n) = 0,

0



(e)ct(e,x,n) , Prog(e), Seq(x), ct(e, x, n) < lh(e),

2



(e)ct(e,x,n) = 1 (rg(e, x, n)) > 0,
0 (e)ct(e,x,n)
ct(e, x, n + 1) = 1



ct(e, x, n) + 1,
Prog(e),
Seq(x), ct(e, x, n) < lh(e),




(e)ct(e,x,n) = 1 (rg(e, x, n)) = 0,

0 (e)ct(e,x,n)




1

ct(e, x, n), Prog(e), Seq(x) ct(e, x, n) > lh(e),


0 .

e , x ,
ct(e, x, n) < lh(e) ,
ct(e, x, n), (e)ct(e,x,n) ,
(n + 1)- . INC i, (e)ct(e,x,n) = 0,
0
i : i = (e)ct(e,x,n) .
1
DEC i, j, (e)ct(e,x,n) = 1, i, j
0
: i = (e)ct(e,x,n) , j = (e)ct(e,x,n) . ,
1 2
i- n -
(rg(e, x, n)) > 0.
(e)ct(e,x,n)
1
, rg(e, x, n + 1) -
:


< r0 , . . . , ri + 1, . . . , re+k >, Prog(e), Seq(x),



ct(e, x, n) INC i,



rg(e, x, n) =< r0 , . . . , re+k >,







< r0 , . . . , ri 1, . . . , re+k >, Prog(e), Seq(x),



ct(e, x, n) DEC i, j,





rg(e, x, n) =< r0 , . . . , re+k >, ri > 0,
rg(e, x, n + 1) = < r0 , . . . , ri , . . . , re+k >, Prog(e), Seq(x),



ct(e, x, n) DEC i, j,



rg(e, x, n) =< r0 , . . . , re+k >, ri = 0,





< r0 , . . . , re+k >, Prog(e), Seq(x),



ct(e, x, n),





rg(e, x, n) =< r0 , . . . , re+k >,


0 .

, ,

ri = 0, ri 1 = ri .
13. 53



x
(i, x, y) = ex(i,x) py+1
i ,
pi
: x =< x0 , . . . , xi1 , xi , xi+1 , . . . , xk > -
i 6 k, (i, x, y) =< x0 , . . . , xi1 , y, xi+1 , . . . , xk >.

rg(e, x, n + 1) =


(e) , rg(e, x, n), rg(e, x, n) +1 , Prog(e), Seq(x),


ct(e,x,n)
(e)


1 ct(e,x,n)

1

ct(e,


x, n) < lh(e),


(e) = 0,

ct(e,x,n)

0
(e)
, rg(e, x, n), rg(e, x, n)
1 , Prog(e), Seq(x),
ct(e,x,n)
=
1 (e)ct(e,x,n)
1



ct(e,
x, n) < lh(e),




(e) = 1,

ct(e,x,n)

0

rg(e, x, n), Prog(e), Seq(x),





ct(e, x, n) > lh(e),

0 .

, 24,
,
. , ct rg ...

. :

Stop(e, x, n) :
(a) e P,
() x =< x1 , . . . , xk >
,
() P,
0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0, 0, . . . , n- .

32. Stop(e, x, n) .

. , () ()
, Stop(e, x, n) , -
e n- .
, :

Stop(e, x, n) Prog(e) & Seq(x) & ct(e, x, n) > lh(e) & j < n ct(e, x, j) < lh(e) .

, 27, 29, 31, , Stop(e, x, n) -


.
54 III.

. e x
:
a) e P ,
) x =< x1 , . . . , xk > ,
) P , 0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0, 0, . . . ,
.
e -
0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0, 0, . . .
< rg(e, x, 0), . . . , rg(e, x, m) >,
, ,
.
y , 0- -


U (y) = (y)lh(y) 1 .
0

e, x (), (), () ,
.

. k , (k+2)- T - :

Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y) e , y

0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0, 0, . . .

33. Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y) .

. k

Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y) Seq(y) & Stop(e, < x1 , . . . , xk >, lh(y) 1) &

i < lh(y) (y)i = rg(e, < x1 , . . . , xk >, i)

( Prog(e),
Stop).
, 27, 31, 32, , Tk
.

14. vs

, , ,
, .

34. , , -
.
14. vs 55

. f (x1 , . . . , xk ) , -
. , P ,
f (x1 , . . . , xk ). e P , x1 , . . . , xk
f .
f (x1 , . . . , xk ) , P x1 , . . . , xk -
. , y P
0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0, . . . , U (y) = f (x1 , . . . , xk ).
, y , Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y) . -
, y Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y),
, . ,
f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = U (y[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y)]).
f (x1 , . . . , xk ) , P x1 , . . . , xk
. , y P
0, x1 , . . . , xk , 0, . . . ,
y Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y) , U (y[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y)]) -
. , f (x1 , . . . , xk ) =
U (y[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y)]).
Tk , y[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y)] -
. U ,
f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = U (y[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y)]) .
34 . -

, .
35.
, .
. 16 34.
36 ( ). k-
f (x1 , . . . , xk ) e ,
f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = U (y[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y)]).
. f (x1 , . . . , xk ) ,
. , e ,
f (x1 , . . . , xk ). 34 , e .
37. ...
S, R M , -
M 1.
. U Tk , -
, c S
R. , -
.
. k , K k- -
. (k+1)- F (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk )
K, :
1) n f K , F (n, x1 , . . . , xk ) = f (x1 , . . . , xk );
2) f K n , F (n, x1 , . . . , xk ) = f (x1 , . . . , xk ).
, K {F (0, x), F (1, x), F (2, x), . . .}.
56 III.

38 ( ...). (k+1)- ... F (x0 , x1 ,


. . . , xk ), k- ...

. F (k+1)-

F (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk ) = U (y[Tk (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , y)]).


, F
k- .
... , -
Puniv , -
. Puniv -
(. ): (e, x);
e Pe , -
, x; f (x)
Pe Puniv , . .
F (e, x) = f (x).

- -
(e, x) Puniv F (e, x)

6
x f (x)
?
P0 P1 ... Pe ... Pn ...

. k . e

ke (x1 , . . . , xk ) = U (y[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y)]).

ke (x1 , . . . , xk ) k-
e. e (x)
.

. e , f ,
e . , ,
! -
, . , e ,
, Tk (e, x, y) ,
ke (x) .

39. , -
.

. {0 (x), 1 (x), 2 (x), . . .}.


... ...

(
x (x) + 1, x (x) ,
f (x) =
0 .
14. vs 57

, f ... e , f = e . , e
. , e (e) . e (e) = f (e) =
e (e) + 1. . , f .
-
.
. ... f (y, x),
,
.
: P , -
f , hy, xi f (y, x).
: y, ,
P -
Py , f
x. Py y, -
, y ...
s(y). , s, ,
y, e P s(y) Py .

' $

P -f (y, x) Py S
& %
6 6 6

(y, x) x y

40 ( ). ... f (y1 , . . . , ym , x1 , . . . , xn ) -
... s(y1 , . . . , ym ) ,

f (y1 , . . . , ym , x1 , . . . , xn ) = ns(y1 ,...,ym ) (x1 , . . . , xn ).

. y = hy1 , . . . , ym i, x = hx1 , . . . , xn i -
f 0 (x, y), f 0 (x, y) = f (y, x). , f 0 (x, y)
... , P e,
. P , P .
y, , g(x) =
0
f (x, y). :

INC n + 1
y1

INC n + 1


INC n + m
y
m
INC n + m
P


Py , y. ,
58 III.

l P , Py
... h(y) = y1 + . . . + ym + l.

(
k- Py , Py k,
G(k, y) =
0 .

Py
1
h(y)
Y G(k,y)+1
s(y) = pk .
k=0

, G(k, y),
s(y) . -
G(k, y) :


(INC n + 1), 0 6 k < y1 ,



(INC n + 2), y1 6 k < y1 + y2 ,









(INC n + m), y1 + . . . + ym1 6 k < y1 + . . . + ym ,




(INC i), y1 + . . . + ym 6 k < y1 + . . . + ym + l,
G(k, y) =
k (y1 + . . . + ym )



P INC i,



(DEC i, j + y1 + . . . + ym ), y1 + . . . + ym 6 k < y1 + . . . + ym + l,





k
(y1 + . . . + ym )



P DEC i, j,



0 .

, -
. ... (y) = y1 + . . . + ym

(k, y) = k (y).



< 0, n + 1 >, 0 6 k < y1 ,



< 0, n + 2 >, y1 6 k < y1 + y2 ,








< 0, n


+ m >, y1 + . . . +ym1 6k<y1 + . . . +ym ,

< 0, (e)(k,y) >, y1 + . . . +ym 6k<y1 + . . . +ym +l
G(k, y) = 1



(e)(k,y) = 0,

0



< 1, (e)(k,y) , (e)(k,y) +(y) >, y1 + . . . +ym 6k<y1 + . . . +ym +l

1 2



(e)(k,y) = 1,

0

0, k > y1 + . . . + ym + l.

, 24, , G(k, y) ...


ns(y) (x) = g(x) = f 0 (x, y) = f (y, x). , s(y) .
15. 59

, s .
, z range(s)
y m , s(y) = z. , ,
s1 : range(s) m . (
, s1 !)
, z range(s), z

INC n + 1
y1

INC n + 1


INC n + m
ym

INC n + m

P l

y1 , . . . , ym l (l
P ). y1 , . . . , ym ,
l , . . P .
INC n+1 y1 , INC n+2
y2 , . , s1 (z) =
hy1 , . . . , ym i.

41 (s-m-n-). m, n
(m+1)- sm
n (e, y1 , . . . , ym ) ,

m+n
e (y1 , . . . , ym , x1 , . . . , xn ) = nsm
n (e,y1 ,...,ym )
(x1 , . . . , xn ).

. (m+n+1)- ... f (e, y, x) = m+n e (y, x).


... s(e, y) ,
f (e, y, x) = ns(e,y) (x). s s-m-n-.

15.

. ,
,
.
,
, . -, -
, . .
, , . ,
,
.

. -, -
:
60 III.

, -
. ,
:
.
, , ,
, -
, -
. , -
, .
-
, , .
.

: -
, .
...... 1 -
k
: A. -
qm q0 q1 . -
q2
r -
q3 . -

- , -
A
. . . a2 a0 a0 a1 a3 a1 a7 a5 a0 . . . -
. -

, . , -
.
,

.

.
q0 , q1 , . . . , qm , -
. -
. -
. , . -
, , -
.
. -
,
qi aj qk al S, qi , qk , aj , al , S
{R, L, }, qi aj -
, qi aj . . .
qi , qi aj . . . .
. -
qi , aj .
qi , .
qi aj qk al S, -
15. 61

: al ,
( S = R), (
S = L), ( S ),
qk .
-
,
, ( , 0)
.
.
, .
. T = hA, Q, P, q1 , q0 i, :
) A = {a0 , a1 , . . . , an } ( -
, n > 1 a0 = 0, a1 = 1);
) Q = {q0 , q1 , . . . , qm } ;
) P = {T (i, j) | 1 6 i 6 m, 0 6 j 6 n} , T (i, j),
: qi aj qk al , qi aj qk al R, qi aj qk al L,
0 6 k 6 m, 0 6 l 6 n;
) q1 ;
) q0 .
. ()
Aqi aj B, qi Q, aj A, A B A (, ).

qi

AA
a3 a2 a0 a0 a1 aj a4 a0 a1 a2

A B

Aqi aj B
: qi , aj , -
, A ,
, B ,
. , -
,
.
. M = Aqi aj B . ,
MT0 M T ,
:
1) i = 0, MT0 = M .

2) i > 0 :

) T (i, j) qi aj qk al , MT0 = Aqk al B;


) T (i, j) qi aj qk al R, B = as B 0 , MT0 = Aal qk as B 0 ;
62 III.

) T (i, j) qi aj qk al R, B = , MT0 = Aal qk a0 (


);
) T (i, j) qi aj qk al L, A = A0 as , MT0 = A0 qk as al B;
) T (i, j) qi aj qk al L, A = , MT0 = qk a0 al B (
).
(0) (k+1)
. M = Aqi aj B . MT = M , MT =
0
(k)
MT k .
, T M M1
(k)
, M = M1 , k , MT = M1
T
().
, T M M1
(k)
, M |= M1 , k , MT = M1
T
() ().

. , T () -
n- f : dom(f ) n , x1 , . . . , xn
:

) hx1 , . . . , xn i dom(f ), q1 01x1 0 . . . 01xn 0 = q0 01f (x1 ,...,xn ) 00s , -


T
s > 0;

) hx1 , . . . , xn i
/ dom(f ), T , M =
x1 xn (k)
q1 01 0 . . . 01 0, , . . q0 MT
k .

. f ,
T , .

42. ,
.

. . -
-
.
, ... ,
, , , , -
S, R, M ,
.
, -
, :

) :

(qi aj qk al ) =< i, j, k, l, 0 >,


(qi aj qk al R) =< i, j, k, l, 1 >,
(qi aj qk al L) =< i, j, k, l, 2 > .
15. 63

) . P ,
c0 , . . . , cs ( ),

(P ) =< (c0 ), . . . , (cs ) > .

) . M = aj0 . . . ajp1 qi ajp ajp+1 . . . ajr


,
(M ) =< j0 , . . . , jr , i, p > .
, (), (), (), ,
(, )
(, ).

) T , M , -
< (M0 ), . . . , (Mt ) >, M = M0 , M1 , . . . , Mt
, ,

M0 = M1 = . . . = Mt ,
T T T

(k)
Mk = MT k {0, . . . , t}, Mt q0 ,
Mi (i < t) q0 ( ,
Mt ).
(k)
k MT q0 , . . -
, .

) k (k+2)- T - :

Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y) e P, y
P,
q1 01x1 0 . . . 01xk 0.

, Tk .

) U :

U (y) = z y ,
q0 01z 00s s > 0, . . z
.

, U .

) , f (x1 , . . . , xk ) -
e, , ,
. .
f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = U (y[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , y)]).
, f ...
64 III.

. -
,
. . , k (k > 1) .

.
, . . ,
qi
aj ,
qi aj . . . ,
.

16.
-
, ( )
. , -
, ,
( -
, -
),
.
, , -
: -
, .
. -

. ,
. -
. -, w
u u w, -
. -,
u v, .
,
, .
(. [5], [6]).

. A = hA, i -
A, :

1) A ,

2) = h1 , . . . , n i
() A, . . P Q P Q,
P, Q (, ) A.

P Q . P Q -
.
16. 65

A,

P1 ( )Q1
.. ..
. .
Pn ( )Qn ,

Pi ( )Qi Pi Qi , Pi Qi .
!

( ). A -
A, P A. :

1) P1 , . . . , Pn P . A:P A
, P A.

2) P1 , . . . , Pn , P .
m , 1 6 m 6 n Pm P .
R, P Pm
Qm . :

) m Pm Qm , A:P ` R , A
P R;
) m Pm Qm , A:P ` R , A -
P R.

. A A, P -
A. , A P R A(P ) = R,
R0 , R1 , . . . , Rk A ,
R0 = P, Rk = R :

1) i = 0, 1, . . . , k 1 A:Ri ` Ri+1 A:Rk A;

2) i = 0, 1, . . . , k 2 A:Ri ` Ri+1 A:Rk1 ` Rk .

dom A = {P A | R A(P ) = R}. , A P ,


P dom A; , A P .

. A P , -
A : P ` P1 ` P2 ` . . .

. f : dom(f ) n
, A A
{0, 1} , :

) (x1 , . . . , xn ) dom(f ), A 1x1 +1 01x2 +1 0 . . . 01xn +1


A(1x1 +1 01x2 +1 0 . . . 01xn +1 ) = 1f (x1 ,...,xn )+1 ;

/ dom(f ), A 1x1 +1 01x2 +1 0 . . . 01xn +1 ;


) (x1 , . . . , xn )

) A {0, 1},
1x1 +1 01x2 +1 0 . . . 01xn +1 .
66 III.

( A A
.)

. , sg(x) .
A {0, 1, }, 6= 0, 6= 1, :

00
111 11
11 11
1 1

P = 1x+1 , x > 0, A : 1x+1 ` 1x+1 ` 1x ` . . . ` 11 ` 11, . . A


1x+1 , A(1x+1 ) = 11 = 1sg(x)+1 .
P = 1, A : 1 ` 1 ` 1, . . A 1, A(1) = 1.
P {0, 1}, 1x+1 , P = , P
0. , A P .
P = , A : ` ` ` ` . . ., . .
.
P 0, P = 1n 0w, n , w {0, 1} . A : 1n 0w ` 1n 0w `
n
1 0w ` . . ., . . .
, A -
sg(x).

-
.

43. ,
.

43 ,
, . ,
, [6].
, ,
-
. algorithm. ,
.

17.
, -
: , , -
.
( , , -
). , , -
.
,
. .
17. 67

44. f : dom(f ) n -
:
1) f ;
2) f ;
3) f ;
4) f .

. 16, 34, 42, 43.


, -
. -
.

. f , (1)(4)
44, (...). f ,
(1)(4) 44, (..).

, , ,
, -
. 44
, .
.
.
, , -
-
. -
.
.
. ,
: -
,
,
. -
,
, .
IV

-
, ,
.
[1], [5], [9], [10].
, -
.

ke k- . -
s-m-n-,
ke k.
n , n-
.
, , , -
, .
.

18.
( ) -

. s-m-n-
. s-m-n- ,
.

s-m-n-. m, n (m+1)-
sm
n (e, y1 , . . . , ym ) , e, y1 , . . . , ym , x1 , . . . , xn -

m+n
e (y1 , . . . , ym , x1 , . . . , xn ) = nsm
n (e,y1 ,...,ym )
(x1 , . . . , xn ).

, s-m-n- ,
sm
n .
. , x
hx1 , . . . , xk i.

45 ( ). :

1) f (x, y)
g(x) ,
f (x,g(x)) = g(x) .
18. 69

2) f (x) a ,

f (a) = a .

.
F (e, y, x, z) = k+2
e (y, x, z),
(k+2)- ... s-m-n-
s(e, y, x) ,

k+2
e (y, x, z) = s(e,y,x) (z). ()

f (x,s(y,y,x)) (z) (k+2)- ... hy, x, zi.


, n ,

f (x,s(y,y,x)) (z) = k+2


n (y, x, z). ()
() () e = n , f (x,s(y,y,x)) (z) = s(n,y,x) (z).
y = n, f (x,s(n,n,x)) (z) = s(n,n,x) (z). ,
g(x) = s(n, n, x) .
, x .
, .
, g(x) = s(n, n, x) a =
s(n, n).
(1) -
, (2) . f (x)
(2)
, n, n , -
f (n), , , -
f (n) . ,
a ,
, . . f (a) = a . ,
-.

0 - - f (0)
1 - - - f (1)
.. ..
. f .
a - -f (a) = a
.. ..
. .

. - -
, ( -
quine). ,
:

PROGRAM FIXEDPOINT;
TYPE
STR=STRING[255];
VAR
70 IV.

C:ARRAY[0..15] OF STR;
I:INTEGER;
BEGIN
C[ 0]:=;
C[ 1]:= C[;
C[ 2]:=]:=;
C[ 3]:=;;
C[ 4]:=PROGRAM FIXEDPOINT;;
C[ 5]:=TYPE;
C[ 6]:= STR=STRING[255];;
C[ 7]:=VAR;
C[ 8]:= C:ARRAY[0..15] OF STR;;
C[ 9]:= I:INTEGER;;
C[10]:=BEGIN;
C[11]:= FOR I:=4 TO 10 DO WRITELN(C[I]);;
C[12]:= WRITELN(C[1],0:2,C[2],C[0],C[0],C[0],C[0],C[3]);;
C[13]:= FOR I:=1 TO 15 DO WRITELN(C[1],I:2,C[2],C[0],C[I],C[0],C[3]);;
C[14]:= FOR I:=11 TO 15 DO WRITELN(C[I]);;
C[15]:=END.;
FOR I:=4 TO 10 DO WRITELN(C[I]);
WRITELN(C[1],0:2,C[2],C[0],C[0],C[0],C[0],C[3]);
FOR I:=1 TO 15 DO WRITELN(C[1],I:2,C[2],C[0],C[I],C[0],C[3]);
FOR I:=11 TO 15 DO WRITELN(C[I]);
END.

,
. ,
,
, .
, . .
, P e, -
( ) e.
g(x, y) = x -
f (x) ,
g(x, y) = f (x) (y). f (x)
a , a = f (a) . -
, a = s(n, n) s-m-n- s,
, s-m-n- -
. , a
, . . Prog(a) , a

a (y) = f (a) (y) = g(a, y) = a,
. . a.

, ,
(. . , ) -

. -
,
.
19. 71

. A n , -
XA (x1 , . . . , xn ) .
46 ( ). K
, , K6= K
. {x|x K}
, K, .
. , , A = {x | x K} ,
. .
(
1, x A,
XA (x) =
0, x
/ A.
K 6= K 6= {f | f 1- ...}, a, b ,
a K b
/ K.
(
b, x A,
f (x) =
a, x
/ A.
f (x) = b XA (x)+a sg(XA (x)), f (x) . -
n , f (n) = n .
( a b,
f (x)):
n K f (n) K f (n) = a n
/ A n
/ K.
. , {x
| x K} .
. f (x) ... -
K = {f }. , -
, A = {e | e = f } . , A
f . ,
,
... . , ...
(, , ).

19.
f : A ,
A n . -
. ,
, ,
, .
,
,
.
, :
( ) ,
, -
, , .
72 IV.

. S .

: S S.

. . = {hx, yi 2 | (x) = (y)}


.

( ). : S S :

) , = {hx, xi | x }, . . ;

) , ;

) , ,
;

) , ,
2 \ , 2 = (. . S ).

. , -
. ,
2 \ (
. ).

. 1) : {f | f ...},
(n) = n ,
. ,
... . ,
, , .
.
2) : 2 , (n) = h(n)0 , (n)1 i,
.
, .
3) A = {a0 , . . . , an1 } n- , n > 1,
(x) = arest(x,n) , rest(x, n) x n,
A. ,
.
4) Pfin () .
: Pfin () . n = 0,
(0) = . n > 1, -
, . . xk > . . . > x0 , n = 2xk + . . . + 2x0 .
(n) = {x0 , . . . , xk }. .

. : S S.
S0 S . -
, {x | (x) S0 }
.

. 1) ,
{f | f ...}
.
19. 73

2) {hx, yi | x 6 y} 2
(n) = h(n)0 , (n)1 i, . . n hx, yi -
, x 6 y .

X (n) = sg((n)0 (n)1 ).
3) A = {a0 , . . . , an1 }
(x) = arest(x,n) . , A0 = {ak0 ,
. . . , aks } A, {x | (x) A0 }
Ss
{n t + ki | t }, , , .
i=0
4) S0 = {X | X } Pfin (). S0 -
. , n
- , n -
. , A = {n
| (n) } XA (n) = sg(|n 2ex(0,n) |), . . A
.
, S0 -
(x) = x.
S0 S0 .

.
, f f (x) ,
f (x) , f (x) , f (x) .
47. K = {x | x (x) } .
. , , K . ,
XK (x) .
(
0, x (x)
f (x) =
, x (x)

f (x) = y[XK (x) = 0 & y = 0], f (x) .


... n , f (x) = n (x).
x = n,
:
n (n) f (n) n (n) .
.
S 1- ... : S ,
(n) = h(n)0 , (n)1 i n . -
{hf, xi S | f (x) }. ,
-
{hx, yi 2 | x (y) }.
48 ( ). {hx, yi 2 |
x (y) } .
. A = {hx, yi | x (y) } . XA (x, y) -
. , f (x) = XA (x, x) . ,
f (x) = 1 XA (x, x) = 1 hx, xi A x (x) x K.
, XK (x) = f (x) , 47.
74 IV.

. , T - T1 (e, x, y) , e
. e (x) , e
. , -
48

{he, xi | e ,
x},
48 , , -
,
.
-
, ,
.
0 -
, 0
, -
0 .
.

. 0 : S0 : S, S0 S.
, 0 , 0 6 ,
f (x) , 0 (x) = (f (x)) x . ,

id
S0 S
x x

0



f

, 0 , 0 , 0 6 6 0 .
( , 0 , S0 = S.)
49 ( ). -
-
.

. : S -
S. , A = {hx, yi | (x) = (y)}
, . . XA (x, y) .
f (. ):
(
f (0) = 0,
f (n + 1) = x[(x) 6= f (0) & . . . & (x) 6= f (n)].
S f . -
:
f (0) = 0,
P
n
f (n + 1) = x[ XA (x, f (i)) = 0].
i=0
XA , f . (-
: , .)
20. 75

f (0) f (1) f (2)


q q q
0r 1r 2r 3r 4r 5r 6 -
r







?

t + ?
t


t
S
6


0 0 0


r r
r r r r r -
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0 (n) = f (n). , range(0 ) S.


n 0 (n + 1) 6= 0 (0), . . . , 0 (n + 1) 6= 0 (n),
, 0 . , , 0 6 .
, S range(0 ). n ,
{(0), . . . , (n)} {0 (0), . . . , 0 (n)}. n = 0 0 (0) =
(f (0)) = (0).
{(0), . . . , (n)} {0 (0), . . . , 0 (n)} .
s = (n + 1). s {0 (0), . . . , 0 (n)} {0 (0), . . . , 0 (n), 0 (n + 1)},
. s / {0 (0), . . . , 0 (n)}, (n + 1) 6= f (0), . . . , (n + 1) 6=
f (n) n+1
. , f ,
f (n+1) = n+1, , (n+1) = 0 (n+1) {(0), . . . , (n+1)} {0 (0), . . . , 0 (n+
1)}. .
, {(0), . . . , (n)} {0 (0), . . . , 0 (n)} n. range()=S,
, S range(0 ). , S = range(0 ).
, , 6 0 .

g(x) = n[(f (n)) = (x)] = n[XA (f (n), x) = 1].

x . n , (x) = 0 (n). 0 (n) =


(f (n)), , g(x) = n. , (x) = 0 (g(x)).
, 6 0 .

20.
(-
.. ) . -
,
. ,

- .

. k > 1. A k -
(..), A = A = {hf1 (x), . . . , fk (x)i | x }
f1 (x), . . . , fk (x).
76 IV.

, f1 , . . . , fk
A. k = 1 : A -
.. , A = A = range(f ) -
f (x). -
.
.. ,
.. .

50 ( .. ).
A k :
1) A .
2) R k+1 ,

hx1 , . . . , xk i A yR(x1 , . . . , xk , y).

3) f (x1 , . . . , xk ) , A =
dom(f ).

. (1) (2) A = , R =
(2). A 6= A = {hf1 (x), . . . , fk (x)i | x },
f1 , . . . , fk ,

hx1 , . . . , xk i A y f1 (y) = x1 & . . . & fk (y) = xk .

R = {hx1 , . . . , xk , yi | f1 (y) = x1 & . . . & fk (y) = xk } -


(k+1)- .
(2) (3) R k+1 , A
(. ), . . x A yR(x, y).

y6 ' $

R
"
& !
%
f

-x
A

k- f (x) = y[R(x, y)]. R -


, f (x) ... ,

f (x) yR(x, y) x A.

, dom(f ) = A.
(3) (1) A = , . A 6= . , -
a = ha1 , . . . , ak i A. A = dom(f ), f ...
f e. -
f (x) = U (y[Tk (e, x, y)]), U Tk .
i {1, . . . , k}
(
(n)i , Tk (e, (n)1 , . . . , (n)k , (n)0 ),
fi (n) =
ai , Tk (e, (n)1 , . . . , (n)k , (n)0 ).
20. 77

, f1 , . . . , fk , . . A = {hf1 (x), . . . , fk (x)i |


x }. A {hf1 (x), . . . , fk (x)i | x }.
x = hx1 , . . . , xk i A. f (x) = U (y[Tk (e, x, y)]) . -
, y[Tk (e, x, y)] . , y ,
Tk (e, x, y) . n =< y, x1 , . . . , xk >. Tk (e, (n)1 , . . . , (n)k , (n)0 )
, , fi (n) = (n)i = xi i {1, . . . , k}. , x
{hf1 (x), . . . , fk (x)i | x }.
{hf1 (x), . . . , fk (x)i | x } A. -
hf1 (n), . . . , fk (n)i, n . Tk (e, (n)1 , . . . , (n)k , (n)0 ) ,
hf1 (n), . . . , fk (n)i = a A . Tk (e, (n)1 , . . . , (n)k , (n)0 ) .
T - z = (n)0
e x = h(n)1 , . . . , (n)k i, z -
, . , z = y[Tk (e, x, y)]. -
, f (x) = U (y[Tk (e, x, y)]) . ,
hf1 (n), . . . , fk (n)i = h(n)1 , . . . , (n)k i = x dom(f ) = A.
.. -
1- , , -
.

51. A -
:
1) A .
2) R 2 ,

x A yR(x, y).

3) f (x) , A = dom(f ).
4) f (x) , A = range(f ).

. (1), (2) (3) 50. -


, (4) (1)(3).
A (3), .. A = dom(f ) ... f (x).
g(x) = x + o(f (x)). range(g) =
dom(g) = dom(f ) = A, . . A (4).
A (4), . . A = range(f ), f ...
f e.
f (x) = U (t[T1 (e, x, t)]), U T1 .
:

y A x(f (x) = y) xt T1 (e, x, t) & U (t) = y .

hx, ti z =< x, t >.



y A z T1 (e, (z)0 , (z)1 ) & U ((z)1 ) = y .

R = {hy, zi | T1 (e, (z)0 , (z)1 ) & U ((z)1 ) = y} -


, , A (2).
, ..
.
78 IV.

52. A k , A .
. A , , XA (x1 , . . . , xk ) -
. f (x) = y[|XA (x) 1| = 0]. f
... dom(f ) = A. , (3) 50 A
.. .
, 52, , .
53. .. K , -
.
. K = {x | x (x) }. 47
. , K .
x (y) = U (t[T1 (x, y, t)]). :
x K x (x) U (t[T1 (x, x, t)]) t T1 (x, x, t).
(2) 50 , K .
.. -
- . ,

54. A, B k .
A B, A B k \ A .
. . 21.
.. -
. , , .. -
.
55. A, B k . -
A B A B .
. P, R k+1 ,
x A yP (x, y),
x B yR(x, y).
:

x A B yP (x, y) yR(x, y) y P (x, y) R(x, y) yQ(x, y),

Q(x, y) = P (x, y) R(x, y) . , A B -


.
:

x A B yP (x, y) & zR(x, z) yz P (x, y) & R(x, z)

t P (x, (t)0 ) & R(x, (t)1 ) tQ(x, t),

Q(x, t) = P (x, (t)0 ) & R(x, (t)1 ) . , A B


.
20. 79

56 ( ). A k -
, A k \ A .

. (=) -
52.
(=) P, R k+1 ,

x A yP (x, y),
x/ A yR(x, y).

f (x) = y[P (x, y) R(x, y)]. : x


A yP (x, y) & yR(x, y) P (x, f (x)). XA (x) = XP (x, f (x))
. , A .

57. A , A -
, \ A .

. K = {x | x (x) }.
53 K .. \ K .., K ,
.

58 ( ). f (x1 , . . . , xk ) -
,

f = {hx1 , . . . , xk , yi | hx1 , . . . , xk i dom(f ), f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = y}

. (=) f ...
f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = U (t[Tk (e, x1 , . . . , xk , t)]), e -
, f .

f (x) = y t Tk (e, x, t) & U (t) = y tR(x, y, t),

R = {hx, y, ti | Tk (e, x, t) & U (t) = y}. R -


, (2) 50 , f ..
(=) f .. (2) 50 -
R k+2 , hx, yi f
zR(x, y, z). :

x dom(f ) yhx, yi f yzR(x, y, z)


tR(x, (t)0 , (t)1 ) t[R(x, (t)0 , (t)1 )] .

f (x) = t[R(x, (t)0 , (t)1 )] ...
0

.. , -
... -
, s-m-n-,
.
80 IV.

. n Wn = dom(n ). n
..- Wn . (3) 51 ,
n 7 Wn .. .
.. .

. S . :
S , {hx, yi|x (y)} .

59. .. .

. S0 .. , 0 : S0
, . . 0 (n) = Wn . x, y :

x 0 (y) x Wy x dom(y )
y (x) U (t[T1 (y, x, t)]) tT1 (y, x, t).

T - (2) 50
, {hx, yi | x 0 (y)} .
,
( -
).

60. -
.

. S , : S
. S0 .. , 0 :
S0 .
, R 3 ,
x (y) zR(x, y, z).
n (n) = {x | zR(x, n, z)} ,
, S S0 .

(
0, x (y),
g(x, y) =
.

g(x, y) = o(z[R(x, y, z)]), g ... s-m-n- -


f (y) , g(x, y) = f (y) (x). x, y
:

x (y) g(x, y) f (y) (x)


x dom(f (y) ) x Wf (y) x 0 (f (y)).

, = 0 f , . . 6 0 . .
21. 81

21.
, (k+1)- F (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk ) -
K, k- -
, :
1) n f K , F (n, x1 , . . . , xk ) = f (x1 , . . . , xk );
2) f K n , F (n, x1 , . . . , xk ) = f (x1 , . . . , xk ).
, k- ...
(k+1)- , ...
k- ... k- ..
.

61. k > 1. (k+1)- ..., -


k- ...

. , , F (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk ) ...,
k- ..., . . {F (0, x1 , . . . , xk ), F (1, x1 , . . . , xk ), . . .}
k- ... k- :

f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = F (x1 , x1 , x2 , . . . , xk ) + 1.

f (x1 , . . . , xk ) ... , F n
, x1 , . . . , xk F (n, x1 , . . . , xk ) = f (x1 , . . . , xk ).
x1 = n, x2 = . . . = xk = 0. :

F (n, n, 0, . . . , 0) = f (n, 0, . . . , 0) = F (n, n, 0, . . . , 0) + 1.

62. k > 1. (k+1)- .., -


k- ..

. 61.

. k > 1 61 62
. 0- ... (
0- ..) ... , , 1-
F (x) = x.

61
F (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk ).
, F (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk ) , -
, . .
.., ... ,
, .

63. (k+1)- ..,


k- ...

63 [5]. -
, 1- ...
82 IV.


2
s(x) = x+1 q(x) = x [ x] , -
, ,
... 2- .
63 , ,
... .. ,
- :

. , -
, , ... , -
f = x[s(x) = 0] ... ,
.

64. ,
.

. F (x, y) .., 1-
..., 63. F (x, y)
, ..., 1-
..., 61.

,
, .
[5].

k- ..., .. ...
.

65. 2- ,
-
.

. f (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 , ai ,


n , (f ) =< a0 , a1 , . . . , an >= pa00 +1 pa11 +1 . . . pann +1 ,
p0 = 2, p1 = 3, p2 = 5, . . . .
, k = (f ), f -

lh(k) 1 = i[ex(i, k) = 0] 1, i- f

(k)i = ex(i, k)1.

1
lh(y)
X
F (y, x) = (y)i xi .
i=0

, , F (y, x) y,
x .
, f , F ((f ), x) = f (x).
, F .
21. 83

-
. ,
,
n (x).
n, x. , -
, n (x) , ,
... -
: ... f (n, x)
.. s(n) , f (n, x) = s(n) (x).
.
. ... n (x) ,
... f (n, x) .. s(n) , f (n, x) =
s(n) (x).
66. ...
...
. n (x) ..., f (x)
... ... F (n, x) = f (x).
.. s(n) , s(n) (x) = F (n, x) =
f (x). , m = s(n) m (x) = f (x). ,
n (x) ...
67. ..., -
..., -
.
.


, y = 0 (x)0 = 0,
x (y) = (x)0 1, y = 0 (x)0 > 0,


(x)1 (y), y > 0.
, x (y) . ,
x, y, z :

x (y) = z (x)0 >0 & y=0 & z=(x)0 1 y>0 & (x)1 (y) & z=(x)1 (y)

(x)0 > 0 & y = 0 & z = (x)0 1 t y > 0 & T1 ((x)1 , y, t) & z = U (t) .
.. ,
x (y) . , x (y)
.
, x (y) . e (y)
... e (0) , , n =< 0, e >, , n (y) = e (y).
e (0) e (0) = m, , n =< m + 1, e >, , n (y) = e (y).
.
, x (y) .
... x (y). , -
.. s(x) , s(x) (y) = x (y). -

x (0) s(x) (0) s(x) 0 > 0.
84 IV.

{x | s(x) 0 > 0} . {x |
x (0) } . . , x (y)
.
, ..
. , -
n (x).
, . . , ,
. , -
,
.

22. -

, ,
n (x). , -
. ,
, -
. ,
, .
-
. : , -
, .
?
, ,
, . . , -
. -
.
,
, n (x)
.

.
68. n (x) . ...
f (x, y, z) .. g(x, y) , f (x, y, z) = g(x,y) (z).
. ... f 0 (t, z) = f ((t)0 , (t)1 , z).
.. s(t) , f 0 (t, z) =
s(t) (z). t =< x, y >, f (x, y, z) = f 0 (< x, y >, z) = s(<x,y>) (z).
g(x, y) = s(< x, y >). s < , > , g
. s < , > , g .
, g .
69. n (x) . -
.. g(x, t) , x, y, t x (y) = g(x,t) (y).
, x
n , x = n .
22. 85

. ... f (x, t, y) = x (y) + 0 t (t ).


68 .. g(x, t) , f (x, t, y) = g(x,t) (y). -
, x (y) = g(x,t) (y).
70. ... kx (y) , x (y) -
, kx (y) = 1
x (y).

. kx (y) = z[|x (z) y| = 0] ... hx, yi.

11
. p :

.
. n (x) n (x) -
11
, p : ,

n, x
p(n) (p(x)) = p(n (x)).
, , -
p, = {hn, x, n (x)i | n (x) }
= {hn, x, n (x)i | n (x) }.

hn, xi n (x)

p
y
p
y
hp(n), p(x)i p(n) (p(x))

71 ( ).
... n (x) n (x) .
. ,
11
p : , x, y

p(x) (p(y)) = p(x (y)).


, hz (x) ,
z hz : , ,
x :
hz (x) = z x kz ()
kz hz (x) z = x ()
, hz (x). -
.. s(z) , hz (x) = s(z) (x).
n , s(n) = n = hn . -
p(x) = hn (x) = n (x). hn , n
, , , 70 kn = 1 1
n = p .
() () , x :
p(x) = px p1 ()
p1 p(x) p = x ()
86 IV.

, p(x) p = px , . . p(x) (p(y)) = p(x (y)),


.
, hz (x) -
. ,
h = {hz, x, hz (x)i | z, x }. -
h h ,
h .
z
hx, ui , hz, x, ui h .
h . . n
Mn , M0 M1 . . . Mn . . ., Mn
hx, ui hz, x, ui h .
.
0. M0 = .
2t + 1 ( dom(hz )).

) x, M2t .

) u, M2t , ,

y u (y) = z x kz (y) ().

u . 68
.. g(z, x) , g(z,x) (y) = z x kz (y). z x
v = g(z, x) . 69
.. r(v, s) , s v (y) = r(v,s) (y).
{r(v, 0), r(v, 1), . . .} , M2t ,
s , u = r(v, s)
M2t , u = v = z x kz . u .

) M2t+1 = M2t {hx, ui}, hz (x) = u. hz, x, ui


h .

2t + 2 ( range(hz )).

) u, M2t+1 .

) x,
M2t+1 , ,

y kz u z (y) = x (y) ().

) M2t+2 = M2t+1 {hx, ui}, hz (x) = u. hz, x, ui


h .
22. 87

M2t+2
M2t+1
M2t
-
hz
-
hz
-

hz
-
x hz u

-
x0 hz u0

S
M = Mt . : hz (x) = u hx, ui M . hz
t
. () dom(hz ) = .
() range(hz ) = . , hz
11
. M , hz :

, hz () ()
x.

72. ... x (y)


, x (y).

. (=) -
x (y).
(=) x (y) x (y). , -
p , x p(x) = p x p1 .
f (x, y) ... ... p1 (f (x, p(z))).
s-m-n- s(x) ,
p1 (f (x, p(z))) = s(x) (z). , z = p1 (y), , f (x, y) =
p s(x) p1 (y) = p(s(x)) (y). p(s(x)) -
.

73. ... -
...
V

23.
,
, , -
, . . -
, , ,
.
, ,
. , -
, . ,
, , -
, ,
-
.
: , ,
.
. , , . -
: n -
, ( )
, . -
. n , -
(n1)!.
.
, . -
, 10 .
9! = 362880 , . -
, , 40, 39! -
, , 1045 . 1015
( , -
), , ,
!
-
. -
,
-
: -
. ,
24. 89

, ,
. (n 1)!
, 2n , -
. (, 2n )
n, ,
, .
, : , -
p(n) n, -
.
-
.
, ,
, .
, ,
.

24.
, , -
, ,
qi (i > 0) aj -
qi aj . . .
, -
.
-
,
, qi (i > 0) -
aj ( ) qi aj . . . ,
, qi aj , -
. qi , aj ,
qi aj . . ., -
. ,
, ,
.
, -
, .
, -
.
.

. -
T = hA, Q, P, q1 , q0 i, A, Q, q1 , q0 , -
,

P (Q \ {q0 }) A Q A {, R, L}.

, P ,
hqi , aj , qk , al , Si P qi aj qk al S.
90 V.

. , P -
qi aj qi aj . . . ,
P , qi aj . . ., .
qi (i > 0) aj qi aj . . .,
T .
( )
, . -
.
. M = Aqi aj B
T . , M 0 M T ,
M `T M 0 , :
) P qi aj qk al , M 0 = Aqk al B.
) P qi aj qk al R, B = as B 0 , M 0 =
Aal qk as B 0 .
) P qi aj qk al R, B = , M 0 = Aal qk a0
( ).
) P qi aj qk al L, A = A0 as , M 0 =
A0 qk as al B.
) P qi aj qk al L, A = , M 0 = qk a0 al B
( ).
. M
M 0 , , M `T M 0 . M =
Aqi aj B qi aj . . . ( , i = 0),
M 0 , M `T M 0 .
. T -
M0 , M1 , . . . , Mn -
n , ,
M0 `T M1 `T . . . `T Mn .
, M0 ,
Mn n ( n ), M0 `nT Mn .
M `nT M 0 n , M `T M 0 .
M0 `T . . . `T Mn Mn = Aq0 aj B, ,
. Mn = Aqi aj B, i > 0,
qi aj . . ., , -
.
. T , -
M0 .
(n)
M0 `nT Mn Mn = M0 T , T
M0 Mn .
. T = hA, Q, P, q1 , q0 i .
, L A0 A \ {0} T ,
w A0 :
24. 91

) T q1 0w0
;

) w L, T q1 0w0
uq0 1v u, v A ;

) w / L, T q1 0w0
uq0 0v u, v A .
, , L,
w A0 -
1, w L, 0, w
/ L. ,
,
, A0 .

. -
.
. T = hA, Q, P, q1 , q0 i -
. , L A0 A \ {0} T ,
w A0 :
) T q1 0w0 -
;

) N , T w, ,
M q1 0w0 `N T M;

) w L , q1 0w0 `T uq0 1v u, v A .
, T L,
, w A0 , ( -
: ,
).
q0 1, , w .
,
0 q0 ,
w.
. L={an | n } A0 ={a}.
, ,
n
: a , n > 0,
k = 2, 3, . . . , [ n], k ,
n k. k n, n ,
( ).
,
L, . -
k = 2, 3, . . . , [ n] -
k .
, . , .
, a, 0, 1, -
b. . ,
92 V.

0aaaaaaaaaaaa0 (. . n = 12 ). -
k n,
, b, k -
: 0bb0aaaaaaaaa0 (. . k = 3 ).
bb0 a,
:

0bb0aaaaaaaaa0 ` 0000bb0aaaaaa0 ` 0000000bb0aaa0 ` . . .

bb0, -
. , . . n k,
.
13 :

q1 0 q2 0R q8 b q8 bL
q2 a q3 bR q8 0 q9 0L
q3 a q3 bR q 9 b q4 b
q3 a q4 0L q9 0 q10 0R
q4 b q4 bL q10 0 q11 0R
q4 0 q5 0R q11 b q11 bR
q5 b q6 0R q11 a q12 0R
q6 b q6 bR q12 0 q0 1
q6 0 q7 0R q12 a q13 aL
q7 b q7 bR q13 0 q4 0L
q7 a q8 bL

.
q1 0an 0. n 6 1,
. n > 2, q3
k, :

q1 0an 0 ` 0bk2 q4 b0ank 0 = 00sk+t bk2t q4 b0bt an(s+1)kt 0,

s = 0 t = 0.
.
s, q4 q13 .
t, q4 q9 . -
:

00sk+t bk2t q4 b0bt an(s+1)kt 0 ` 00sk+t q5 bk1t 0bt an(s+1)kt 0 `


` 00sk+t 0q6 bk2t 0bt an(s+1)kt 0 ` 00sk+t 0bk2t 0q7 bt an(s+1)kt 0.

q7 0, , -
, k n, k = n.
:

00sk+t+1 bk2t 0bt q7 an(s+1)kt 0 ` 00sk+t+1 bk2t q8 0bt+1 an(s+1)k(t+1) 0.

q8 q9 .
q9 b,
25. P NP 93

. q9 0, , , t = k 2
:

00(s+1)k2 q9 00bk1 an(s+2)k+1 0 ` 00(s+1)k bk1 q11 an(s+2)k+1 0.

q11 0, ,
, n = (s + 2)k 1, . . k.
:
00(s+1)k bk1 q11 an(s+2)k+1 0 ` 00(s+1)k bk1 0q12 an(s+2)k 0.
q12 0, , , k n, -
1.
.

25. P NP
-
, -
.
. T = hA, Q, P, q1 , q0 i -
A0 A \ {0},
p(n) , , w A0
p(|w|)+1
M q1 0w0 `T M.
,
p(|w|) , |w| .
. L A0 -
, -
A0 T ,
L.
P , -
.
. L A0 -
, -
A0 T ,
L.
NP , -
.
. . -
T , L = {an | n -
} A0 = {a}.
, T q1 0an 0, . .
n.
.
, . . :

q1 0an 0 ` 0bk2 q4 b0ank 0 = 00sk+t bk2t q4 b0bt an(s+1)kt 0,


94 V.

s = t = 0, k + 1 .
, , . -

00sk+t bk2t q4 b0bt an(s+1)kt 0 ` 00sk+t q5 bk1t 0bt an(s+1)kt 0 `


` 00sk+t 0q6 bk2t 0bt an(s+1)kt 0 ` 00sk+t 0bk2t 0q7 bt an(s+1)kt 0

2(k t) . q7 0,
, .

00sk+t+1 bk2t 0q7 bt an(s+1)kt 0 ` 00sk+t+1 bk2t q8 0bt+1 an(s+1)k(t+1) 0,

2t + 1 . q8 1
q9 . q9 b,
1 .
, 2(k t) + (2t + 1) + 2 =
2k + 3 . t = 0, . . . , k 2.
q9 0, , , t = k 2

00(s+1)k2 q9 00bk1 an(s+2)k+1 0 ` 00(s+1)k bk1 q11 an(s+2)k+1 0,

k+1 . q11 0, -
, .
( 1 ):

00(s+1)k bk1 q11 an(s+2)k+1 0 ` 00(s+1)k bk1 0q12 an(s+2)k 0.

q12 0, , , k n, -
1.
, . . 2 , .
, k 1
k + 5 .
(k 1)(2k + 3) + k + 5 = 2k 2 + 2k + 2 .
s = 0, . . . , [ nk ]. -
, , ,

hni
2
k + 1 + (2k + 2k + 2)( + 1) 6 n + 1 + (2n2 + 2n + 2)(n + 1) = 2n3 + 4n2 + 5n + 3.
k
, p(n) = 2n3 + 4n2 +
5n + 3 , , L -
, . . L NP.
P NP.
74. P NP.
. , -
.
25. P NP 95

. NP P
,
P = NP?.
, . .
, L, -
, -
L. [12]. ,
, ,
,
, P = NP?.
,
.
, -
, .

75. P .

. L A0 P. , -
A0 A\ {0}
T = hA, Q, P, q1 , q0 i, L.
T 0 = hA, Q0 , P 0 , q1 , q00 i, Q0 = Q {q00 }, P 0 =
P {q0 0 q00 1, q0 1 q00 0, . . . }. , T
q00 q0 0 q00 1 q0 1 q00 0 (
q0 ai . . ., ai / {0, 1}, ).
, T 0
A0 A0 \ L.

. , P
, , .
NP , ,
. NP
P = NP?.

76. NP ,
P 6= NP.

. , L , L NP, -
L / NP. , L / P. , , L P,
75 L P. , 74 ,
L NP, .

, P , . . -
, (
) .

77. L, -
P.

. L -
.
96 V.

c = qi aj qk al S, S {, R, L}, .

c = 1i | 1j | 1k | 1l | 1s ,
b
s = 0, S = ; s = 1, S = R; s = 2, S = L. T
{c1 , . . . , cm },

Tb = cb1 k cb2 k . . . k cc
m.

A0 = {1, |, k} -
:
L = {Tb | T
q1 0Tb0 uq0 1v u v,
b
, 2|T | }.
L . , -
( ), w
A0 , Tb -
T . , w Tb,
T ,
q1 0Tb0 uq0 1v , 2|T | . -
b

.
, L P. , 75 L -
M .
p(x)
M . ,
c
c|) < 2|M | .
p(|M

, p(n)
2n
0 n , n0 ,
n > n0 p(n) < 2n . , , M
(. . ,
), |M c| ,
c| > n0 , p(|M
|M c|) < 2|M
c|
.
c
M L. M c L
:
1) M q1 0M c0 uq0 1v
c
u v , 2|M | .
M , q1 0M c0, -
c|) < 2|M
, p(|M
c|
, (1) -
:
c0 uq0 1v.
2) M q1 0M
, , M L. ,
(2) Mc / L.
c L M
, M c / L. .
, L / P.
26. NP- 97

26. NP-
, NP, -
P. P = NP? - .
, , NP,
, ,
,
NP ,
. NP-.
NP- -
, -
.
. T = hA, Q, P, q1 , q0 i
A0 A \ {0}. , T
f : A0 A0 , w A0

q1 0w0 = q0 0f (w)00s , s > 0.
T
, T q1 0w0 ,

q0 0f (w)00 . . . 0.
f : A0 A0 ,
A0 -
, f .
. f : -

. , , f :
f : {1} {1} f (1n ) = 1f (n)
A = {0, 1}.
, f : -
. :
, ? -
, ,
. -
.
78. F (n, x), -
{f : | f }.
. . pm (x) -

(. 65).
F (n, x) -
. (n)0 q1 01x 0
p(n)1 (x) .
, . . -
q0 01y 0 . . . 0, y
F (n, x). 0.
F .
98 V.

79. ,
.

. , , f :
. , -
{f : | f }.
F (n, x), 78, -
.
62.

. , L1 A0 L2
A0 , f : A0 A0 ,
, w A0 :

w L1 f (w) L2 .

-
. L1
L2 , L1 , L2 .
, L2 ,
, -
L2 .

. L0 A0 NP-, L0 NP
L NP L0 .

, NP- . -
NP- .
NP- ,
,
P = NP, -
.

80. L NP- . P = NP -
, L P.

. . P = NP.
NP- , L NP. , L P.
. L P. , -
T1 , p1 (n),
L. L0 NP. -
, L0 P.
NP- L L0 L
f . , -
T2 ,
p2 (n), f .
T2 T1 . , T2 T1 -
. T2 T1 w ,
f (w) L. f (w) L, , w L0 .
, T2 T1 L0 .
27. 99

, , T2 T1 .
T2 T1 w .
T2 w f (w) , p2 (|w|) .
T2 ,
f (w) p2 (|w|) + |w|. ,
T1 f (w) ,
p1 (p2 (|w|) + |w|) . , , T2 T1
w , p2 (|w|) + p1 (p2 (|w|) + |w|) ,
|w|.

27.
NP- ,
, .
. , NP-
, -
, , , , -
.
NP-.
. V = {Pi | i } , -
.
V -
:
1) Pi .
2) , (&), ( ),
.
. , &, , , (, ) -
V . ,
V {&, , , (, )}. , -
{Pi1 , . . . , Pin }, ,
, {Pi1 , . . . , Pin }.
. : V {0, 1}
V {0, 1},
. ()
:
1) = Pi , () = (Pi ).
2) = (&), = (), =
, , () :
() () (&) ( ) ()
0 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 0
, -
: V {0, 1}, () = 1.
100 V.

. {Pi1 , . . . , Pin }, , -
, , ,
. , , ,
, -
n Pi1 , . . . , Pin ( 2n )
.
1, , .
. ,
.
. ,
,
.
:
{0, 1, . . . , 9, &, , , (, )}, -
Pi i.
&, , , (, ) .
, (P13 &(P2 P5 )) (13&(2 5)).
, ,
, .
. f (n) g(n)
. , g(n) O(f (n)),
c > 0 d > 0 , n g(n) 6 cf (n) + d.
81.
NP.
. -
T , w
, w
.
T , ,
w ( , T -
), n ,
w.
T
n ,
w. , -
2n ,
.
( ) -
w. -
, w 0
1 , -
.
.
1,
. ,
. , T
O(|w|2 ) .
27. 101

82 (. , 1971). NP-.

. ,
NP. , L NP -
. T
, L . -
, w, T ,
, -
, T w. ,
w, T .
q0 , q1 , . . . , qs T , a0 , a1 , . . . , am
T , p(n) T . -
, w, T , n. -
, T w , -

M0 `T M1 `T . . . `T Mq ,
, M0 = q1 a0 wa0 , Mq = uq0 a1 v u, v;
; q 6 p(n); -
p(n) .
, ,
T . -
, , , ,
(. . , ).
1 , -
M0 , M1 , . . . , Mq ,
.
(
):

) Xhi, j, ti 1 , i-
T aj -
t. 1 6 i 6 p(n), 0 6 j 6 m, 0 6 t 6 p(n);

) Y hk, ti 1 ,
T t qk . 0 6 k 6 s, 0 6 t 6 p(n);

) Zhi, ti 1 ,
t i- .
1 6 i 6 p(n), 0 6 t 6 p(n).

, O(p2 (n)),
c log10 n ,
c , p.
, c log10 n
. c log10 n
, .

U (P1 , . . . , Pr ), 1 ,
102 V.

P1 , . . . , Pr 1.
:

U (P1 , . . . , Pr ) = (P1 . . . Pr ) & & (Pi Pj ) .
i6=j

U (P1 , . . . , Pr ) O(r2 ) (,
).
, , T ,
w p(n) , , -
, p(n) . ,
T , ,
, . -
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
, w T -
M0 , . . . , Mq , Mi p(n), q = p(n),
T w. -
:

1) .

2) .

3) .

4) -
.

5) , -

T .

6) q1 a0 wa0 .

7) uq0 a1 v u, v.

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
(1)(7).

1) A , T
.

At = U (Zh1, ti, Zh2, ti, . . . , Zhp(n), ti),

, t .
A = A0 &A1 & . . . &Ap(n) . , A O(p3 (n))
.

2) B ,
.

Bit = U (Xhi, 0, ti, Xhi, 1, ti, . . . , Xhi, m, ti),


27. 103

, i- t
. B = &Bit . Bit n,
i,t
m T . ,
B O(p2 (n)).

3) C , t T
, . .

C= &
06t6p(n)
U (Y h0, ti, Y h1, ti, . . . , Y hs, ti).

s T , C O(p(n)).

4) D , t
, , . .

D = & Zhi, ti (Xhi, j, ti&Xhi, j, t + 1i) (Xhi, j, ti&Xhi, j, t + 1i) .
i,j,t

Zhi, ti(Xhi, j, ti&Xhi, j, t+1i)(Xhi, j, ti&Xhi, j, t+1i) ,


) t i- ,
) aj i- t + 1 ,
t.

A B , t
i- , t -
i- , i- .
D O(p2 (n)).

5) E , T -
T .
Eijkt :

) t i- aj ,
) t i- ,
) t qk ,
) t t + 1 -

T .

k j

{qk aj qk1 aj1 S1 , qk aj qk2 aj2 S2 , . . . , qk aj qku aju Su }

T , qk aj . . . -
1 6 l 6 u il = i 1, Sl = L; il = i, Sl = ; il = i + 1,
Sl = R. Eijkt :
u
_
Eijkt = Xhi, j, kiZhi, tiY hk, ti Xhi, jl , t+1i&Y hkl , t+1i&Zhil , t+1i .
l=1
104 V.

, E :

E= & Eijkt.
i,j,k,t

Eijkt , n. E
O(p2 (n)).

6) F , q1 a0 wa0 . . . a0 (,
p(n) , -
a0 ), . .

F = Y h1, 0i&Zh1, 0i&Xh1, 0, 0i& & Xhi + 1, ji , 0i & & Xhi, 0, 0i ,
16i6n n+26i6p(n)

Y h1, 0i , T t = 0
q1 ; Zh1, 0i , T t = 0
; Xh1, 0, 0i ,
a0 ; & Xhi + 1, ji , 0i , n -
16i6n
w ( w = aj1 aj2 . . . ajn ); , , & Xhi, 0, 0i
n+26i6p(n)
, -
a0 . , F O(p(n)).

7) G , uq0 a1 v
u, v. 1 6 i 6 p(n) Gi , ,
t = p(n) (. . ) i-
, a1 .
:
Gi = Xhi, 1, p(n)i&Zhi, p(n)i.
G :

G = Y h0, p(n)i&U (G1 , G2 , . . . , Gp(n) ),

Y h0, p(n)i , t = p(n) -


q0 , U (G1 , G2 , . . . , Gp(n) ) ,
,
a1 . G O(p2 (n)).

, = A&B&C&D&E&F &G. -
, O(p3 (n)) ,
, O(p3 (n)) . -
, -
O(log10 n),
O(p3 (n) log10 n), cnp3 (n), c
. , -
w. , w p,
, .
M0 , M1 , . . . , Mq , -
w, , , 0 1
Xhi, j, ti, Y hk, ti Zhi, ti,
27. 105

1. , , -
1,
T , w.
, T w.
L NP, , L -
. ,
NP-.

1. . . . .: , 1977.

2. . ., . . . .: , 2004.

3. . . .: , 1973.

4. . . ,
. : , 1995.

5. . . . .: , 1986.

6. . . .: , 1971.

7. . . , . [ ]. -
: http://math.nsc.ru/asm256/lect/lect.html

8. . . : . : ,
1996.

9. . . .:
, 1972.

10. . . . :
. -, 2000.

11. Khoussainov B., Nerode A. Automata Theory and Its Applications. Boston:
Birkhauser, 2001.

12. Lewis H. R., Papadimitriou C. H. Elements of the Theory of Computation. N. J.:


Plentice Hall, 1998.

13. Shoenfield J. R. Recursion Theory, Lecture Notes in Logic. Berlin: Springer-Verlag,


1993.

. .

??.??.2009 .
6084 1/8. .
. . . ?,?. .-. . ?,?. 100 .

-
630090, -90, . , 2