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Enhanced Uplink Dedicated Channel (EDCH)

High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA)

EDCH Background & Basics


Channels/ UTRAN Architecture
Principles: scheduling, handover
Performance Results
Background
E-DCH is a Rel-6 feature with following targets
Improve coverage and throughput, and reduce delay of the uplink
dedicated transport channels
Priority given to services such as streaming, interactive and background
services, conversational (e.g. VoIP) also to be considered
Full mobility support with optimizing for low/ medium speed

Simple implementation

Special focus on co-working with HSDPA

Standardization started in September 2002


Study item completed in February 2004

Stage II/ III started in September/ December 2004

Release 6 frozen in December 2005/ March 2006

Various improvements have been introduced in Rel-7 & Rel-8

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 2


E-DCH Basics
E-DCH is a modification of DCH Not a shared channel, such as
HSDPA in the downlink !!

PHY taken from R99


Turbo coding and BPSK modulation
Power Control
10 msec/ 2 msec TTI
Spreading on separate OVSF code, i.e. code mux with existing PHY
channels

MAC similarities to HSDPA


Fast scheduling
Stop and Wait HARQ: but synchronous

New principles
Intra Node B softer and Inter Node B soft HO should be supported for
the E-DCH with HARQ
Scheduling distributed between UE and NodeB

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 3


E-DCH Scheduling

UE NodeB
Scheduling information
UE detects Scheduler
data in buffer Scheduling grant
takes UE for
scheduling
DATA
Scheduling grant

UE sends scheduling information


MAC-e signaling Scheduling grant

On E-DPCCH: happy bit


NodeB allocates the resources
Scheduling information

Absolute/ relative scheduling grants


Algorithms left open from standards
Depending on the received grants, UE decides on transmission
Maintains allocated resources by means of internal serving grants
Selects at each TTI amount of E-DCH data to transmit
Algorithms fully specified by UMTS standard

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 4


UMTS Channels with E-DCH

Cell 1 Cell 2
= Serving
E-DCH cell
UE
R99 DCH (in SHO)
Rel-6 E-DCH (in SHO) UL/DL signalling (DCCH)
UL PS service (DTCH) UL/DL CS voice/ data

UL Signalling (DCCH) Rel-5 HS-DSCH (not shown)


DL PS service (DTCH)
DL signalling (Rel-6, DCCH)

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 5


E-DCH Channels
E-DPDCH
Carries the data traffic

Variable SF = 256 2

UE supports up to 4 E-DPDCH

E-DPCCH
Contains the configuration as used on E-DPDCH

Fixed SF = 256

E-RGCH/ E-HICH
E-HICH carries the HARQ acknowledgements

E-RGCH carries the relative scheduling grants

Fixed SF = 128

Up to 40 users multiplexed onto the same channel by using specific


signatures
E-AGCH
Carries the absolute scheduling grants

Fixed SF = 256

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 6


HSUPA UE Categories

E-DCH Max. num. Min SF EDCH TTI Maximum MAC-e Theoretical maximum PHY
Category Codes TB size data rate (Mbit/s)

Category 1 1 SF4 10 msec 7110 0.71

Category 2 2 SF4 10 msec/ 14484/ 1.45/


2 msec 2798 1.4

Category 3 2 SF4 10 msec 14484 1.45

Category 4 2 SF2 10 msec/ 20000/ 2.0/


2 msec 5772 2.89

Category 5 2 SF2 10 msec 20000 2.0

Category 6 4 SF2 10 msec/ 20000/ 2.0/


2 msec 11484 5.74

Note: When 4 codes are transmitted, 2 codes are transmitted with SF2 and 2 with SF4
cf. TS 25.306

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 8


E-DCH UTRAN Architecture

Evolution from Rel-5 SRNC RRC PDCP


E-DCH functionality is
RLC
intended for transport of
DCCH
dedicated logical Logical Channels DTCH BCCH

channels (DTCH/ DCCH)


MAC-es MAC-d
E-DCH in Rel-6 MAC-d MAC-d DCH
flows flows

Additions in RRC to
configure E-DCH CRNC

w/o MAC-c/sh
Upper phy

RLC unchanged
MAC-c/sh
(UM & AM)
New MAC-es entity with
link to MAC-d NodeB
New MAC-e entity located MAC-e MAC-hs MAC-b
in the Node B DSCH
Transport Channels EDCH HS-DSCH FACH BCH

MAC-e entities from


multiple NodeB may serve
one UE (soft HO)

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 9


MAC-e/es in UE

MAC-e/es Functions
To MAC-d
Priority handling
MAC Control

MAC-es/e
Per logical channel
E-TFC Selection Multiplexing

Multiplexing
HARQ
MAC-d flow concept

Mux of data from multiple


MAC-d flows into single
MAC-e PDU
Associated Scheduling
Downlink Signalling
(E-AGCH / E-RGCH(s)) Scheduling
UL data
(E-DPDCH)
Maintain scheduling grant
Associated ACK/NACK Associated Uplink Signalling:
E-TFC selection
signaling E-TFCI, RSN, happy bit
(E-HICH) (E-DPCCH)

HARQ handling

Cf. 25.309

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 10


MAC-e in NodeB

MAC-e Functions
Per user
MAC-d Flows

HARQ handling:
ACK/ NACK
UE #N generation
UE #2 De-multiplexing

E-DCH control:
MAC Control UE #1
E-DCH De-multiplexing Rx/ Tx control
Control
E-DCH
signals
Scheduling

E-DCH scheduling for all


HARQ entity
users
Assign resources
MAC-e (scheduling grants)

E-DCH
Associated Associated
Iub overload control
Common RG Uplink Downlink
Cf. 25.309 Signalling Signalling

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 11


MAC-es in SRNC

To MAC-d

MAC-es Functions
MAC-es
Queue distribution
MAC Control
Disassembly Disassembly Disassembly

Reordering
Reordering/ Reordering/ Reordering/ Per logical channel
Combining Combining Combining
In-sequence delivery
Macro-diversity
Reordering Queue Reordering Queue
Distribution Distribution combining:
frame selection

MAC-d flow #1 MAC-d flow #n

Disassembly

From From
MAC-e in MAC-e in
Cf. 25.309 NodeB #1 NodeB #k

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 12


Data Flow through Layer 2

RLC RLC PDU: Header DATA DDI: Data Description


MAC-d Indicator (6bit)
MAC-d PDU: DATA MAC-d PDU size
Log. Channel ID
MAC-e/es MAC-es PDU: TSN DATA DATA Mac-d flow ID
N: Number of MAC-d PDUs
(6bit)

DDI N DDI N DDI DATA DATA Padding


TSN: Transmission Sequence
Number (6bit)
(Opt)

MAC-e header MAC-es PDU

MAC-e PDU:

DATA
PHY

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 13


HSUPA Scheduling

Radio resources
UL Load (interference)

Other constraints
QoS Parameters NodeB decoding capabilities
Throughput bounds Iub bandwidth limit

Feedback from UE
Scheduling Information UE capabilities
EDCH NodeB Scheduler
Reports

Allocate (absolute/ relative) Scheduling


Grants (max. allowed power offsets)

UE allocates transport formats according to


the allocated grants

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 19


NodeB Load Scheduling Principle

UL Load UL Load E-DCH scheduler constraint


target Keep UL load within the limit
UE #m Scheduler controls:
Serving E-DCH load portion of non-serving
E-DCH users users from other cells
E-DCH resources of each serving user
UE #1
of own cell
Non-serving
E-DCH users Principles:
Rate vs. time scheduling
Dedicated control for serving users
Non E-DCH Common control for non-serving
users

Note: Scheduler cannot exploit fast fading !

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 20


E-DCH Scheduling Options
Rate Scheduling Time Scheduling
rate

rate
UE2

UE1 UE3
UE2 UE3 UE1
UE1

time time

UEs are continuously active UEs are switched on/ off by absolute
Data rate is incremental increased/ scheduling grants
decreased by relative scheduling grants UEs should be in synch
No synch between UEs required Load variations might be large
Load variations can be kept low For (verry) high data rates
For low to medium data rates

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 21


E-DCH Operation in Soft Handover

scheduling grant scheduling grant


HARQ ACK/ NACK HARQ ACK/ NACK
UE

NodeB 1 NodeB 2

Macro-diversity operation on multiple NodeBs


Softer handover combining in the same NodeB
Soft handover combining in RNC (part of MAC-es)
Independent MAC-e processing in both NodeBs
HARQ handling rule: if at least one NodeB tells ACK, then ACK
Scheduling rule: relative grants DOWN from any NodeB have
precedence

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 24


Mobility Handling
The UE uses soft handover for associated DCH as well as for E-DCH
Using existing triggers and procedures for the active set update
(events 1A, 1B, 1C)
E-DCH active set is equal or smaller than DCH active set
New event 1J: non-active E-DCH link becomes better than active one
The UE receives AG on E-AGCH from only one cell out of the E-DCH
active set (serving E-DCH cell)
E-DCH and HSDPA serving cell must be the same

Hard Handover, i.e. change of serving E-DCH cell

Using RRC procedures, which maybe triggered by event 1D


Could be also combined with Active Set Update

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 25


Mobility Procedures

SRNC SRNC

MAC-es MAC-es

MAC-e MAC-e MAC-e MAC-e


NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB

s t

Serving Serving
E-DCH E-DCH
radio link radio link

Inter-Node B serving E-DCH cell change within E-DCH active set


Note: MAC-e still established in both NodeBs !

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 26


E-DCH RRM Principle

E-DCH resources controlled by


UL Load UL Load UL load target
target E-DCH non-serving load portion

NodeB schedules E-DCH users


Serving according to RNC settings
E-DCH users Priority for non E-DCH traffic

Non-serving RNC still controls non E-DCH load


E-DCH users portion
By means of e.g. admission/
congestion control
Non E-DCH
load portion Based on an estimate of non-
Non E-DCH EDCH load

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 28


User Throughput vs. Aggregate Cell Throughput

10ms TTI 2ms TTI


36 cells network
2000
1 UMTS composite channel
1 UE/ cell
model
Average User Throughput [kbps]

1800
2 #UEs/cell
1600
2 FTP traffic model (2 Mbyte
1400 3 upload, 30 seconds thinking
3
1200
4 time)
1000 4
5 Maximum cell throughput
800
5 6 reached for about 78 UEs
600 6 per cell
7 7
400 Cell throughput drops if #UEs
8 8
200 22 20 18 16 14 9 increases further since the
0 24 12 10
10
associated signaling channel
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 consume UL resources too
Aggregate Cell Throughput [kbps]

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 29


Single User Performance

2ms TTI 10ms TTI


Average user throughput
(RLC layer) for different
4000
channel profiles
1 UE in the network
Average User Throughput [kbps]

3500

3000
1 target HARQ transmission
For AWGN channel
conditions:
2500

2000 10ms TTI: up to 1.7 Mbps


(near theoretical limit of 1.88
1500
Mbps)
1000 2ms TTI: up to 3.6 Mbps
(below theoretical limit 5.44
Mbps)
500

0 E.g. due to restrictions


AWGN PedA3 PedA30 VehA30 VehA120 from RLC layer (window
Scenario size, PDU size)

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References
Papers
A. Ghosh et al: Overview of Enhanced Uplink for 3GPP W-CDMA, Proc.
IEEE VTC 04/ Milan, vol. 4, pp. 22612265
A. Toskala et al: High-speed Uplink Packet Access, Chapter 13 in
Holma/ Toskala: WCDMA for UMTS, Wiley 2010
H. Holma/ A. Toskala (Ed.): HSDPA/ HSUPA for UMTS, Wiley 2006
Standards
TS 25.xxx series: RAN Aspects
TR 25.896: Feasibility Study for Enhanced Uplink for UTRA FDD
TR 25.808: FDD Enhanced Uplink; Physical Layer Aspects
TR 25.309/ 25.319 (Rel.7 onwards): Enhanced Uplink: Overall
Description (Stage 2)

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Abbreviations

ACK (positive) Acknowledgement Mux Multiplexing


AG Absolute Grant NACK Negative Acknowledgement
AM Acknowledged (RLC) Mode NBAP NodeB Application Part
AMC Adaptive Modulation & Coding OVSF Orthogonal Variable SF (code)
BO Buffer Occupancy PDU Protocol Data Unit
CAC Call Admission Control PHY Physical Layer
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access PO Power Offset
DBC Dynamic Bearer Control QoS Quality of Service
DCH Dedicated Channel QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
DDI Data Description Indicator RB Radio Bearer
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel RG Relative Grant
E-AGCH E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel RL Radio Link
E-DCH Enhanced (uplink) Dedicated Channel RLC Radio Link Control
E-HICH E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement RLS Radio Link Set
Indicator Channel RRC Radio Resource Control
E-RGCH E-DCH Relative Grant Channel RRM Radio Resource Management
E-TFC E-DCH Transport Format Combination RV Redundancy Version
FDD Frequency Division Duplex SDU Service Data Unit
FEC Forward Error Correction SF Spreading Factor
FIFO First In First Out SG Serving Grant
FP Framing Protocol SI Scheduling Information
GoS Grade of Service TNL Transport Network Layer
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request TPR Traffic to Pilot Ratio
IE Information Element TTI Transmission Time Interval
MAC-d dedicated Medium Access Control UM Unacknowledged (RLC) Mode
MAC-e/es E-DCH Medium Access Control

UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2013 32