Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 169

COMMENTARY

Existential Foundations
New directions in science and psychology are in the wind for
America in the 1980s. Boss has always been ahead of his time, and
of
the psychiatric and psychological fraternities will catch up with him,
perhaps toward the latter part of this decade. F o r now, most col
leagues will approach this b o o k with predispositions, preconcep
Medicine and Psychology
tions, and prior prejudices, thus giving the b o o k short shrift. To do
so will prove a point that Boss makes repeatedly in his b o o k : one's
preconceptions (world view, prior philosophical picture of the world,
or theoretical disposition) guide one to recognize as valid only that
which falls within or supports the preconceptions. by MEDARD B O S S
Gerald Epstein

translated from the German


by
Stephen Conway and Anne Cleaves

with an introduction
by Paul J. Stem

NEW Y O R K JASON ARONSON LONDON


M
CONTENTS

Copyright 1 9 8 3 , 1979 b y M e d a r d Boss


! ir ,

Introduction to the English Translation ix

All rights reserved. Printed in the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a . No part of this


Preface to t h e First Edition xxiii
b o o k m a y be used or reproduced in any m a n n e r whatsoever without writ
ten permission from Jason Aronson, Inc. except in t h e case of b r i e f quota Preface t o t h e S e c o n d Edition xxv
tions in reviews for inclusion in a magazine, newspaper or broadcast.
Introduction xxvii

N e w Printing 1 9 8 3

Part I:
ISBN: 0-87668-667-6 T h e Traditional Foundation of Medicine

Chapter 1. A Test Case: Regula Zrcher 3


Library o f C o n g r e s s C a t a l o g N u m b e r : 8 4 - 2 8 2 2
Chapter 2. T h e Natural Scientific View of Medicine 19

Chapter 3. T h e N a t u r a l S c i e n t i f i c V i e w o f P s y c h o l o g y and 33
Manufactured in the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a . Psychosomatics
vi EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Contents vii

Chapter 4. Applying T h i s V i e w t o R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r 43 Part IV:


Suggestions for a Daseinsanalytic T h e r a p y
Chapter 5. T h e Fundamental Conditionality of 57
P s y c h o l o g y and P s y c h o s o m a t i c s
Preliminary Remarks 249

Chapter 15. T h e Patient to Be Treated 251


Part II:
An Adequately H u m a n Foundation for Medicine Chapter 16. T h e " L o c u s " of the Therapeutic Interaction 257
("Transference")
Chapter 6. Applying t h e E x i s t e n t i a l O u t l o o k t o S o m e 81
Aspects of the Test Case Chapter 17. T h o s e W h o Are Therapeutically Active 273

Chapter 7 Fundamental Characteristics of Human 85 Afterword: T h e F o u n d a t i o n s o f a Ds-sein-Based S o c i a l 285


Beings P s y c h o l o g y and Social P r e v e n t i v e M e d i c i n e
in M o d e r n Industrial S o c i e t y
Chapter 8. A n E x i s t e n t i a l S t u d y o f the B a s i c C o n c e p t s o f 127
B i o l o g y , P h y s i o l o g y , and P s y c h o l o g y Index 299

Chapter 9. C r i t i c i s m s o f a n E x i s t e n t i a l M e t h o d o f Medical 155


Investigation

Chapter 10. T r a n s i t i o n a l Difficulties i n U n d e r s t a n d i n g 161


Daseinsanalytic Insights

Part III:
T h e R u d i m e n t s of an Existential G e n e r a l Pathology

Chapter 11. Testing an Existential Research M e t h o d on 167


S e v e r a l P a t h o l o g i c a l P h e n o m e n a o f the T e s t
Case

Chapter 12. G e n e r a l D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c Etiology and 191


Pathogenesis

C h a p t e r 13. A General Daseinsanalytic Phenomenology of 197


Illness

( haptei it A D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c E x a m i n a t i o n of S o m e 241
Prevailing, C o n c e p t s o f G e n e r a l P a t h o l o g y
INTRODUCTION TO THE
ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Existential Foundations of Medicine and Psychology is M e d a r d B o s s ' s m a g n u m


o p u s . Ideas set f o r t h in e a r l i e r w o r k s s p a n n i n g t h i r t y y e a r s a r e developed
in t h e p r e s e n t v o l u m e and w o v e n i n t o a richly t e x t u r e d w h o l e .
I f t o b e "radical" m e a n s a s t h e w o r d ' s e t y m o l o g y s u g g e s t s t o g o t o
t h e r o o t s of t h i n g s , this is u n d o u b t e d l y a radical b o o k . It p r o p o s e s
n o t h i n g less t h a n d e m o l i s h i n g t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e paradigm t h a t
u n d e r l i e s m o d e r n m e d i c i n e , and replacing it by a radically different o n e
t h a t is b a s e d upon H e i d e g g e r ' s o n t o l o g y of Da-sein. P r o f e s s o r B o s s is in
e a r n e s t a b o u t this r e v o l u t i o n a r y e n t e r p r i s e . T h e i n t e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t
w o r k is to h u m a n i z e m e d i c i n e by giving it a n e w existential f o u n d a t i o n and
to a r t i c u l a t e t h e vast t h e o r e t i c a l and practical c o n s e q u e n c e s of such a
changeover.
L e s t t h e r e a d e r be put o f f by t h e s h e e r a m b i t i o u s n e s s of Foundations, let
him be r e a s s u r e d at t h e o u t s e t t h a t D r . B o s s is n e i t h e r a naive v i s i o n a r y
n o r a f a n a t i c . While u n s p a r i n g in his e x p o s u r e of t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of
m o d e r n n a t u r a l - s c i e n t i f i c m e d i c i n e , B o s s is far from d e n y i n g its brilliant
a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . Even if s u c h a t h i n g w e r e possible, he w o u l d n o t w a n t
t o d o a w a y w i t h t h e vast b u r g e o n i n g m a c h i n e r y o f m o d e r n m e d i c i n e . H e
m e r e l y q u e s t i o n s t h e i m p e r a t i v e s t h a t the prevailing f o r m s o f p r e s e n t -
day medical practice s e r v e , and t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a b o u t h u m a n n a t u r e
upon w h i c h t h e y a r e built. I n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d m a n s i o n o f medicine
e r e c t e d b y B o s s , t h e r e i s ample and h o n o r a b l e r o o m for medical p r a c t i c e
X EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Introduction to the English Translation xi

as c o n s t i t u t e d today. F r a c t u r e d b o n e s will still h a v e to be set, m a j o r m e t h o d s of n a t u r a l s c i e n c e u p to a point. It is this "up to a p o i n t " t h a t


i n f e c t i o n s t o b e c o n t a i n e d b y a n t i b i o t i c s o r o t h e r a g e n t s , and t u m o r s t o b e c o n s t i t u t e s t h e rub for H e i d e g g e r and B o s s . T h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e grid
excised o r t r e a t e d b y c h e m o t h e r a p y . B u t b o t h t h e scope and the u l t i m a t e s u p e r i m p o s e d upon t h e h u m a n body does indeed reveal s t r u c t u r e s ,
m e a n i n g o f t h e s e and o t h e r traditional medical i n t e r v e n t i o n s would b e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and s e q u e n c e s o f e v e n t s w o r t h k n o w i n g , and t h e
s t r i n g e n t l y redefined i n t h e D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c f r a m e w o r k p r o p o s e d b y k n o w l e d g e thus g a i n e d is useful in fighting disease. B u t H e i d e g g e r asks
Boss. w h e t h e r t h e reductive paradigm of n a t u r a l s c i e n c e really does yield or
B o s s ' s e f f o r t s at a t h o r o u g h g o i n g r e f o r m of m e d i c i n e (and p s y c h o l o g y ) further comprehension of what is most characteristic of the human
a r e fueled, as a t t e m p t s of this n a t u r e usually a r e , by a vivid s e n s e of crisis, being and o f t h a t realm o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e w h i c h w e call the bodily
s h a r e d b y m a n y o f B o s s ' s m o s t e m i n e n t c o l l e a g u e s . His o w n c o n c e r n i s s p h e r e . E x t e n d i n g t h e a r g u m e n t , B o s s i n q u i r e s if a medical s c i e n c e fully
not primarily with t h e m u c h - d e b a t e d b a c k l a s h p h e n o m e n a s u c h a s t h e c o g n i z a n t o f the e x i s t e n t i a l h u m a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r t i c u l a t e d b y
proliferation of I a t r o g e n i c illness and the g r o w i n g i n t r a c t a b i l i t y of side H e i d e g g e r would n o t b e m o r e e f f e c t i v e i n c o m i n g t o t e r m s w i t h disease
e f f e c t s produced b y the t r i u m p h a n t e x t e n s i o n o f m o d e r n t e c h n i q u e s o f t h a n medical s c i e n c e based o n t h e a s t r i n g e n t n a t u r a l s c i e n c e paradigm.
medical i n t e r v e n t i o n . N o r does B o s s focus o n t h e c o m p l e x p r a g m a t i c and A n d , B o s s g o e s on to s u g g e s t , s u c h a revitalized s c i e n c e of m e d i c i n e
e t h i c a l issues raised by t h e v e r y a d v a n c e s of medical t e c h n o l o g y , e.g., t h e m i g h t e v e n discover m e a n i n g (of a n e x i s t e n t i a l n a t u r e ) i n b o u t s o f illness
issue a b o u t w h e n t o r e m o v e life-support s y s t e m s o r w h e n t o p r o n o u n c e w h i c h , v i e w e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e o r t h o d o x paradigm, are
a dying patient dead. B o s s ' s focus is e l s e w h e r e . To t h e e x t e n t he looks fortuitous.
at t h e s e issues at all, he r e g a r d s t h e m as s y m p t o m a t i c of a m u c h m o r e 2
T h o m a s K u h n h a s pointed o u t t h a t n o s c i e n c e , e v e n d u r i n g s e t t l e d
g e n e r a l crisis g o i n g far b e y o n d the c o n f i n e s o f m e d i c i n e a c u l t u r a l c r i s i s periods of its h i s t o r y is e v e r e n t i r e l y free of t r o u b l e spots ("anomalies")
t h a t involves t h e u l t i m a t e q u e s t i o n o f w h a t i t m e a n s t o b e h u m a n . T h e t h a t r e s i s t a s s i m i l a t i o n b y t h e prevailing paradigm. A s long a s t h e s e
issue, in o t h e r w o r d s , is t h e v e r y self-definition of m a n . A n d t h e u r g e n c y z o n e s of i n t r a c t a b i l i t y a r e f e w , c i r c u m s c r i b e d , and p e r c e i v e d as fairly
of t h e crisis is s u c h t h a t it calls for t h e m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the physician of p e r i p h e r a l , t h e y pose little t h r e a t t o o r t h o d o x y . Y e t e a c h o n e o f t h e s e
last r e s o r t of sick c i v i l i z a t i o n s t h e p h i l o s o p h e r . It is in the forbidding, z o n e s can b e c o m e t h e s t a g i n g a r e a for i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t g r a d u a l l y e r o d e
and s e e m i n g l y e s o t e r i c o n t o l o g y of M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r t h a t B o s s and a few t h e prevailing f r a m e w o r k of m e t a t h e o r y . It will be discarded, h o w e v e r , if
like-minded clinicians d i s c o v e r t h e e l e m e n t s for a r e c o n s t r u c t e d s c i e n c e a sizable n u m b e r of s c i e n t i s t s c o m e to feel t h a t t h e i r field is indeed in a
o f man. s t a t e o f crisis, t h a t t h e a n o m a l i e s p r e v i o u s l y perceived a s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l
To clear t h e g r o u n d for a n e w b e g i n n i n g , H e i d e g g e r found it n e c e s s a r y do in fact m a t t e r . T h e r e m u s t also be a p o t e n t i a l r e p l a c e m e n t w a i t i n g in
to demolish t h e proud office of D e s c a r t e s ' s p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h , in its t u r n , t h e w i n g s a n e w p a r a d i g m t h a t solves a n u m b e r o f p r o b l e m s insoluble
had o p e n e d up and s h e l t e r e d a place for the a l m o s t m i r a c u l o u s g r o w t h of u n d e r t h e old d i s p e n s a t i o n .
W e s t e r n n a t u r a l s c i e n c e . A s H e i d e g g e r s a w it, t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n for this In t h e field of m e d i c i n e , o n e of t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s h a s b e e n for a long
e f f l o r e s c e n c e , and also t h e p r i m e c a u s e o f m a n ' s p r e s e n t m e t a p h y s i c a l t i m e t h e r e a l m o f m e n t a l illness. T h e s e illnesses w e r e d i s c o n c e r t i n g for
u p r o o t e d n e s s , w a s D e s c a r t e s ' s d i c h o t o m i z i n g of m a n into res cogitans t h e C a r t e s i a n paradigm i n t h a t t h e y s e e m e d t o b e p r i m a r i l y diseases o f
("mind") and res extensa ( " m a t t e r " ) and the s h a r p o p p o s i t i o n he posited t h e cogito w i t h o u t definite s o m a t i c locus. T h e medical s t r u c t u r e built upon
b e t w e e n t h o s e t w o f u n d a m e n t a l r e a l m s . H e i d e g g e r ' s polemic a g a i n s t t h a t p a r a d i g m had a hard t i m e coping w i t h this n o t i o n of l a r g e l y
C a r t e s i a n dualism, w h i c h h e v i e w e d a s p e r n i c i o u s , and t h e a t t e m p t t o d i s e m b o d i e d illness, and its leading n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s p o k e s m e n used
o v e r c o m e it, is a m a j o r s t r a n d of H e i d e g g e r ' s w o r k . It is t h e strand m o s t t h e d i s c o v e r y of t h e syphilitic a n t e c e d e n t s of paresis to p o s t u l a t e t h a t all
relevant to B o s s ' s c h a l l e n g e to m o d e r n m e d i c i n e . m e n t a l illness w a s o f s o m a t i c origin. T h a t " m e n t a l d i s e a s e s are, a t b o t t o m
I [eideggei and B o s s a r g u e t h a t by placing t h e h u m a n body s q u a r e l y d i s e a s e s o f t h e b r a i n " h a s b e e n o n e o f t h e m o s t widely a c c e p t e d articles o f
w i l l i m the realm of res extensa, of s p a c e - o c c u p y i n g m a t t e r s u b j e c t to faith o f m o d e r n p s y c h i a t r y . T h e a x i o m a t i c value a t t a c h e d t o this d o g m a
m e t li.inic .il laws, I ) e s c a r t e s e n s u r e d t h e s u b s e q u e n t , practically unlimit w a s s o s t r o n g t h a t its lack o f empirical s u p p o r t s e e m e d o f m i n o r
ed use ol natural science m e t h o d o l o g y in e x p l o r i n g t h e h u m a n b o d y . 1
c o n s e q u e n c e . I n e v i t a b l y , f u t u r e a d v a n c e s in t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
["he history ol medicine o v e r the last t h r e e c e n t u r i e s d e m o n s t r a t e s n e u r o a n a t o m y and n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y would provide the (as y e t ) missing
beyond any r e a s o n a b l e doubt that the h u m a n body can indeed be c l u e s . Even Freud, the r e d i s c o v e r e r o f the p r i m a c y o f psychic factors
explored, and mosl successfully so, willim the c a t e g o r i e s and by the
xii EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Introduction to the English Translation xiii

a m o n g t h e a n t e c e d e n t s o f m a j o r f o r m s o f m e n t a l illness, e m b r a c e d this n a t u r a l scientific d o g m a o f a c o n t i n u o u s causal n e x u s b e t w e e n


s o m a t i c prejudice. A t t i m e s h e s e e m e d t o v i e w e v e n n e u r o s e s a s everything that exists. D o u b t after doubt about Freud's theoretical
u l t i m a t e l y o r g a n i c in n a t u r e and p s y c h o a n a l y s i s as a t e m p o r a r y m e t a p s y c h o l o g y ' n o w b e g a n t o assail m e . H o w w a s i t t h a t Freud had
e x p e d i e n t to be replaced in t i m e by m o r e direct, s o m a t i c m e t h o d s of e v e n i n v e n t e d t h e label of ' m e t a p s y c h o l o g y , ' t h a t is, a p s y c h o l o g y b e y o n d
treatment. p s y c h o l o g y ? ' M e t a ' ? O b v i o u s l y b e c a u s e h e w a s i n t e n t upon o v e r s t e p p i n g
3

It w a s precisely F r e u d i a n t h e o r y and m e t a p s y c h o l o g y t h a t for w h a t w a s actually e x p e r i e n c e d and p e r c e i v e d . "


p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l and e x i s t e n t i a l i s t r e s e a r c h e r s b e c a m e t h e t e s t case for I f B i n s w a n g e r ' s c r i t i q u e o f F r e u d ' s t h e o r e t i c a l t r a n s g r e s s i o n s fell upon
t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r a l science paradigm i n p s y c h i a t r y . T h u s fertile g r o u n d for B o s s , his singling o u t o f p h e n o m e n o l o g y a s t h e p r o p e r
Ludwig B i n s w a n g e r a r g u e d t h a t Freud's u n d e r l y i n g n o t i o n of homo natura, a p p r o a c h t o t h e study o f m a n p r o v e d t o b e o f e v e n m o r e c o n s e q u e n c e .
of m a n seen in t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e f r a m e w o r k , w a s at a loss to a s s i m i l a t e W h e n , a f t e r a long and u l t i m a t e l y disappointing d e t o u r via C a r l J u n g ,
w i t h o u t u n d u e d i s l o c a t i o n t h e historical d i m e n s i o n s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e B o s s finally c a m e t o grips directly w i t h H e i d e g g e r ' s o n t o l o g y , h e a t first
h i g h l i g h t e d b y p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p r a c t i c e . P s y c h o a n a l y t i c m a n , w i t h his felt philosophically o v e r t a x e d , b u t t r e m e n d o u s l y e x c i t e d as well. His
c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s w i s h e s , his n e e d to u n d e r s t a n d and to i n t u i t i o n seizing u p o n islets of m e a n i n g in a vast sea of i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n ,
r a t i o n a l i z e , his h i s t o r y unfolding in t i m e , his a f f i r m a t i o n s and denials, his told h i m t h a t h e had c o m e u p o n s o m e t h i n g m o m e n t o u s . A p r o c e s s o f
e n t a n g l e m e n t s and d i s e n g a g e m e n t s t h i s m a n did n o t fit into t h e t o t a l i m m e r s i o n i n t o H e i d e g g e r ' s o n t o l o g y , f u r t h e r e d l a t e r by a close
P r o c r u s t e a n c o n c e p t of homo natura. B i n s w a n g e r implied (and B o s s w a s friendship with the philosopher, enabled Boss to articulate by degrees
later to e x t e n d t h e a r g u m e n t ) t h a t Freud had b e e n a practicing w h a t h e had i n t u i t e d r i g h t a w a y . N o t o n l y did H e i d e g g e r ' s o n t o l o g y
e x i s t e n t i a l i s t w h i l e t h e o r i z i n g like a n a t u r a l s c i e n t i s t . Freud's u n w i t t i n g p r o p o s e a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i m a g e of m a n t h a t boldly a b o l i s h e d long
r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e ruling paradigm signaled t h e s t a t e o f e n t r e n c h e d a n t i n o m i e s , but this i m a g e also p r o v e d t o b e a m a z i n g l y
crisis in p s y c h i a t r y and g e n e r a l m e d i c i n e . r e l e v a n t and applicable directly to p s y c h i a t r y and p s y c h o l o g y . In clinical
a r e a a f t e r clinical a r e a , B o s s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e p o w e r o f H e i d e g g e r ' s
It is hardly a c c i d e n t a l t h a t , by and l a r g e , this s t a t e of crisis w a s m o s t
ideas t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e h u m a n r e a l i t i e s and u n r e a l i t i e s w i t h w h i c h t h e
k e e n l y felt b y a n u m b e r o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s . W h e r e a s i n t e r n i s t s , s u r g e o n s ,
p s y c h i a t r i s t finds h i m s e l f at grips in his daily w o r k .
n e u r o l o g i s t s , c a r d i o l o g i s t s , and o t h e r p r a c t i t i o n e r s w h o deal directly
w i t h t h e v a g a r i e s of palpable h u m a n tissue are apt to look to t h e T h u s H e i d e g g e r ' s so-called e x i s t e n t i a l s provided t h e basis for a n e w
perfectibility o f specific medical t e c h n i q u e s w h e n i n t r a c t a b l e medical p s y c h o d i a g n o s t i c s c h e m e . M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , his Daseinsanalytik directly
p r o b l e m s stop t h e m cold, t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t p e r p l e x e d b y the r e p e a t e d c h a l l e n g e d and led to a radical redefinition of s u c h f u n d a m e n t a l n o t i o n s
failures of his s t o c k in trade is aptto b e c o m e a p h i l o s o p h e r . T h i s is a s reality and r e a l i t y - t e s t i n g , dispensed w i t h w h a t e v e r philosophical
exactly what happened to Medard Boss. respectability such concepts as the unconscious or repression might have
A t r a i n e d psychoanalyst, personally acquainted with Freud, Boss came a c q u i r e d , and h i g h l i g h t e d t h e sterility w i t h w h i c h v a r i o u s c h r o n i c
over the years to resent the "strenuous mental acrobatics" imposed by p r e o c c u p a t i o n s had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n f r a m e d s u c h a s t h e b o d y - m i n d
p s y c h o a n a l y s i s upon a n a l y s t s and a n a l y s a n d s alike. O n l y b y c e a s e l e s s q u e s t i o n . H e i d e g g e r ' s t r e n c h a n t philosophical analysis m a d e explicit b y
m e n t a l c o n t o r t i o n s , B o s s felt, could t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l p h e n o m e n a B o s s , e n d e d up by leveling, to a large d e g r e e , traditional d i s t i n c t i o n s
o b s e r v e d in p s y c h o a n a l y t i c practice be fitted i n t o t h e f r a m e w o r k of b e t w e e n psychic and o r g a n i c illness. T h e leveling o f t h e traditional
Freudian t h e o r i e s . H e e x p e r i e n c e d a p r o f o u n d s e n s e o f liberation w h e n p a r t i t i o n s b e t w e e n p s y c h i a t r y and g e n e r a l m e d i c i n e w a s t h e inevitable
h e first c a m e a c r o s s B i n s w a n g e r ' s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e o f t h e corollary.
Freudian paradigm. A t t h e t i m e h e d i s c o v e r e d B i n s w a n g e r , B o s s w a s T h e first b o o k b y M e d a r d B o s s t o r e f l e c t his H e i d e g g e r i a n approach
particularly u n e a s y a b o u t t h e h i g h h a n d e d f a s h i o n i n w h i c h Freudian w a s Meaning and Content of Sexual Perversions, published in 1 9 4 7 . T h i s b o o k ,
analysis dealt w i t h t h e p h e n o m e n a o f d r e a m s . N o w , his sight s h a r p e n e d subtitled "A Daseinsanalytic Contribution to the Psychopathology of the
as a r e s u l t of B i n s w a n g e r ' s a c u t e o b s e r v a t i o n s , B o s s began to P h e n o m e n o n o f L o v e , " p r e s e n t e d p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l c a s e studies o f six
" u n d e r s t a n d t h a t Freud had b e e n compelled t o i n v e n t his w h o l e t h e o r y o f c a t e g o r i e s o f s e x u a l d e v i a n t s . T h e s e case studies w e r e n o t e w o r t h y for
d r e a m s , as well as his n o t i o n of an ' u n c o n s c i o u s , ' b e c a u s e as a child of his t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e Gestalt, t h e e x i s t e n t i a l p a t t e r n i n g , of individual
era he felt required to s u b j e c t the dream p h e n o m e n a , t o o , to the . . . h u m a n lives w a s p e r m i t t e d to a r t i c u l a t e itself, as it w e r e , u n d i m m e d by
Introduction to the English Translation xv
xiv EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

s y m b o l i c disguises he i m p u t e d to t h e d r e a m , F r e u d ripped t h e s e s y m b o l i c
t h e r e f r a c t i n g m e d i u m o f i n t r u s i v e e x p l a n a t o r y t h e o r i e s . While t h e s e
m a s k s o f f so e n e r g e t i c a l l y t h a t in t h e p r o c e s s he denuded t h e d r e a m and
c a s e studies b y t h e m s e l v e s offered striking t e s t i m o n y for the t e x t u r a l
r e d u c e d it to an a m o r p h o u s pulp, u n a b l e to resist t h e m o s t a r b i t r a r y
r i c h n e s s and c o m p r e h e n s i v e g r a s p yielded b y the D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c
interpretations.
approach, B o s s ' s m o r e g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y
Repudiating such methods, Boss attempted to show that with
o f s e x w e r e equally a r r e s t i n g . A s s t a r t i n g p o i n t for his e x p l o r a t i o n B o s s
p r o c e d u r e s t h a t w e r e less u n g e n t l e and m o r e r e s p e c t f u l o f t h e
used a description of w h a t he viewed as t h e ideal n o r m of love. To a t t a i n
p h e n o m e n a disclosing t h e m s e l v e s i n d r e a m s , d r e a m s w o u l d yield t h e i r
to t h e dual m o d e of loving e x i s t e n c e w i t h its t r a n s c e n d e n c e of self-
m e a n i n g s o f t h e m s e l v e s . T h e d r e a m m e s s a g e s e x p l i c a t e d i n this
a b s o r b e d s i n g u l a r i t y , a c c o r d i n g to B o s s a person m u s t be capable of
seemingly simple-minded m a n n e r , rather than extracted by cunning
m a t u r e s u r r e n d e r o f t h e s e l f and m u s t freely e m b r a c e his spiritual a s well
F r e u d i a n c r y p t o g r a p h y , are apt to p r o d u c e p r o f o u n d l y illuminating
a s his s e n s u a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f being. T h o s e w h o e x h i b i t m a j o r s e x u a l
t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s upon t h e d r e a m e r . T h e p o t e n t i a l impact o f d r e a m s o n
p a t h o l o g y a r e , in B o s s ' s v i e w , psychically impaired; trapped in a n a r r o w
t h e a w a k e n e d d r e a m e r is f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by B o s s ' s refusal to
a s t r i n g e n t world, t h e y y e t s t r i v e t o a t t a i n , i n t h e face o f g r e a t o u t e r and
d o w n g r a d e t h e reality o f t h e d r e a m w o r l d i n favor o f w a k i n g reality.
i n n e r o b s t a c l e s , as m u c h as t h e y can of love's r i c h n e s s , in t h e only w a y
B y taking d r e a m s s e r i o u s l y , i n q u e s t i o n i n g t h e claim o f t h e daylight
o p e n t o t h e m : t h e d e v i a n t s e x u a l act. S u c h a c t s , i n o t h e r w o r d s , w e r e s e e n
w o r l d to be t h e u n c o n t e s t e d a r b i t e r of w h a t is real, by allowing t h e
by Boss as tortured attempts to come to terms with personality defects
p h e n o m e n a o f t h e d r e a m w o r l d t o appear u n d i m m e d , w i t h o u t
t h a t prohibit t h e a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e dual m o d e o f e x i s t e n c e . Y e t e v e n
prejudging t h e m b y t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f a w a k e n e s s , B o s s was i n e l u c t a b l y led
these impoverished erotic configurations are illuminatedas Boss
t o s t r u g g l e w i t h s o m e v e r y old m e t a p h y s i c a l riddles: I f t h e d r e a m w o r l d
d o c u m e n t e d in his case s t u d i e s b y at least part of t h e aura i n t r i n s i c to
appears as real to us while we a r e d r e a m i n g as t h e w a k i n g w o r l d does
fully realized loving t r a n s c e n d e n c e . " T h e o m n i p o t e n c e of love is p e r h a p s
w h i l e w e a r e a w a k e , w h a t m a k e s u s decide w h i c h i s w h i c h ? H o w can w e
n o w h e r e m o r e e v i d e n t t h a n i n t h e s e , its a b e r r a t i o n s . " Freud's o b s e r v a
b e s u r e t h a t t h e w o r l d o f o u r a w a k e n e s s i s not j u s t a n o t h e r d r e a m ? A r e
tion w a s amply c o n f i r m e d b y B o s s ' s study o f s e x u a l p a t h o l o g y .
t h e r e c r i t e r i a w h i c h allow u s t o distinguish reliably b e t w e e n w a k i n g and
4
I n his n e x t b o o k , B o s s e x t e n d e d t h e r e a c h o f D a s e i n s a n a l y s i s t o t h e dreaming?
r e a l m o f d r e a m s . O n c e m o r e , h e t o o k F r e u d a s his point o f r e f e r e n c e .
T h e i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r m a y w a n t t o p u r s u e t h e s e and similar puzzles b y
F r e u d a c c o m p l i s h e d m u c h i n r e s c u i n g the r e a l m o f d r e a m i n g from the
reading B o s s ' s b o o k on d r e a m s . W h a t is of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e h e r e is
d i s r e p u t e i n t o w h i c h it had fallen a m o n g his positivistic c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .
t h a t B o s s w a s able t o s h o w t h a t i n its d r e a m i n g m o d e h u m a n e x i s t e n c e
V i e w i n g t h e d r e a m as a m a j o r bridge b e t w e e n t h e d o m a i n s of t h e c o n
c o r r e s p o n d s , as o n e r e v i e w e r of t h e b o o k put it, "in its spatiality,
s c i o u s and the u n c o n s c i o u s , F r e u d w a s able t o s h o w t h a t t h e s e g o s s a m e r
t e m p o r a l i t y , and its e n c o u n t e r w i t h the w o r l d e x a c t l y t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n s
c r e a t i o n s of sleep could be made to yield i m p o r t a n t m e s s a g e s by m e a n s of
a d v a n c e d by M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t h a v e led us, or could
p s y c h o a n a l y t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n s . In a s e n s e , F r e u d t h u s r e i n s t a t e d t h e reality
lead us, to a r e f l e c t i v e r e - a p p r o p r i a t i o n of t h e m o d e s of b e i n g - i n - t h e -
of d r e a m s . Y e t , as B o s s w a s to point o u t , o n l y to a d e g r e e . Freud
world."
c o n t i n u e d t o regard t h e d r e a m from t h e s t a n d p o i n t and w i t h the
B o s s ' s b o o k on d r e a m s signified a m a j o r step in t h e p r o c e s s of t h e
c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e w a k i n g s t a t e , w i t h o u t e v e r allowing t h e d r e a m r e a l m t o
" d e s t r u c t i o n o f psychological t h e o r y " ( G u s t a v Bally) t h a t w a s t o clear t h e
c h a l l e n g e t h e claim t o c l e a r - c u t p r e e m i n e n c e o f the w a k i n g world. ( T h e
g r o u n d for t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t paradigm. T a k i n g this p r o c e s s o n e step
t h o u g h t t h a t such a c h a l l e n g e w a s possible hardly o c c u r r e d to h i m . )
f u r t h e r , B o s s n e x t t u r n e d t o t h e d o m a i n o f so-called p s y c h o s o m a t i c
W h i l e c o n f e r r i n g upon t h e d r e a m t h e s t a t u s o f being " p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y 5
i l l n e s s e s . T h e traditional n o t i o n t h a t t h e s e illnesses w e r e s o m a t i c
r e a l , " Freud t o o k it for g r a n t e d t h a t this m e r e l y psychological reality w a s
d i s o r d e r s of primarily psychic origin would n o t do for B o s s . By positing
s u b s t a n t i a l l y less real t h a n the solid reality of w a k i n g .
the bodily and psychic r e a l m s as equally basic Ausiragsmedien ("media of
In his b o o k on d r e a m s B o s s s h o w e d t h a t Freud's a priori a s s u m p t i o n s a r t i c u l a t i o n " ) o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , B o s s bypassed t h e t i m e - w o r n d e b a t e s
a b o u t d r e a m reality's lack o f a u t o n o m y vis-a-vis t h e w a k i n g s t a t e led him a b o u t p s y c h o g e n e s i s vs. s o m a t o g e n e s i s . I n t h e B o s s i a n s c h e m e o f t h i n g s ,
to use p r o c e d u r e s t h a t w e r e needlessly h i g h h a n d e d and forceful in no s o m a t i c e v e n t could c a u s e a psychic o n e or vice v e r s a . S i m i l a r l y , s o m e
dealing with d r e a m s . T r e a t i n g the d r e a m as a m a s t e r of deception, Freud l o n g - s t a n d i n g puzzles such as c h o i c e of illness and choice of o r g a n w e r e
tore aparl its web, f r a g m e n t i n g and shredding it. Impatient with the r e f o r m u l a t e d ; the s e a r c h for c a u s a t i v e factors in the guise of specific
XVI EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Introduction to the English Translation xvii

conflict p a t t e r n s o r e m o t i o n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n s w a s called off. I n s t e a d , B o s s B o s s focused o n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l p h e n o m e n o n o f t r a n s f e r e n c e which,


a r t i c u l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , pathologically c o n s t r i c t e d m o d e s o f being by w i d e s p r e a d c o n s e n s u s , is c e n t r a l to the p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s .
w h i c h "bodied f o r t h , " a s h e put it, t h e n e x u s o f dislocations usually B o s s a r g u e d t h a t t h e w h o l e n o t i o n o f t r a n s f e r e n c e i s based upon r a t h e r
labeled a s " p s y c h o s o m a t i c . " T h u s B o s s described t h e e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n d e b a t a b l e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , such as t h e e x i s t e n c e of m o r e or less isolated,
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c for t h e h y p e r t e n s i v e a s t h a t o f being "walled-in alive." B o s s d e t a c h a b l e feelings w h i c h can be t r a n s p o r t e d ( t r a n s f e r r e d ) from o n e love
n o t e d t h a t t h e s e p a t i e n t s w e r e typically trapped in a s o r t of p r e s s u r e o b j e c t , e.g., t h e f a t h e r , to a n o t h e r , e.g., the t h e r a p i s t . T h e r e is also t h e
c o o k e r s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e s a f e t y valve o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . H e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t r a n s f e r e n c e love is v e r y d i f f e r e n t in kind f r o m g e n u i n e
p o i n t e d out h o w , i n e x a c t a n a l o g y t o the c o n t r a c t i o n o f t h e i r e x i s t e n t i a l love, e v e n t h o u g h F r e u d B o s s m a i n t a i n s w a s u n a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e
space, t h e blood s t r e a m o f t h e s e p a t i e n t s "is s u b j e c t e d t o e v e r rising t h e o n e clearly from t h e o t h e r . N o t only i s t r a n s f e r e n c e love a s s u m e d t o
p r e s s u r e i n t h e c o n f i n e m e n t o f n a r r o w i n g , calcifying v e s s e l s : thus this be d i f f e r e n t in kind; it is also v i e w e d as less real. T h e t h e r a p i s t loved by
kind of h y p e r t e n s i v e c o n t i n u e s to live until finally s o m e t h i n g w h i c h is his p a t i e n t with t r a n s f e r e n c e love is held n o t to be the real o b j e c t of this
filled t o b u r s t i n g d o e s b u r s t . " C o n t r a s t i n g t h e h y p e r t e n s i v e with t h e love. W h i l e this r e d u c t i o n of t h e love p h e n o m e n a arising in p s y c h o t h e r
a c c i d e n t - p r o n e , B o s s w e n t on to say: " W h a t t e a r s in such p a t i e n t s is n o t , apy is i n t r i n s i c to p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i z i n g , it is c e r t a i n l y n o t dictated by
as in t h e c a s e s p r e v i o u s l y studied, a p e r i p h e r a l b o n e or s o m e m u s c l e these p h e n o m e n a themselves. Boss dispenses with theoretical construc
t i s s u e draped o v e r it, b u t r a t h e r i n accord w i t h t h e i r life style of stoic t i o n s a b o u t t h e t r a n s f e r o f d e t a c h a b l e feelings f r o m o n e o b j e c t t o a n o t h e r
f o r b e a r a n c e a blood vessel deep and s e c r e t in the body w h i c h , in and g r a n t s t h e m t h e reality t h e y display w h e n g i v e n t h e i r full s w a y . H e
b u r s t i n g , r e l e a s e s t h e m from t h e t o o h e a v y b u r d e n o f e a r t h l y e x i s t e n c e . " feels t h a t such a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach, l o a t h t o d e r e a l i z e w h a t e v e r
m a n i f e s t s itself, e n h a n c e s n o t o n l y o u r p o w e r s o f a p p r e h e n s i o n , but also
B o s s ' s v i e w o f " p s y c h o s o m a t i c " illness a s " b o d y i n g f o r t h " deficient
o u r t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A n d indeed, t h e i l l u s t r a t i v e c a s e h i s t o r y
m o d e s o f b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d w a s s o o n a b a n d o n e d b y h i m a t first
n e a r t h e end of Psychoanalyse und Daseinsanalytik m a k e s a v e r y s t r o n g case
r a t h e r t e n t a t i v e l y t o t h e r e a l m o f o r g a n i c d i s e a s e . T h e first s t e p s o f this
for t h e p o w e r o f a r t i c u l a t i o n and t h e r a p e u t i c p o t e n c y o f D a s e i n s a n a l y s i s .
e x t r a p o l a t i o n are t r a c e a b l e in his b o o k on p s y c h o s o m a t i c s . In t h e s a m e
b o o k , B o s s also b e g a n to redefine the role of the physician in T h e t h e m e s a d u m b r a t e d i n B o s s ' s w o r k s discussed s o far w e r e fully
D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c t e r m s . In this p e r s p e c t i v e , it w a s n o t l o n g e r e n o u g h for developed and o r c h e s t r a t e d in his m o n u m e n t a l Grundriss der Medizin
t h e d o c t o r t o b e a n e x p e r t r e p a i r m a n o f bodily o r psychic d y s f u n c t i o n s . ( 1 9 7 1 ) o f w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t v o l u m e i s t h e s o m e w h a t abridged E n g l i s h
T h e D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c h e a l e r is called upon to deal w i t h t h e existential v e r s i o n . T h i s w o r k w a s b o u n d t o stir u p c o n t r o v e r s y i n t h a t i t e x t e n d e d
l i m i t a t i o n s and deficiencies of w h i c h , in the D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c c a n o n , B o s s ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e applicability o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e p a r a d i g m t o
individual d i s e a s e s , b o t h psychic and o r g a n i c , a r e o r , at least, m a y m a n from t h e a r e a o f p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o s o m a t i c s t o t h e vast r e a l m o f
besymptomatic. g e n e r a l medicine. W h e r e a s B o s s ' s e a r l i e r w o r k s a r g u i n g t h e i n a d e q u a c y
.In his n e x t m a j o r w o r k , Psychoanalyse and Daseinsanalytik ( 1 9 5 7 ) , " B o s s o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e p a r a d i g m i n p s y c h i a t r y did n o t a r o u s e m u c h
l a u n c h e d his first s y s t e m a t i c a t t e m p t t o d i s m a n t l e Freud's t h e o r e t i c a l p a s s i o n a t e c o n t r o v e r s y , his i n c u r s i o n i n t o t h e w e l l - d e f e n d e d d o m a i n o f
s y s t e m . T a k i n g F r e u d at his w o r d t h a t his t h e o r i e s m a t t e r e d less than his somatic medicine was an entirely different matter. Unlike theologians,
o b s e r v a t i o n s , B o s s t o o k u p and developed B i n s w a n g e r ' s earlier a r g u m e n t B o s s ' s medical c o l l e a g u e s s e e m e d quite disposed n o t t o c o n t e s t t h e
t h a t p s y c h o a n a l y s i s is r e n t by a fatal i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n : t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n of the h u m a n soul by D a s e i n s a n a l y s i s as long as it did n o t
empirical p h e n o m e n a t h e m a t i z e d b y F r e u d d o n o t really m e s h w i t h his meddle w i t h t h e i r claims t o t h e h u m a n body. B u t w h e n D a s e i n s a n a l y s i s
t h e o r i e s . It w a s o n l y logical, in B o s s ' s e y e s , to discard the t o p - h e a v y began to trespass upon their ground, the temperature of criticism from
t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e m o r e so as he had c o m e to discern a t h e medical r a n k s r o s e n o t i c e a b l y .
providential affinity b e t w e e n t h e empirical data o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s and S u c h zeal in t h e c a u s e of o r t h o d o x y s e e m e d hardly called for. B o s s is no
H e i d e g g e r ' s m e t a p h y s i c s . ( B o s s even w e n t s o far a s t o s u g g e s t t h a t Ivan IUich; he is n o t i n t e n t upon b r i n g i n g d o w n t h e e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e of
F r e u d , w h e n h e w a s n o t t h e o r i z i n g , was a n u n w i t t i n g e x i s t e n t i a l i s t m o d e r n m e d i c i n e . In fact, his c o n c e r n s are n o t primarily p r a g m a t i c , even
w h o s e historically c o n d i t i o n e d prejudices a l o n e p r e v e n t e d him from though bound to have important pragmatic consequences. Conceding
r e c o g n i z i n g the full philosophical i m p o r t of his discoveries.) quite readily m o d e r n m e d i c i n e ' s v i r t u o s i t y i n m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e h u m a n
In o r d e r to i l l u s t r a t e t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c tht jorizing, body, h e m e r e l y i n q u i r e s w h e t h e r such m a s t e r y g u a r a n t e e s i n a n y w a y
xviii EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
Introduction to the English Translation xix

a n a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o b j e c t t h u s m a n i p u l a t e d . T o b e able t o illustrate his r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e b o d y - m i n d issue. R e a d i n g t h e s e


describe in g r e a t detail t h e physically a c c e s s i b l e f e a t u r e s of s o m a t i c s e c t i o n s o f the b o o k closely o n e realizes t h a t t h e s a m e o r g a n i c disease
p h e n o m e n a and t h e i r p h y s i c o c h e m i c a l a n t e c e d e n t s is n o t the s a m e as befalling different individuals is n o t t h e s a m e disease. E v e r y t h i n g h i n g e s
being able t o c o m p r e h e n d t h e i r c o n t e x t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . S i n c e m o d e r n on the existential context, as Boss's passages about the existential
medicine has so little to say a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n t i a l m e a n i n g of m o s t m e a n i n g of a h e r n i a or a f r a c t u r e d tibia m a k e clear. If, as B o s s believes,
physical illnessin fact, c o n s i d e r s the q u e s t i o n of m e a n i n g as largely even t h e s e e m i n g l y m o s t trivial physical a c c i d e n t a f f e c t s t h e p e r s o n ' s
i r r e l e v a n t w e m i g h t be well advised to lend o u r e a r to a d i v e r g e n t w h o l e b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , it follows t h a t no illness can be c o n s i d e r e d to
approach, such as B o s s ' s , t h a t views t h e issue of the m e a n i n g of disease as have b e e n truly cured u n l e s s t h e d i s t o r t i o n s o f b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d
central. c o r r e l a t e d w i t h it a r e also c o r r e c t e d . T h u s , in f o r m u l a t i o n s of stress, B o s s
Far from w a n t i n g to abolish the u s e of n a t u r a l science m e t h o d o l o g y in t r i e s t o establish n o t o n l y t h e p s y c h o l o g i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i c i t y , b u t also t h e
m e d i c i n e , B o s s is b e n t on pointing out its l i m i t a t i o n s . T h a t w i t h i n c e r t a i n need for a truly c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x i s t e n t i a l t h e r a p y w h i c h in t h e face of
limits t h e use of this m e t h o d o l o g y is justifiable and n e c e s s a r y B o s s t a k e s any f o r m o f illness n e v e r loses s i g h t o f t h e total c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e
for g r a n t e d . It is t h e claim of this m e t h o d o l o g y to total dominion o v e r s u f f e r e r ' s Da-sein and does n o t c o n s i d e r its task a c c o m p l i s h e d w h e n it has
m e d i c i n e t h a t B o s s c o n t e s t s . T h e first part o f t h e p r e s e n t b o o k r e s t o r e d o p t i m a l physical f u n c t i o n i n g . O n c e a p a t i e n t w h o s e s e x u a l
c o n s t i t u t e s in fact a forceful e s s a y on the inability of the n a t u r a l scientific c o n t a c t s are limited t o call girls h a s b e e n c u r e d o f t h e g o n o r r h e a t h a t
approach t o gain a c c e s s t o t h e w h o l e reality o f day-to-day h u m a n b r o u g h t h i m t o medical a t t e n t i o n , t h e main p r o b l e m still r e m a i n s t o b e
e x i s t e n c e . It is only t h e fullest possible a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h i s r e a l m from a t a c k l e d a c c o r d i n g t o B o s s . T h e q u e s t i o n s n e e d t o b e raised, B o s s feels,
p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l point o f view, B o s s c o n t e n d s , t h a t can e n s u r e a n W h a t peculiar c o n s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e p e r s o n ' s e x i s t e n t i a l p o t e n t i a l c o m p e l
a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h u m a n being i n h e a l t h and i l l n e s s . 7 h i m t o h a v e r e c o u r s e t o t h e c h e a p c o i n a g e o f c o u n t e r f e i t l o v e ? and H o w
can h e b e helped t o o v e r c o m e t h e s e g r o w t h - s t u n t i n g l i m i t a t i o n s (which,
B o s s ' s critique of t h e n a t u r a l scientific paradigm in m o d e r n medicine is
incidentally, e x p o s e h i m c o n t i n u o u s l y t o t h e risk o f r e i n f e c t i o n ) ?
based upon his f u n d a m e n t a l distinction b e t w e e n t h e realm of o b j e c t s and
t h e realm of m a n . O n l y m a n is said to exist in t h e precise s e n s e given to N o less a r r e s t i n g t h a n B o s s ' s p a s s a g e s a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n s
this t e r m by H e i d e g g e r ' s o n t o l o g y of Da-sein. T h i s implies, a l m o s t by o f o r g a n i c illnesses are his o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t s c h i z o p h r e n i a , " t h e m o s t
definition, t h a t the w h o l e h u m a n realm, inclusive o f the h u m a n body, h u m a n and the m o s t i n h u m a n of all d i s e a s e s , " and a p a r t i c u l a r l y pivotal
c a n n o t be a p p r e h e n d e d a d e q u a t e l y in t e r m s of a paradigm (the n a t u r a l o n e w i t h i n t h e D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c paradigm. W h a t m a k e s B o s s ' s t r e a t m e n t
scientific o n e ) o r i g i n a t i n g from and fully s o v e r e i g n o n l y in t h e of s c h i z o p h r e n i a so striking is t h a t he deals w i t h it p r i m a r i l y u n d e r t h e
n o n h u m a n realm. W h a t H e i d e g g e r and B o s s a r e aiming at, in o t h e r heading of "the pathology of (existential) freedom." Boss sees as the
w o r d s , i s t o w i t h d r a w t h e h u m a n body from the d o m a i n o f n a t u r e w h e r e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f s c h i z o p h r e n i c illness t h e a b r o g a t i o n o f t h e m o s t basic
D e s c a r t e s had placed it and to r e i n t e g r a t e it into the e x i s t e n t i a l r e a l m . e x i s t e n t i a l ( c o n s t i t u e n t ) of h u m a n Da-seinits f u n d a m e n t a l f r e e d o m and
H e n c e t h e i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d to t h e t e r m bodyhood s t r e s s i n g , as it does, o p e n n e s s t o w a r d o t h e r h u m a n b e i n g s and t o w a r d the w h o l e realm o f
the q u a s i - i m m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e bodily side o f m a n . phenomena.
In o r d e r to r e m a i n close to i m m e d i a t e e x p e r i e n c e , Foundations is B o s s ' s e m p h a s i s o n t h e s c h i z o p h r e n i c ' s f o r f e i t u r e o f his e x i s t e n t i a l
o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d a case h i s t o r y d r a w n from medical practice. Using t h e a u t o n o m y , on his being engulfed and d e v o u r e d by t h e b e i n g s and o b j e c t s
a s t u t e l y c h o s e n c a s e o f R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r a s a point o f a n c h o r a g e for t h e h e m e e t s w i t h , e n a b l e s u s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e overall c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f
w h o l e c o m p l e x l y s t r u c t u r e d w o r k t u r n s out to be a didactic m a s t e r s c h i z o p h r e n i c m o d e s of being as well as t h e i r m o s t s u b t l e a r t i c u l a t i o n s . A
s t r o k e . It e n d o w s t h e b o o k w i t h an a m a z i n g s e n s e of u n i t y and case in p o i n t is t h a t of t h e s c h i z o p h r e n i c patient of F. F i s c h e r c o m m e n t e d
c o h e r e n c e , besides b e s t o w i n g upon R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r , w h o i s viewed from upon b y B o s s . W h e r e a s F i s c h e r i n t e r p r e t e d the patient's c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
e v e r v a r y i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s and t h r o u g h t h e m o s t diverse t h e o r e t i c a l as indicative of the collapse of his " t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l f r a m e of r e f e r e n c e , "
l e n s e s , a n a b u n d a n c e o f i n c a r n a t i o n hardly e v e r v o u c h s a f e d t o t h e B o s s , less t h e o r y - b o u n d , n o t e d t h a t this patient w h o kept talking a b o u t
subject o! a medical case study. his clock w a s n o t really c o n c e r n e d w i t h its t i m e - m e a s u r i n g p r o p e r t i e s .
I )l part icular i n t e r e s t to m o s t readers will be t h e w a y in w h i c h M e d a r d R a t h e r h e w a s w h o l l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the different w a y s h e related t o
B o s s draws upon the s o m a t i c illnesses and t r i b u l a t i o n s of his h e r o i n e to t h e clock and the clock to him: At t i m e s he would e x p e r i e n c e it as t h e
XX EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Introduction to the English Translation xxi

familiar, clearly d e l i n e a t e d clock on t h e wall, a significant object in a w o r l d , it is plausible t h a t a n y beneficial c h a n g e in this m o d e , h o w e v e r


w o r l d of o b j e c t s t h a t g r a n t e d him a dwelling place; at o t h e r m o m e n t s , it e f f e c t e d , will lead to an a b a t e m e n t of s y m p t o m s . W h a t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of
dissolved i n t o a " m e r e " clock, cut o f f f r o m its m o o r i n g s in t h e t h e d e f e c t i v e m o d e of being called s c h i z o p h r e n i c is, according to
e n v i r o n m e n t , floating in a d i r e c t i o n l e s s , h o m o g e n i z e d space i n t o w h i c h D a s e i n s a n a l y s i s , t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e d e m a n d s i m p o s e d b y his
t h e p a t i e n t w a s s w e p t , b e n u m b e d and " d i s p e r s e d , " r o b b e d o f t h e " t h r e a d e x i s t e n t i a l situation upon t h e s c h i z o p h r e n i c and his ability to cope w i t h
to [ h i m s e l f ] . " It w a s t h e h e l p l e s s , passive s w a y i n g b a c k and f o r t h b e t w e e n these demands. In other words, the schizophrenic is somebody who has
t h e s e t w o m o d e s o f e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e clock, and t h e v e r t i g o a t t e n d a n t been existentially overtaxed. In the eyes of the daseinsanalyst, there is no
upon this loss o f e x i s t e n t i a l a u t o n o m y , w h i c h i n B o s s ' s v i e w s c h i z o p h r e n i a or s c h i z o p h r e n i c per se. In t h e p r e s e n c e of each p a t i e n t ,
constituted the main c o n t e n t of the patient's communications. the q u e s t i o n n e e d s to be asked: S c h i z o p h r e n i c due to t h e (for this p e r s o n )
B o s s ' s r e s p e c t for w h a t is i m m e d i a t e l y given in e x p e r i e n c e , in w h a t e v e r e x c e s s i v e d e m a n d s o f w h a t kind o f e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n ? And i f t h e
guise it m a y p r e s e n t itself, also i n f o r m s his a t t i t u d e t o w a r d so-called d e m a n d s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a r e judiciously r e d u c e d f o r i n s t a n c e , b y
h a l l u c i n a t o r y o r delusional p h e n o m e n a . S i n c e D a s e i n s a n a l y s i s does n o t e n a b l i n g t h e p a t i e n t to lead a m o r e s h e l t e r e d , m o r e childlike e x i s t e n c e
r e c o g n i z e the c o n s t r u c t w e call o b j e c t i v e o r i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e reality a s t h e e v e r y t h i n g s c h i z o p h r e n i c a b o u t a g i v e n p a t i e n t m a y suddenly fade a w a y
u l t i m a t e judge of w h a t is real, t h e d a s e i n s a n a l y s t has little difficulty in as if it had n e v e r e x i s t e d . Of c o u r s e , in this case t h e d a s e i n s a n a l y s t will
t a k i n g a s c h i z o p h r e n i c ' s h a l l u c i n a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s for real. In doing so, n o t f l a t t e r h i m s e l f of h a v i n g p r o d u c e d a c u r e . T h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g of a
w i t h o u t c o n d e s c e n s i o n o r l a b o r i o u s s u s p e n s i o n o f disbelief, t h e p a t i e n t ' s e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n b y e x t e r n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n m u s t b e followed
daseinsanalyst gains the great advantage of an immediate relatedness b y t h e l a b o r i o u s p r o c e s s o f a p p r o p r i a t i n g u n r e a l i z e d m o d e s o f being.
with the schizophrenic patient. T h e final c h a p t e r s o f t h e p r e s e n t b o o k c o n v e y t h e e s s e n c e o f B o s s ' s
W h i l e n o t q u e s t i o n i n g t h e r e a l n e s s o f w h a t discloses itself i n t h e r a p e u t i c m o d e o f o p e r a t i o n s . T h e y amply s u p p o r t his claim t h a t
hallucinatory experiences, the daseinsanalyst wants to know what D a s e i n s a n a l y s i s c a t a l y z e s t h e fullest possible r e a l i z a t i o n o f the h u m a n
specific m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f n o r m a l b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d give rise t o such potential inherent in the therapeutic encounter. T h e therapist's
e x p e r i e n c e s . I n t h e t h r e e c a s e s o f s c h i z o p h r e n i c forfeit o f a u t o n o m y r e a d i n e s s t o open h i m s e l f widely (and w i t h o u t t h e s u b t e r f u g e o f
discussed by B o s s , this q u e s t i o n is p a r a m o u n t . T h u s t h e Sun-Man's b r i t t l e , theoretical dogmatism) to w h a t e v e r manifests itself in the interpersonal
s e q u e s t e r e d w o r l d has collapsed w h e n he felt b e t r a y e d by his o n l y friend. space c l e a r e d b y t h e r a p y , his w i l l i n g n e s s t o w e l c o m e t h e p h e n o m e n a
A s o r t of e x p l o s i v e d e c o n s t r i c t i o n of his e x i s t e n t i a l space had o c c u r r e d , appearing t h e r e a s real, n o m a t t e r h o w o u t l a n d i s h t h e i r g u i s e t h i s
and i n t o this e x i s t e n t i a l v a c u u m s o m e t h i n g " s u p e r n a t u r a l , " " s t r o n g e r o p e n - a r m e d , h o s p i t a b l e s t a n c e f r e e s t h e a n a l y s a n d i n his t u r n t o u n b e n d ,
t h a n m a n , " had s u r g e d t h e weird, spectral ("hallucinated") sun t h a t t o e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p r e v i o u s l y d i s o w n e d m o d e s o f c o n d u c t , and t o
h a u n t e d him for a w h o l e n i g h t . T h e p a t i e n t ' s a g o n y o f f o r l o r n n e s s had g r a d u a l l y m a k e t h e m his o w n .
m a d e t h e sun e m e r g e i n t o its b o u n d l e s s n e s s and reveal itself to h i m in a T h e a u t h o r o f this i n t r o d u c t i o n had occasion t o talk t o f o r m e r p a t i e n t s
w a y t h a t u p t o t h e n h e had n e v e r i m a g i n e d . " . . .he w a s o v e r p o w e r e d b y o f M e d a r d B o s s . T h e y s t r e s s e d h o w p r o f o u n d l y and dependably t h e y felt
t h e c o s m i c i n c a n d e s c e n c e o f t h e s u n , w h i c h f a s c i n a t e d him and u n d e r s t o o d and s u p p o r t e d , f r o m t h e v e r y first t h e r a p y h o u r , b y B o s s ' s
t h r e a t e n e d t o s c o r c h and s w a l l o w him and t h e e n t i r e e a r t h . Its limitless prodigal r e c e p t i v e n e s s . It is safe to a s s u m e t h a t B o s s ' s g r e a t n a t u r a l
i n c a n d e s c e n c e replaced the lost w a r m t h o f his c o n c r e t e , limited w a r m t h and e m p a t h y , w h i c h e v e n his o p p o n e n t s c o n c e d e , play a large
r e l a t i o n s h i p to his f r i e n d " (pp. 3 7 5 - 3 7 6 ) . B o s s is at pains to point o u t t h a t role in inviting t h e s p o n t a n e o u s t r u s t of people w h o , a l m o s t by
this e n t i r e l y n e w reality of the i n c a n d e s c e n t sun w a s as real for t h e definition, are m o s t p a r s i m o n i o u s w i t h t h e i r t r u s t . B u t , t h e n , it is equally
p a t i e n t as his f o r m e r reality, if n o t m o r e so. safe t o a s s u m e t h a t i t w a s n o c h a n c e h a p p e n i n g w h i c h m a d e M e d a r d B o s s
A r t i c u l a t i n g t h e e x i s t e n t i a l situation o f t h e s c h i z o p h r e n i c e n a b l e s t h e d i s c o v e r in H e i d e g g e r ' s Daseinsanalytik t h e f o u n d a t i o n s of a boldly
d a s e i n s a n a l y s t to induce c h a n g e s in this s i t u a t i o n t h a t a r e apt to m a k e h u m a n i s t i c medicine and p s y c h o l o g y .
d r a m a t i c s y m p t o m s o f p s y c h o s i s vanish a s i f b y m a g i c . S i n c e D a s e i n s a n
alysis does n o t look upon s c h i z o p h r e n i a as a p r o c e s s w i t h a d y n a m i s m Paul ] . S t e r n
m o r e or less its o w n , but v i e w s the p a t h o l o g i c a l s y n d r o m e as t h e
i m m e d i a t e c o n c o m i t a n t of a c e r t a i n d e f e c t i v e m o d e of b e i n g - i n - t h e -
xxii EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

NOTES

1. D e s c a r t e s did n o t c o n c e i v e of m a n , as La M e t t r i e l a t e r did, as I'homme machine. B u t his


notion of l e corps machine, the human body as mechanism, favored the subsequent
mechanization of the image of man.
2. In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) .
3. In L . J . P o n g r a t z , ed., Psychotherapie in Selbstdarstellungen ( B e r n : H a n s H u b e r , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp.
87-88.
4. Der Traum und seme Auslegung. (Bern: Hans Huber, 1953).
FROM THE PREFACE
5. Einfhrung in die psychosomatische Medizin ( B e r n : H a n s H u b e r , 1 9 5 4 ) .
6. P u b l i s h e d in a m u c h e x p a n d e d E n g l i s h v e r s i o n as Psychoanalysis ami Daseinanalysis. INew TO THE FIRST EDITION
York: Basil Books. IQbil
7. Boss's attempt to define the boundaries of the natural scientific method in medicine has the interesting side
effect o\ eroding the traditional dividing line between general medicine and medical psychology almost to the
vanishing point.

I w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n able t o c o m p l e t e t h e v o l u m e n o w b e f o r e y o u
w i t h o u t t h e help of m a n y o t h e r people. I o w e a special debt of g r a t i t u d e to
a whole generation of students w h o have persistently engaged me in
s c i e n t i f i c and philosophical d i s c u s s i o n s . T h e y f o r c e d m e t o r e e v a l u a t e
c o n t i n u a l l y ideas I had t a k e n o v e r from m y o w n t e a c h e r s , along w i t h
o t h e r s I had arrived at l a t e r on my o w n . By a happy c h a n c e , m a n y of my
t e a c h e r s w e r e o f u n c o m m o n i n t e l l e c t u a l c a l i b e r , t h e m o s t influential
a m o n g them being the physiologist W. R. Hess, the psychiatrists Eugen
B l e u l e r and W a g n e r v o n J a u r e g g , t h e i n t e r n a l specialists W . L o e f f l e r and
C h v o s t e k , and t h e depth p s y c h o l o g i s t s S i g m u n d F r e u d and C a r l J u n g . T o
t h e s e m e n I a m i n d e b t e d n o less t h a n t o m y s t u d e n t s .
B u t a b o v e all, it is t h e p h i l o s o p h e r M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r w h o is
r e s p o n s i b l e for this a t t e m p t to lay out a f o u n d a t i o n f o r m e d i c i n e . It
r e f l e c t s t h e c o u n t l e s s c o n v e r s a t i o n s in w h i c h I w a s privileged to
p a r t i c i p a t e o v e r t w o d e c a d e s o f friendship. F o r t h e past fifteen y e a r s ,
m o r e o v e r , H e i d e g g e r has held t w o o r t h r e e s e m i n a r s e a c h s e m e s t e r for
t h e b e n e f i t o f medical s t u d e n t s , including m i n e . T h e d i s c u s s i o n s c o m i n g
o u t o f t h e s e " Z o l l i k o n S e m i n a r s " also figure significantly i n this w o r k .
M o r e i m p o r t a n t , t h o u g h , i s t h e fact t h a t this w o r k actually evolved under
xxi V EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

Heidegger's watchful eye. T h e r e is not one section of "philosophical"


i m p o r t w h i c h w a s denied his g e n e r o u s c r i t i c i s m .
N o w a d a y s , a n y a t t e m p t to put f o r t h a f o u n d a t i o n of medicine is likely
to run t h e risk of b e i n g c o n d e m n e d by medical opinion as "purely
p h i l o s o p h i c a l " t h a t is, as i r r e l e v a n t and devoid of practical potential. To
m a n y in t h e h u m a n i t i e s , by c o n t r a s t , a f o u n d a t i o n like the o n e s k e t c h e d
h e r e m u s t s e e m " t o o s i m p l e . " I n o u r age o f logistics and c y b e r n e t i c s ,
usually o n l y the m o s t c o m p l e x and a b s t r a c t s c h e m e s m a y pass for t r u t h . PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
Y e t I h a v e tried at all t i m e s to k e e p e x c l u s i v e l y to w h a t could be k n o w n
simply and directly, an a t t i t u d e w h i c h has s u b j e c t e d me on occasion to t h e
c r i t i c i s m o f being " t o o u n p h i l o s o p h i c a l , " o r e v e n " n a i v e . "
T h e m e m b e r s o f t h e C o m m i t t e e for t h e S w i s s National Fund
(Kommission des Schweizerischen Nationalfonds), from t h e sciences and from the
h u m a n i t i e s alike, w e r e n o t m o v e d b y t h e s e p r e j u d i c e s , h o w e v e r . T h e i r
impartial g e n e r o s i t y m e r i t s a v e r y special e x p r e s s i o n of t h a n k s .

February 1 9 7 0 Medard Boss

T h e fact t h a t this b o o k h a s already g o n e i n t o a s e c o n d edition, despite


the d e m a n d s it m a k e s of its r e a d e r s , should be t a k e n as p r o o f of a wide
n e e d for a n e w and s o u n d e r basis of medical t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . T h e title
of t h e first edition, as it t u r n e d o u t , failed to e x p r e s s t h e a u t h o r ' s original
i n t e n t ; it s e e m e d to indicate t h a t t h e b o o k could be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y by
physicians. I had a s s u m e d w i t h t o o m u c h h a s t e t h a t e v e r y o n e w o u l d
r e c o g n i z e a f o u n d a t i o n of m e d i c i n e b a s e d on h u m a n n a t u r e as,
n e c e s s a r i l y , a f o u n d a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y as well. In a n y c a s e ,
this e r r o r has n o w b e e n c o r r e c t e d b y e x p a n d i n g t h e title o f t h e s e c o n d
edition to read Foundation of Medicine and Psychology. T h e r e a d e r n e e d no
l o n g e r r e f e r to a l e n g t h y s u b t i t l e for clarification. In k e e p i n g w i t h t h e
n e w title, m o r e space h a s n o w b e e n given t o discussing traditional
psychological c o n c e p t s .

Spring 1 9 7 4 Medard Boss


x xvii

INTRODUCTION

T h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n of a study on t h e f o u n d a t i o n of a s c i e n c e is to lay
o u t t h e field o f p h e n o m e n a i n t e n d e d for i n v e s t i g a t i o n . N o less i m p o r t a n t ,
h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h e w o r k specify t h e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h t h e s c i e n c e has
a s s i g n e d t o its o b j e c t s o f s t u d y f r o m t h e v e r y s t a r t , and o f t e n w i t h o u t
e x p r e s s d e l i b e r a t i o n . It is as i m p o s s i b l e for a s c i e n c e as for a n y o t h e r
h u m a n e n d e a v o r t o avoid a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f its o b j e c t s o f
study. E v e n a scientific e n t e r p r i s e c a n n o t begin vis-a-vis an i n d e t e r m i
n a t e n o t h i n g n e s s . It can t a k e for its s u b j e c t only s o m e t h i n g it has already
p e r c e i v e d as being s o m e t h i n g . W h e n e v e r we p e r c e i v e s o m e t h i n g as
s o m e t h i n g , w e h a v e already i n t e r p r e t e d its m o d e o f being i n s o m e w a y o r
o t h e r , n o m a t t e r h o w v a g u e this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m a y b e a t t h e o u t s e t .
Every science is therefore necessarilyand thus alwaysbased on
prescientific premises. T h e s e constitute a fundamental structure that
n o t m e r e l y sets f o r t h i n a d v a n c e w h i c h inquiries a r e p o s s i b l e and w h i c h
are n o t , b u t f u r t h e r m o r e d e t e r m i n e s t h e v e r y c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s c i e n c e
and t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h its r e s u l t s will be significant. It s e t s t h e goals for
t h e s c i e n c e and e s t a b l i s h e s t h e p r o c e d u r e s g u a r a n t e e i n g c o r r e c t practical
application o f t h e o r y .
A n y s c i e n c e t h a t w o u l d be w o r t h y to be called a s c i e n c e is accordingly
obligated to keep its f o u n d a t i o n clear of a m b i g u i t y and a p p r o x i m a t i o n . It
xxviii EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
Introduction xxix

m u s t u n d e r t a k e a g a i n and again t o r e t h i n k and r e a r t i c u l a t e t h e p r e m i s e s r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s of m e d i c i n e a c c o u n t far t o o p o o r l y for a fact t h a t is, in


on w h i c h it is based. O n l y this can a s s u r e reliable f u n c t i o n i n g and fact, f u n d a m e n t a l . T h e y largely o v e r l o o k h o w radically t h e n a t u r e o f
p r o d u c t i v i t y for t h e s c i e n c e . T h e e x e r c i s e also s e r v e s t o r e m i n d i t o f its t h e i r o b j e c t o f s t u d y h u m a n r e a l i t y d i f f e r s from t h e m a k e u p o f e v e r y
proper domain, protecting against boundary transgressions whose o t h e r r e a l m k n o w n t o us.
c o n s e q u e n c e s are, p r e d i c t a b l y , c o n f u s i o n o f i n t e n t and m i s u s e o f m e t h o d . L e t us t h e r e f o r e give u r g e n t e m p h a s i s and t e r m i n o l o g i c a l precision to
B e n e a t h t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f m o d e r n m e d i c i n e , u n d e r l y i n g all o f its this d i f f e r e n c e b e f o r e we begin. We declare t h a t only m a n exists. T h i s is
t h e o r i e s and all of its t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e d u r e s , lies a c o n c e p t i o n of n a t u r e n o t t o say t h a t m a t e r i a l , i n o r g a n i c n a t u r e and n o n h u m a n b e i n g s
w h o s e currency has risen markedly with the development of modern a n i m a l s and p l a n t s a r e in a n y s e n s e u n r e a l , i n s u b s t a n t i a l , or illusory
n a t u r a l s c i e n c e . T h e medical application t o h u m a n b e i n g s o f c o n c e p t s and b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t so exist. We m e r e l y s t a t e t h a t t h e reality of t h e s e
r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s d r a w n f r o m t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s led, a m o n g o t h e r n o n h u m a n r e a l m s differs f r o m t h a t o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , w h o s e p r i m a r y
t h i n g s , t o t h e r a p e u t i c a c h i e v e m e n t s t h a t s u r p a s s e d all e x p e c t a t i o n . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c is Da-sein (literally " b e i n g - t h e - t h e r e " ) .
T a k e n b y t h e m s e l v e s , t h e s e a c h i e v e m e n t s leave n o r o o m t o d o u b t t h a t I n s o f a r as Da-sein is t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h u m a n
this kind of application of the n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d is e x i s t e n c e , t h e d e s i g n a t i o n Da-sem m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d in a s e n s e t h a t
justifiable and n e c e s s a r y . Y e t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h this m e t h o d i s justified differs f r o m the c u r r e n t u s a g e of t h e G e r m a n w o r d Dasein. As it is
in claiming total d o m i n i o n o v e r medicine is m o r e h o t l y c o n t e n d e d today c o m m o n l y used, Dasein signifies little m o r e t h a n p r e s e n c e , as for e x a m p l e
than ever before. in p r o o f s of G o d ' s Dasein. T h e h u m a n being, t h o u g h , is a h u m a n being n o t
T o keep o u r s t u d y o f f u n d a m e n t a l s r o o t e d i n i m m e d i a t e e x p e r i e n c e , m e r e l y b e c a u s e he is, and can be o b s e r v e d to b e , s o m e t h i n g t h a t is
we shall use a t e s t c a s e . It will d e m o n s t r a t e t h e l e g i t i m a c y of the positive p r e s e n t . T h e table i n f r o n t o f m e , t h e s t o n e i n t h e g a r d e n t h e s e are
r e s u l t s o f medical r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s t o d a t e and will a t the s a m e t i m e m e r e l y p r e s e n t . M a n as m a n is p r e s e n t , h o w e v e r , in a m a n n e r w h o l l y
s h o w t h e limits o f t h e s e m e t h o d s . T h e c a s e h i s t o r y p r e s e n t e d h e r e h a s d i f f e r e n t from t h e s e i n a n i m a t e t h i n g s . O u r e n t i r e d i s c u s s i o n h i n g e s
b e e n d r a w n from medical p r a c t i c e and is well suited to the r e q u i r e m e n t s u p o n o u r ability t o c a s t light o n w h a t i s distinctively p e c u l i a r t o h u m a n
o f this d e m o n s t r a t i o n . All c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h follow t h e case are being, to s e e it and s t a y f o c u s s e d on it. O n l y t h e n , by p u t t i n g medicine on
o r i e n t e d t o w a r d factually r e p o r t e d e v e n t s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r h u m a n a basis t h a t is suited to h u m a n b e i n g s and t h e i r Da-sein, shall we c a r r y o u t
existence they represent. the physician's charge.
A s s u m i n g t h a t the t r u e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f m e d i c i n e i s m a n , the w h o l e T h e p a r t i c u l a r w a y i n w h i c h medical u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o date h a s
reality o f d a y - t o - d a y h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , w e shall l e a r n from o u r study t h a t g e n e r a l l y b e e n s h o r t s i g h t e d p o i n t s t h e w a y for o u r o w n w o r k . W e begin
t h e n a t u r a l scientific a p p r o a c h repeatedly finds i t s e l f c o n f r o n t i n g a r e a l m P a r t II by grappling o n c e again w i t h the familiar, individual, h e a l t h y
to w h i c h it c a n n o t gain a c c e s s . It is precisely t h e e s s e n c e of the w a y people b e h a v i o r a l p h e n o m e n a o f o u r test case. T h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , w e are
b e h a v e a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r daily lives, h o w t h e y c o n d u c t helped by a point of v i e w t h a t is totally d i f f e r e n t and m o r e suited to Da
t h e m s e l v e s t o w a r d t h e w o r l d and o t h e r c r e a t u r e s , t h a t m o d e r n sein. T o its vision, f e a t u r e s o f h u m a n being t h a t w e r e i n a c c e s s i b l e b e f o r e
m e d i c i n e ' s n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d fails e v e n t o a p p r o a c h , are i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e .
m u c h less to clarify in its u n i q u e n e s s . T h e s e f e a t u r e s c o m e t o light w i t h o u t t h e n e e d for a b s t r a c t d e d u c t i o n s
We shall look at e f f o r t s b o t h psychological and p s y c h o s o m a t i c t h a t or conclusions, without any speculative suppositions or hypotheses. T h e
p r o p o s e t o s u p p l e m e n t t h a t n a t u r a l scientific f o u n d a t i o n o f m e d i c i n e initial v e r i f i c a t i o n of this n e w p e r s p e c t i v e is followed by an e x p l i c a t i o n of
and m a k e a n a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g w h o l e . B u t w h e n t h e y a r e t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e D a - s - b a s e d * u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the h u m a n b e i n g ( w h i c h w a s t h e
t h e case h i s t o r y , t h e s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o s o m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s , implicit basis o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f individual h e a l t h y
t o o , c o m e u p a g a i n s t the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h a t r e a l m w h i c h has already p h e n o m e n a i n o u r h u m a n t e s t s u b j e c t ) . T h i s explication p r e s e n t s t h e
p r o v e n inaccessible t o t h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d . T h i s i n traits o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e t h a t a r e m o s t i m p o r t a n t for m e d i c i n e . T h e
turn requires an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the basic a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r u c t u r e o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e t h a t i s set f o r t h , t h o u g h i t
psychological and p s y c h o s o m a t i c s c i e n c e s . does n o t claim to be a c o m p r e h e n s i v e D a - s m i - b a s e d a n t h r o p o l o g y , will
( )ui 11 c . h i o n s i d e r a l i o n of principles leads to t h e c o n c l u s i o n of P a r t I: s e r v e as a solid f o u n d a t i o n for m e d i c i n e . O n c e r e s t o r e d to this basis, the
the psychological a n d p s y c h o s o m a t i c a s well a s t h e natural scientific e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e o f the c o n c e p t s and f u n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n s o f
XXX EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Introduction xxxi

p h y s i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y can be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a p h y s i o l o g y based f o r o u r p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n for m e d i c i n e and for p s y c h o l o g y .


on h u m a n b e i n g s and a p s y c h o l o g y based on Da-sein. Heidegger's fundamental philosophic thinking never revolved around
m a n t a k e n by h i m s e l f . F r o m t h e first it w a s directed, r a t h e r , t o w a r d
R o u n d i n g o u t P a r t II is a c h a p t e r discussing t h e b a r r i e r s t h a t o b s t r u c t a
s e e k i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f B e i n g a s s u c h . Y e t this f u n d a m e n t a l o n t o l o g i c a l
g e n u i n e t r a n s f e r o f t h e D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c p e r s p e c t i v e t o physicians
inquiry i n t o B e i n g can n e i t h e r b e tackled n o r r e s o l v e d u n l e s s w e can
s c h o o l e d in n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and p s y c h o l o g y .
explain a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e n a t u r e o f h u m a n b e i n g s and o u r primal
P a r t III, c o n t i n u i n g along familiar p r o c e d u r a l lines, b e g i n s by t e s t i n g
being t o g e t h e r in a s h a r e d world. T h u s the decisive i m p o r t a n c e of M a r t i n
t h e D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c p e r s p e c t i v e a g a i n s t the individual pathological
H e i d e g g e r ' s D a s e i n s a n a l y t i k for m e d i c i n e and p s y c h o l o g y .
s y m p t o m s of t h e t e s t c a s e . All t h e u n h e a l t h y p h e n o m e n a of a u n i q u e Da-
sein are h e r e disclosed as o u t c o m e s of failure to c a r r y o u t c e r t a i n basic
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . S t a r t i n g from t h e s e findings, P a r t III, * Editor's note: A l t h o u g h t h e G e r m a n Daseinsgemdss is h e r e a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e b o o k
translated as " D a s e i n - b a s e d , " phrase "appropriate to the D a s e i n " might be n e a r e r the mark.
t h e " R u d i m e n t s o f a n E x i s t e n t i a l G e n e r a l P a t h o l o g y , " i s primarily For r e a s o n s of style, h o w e v e r , and to maintain c o n s i s t e n c y with earlier translations of D r .
c o n c e r n e d w i t h c h a r a c t e r i z i n g all t h o s e h u m a n traits w h i c h until n o w Boss's work, the f o r m e r translation has been retained. "Appropriate to the D a s e i n " might
h a v e b e e n o b j e c t i f i e d and a b s t r a c t e d i n t o physical and psychic disease also be used in certain passages as an alternate rendering w h e r e the adjectives "existential"
and " D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c " appear. T h e reader m a y m a k e the substitution for h i m s e l f w h e r e v e r
symptoms as particular limitations in carrying various characteristics of
a g a i n in u n d e r s t a n d i n g m i g h t r e s u l t .
h u m a n e x i s t e n c e t o fulfillment.
T h i s r e s o l v e s a q u e s t i o n t h a t m a y h a v e a r i s e n for the reader during the
first c h a p t e r s o f this w o r k . T h e s e c h a p t e r s m a y i n m a n y w a y s h a v e
s e e m e d suited m o r e to the title Medunl Psychology t h a n to t h e actual
heading, Existential Foundations of Medicine and Psychology. B u t t h e s t a t e m e n t s
c o n c e r n i n g a g e n e r a l D a s e i n s a n a l y t i c p a t h o l o g y s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e fact
t h a t Medical Psychology and Foundation of Medicine are identical. Medical
p s y c h o l o g y is in i t s e l f t h e f o u n d a t i o n of m e d i c i n e in g e n e r a l . It is so by
v i r t u e of h u m a n n a t u r e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n h e r e is t h a t Medical Psychology
finally r e l i n q u i s h e s its d o m i n a n t c o n c e p t o f p s y c h e , t h e r e b y o v e r c o m i n g
and b r o a d e n i n g its l i m i t a t i o n s to b e c o m e a discipline of Da-sein and of
h u m a n life in this world.
T h e f o u r t h and final part o f this w o r k a n a l y z e s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s for
t h e r a p y held in a m o r e Da-smi-based and m o r e h u m a n f o u n d a t i o n of
m e d i c i n e . H e r e w e h a v e deliberately r e s t r i c t e d o u r s e l v e s t o e m p l o y i n g
c o m p a r a t i v e s , for it is n o t t h e purpose of this s t u d y to a r o u s e even t h e
suspicion that w e c o n s i d e r this g r o u n d w o r k t h e o n l y possibility, o r o n e
t h a t is definitive for all t i m e . B u t as t h i n g s stand today, t h e r e a p p e a r s to
be no s o u n d e r basis for medicine b e f o r e us.
If this is actually so, t h e n o u r f o u n d a t i o n o w e s its s t r e n g t h to the
p r e s c i e n t i f i c philosophical basis w i t h o u t w h i c h its s u b s e q u e n t scientific
a s s e r t i o n s would b e i m p o s s i b l e . W e h a v e already discussed t h e
t h e o r e t i c a l d e p e n d e n c e of all scientific r e s e a r c h upon philosophical
p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a b o u t its o b j e c t s o f study. J u s t a s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n a t u r a l
scientific and psychological f o u n d a t i o n s for m e d i c i n e g r e w o u t ofand
still d r a w t h e i r vitality w h o l l y f r o m t h e p r e s c i e n t i f i c philosophical
c o n c e p t i o n o f n a t u r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y D e s c a r t e s , G a l i l e o , and N e w t o n , s o
M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r ' s philosophical D a s e i n s a n a l y t i k first cleared g r o u n d
Part

T h e Traditional Foundation
o f Medicine
Chapter 1

A TEST CASE: REGULA ZRCHER

T h e first fact t h a t t h e p a t i e n t ' s m o t h e r r e p o r t e d a b o u t R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r


was that t h e infant r e q u i r e d t h e help of a pediatrician j u s t a few w e e k s
.il ter h e r b i r t h w h e n s h e developed a c u t e w e e p i n g e c z e m a t h a t c o v e r e d
I u imarily large a r e a s of h e r a r m s and legs.
I h e family medical h i s t o r y , w h i c h this first p h y s i c i a n o f R e g u l a
/ ii ri h e r had already t a k e n w i t h g r e a t c a r e , indicated no m a j o r h e r e d i t a r y
taint. N o n e o f h e r a n c e s t o r s o r close r e l a t i v e s h a d s u f f e r e d f r o m
n e u r o l o g i c a l o r m e n t a l d i s o r d e r s o r f r o m any allergies. O n t h e c o n t r a r y ,
e v e r y o n e d e s c r i b e d b o t h h e r p a t e r n a l and h e r m a t e r n a l families a s
pai ticularly v i g o r o u s a n d h e a l t h y people.
r h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i n f a n t ' s e c z e m a t u r n e d o u t t o b e v e r y difficult
and p r o l o n g e d . S e v e r a l y e a r s o f medical c a r e w e r e n e e d e d b e f o r e t h e
e x a g g e r a t e d irritability o f h e r skin subsided. B u t e v e n a f t e r t h e e c z e m a
finally receded, R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r still held t h e s c h o o l r e c o r d s f o r a b s e n c e
due to illness. C o l d s and e n i g m a t i c s t o m a c h a c h e s kept h e r c o n s t a n t l y in
bed, h e n s h e w a s s e v e n , h e r t o n s i l s , w h i c h w e r e i n f e c t e d m u c h o f t h e
time, had to be r e m o v e d . At t h e age of fifteen, w h e n s h e b e g a n to
m e n s t r u a t e , she b e g a n c o m p l a i n i n g o f s e v e r e c o n s t i p a t i o n , w h i c h soon
i <-<111111'Li w h o l e s a l e c o n s u m p t i o n o f l a x a t i v e s . W i t h o u t m e d i c a t i o n , h e r
b o w e l s s o m e t i m e s did not m o v e for o n e o r t w o w e e k s . T h e patient
4 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS .1 Test Case: Regula Zrcher 5

always felt w e a k , a p p e a r e d to v e g e t a t e , and r e m a i n e d so thin t h a t h e r m r n I ion a t t h e t i m e t h a t d r i n k i n g milk made h e r c o n d i t i o n w o r s e , s o h e r


d o c t o r s , r e p e a t e d l y s u s p e c t i n g t u b e r c u l o s i s , kept X - r a y i n g h e r . d o c t o r put h e r on a m i l k - f r e e diet. R e g u l a Z u r c h e r r e s p o n d e d by n o t i n g
W h e n s h e was n i n e t e e n , R e g u l a Z u r c h e r m a r r i e d a m a n a f e w y e a r s Mi.it s h e felt s o m e w h a t b e t t e r , b u t w a s still far f r o m well.

older t h a n she. T h e y had k n o w n each o t h e r f r o m h e r s c h o o l days. A t In the c o u r s e of s e v e r a l m o r e h o s p i t a l s t a y s w h i c h followed each o t h e r


t w e n t y - o n e s h e b o r e h e r first and o n l y child. D u r i n g p r e g n a n c y , s h e felt at d e c r e a s i n g i n t e r v a l s , t h e p a t i e n t w a s s u b j e c t e d to v e r y i n t e n s i v e and
b e t t e r t h a n s h e e v e r had, b u t t w o m o n t h s a f t e r t h e delivery, h e r h e a l t h e x p e n s i v e opium and m o r p h i u m t r e a t m e n t s . B u t , e a c h t i m e , h e r pains
d e t e r i o r a t e d rapidly. H e r c o n s t i p a t i o n as well as h e r s t o m a c h and returned with undiminished strength as soon as the drugs were
i n t e s t i n a l a c h e s g r e w m o r e i n t e n s e despite t h e u s e o f a n e n t i r e a r s e n a l o f w i t hdrawn.
medications. Increasingly, the constipation alternated with severe I n view o f h e r d e t e r i o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n , h e r d o c t o r p r e s c r i b e d
a t t a c k s o f d i a r r h e a w h i c h w o u l d s t a r t v e r y a b r u p t l y and last for days. n u reasingly s t r i c t diets, and s o o n s h e w a s r e d u c e d t o eating thick gruel
Blood w a s f o u n d in h e r s t o o l , and h e r d o c t o r s d i a g n o s e d a s e v e r e colitis. and v a r i o u s kinds of pap. Finally h e r food i n t a k e b e c a m e so limited t h a t it
S h o r t l y b e f o r e h e r m a r r i a g e , R e g u l a Z u r c h e r had added a g y n e c o l o g i s t had to be s u p p l e m e n t e d by i n t r a v e n o u s i n f u s i o n s . T h e p a t i e n t kept
t o t h e r e g i m e n t o f d o c t o r s a t t e n d i n g h e r . S h e had b e g u n t o s u f f e r from losing w e i g h t until s h e had dwindled t o e i g h t y - t h r e e and o n e - h a l f
u n b e a r a b l e pains i n h e r b r e a s t s . F o r a b o u t t h r e e w e e k s o f each m e n s t r u a l pounds (she w a s five f e e t t e n i n c h e s tall). T h e small a r m y o f six d o c t o r s
cycle, h e r b r e a s t s b e c a m e hard a s s t o n e , and t h e l i g h t e s t t o u c h w o u l d b e 1 1 e.it m g h e r w a s p r e p a r e d for t h e w o r s t . T h e i n t e r n i s t s h e t r u s t e d m o s t
s o painful t h a t s h e could h a v e s c r e a m e d . T h e first g y n e c o l o g i s t w a s s o o n told h e r p o i n t b l a n k t h a t he w a s at his w i t s ' e n d .
s u p p l e m e n t e d by o t h e r s , including a n o t e d p r o f e s s o r of g y n e c o l o g y . His I his admission of defeat s e e m e d to m a r k t h e end of t h e clinical h i s t o r y
r e p o r t : "I h a v e n o t s e e n a m o r e p r o n o u n c e d case of a functional h o r m o n a l which s o m a n y pediatricians, i n t e r n i s t s , r h e u m a t o l o g i s t s , r a d i o s c o p i s t s ,
i m b a l a n c e in t h e s e n s e of an e x c e s s i v e p r o d u c t i o n of follicle s t i m u l a t i n g e n d o c r i n o l o g i s t s , s u r g e o n s , and g y n e c o l o g i s t s had tried t o u n r a v e l . S o m e
hormone. An anti-estrogen therapy, consisting of the administration of nt t h e s e physicians had tried to p r o b e b e y o n d R e g u l a Z u r c h e r ' s medical
androgens remained without success." history and find o u t s o m e t h i n g m o r e a b o u t h e r past, b u t t h e patient
B e c a u s e o f h e r i n t e s t i n a l s y m p t o m s , s h e w a s forced t o u n d e r g o , w i t h i m p l y could n o t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g s h e c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t . T h e

i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y , long s t a y s in t h e hospital. T h e p h y s i c i a n s at t h e quesl ions o f h e r d o c t o r s w e r e a i m e d primarily a t u n c o v e r i n g h e r past and


hospital w e r e at a loss to d i a g n o s e and t r e a t h e r illness. T h e y tried pi e s e n t physical pains and s y m p t o m s ; t h e p a t i e n t n e v e r had t h e s l i g h t e s t
v a r i o u s diets and m e d i c a t i o n s w i t h little s u c c e s s . D u r i n g o n e o f t h e s e i n l e n t i o n o f hiding a n y i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e d o c t o r s w h o w e r e trying t o

s t a y s , an a c u t e p a n c r e a t i t i s w a s diagnosed. It w a s t r e a t e d w i t h pain help her. T i m e and again, w h e n h e r d o c t o r s p u m p e d h e r for m o r e


killers, penicillin, and c a t a p l a s m s , and h e r h e a l t h i m p r o v e d rapidly. Information, she would repeat that nothing of any importance occurred
F o u r y e a r s l a t e r s h e had to be hospitalized again, this t i m e for 11' h e r .

u n b e a r a b l e back pains. H e r X - r a y s and l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s s h o w e d n o m a j o r B u i h e r c a s e took o n n e w depth, s o t o speak, w h e n t h e patient decided


a b n o r m a l i t i e s , e x c e p t for a n i n c r e a s e d s e c r e t o r y activity o f h e r small H I h e r o w n initiative t o s e e k o u t a p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t . S h e w a s t h e n
intestine. i w e n t y - e i g h t y e a r s old. O w i n g to h e r endless i n f i r m i t i e s and d e s p e r a t i o n

A specialist in a r t h r i t i s w a s called in. He f o u n d signs of r h e u m a t i s m , \ I I psychological s y m p t o m s w h i c h will b e described b e l o w , s h e had


but n o t e d t h a t t h e usual t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e d u r e s w e r e o f n o use w i t h this fallen into a s e v e r e d e p r e s s i o n and felt increasingly t e m p t e d to c o m m i t
difficult patient. In fact, s o m e h i g h - p o w e r e d a n a l g e s i c s t h a t he .1111 Illl'

p r e s c r i b e d w e r e i n c r e a s i n g h e r pains instead o f s o o t h i n g t h e m . H e s e n t I I i s t r u e that h e r f o r m e r p h y s i c i a n s w e r e n o t u n a w a r e o f possible


h e r back to t h e i n t e r n i s t w h o , at a loss for f u r t h e r m e a s u r e s , s u g g e s t e d p yi h o s o m a t i c r a m i f i c a t i o n s in h e r c a s e . In fact, t h e y had c o n s i d e r e d
s h e " t a k e a holiday trip w i t h h e r h u s b a n d . " e i m u ' . l y the idea o f telling t h e p a t i e n t t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be p s y c h o l o g i c a l
A few y e a r s l a t e r , u n d e r t h e c a r e o f a n o t h e r physician, s h e w a s again i. | M i I s in her suffering. B u t d u r i n g t h e long y e a r s of t r e a t m e n t , t h e y had
put t h r o u g h a b a t t e r y of clinical t e s t s , t h e s y m p t o m s at t h a t t i m e b e i n g mil in l i n e d any s y m p t o m s o f h e i g h t e n e d n e r v o u s n e s s o r h y s t e r i c a l
mainly i n t e s t i n a l pains and c o n s t i p a t i o n w h i c h a l t e r n a t e d w i t h d i a r r h e a . in iei y oi a n y t h i n g else t h a t s u g g e s t e d e m o t i o n a l illness and concluded
T h e test findings indicated a n " i r r i t a b l e c o l o n . " T h e patient h a p p e n e d t o thai any suspicion of n e u r o t i c c o m p l i c a t i o n s o u g h t to be discarded.
6 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS '1 Test Case: Regula Ziircher 7

H e n c e t h e y t h o u g h t it u n w i s e to a r o u s e false h o p e s in the p a t i e n t by l o u r d a u g h t e r s o r f r o m his wife. T h e f a t h e r ' s e x p l o s i o n s o f a n g e r w e r e


s u g g e s t i n g p s y c h o t h e r a p y . In fact, t h e i r c a u t i o n w e n t so far t h a t t h e y did e v e r y d a y o c c u r r e n c e s p r o v o k e d by t h e least i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n from his
not even m e n t i o n t h e possibility t o h e r . family. C o m p l e t e l y u n r e s t r a i n e d in e v e r y r e s p e c t h i m s e l f , he d e m a n d e d
To the therapist she chose, Regula Ziircher appeared to be a shy, very I net discipline and m o d e s t y f r o m e v e r y o n e else in his family.
s e n s i t i v e y o u n g w o m a n . H e r figure w a s girllike, t o o thin, b u t full o f S o m e t i m e s , during o n e of his s a v a g e d o m e s t i c r a g e s in w h i c h he had
g r a c e ; h e r face w a s beautiful, w i t h delicate, v e r y f e m i n i n e , soft f e a t u r e s . < o m p l e t e l y c r u s h e d the victim of his a n g e r , he would do an a b r u p t a b o u t -
O n l y for m o m e n t s at a t i m e did s h e dare look up and m e e t t h e e y e s of h e r face and feel r e m o r s e for w h a t h e had d o n e . T h e n h e w o u l d t a k e t h e h a n d
t h e r a p i s t . T h e r e s t o f t h e t i m e she s t a r e d a t t h e floor i n f r o n t o f her, s o o l the punished o n e and press m o n e y into i t t o buy b a c k h e r a f f e c t i o n .
t h a t of h e r large, n e a r l y closed e y e s , o n l y t h e lids w i t h t h e i r long dark ( Hlen his d a u g h t e r s w o u l d h a v e p r e f e r r e d to t h r o w this c o n s c i e n c e
l a s h e s could b e s e e n . H e r t w o hands w e r e t w i s t e d t o g e t h e r o n h e r k n e e s m o n e y into his face, b u t as long as t h e y w e r e small, t h e y j u s t said t h a n k
in the folds of an e x q u i s i t e l y tasteful dress. y o u . I t w a s n o t h a r d t o i m a g i n e t h e n e w o u t b r e a k o f fury t h a t refusal o f
D u r i n g t h e first i n t e r v i e w , a f t e r m a k i n g a f e w c o n v e n t i o n a l r e m a r k s , I lie m o n e y would h a v e a r o u s e d . W h e n e v e r the f a t h e r w a s at h o m e , the
t h e p a t i e n t fell silent and v e n t u r e d t o say n o t h i n g m o r e o n h e r o w n . S h e family a t m o s p h e r e w a s h e a v y w i t h t e n s i o n , like t h e air b e f o r e a s t o r m .
responded to the d o c t o r ' s q u e s t i o n s in a r a t h e r p r o v o c a t i v e , a l m o s t T h e g r a n d p a r e n t s o n t h e m o t h e r ' s side w e r e b o t h e m i n e n t and s t r o n g
c o n d e s c e n d i n g , t o n e o f voice. personalities. T h e y w e r e k n o w n to a large public as h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t
T h i s i n t e r v i e w was t h e first session of a p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c c u r e w h i c h people w h o p a s s i o n a t e l y s t o o d u p for t h e i r f e l l o w m e n . T h e y w e r e loved
w a s to last for t h r e e y e a r s and a total of m o r e t h a n six h u n d r e d h o u r s of and h o n o r e d accordingly by t h o s e a r o u n d t h e m . As a couple, h o w e v e r ,
analysis. I n the c o u r s e o f t h e s e y e a r s , m a n y details o f R e g u l a Z u r c h e r ' s they had little t o d o w i t h each o t h e r . B y t h e end o f t h e i r first y e a r o f
life h i s t o r y w e r e disclosed. We r e p r o d u c e h e r e a few w h i c h c o m p l e m e n t m a r r i a g e , t h e y w e r e already c o m p l e t e l y e s t r a n g e d , and f r o m t h a t t i m e
the h i s t o r y and medical findings. o n , their r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a g r e a t deal o f i r r i t a t i o n . T h e
H e r f a t h e r ' s f a t h e r c a m e from an upper-class family. Like all his g r a n d f a t h e r lived o n l y for his c a r e e r , while t h e g r a n d m o t h e r e x i s t e d
b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , he had p u r s u e d an a c a d e m i c c o u r s e of study, but his entirely for h e r children and h e r social w o r k .
disposition w a s fiery and b a r e l y c o n t r o l l a b l e ; t h e r e w a s no o n e else like I he p a t i e n t ' s m o t h e r g r e w up to be a v e r y s h a d o w y c r e a t u r e u n d e r t h e
him in his family. W h i l e he w a s still quite y o u n g , his p a s s i o n a t e n a t u r e led o v e r p o w e r i n g i n f l u e n c e o f h e r p a r e n t s ' e x c e p t i o n a l l y vital p e r s o n a l i t i e s ,
him to fall head o v e r h e e l s in love w i t h a y o u n g s e r v a n t , a b a n d o n his i hildlike, i m m a t u r e and n a i v e , e x t r e m e l y lacking in feeling, s h e w a s
studies, and elope w i t h h e r t o a n o t h e r c o u n t r y . H e n e v e r a m o u n t e d t o ,i I ways c o n t r o l l e d by t h e i r e x c e e d i n g l y puritanical ideas. D e s p i t e h e r o w n
m u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and was c o n s i d e r e d the black s h e e p of t h e family. i 11.ii itable e f f o r t s , in w h i c h s h e o n l y i m i t a t e d h e r o w n m o t h e r ' s social
D i s r e g a r d i n g the e c o n o m i c m i s e r y o f his o w n family, h e f a t h e r e d one behavior, this n e e d y m o t h e r actually cared little a b o u t o t h e r people. S h e
child after a n o t h e r w i t h o u t r e s t r a i n t . U l t i m a t e l y he d e g e n e r a t e d into a made e x o r b i t a n t d e m a n d s , h o w e v e r , o n t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h e r . F r o m
c h r o n i c alcoholic. T h e b u r d e n o f t h e h u g e flock o f children was piled u p e.n Iy childhood, s h e c u r s e d t h e f a t e t h a t m a d e h e r a w o m a n ; she would
on his wife, w h o , while intellectually limited, w a s s t r o n g - w i l l e d , v e r y greatly h a v e p r e f e r r e d b e i n g a m a n . S h e n e v e r m a d e real friends w i t h
h a r d - w o r k i n g , and kind. ni her girls. W i t h h e r h u s b a n d she w a s frigid and s u b s e r v i e n t . He, an
T h e p a t i e n t ' s f a t h e r w a s t h e y o u n g e s t o f t h e s e eleven children. H e w a s u n c o m m o n l y v i g o r o u s and a g g r e s s i v e m a n , indulged in an endless r a n g e
the only o n e of his b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s w h o w a s able to rise up o u t of i l l e x t r a m a r i t a l affairs, w h i l e she w a s t e d a w a y from t h e fatigue o f
their e x t r e m e l y m o d e s t social milieu b e c a u s e of his high i n t e l l i g e n c e , his hronic jealousy.
u n c o m m o n l y s t r o n g will, and his b u r n i n g a m b i t i o n . He e v e n t u a l l y As a m o t h e r , h e r g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n w a s t e a c h i n g h e r d a u g h t e r s
b e c a m e the c h i e f d i r e c t o r o f o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t industrial absolute r e s t r a i n t o f t h e i r feelings. S h e c o n s t a n t l y held u p t h e awful
e n t e r p r i s e s in his c o u n t r y . i ample of their f a t h e r as a w a r n i n g . In him, she would say, t h e y could
Like his f a t h e r , he also played t h e role of an a b s o l u t e , o m n i p o t e n t l e h o w disgusting all m e n are. D i d n ' t t h e i r f a t h e r p r o v e , e v e r y day, t h a t
tyrant in the life of his o w n family. He would n o t t o l e r a t e t h e s l i g h t e s t w o m e n can e x p e c t only i n g r a t i t u d e and b r u t a l i t y from m e n ? O n l y t h e
opposition, not even the e x p r e s s i o n of i n d e p e n d e n t will, from a n y of his most si upid girl would be taken in by their s e d u c t i o n s or give t h e m h e r
II le.t
8 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
A Test Case: Regula Zrcher 9

R e g u l a Z r c h e r , o u r p a t i e n t , w a s t h e y o u n g e s t o f this couple's four Regula Z r c h e r hated her m o t h e r too, though for very different
d a u g h t e r s . T h e r e w a s a d i f f e r e n c e o f n i n e y e a r s b e t w e e n h e r and h e r r e a s o n s . A l o n g w i t h h e r t h r e e s i s t e r s , s h e w a s deeply disgusted w i t h h e r
n e x t oldest s i s t e r , so practically speaking she g r e w up as an only child. m o t h e r ' s perpetual s u b m i s s i v e n e s s t o h e r f a t h e r . N e v e r had t h e m o t h e r
S h e w a s , m o r e o v e r , a n o n l y child t o w h o m h e r p a r e n t s paid little made t h e least effort to t a k e t h e side of a d a u g h t e r and p r o t e c t h e r from
a t t e n t i o n . T h e y w e r e s o c o m p l e t e l y a b s o r b e d i n t h e i r o w n perpetual the f a t h e r ' s rage. F u r t h e r m o r e , R e g u l a r e s e n t e d h e r m o t h e r ' s i m m e d i a t e
q u a r r e l s t h a t t h e y left t h e child m o s t l y t o h e r o w n devices. A t t h e s a m e s u p p r e s s i o n o f the least s h o w o f feeling f r o m h e r t e m p e r a m e n t a l
t i m e , t h e y forbade h e r a n y c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r children i n the d a u g h t e r . If s h e s h o w e d e v e n a t r a c e of e n t h u s i a s m for a m e l o d y s h e had
n e i g h b o r h o o d . A s t h e i r " p r o p e r t y , " t h e y felt s h e w a s t o o h i g h b o r n t o just l e a r n e d , or delighted in a f l o w e r , h e r m o t h e r w o u l d r e p r i m a n d h e r
mingle with ordinary children. for h e r " f a n a t i c a l " c h a r a c t e r . R e g u l a ' s desire for p r e t t y c l o t h e s b r o u g h t
W h e n R e g u l a Z r c h e r w a s s e n t to s c h o o l , t h e r e f o r e , she did not at all d o w n a c c u s a t i o n s o f i n d e c e n c y and i m m o r a l i t y . Indeed, h e r m o t h e r
u n d e r s t a n d h o w t o g e t along w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n . T i m i d and helpless, she m a n a g e d to s t u f f the child full of p s e u d o m o r a l guilt feelings and to r o b
would stand off to o n e side and from a d i s t a n c e w a t c h the o t h e r children h e r of all o p e n n e s s and f r a n k n e s s . In addition to this, h e r p a r e n t s s e n t h e r
play. I t t o o k m a n y m o n t h s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s to a private s c h o o l w i t h a v e r y n a r r o w religious o r i e n t a t i o n , w h e r e t h e
b e f o r e she dared e n t e r , little b y little, i n t o a n y o f t h e g a m e s . B u t she o r d e r t o o k g r e a t c a r e t h a t t h e children recited the T e n C o m m a n d m e n t s
n e v e r lost t h e s e n s e o f being, basically, a n u t t e r l y l o n e s o m e c r e a t u r e . daily. R e g u l a had originally h o p e d and longed to find help and s u p p o r t at
least i n religion, b u t t h e daily r e c i t a t i o n o f the T e n C o m m a n d m e n t s ,
In later s c h o o l y e a r s , R e g u l a t o o k r e f u g e in reading for long h o u r s at a
including t h e F o u r t h C o m m a n d m e n t t o love and h o n o r o n e ' s p a r e n t s ,
time and would live o n l y i n t h e w o r l d o f h e r s t o r y b o o k h e r o e s . O t h e r
t h r e w h e r into g r e a t e r t u r m o i l . H o w i n t h e world w a s s h e t o s u m m o n u p
t i m e s she would r e s i g n h e r s e l f to playing t h e piano all day long in t h e
any love and h o n o r for t h e s e t o r m e n t o r s ? S h e would s o o n e r h a v e
lonely r o o m s o f h e r p a r e n t s ' m a n s i o n . M o s t o f all she loved the m u s i c o f
t h r o w n a c o o k i n g - p o t at t h e i r h e a d s .
B a c h , especially his " I n v e n t i o n s . " In t h e s e , as n o w h e r e else, d i f f e r e n t
melodies would a l t e r n a t e , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y q u e s t i o n i n g and a n s w e r i n g W h e n , in h e r t e e n s , R e g u l a Z r c h e r received h e r first i n v i t a t i o n to a
each o t h e r . T h i s w a s t h e o n l y f o r m o f dialogue t o w h i c h this girl had dance, h e r p a r e n t s b e g a n w a r n i n g h e r daily n o t t o g e t involved w i t h a n y
access. o n e b o y . A p r e t t y girl, s h e w a s flooded w i t h i n v i t a t i o n s . U n d e r t h e
D e s p i t e h e r o w n e x p e r i e n c e of a s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d family life, h e r p r e s s u r e o f p a r e n t a l m o r a l i z i n g , s h e o b e d i e n t l y limited a c c e p t a n c e s t o
girlish plans w e r e based on s o m e d a y s e t t i n g up a family of h e r o w n . t h o s e w h o w e r e easily kept a t a d i s t a n c e . T o c o m p l e t e t h e t r a g e d y o f h e r
A s s i g n e d a t h e m e of "A S u n d a y O u t i n g " in f o u r t h grade, she p o r t r a y e d , y o u t h , R e g u l a Z r c h e r w a s used b y b o t h o f h e r p a r e n t s a s s o m e kind o f
in m e t i c u l o u s detail and w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e inspiration, an o u t i n g in t h e wailing wall o r g a r b a g e d u m p , w h e r e t h e y would s h a m e l e s s l y pour o u t
c o u n t r y m a d e b y h e r h u s b a n d , herself, and t h e i r t e n children. T h i s piece their love and m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s .
o f w r i t i n g w a s s o q u a i n t and p i c t u r e s q u e t h a t h e r t e a c h e r later W i t h h e r varied t a l e n t s , R e g u l a Z r c h e r would h a v e loved t o a t t e n d
f r e q u e n t l y and l a u g h i n g l y r e f e r r e d to it. the G y m n a s i u m , b u t h e r p a r e n t s would n o t h e a r o n e w o r d a b o u t
In spite of h e r reading, piano playing, and e s s a y w r i t i n g , R e g u l a " e d u c a t e d " d a u g h t e r s . A h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , t h e y said, m e a n t t h a t the child
suffered g r e a t l y , as far back as s h e could r e m e m b e r , from t h e p e r p e t u a l l y would r e m a i n in t h e h o m e t o o long and be a b u r d e n to t h e p a r e n t s . T h u s ,
t e n s e , o p p r e s s i v e , and j o y l e s s a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e family. T h o u g h s h e w a s i m m e d i a t e l y after s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , R e g u l a Z r c h e r had n o c h o i c e b u t t o
v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t , she had t o s t r u g g l e t o get t h r o u g h t h e n o r m a l c o u r s e o f take an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p in o n e of the city's f o r e m o s t f a s h i o n s a l o n s .
schooling; the tensions of her parents' house demanded too much of her. F o r t u n a t e l y , she w a s w a r m l y r e c e i v e d t h e r e b y a g r o u p o f v e r y t a l e n t e d
A t the o n s e t o f h e r p u b e r t y , the s c e n e s w i t h h e r f a t h e r b e c a m e d e s i g n e r s , w h o s h a r e d a c o m m o n passion to c r e a t e . H e r e , e v e n as an
i n c r e a s i n g l y p a s s i o n a t e . S h e n o l o n g e r k n u c k l e d u n d e r t o him. W i t h each a p p r e n t i c e , s h e found h e r ideas and j u d g m e n t s g i v e n equal s t a t u s w i t h
o f his unjust p u n i s h m e n t s , verbal o r physical, s h e t o o b e c a m e e x t r e m e l y t h o s e o f h e r s u p e r i o r s . F o r t h e first t i m e i n h e r life she w a s n o t r u n n i n g
a g g r e s s i v e . S h e s c r e a m e d back at him and c u r s e d him in t h e m o s t up a g a i n s t c o n s t a n t c r i t i c i s m b u t i n s t e a d w a s e x p e r i e n c i n g gratifying
o f f e n s i v e l a n g u a g e . I t o f t e n c a m e t o reciprocal a c t s o f v i o l e n c e . S e v e r a l c o n f i r m a t i o n o f h e r e x c e l l e n t t a s t e and a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s .
t i m e s , despite h e r fragility, s h e s t r u c k h e r f a t h e r s o hard t h a t h e reeled I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f h e r physical a i l m e n t s t h e p s y c h o t h e r -
into a c o r n e r of the r o o m .
10 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS A Test Case: Regula Ziircher II

apist l e a r n e d t h a t e v e n a f t e r the w o r s t s y m p t o m s o f R e g u l a ' s early Z i i r c h e r ' s life. T h i s s t o r m o f s e n s a t i o n flooded h e r w h o l e being,


childhood e c z e m a disappeared, h e r skin r e m a i n e d h y p e r s e n s i t i v e t o o b l i t e r a t i n g h e r labor pains and filling h e r w i t h an i m m e n s e s e n s e ol
w o o l . H e r m o t h e r paid n o a t t e n t i o n t o this, h o w e v e r , and r e p e a t e d l y pleasure and j o y . S h e t o r e t h e a n e s t h e s i a m a s k f r o m t h e h a n d s o f the
forced h e r d a u g h t e r t o w e a r w o o l l e n s t o c k i n g s , believing t h a t such s t r i c t midwife, w h o w a s a b o u t t o help e a s e t h e final p u s h e s o f t h e delivery, and
m e a s u r e s w o u l d put a c h e c k on f e m i n i n i t y as well as t h e v a n i t y and Hung it a w a y . H o w could s h e let h e r s e l f be a n e s t h e t i z e d at t h e happiest
a r r o g a n c e t h a t t h e w e a r i n g o f silk s t o c k i n g s m i g h t e n g e n d e r . m o m e n t o f h e r life?
A f t e r this o v e r w h e l m i n g e x p e r i e n c e , she w a s m o r e physically
A t n i n e t e e n , t h e p a t i e n t t o o k r e f u g e i n m a r r i a g e , w h i c h according t o
d e m a n d i n g o f h e r h u s b a n d , w a n t i n g him c l o s e r and w i t h h e r m o r e o f t e n .
h e r w a s h e r o n l y e s c a p e from t h e i n h u m a n a t m o s p h e r e o f h e r p a r e n t s '
A p p a r e n t l y , t h o u g h , h e r p a r t n e r felt h i m s e l f m o r e put u p o n t h a n b e f o r e
h o m e . H e r family e x p e r i e n c e i n f l u e n c e d h e r t o c h o o s e t h e a d m i r e r w h o
with t h e n e w n e s s o f h e r i n o r d i n a t e desire and w i t h t h e f a t h e r role h e had
appeared m o s t c o m p o s e d , e m o t i o n a l l y w e l l - b a l a n c e d , s e c u r e , and
g o t t e n i n t o . H e r e t r e a t e d m o r e and m o r e i n t o h i m s e l f , r a r e l y paying a n y
u n o b t r u s i v e . T h i s friend o f h e r y o u t h , w h o m s h e t o o k a s h e r h u s b a n d ,
a t t e n t i o n to t h e child and t r e a t i n g his wife as t h o u g h she w e r e a total
appeared t h e o p p o s i t e o f h e r f r i g h t e n i n g and u n t r u s t w o r t h y f a t h e r . F o r
s t r a n g e r . H e n o l o n g e r t o o k h e r o u t t o plays, c o n c e r t s , o r social f u n c t i o n s ,
h e r s e l f , s h e h o p e d to be able to be happy in t h e role of a simple, q u i e t
.md he m a d e it impossible for h e r to e n t e r t a i n h e r old friends at h o m e
h o u s e w i f e and m o t h e r . N o t t h a t she had e v e r b e e n in love w i t h this m a n .
b e c a u s e h e d r o v e e v e r y o n e a w a y w i t h the h e a v y silence and l e t h a r g y t h a t
S h e a t t a c h e d h e r s e l f to him in t h e m a n n e r of a little s i s t e r looking for
c a m e o v e r him a t e v e r y social g a t h e r i n g .
p r o t e c t i o n and s u p p o r t from a big b r o t h e r .
T h u s R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r g r e w m o r e and m o r e isolated. S h e r e l a t e d t o n o
T o h e r dismay, and t o t h e a s t o n i s h m e n t o f t h o s e a r o u n d h e r , R e g u l a
o n e but h e r child. As a r e s u l t of this deprivation, s h e s a n k i n t o a
Z i i r c h e r ' s physical h e a l t h g r e w c o n s i d e r a b l y w o r s e after h e r m a r r i a g e .
d e t e r i o r a t i n g h u m o r and b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y t e n s e , irritable, and c r o s s .
S h e a d m i t t e d t o n o o n e t h a t , while still o n t h e h o n e y m o o n , she had
O n top o f t h i s , she w a s a s h a m e d o f h e r b e h a v i o r and scolded h e r s e l f for
realized t h a t h e r m a r r i a g e had b e e n a big m i s t a k e . It b e c a m e a p p a r e n t
this g r o w i n g h a t e f u l n e s s w h i c h , s t r o n g e r t h a n s h e , w a s leading h e r t o
t h e n t h a t w h a t s h e had t a k e n for reliability and e a s y - g o i n g w a y s in this
m o r e and m o r e f r e q u e n t o u t b u r s t s o f a n g e r t o w a r d h e r h u s b a n d . T h e s e
m a n w a s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a lack of i n t e r e s t and vitality, a kind of
o l t e n b e c a m e o u t - a n d - o u t a t t a c k s o n him. I n despair s h e s t a r e d down
childish i m m a t u r i t y .
into t h e a b y s s b e t w e e n h e r a w a r m - h e a r t e d , musically t a l e n t e d
T h e y o u n g h u s b a n d w a s incapable o f any h e a r t f e l t w a r m t h t o w a r d his
w o m a n , so alive and v i v a c i o u s , and inspired by e v e r y t h i n g beautiful
wife. H e e n g a g e d i n s e x u a l i n t i m a c y w i t h h e r o n l y e v e r y f e w w e e k s , and,
and h e r s p o u s e , a m i s e r a b l e h u m a n f o r m w h o s e o n l y i n t e r e s t s lay in his
s o o n , only e v e r y few m o n t h s . M o r e o v e r , his physical i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h
c r a z e for cars and his s t a m p c o l l e c t i o n . O t h e r t h a n t h e s e , h e k n e w o n l y
his wife c o n s i s t e d o n l y of a v e r y brief, a b r u p t s e x u a l act, a f t e r w h i c h he
I n s t e c h n i c a l j o b i n a small w o r k s h o p , w h e r e h e w o r k e d t w e l v e t o
would e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f as quickly as possible from the e m b r a c e , roll o v e r
l o u r t e e n h o u r s a day to m a k e as m u c h m o n e y as he could.
'on his side, and go to sleep. In t h e long periods b e t w e e n t h e s e m e a g e r
A few w e e k s a f t e r t h e crucial e v e n t of h e r child's birth, t h e p a t i e n t w a s
" i n t i m a c i e s , " t h e h u s b a n d c o n t e n t e d h i m s e l f w i t h s t r o k i n g and l o o k i n g a t
surprised, for t h e first t i m e , b y phobic s y m p t o m s . G i v e n h e r h u s b a n d ' s
his wife as she lay n a k e d beside him. T h e n he would suddenly leave h e r
h uman denial of h e r , t h e o n l y living c r e a t u r e on e a r t h she had to love was
by h e r s e l f and s h u t h i m s e l f alone in his b a t h r o o m . P h o t o g r a p h s of t h e
her baby d a u g h t e r . B u t j u s t a t t h o s e t i m e s w h e n she felt m o s t i n t i m a t e l y
naked bodies o f o t h e r w o m e n spoke t o h i m m o r e u r g e n t l y t h a n t h e
hound t o h e r childwhile b a t h i n g her, o r putting h e r t o bed w i t h h u g s
physical p r e s e n c e o f his l o v e - s t a r v e d y o u n g wife. F r o m t h e v e r y first
and kisses, o r j u s t a f t e r w a r d w h e n s h e w a s saying t h e b e d t i m e p r a y e r
days o f t h e i r s h a r e d h o u s e k e e p i n g , h e p l a s t e r e d t h e b a t h r o o m walls w i t h
t h e r e c a m e o v e r h e r , out o f t h e blue, m o r e and m o r e o f t e n , t h e a l m o s t
nude pin-ups. G i v e n t h e " e n l i g h t e n m e n t " h e r m o t h e r had b e s t o w e d o n
it r e s i s t a b l e u r g e to s t a b t h e tiny body of h e r d a u g h t e r w i t h a knife. T h e
h e r , R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r believed all m e n w e r e like t h a t and h e n c e settled for
patient described this in t h e following way:
such a marital s i t u a t i o n . N e e d l e s s to say, in t h e m a r r i a g e w i t h such a
p a r t n e r she p r o v e d s e x u a l l y frigid and r e m a i n e d so.
B u t t h e n c a m e t h e birth o f h e r child. C o m p l e t e l y u n e x p e c t e d l y , t h e I )uring t h e s e especially happy m o m e n t s w i t h t h e child, if my e y e s even
final birth c o n t r a c t i o n s released t h e first s e x u a l o r g a s m of R e g u l a c h a n c e d to fall upon s o m e s h a r p t h i n g t h a t w a s lying a r o u n d , a nail file
or a knife, t h e n t h e u r g e t o o k hold of me to stab it i n t o h e r body.
12 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
A Test Case: Regula Zrcher

S o m e t i m e s t h e u r g e w a s so s t r o n g I w a s afraid of losing my mind and c r o u c h e d and c o w e r i n g in t h e c o r n e r of an e m p t y railroad boxi.n I |i |


g o i n g c r a z y in t h e n e x t s e c o n d . So r i g h t a w a y I would run o u t of the a r m s w e r e folded for p r o t e c t i o n o v e r h e r k n e e s and in front of her t&i e
r o o m i n t o t h e hall. T h e r e I had to lean a g a i n s t t h e wall and hold my T h e b o x c a r sat at t h e b o t t o m of an ice-cold o c e a n in which t h e r e was not l
right h a n d t i g h t l y w i t h m y left, t o k e e p m y s e l f from doing t h e h o r r i b l e single fish or g r o w i n g plant. D e e p in t h e s e a , an arctic wind b l e w t h r o u g h
t h i n g . As t i m e w e n t on, I felt a p r e s s u r e to s t r a n g l e h e r w i t h my o w n t h e d o o r s and s e a m s o f t h e b o x c a r . S h e w a s frightfully cold.
hands, b u t this did n o t c o m e o v e r me as o f t e n as t h e s t a b b i n g u r g e . F o r a f e w days t h e t h e r a p i s t a b s t a i n e d from discussing this dream
First, h e had the p a t i e n t o b s e r v e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l rules o f analysis. (This
M y fears o f t h e k n i v e s and t h e s t r a n g l i n g w e r e w o r s t w h e n m y
t h e r a p e u t i c m e t h o d and its practical o u t c o m e s will be t a k e n up in m o r e
h u s b a n d b a n i s h e d me by m y s e l f w i t h t h e child to a secluded cabin in the
detail in t h e f o u r t h part of this b o o k . ) H e r e we n e e d say o n l y the
m o u n t a i n s for long w e e k s of v a c a t i o n . T h e n , I could n o t e v e n look at a
following t h i n g s a b o u t t h e c o u r s e o f t r e a t m e n t . T h o u g h t h e patient tried
knife at all, e v e n w h e n t h e little o n e w a s n ' t n e a r . I simply could n o t
hard t o comply w i t h d o c t o r ' s r e q u e s t s t o free a s s o c i a t e , t h e first e f f e c t s o f
stand t h e s i g h t of t h e k n i v e s in t h e k i t c h e n d r a w e r a n y m o r e . It w a s as if
t r e a t m e n t w e r e n o t v e r y p r o m i s i n g . F r o m t h a t h o u r on, a s s h e b e g a n t o
t h e y w a n t e d to, and could, f o r c e m e t o j a b t h e m i n t o s o m e t h i n g . W h o
tell t h e s t o r y o f h e r life t o s o m e o n e else, she b e c a m e sleepless. M e m o r i e s
o r w h a t didn't m a t t e r . S o t h e knife d r a w e r b e c a m e a n u n b e a r a b l e
o f h e r d e s p e r a t e childhood, long p u s h e d aside, b r o k e f o r t h and flooded
p r o v o c a t i o n and t e m p t a t i o n for me.
her, s o t h a t e v e r y n i g h t she lay t h i n k i n g o f t h e i n c e s s a n t denials,
T h e l o n g e r t h e v a c a t i o n w e n t on, t h e m o r e p o w e r t h e k n i v e s g a i n e d
m a l t r e a t m e n t , and spiritual a s s a u l t s she had had t o e n d u r e from h e r
o v e r m e . O n e day it no l o n g e r e v e n t o o k a real knife to m a k e me panic. I
p a r e n t s . S h e could d o n o t h i n g b u t c o n s t a n t l y t h i n k o v e r and p o n d e r
would m i s t a k e a n y glint on a polished s u r f a c e for t h e flash of a knife
a n e w t h e s e m e m o r i e s . S h e fell i n t o raving a t t a c k s o f a n g e r and h a t r e d
blade. Finally, I w a s s e e i n g d o z e n s of k n i v e s flash past me in t h e air,
t o w a r d h e r p a r e n t a l t o r m e n t o r s . H e r s l e e p l e s s n e s s depleted t h e s t r e n g t h
t h i n k i n g t h e m so real I g r a b b e d at t h e m .
o f t h e already w e a k p a t i e n t . S h e h e r s e l f believed s h e could n o l o n g e r
A n d t h e s e k n i v e s c o m i n g in on me o u t of t h i n air put t r e m e n d o u s
refrain from taking large d o s a g e s of sleeping pills.
p r e s s u r e o n m e t o run wild w i t h t h e m . T h e s e h o r r i b l e h a l l u c i n a t i o n s
m a d e it c l e a r to me t h a t e i t h e r I had to c o m m i t m y s e l f or find a T h e t h e r a p i s t , h o w e v e r , did n o t let h i m s e l f be t u r n e d aside in his
psychotherapist. Every minute I was sure I was going completely t r e a t m e n t b y this d r a m a t i c s h a r p e n i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , and h e soon
mad. R e a l l y , it could o n l y be m a d n e s s to s t a b or s t r a n g l e t h e d e a r e s t o b s e r v e d t h a t his s t e a d i n e s s b e g a n t o give t h e p a t i e n t support. F r o m
t h i n g you h a v e . I had b e c o m e a p o t e n t i a l child m u r d e r e r . To m y s e l f I w e e k to w e e k she g r e w m o r e settled in t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s i t u a t i o n . A f t e r a
w a s such a depraved c r e a t u r e t h a t I felt I had used up e v e r y r i g h t to life few m o n t h s , all h e r l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g physical s y m p t o m s disappeared o f
in this w o r l d . t h e i r o w n a c c o r d , a l t h o u g h t h e y had n e v e r b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y discussed in
the t h e r a p e u t i c s e s s i o n s . T o t h e p a t i e n t ' s a s t o n i s h m e n t , the g a s t r o
This is the account of the patient herself, w h o was often, by that time, at
i n t e s t i n a l c r a m p s and t h e bloody v i s c o u s d i a r r h e a w h i c h a l t e r n a t e d w i t h
the point of ending h e r life w i t h an o v e r d o s e of sleeping pills.
s e v e r e c o n s t i p a t i o n faded a w a y , as did the r e c e n t disruption of sleep. T h e
A f t e r r e t u r n i n g f r o m this c a t a s t r o p h i c s u m m e r v a c a t i o n , R e g u l a b r e a s t swelling and h a r d n e s s , t o o , w h i c h had c a u s e d h e r s o m u c h
Z u r c h e r decided t o u n d e r g o p s y c h o t h e r a p y . A l t h o u g h she had b e c o m e u n b e a r a b l e pain, did n o t last m u c h l o n g e r . T h e stabbing u r g e did not yield
bedridden on a c c o u n t of h e r debilitation, s h e appeared a f e w days l a t e r so quickly, t h o u g h it also s o o n lost m u c h of its t h r e a t b e c a u s e of the
for a c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h h e r f u t u r e p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t . S h e c h o s e this p a t i e n t ' s t r u s t i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c capability o f h e r d o c t o r .
p a r t i c u l a r specialist and n o o t h e r b e c a u s e s h e k n e w t h a t h e had o n c e A f t e r o n e y e a r of p s y c h o t h e r a p y , t h e p a t i e n t decided to g e t a divorce
t r e a t e d o n e o f h e r relatives w i t h s o m e s u c c e s s . A n d b e c a u s e h e w a s a from h e r h u s b a n d , a l t h o u g h h e r d o c t o r advised h e r t o wait. S h e was
good t h i r t y y e a r s older t h a n s h e , h e s e e m e d t o o f f e r a g u a r a n t e e o f g o o d c o n v i n c e d , and r e m a i n e d so, t h a t she w a s doing a g r e a t e r s e r v i c e for
experience. h e r s e l f , and for h e r child especially, by m a k i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n than by
In the v e r y first t h e r a p e u t i c s e s s i o n t h e p a t i e n t c o m p l a i n e d of a e n d u r i n g w i t h h i m l o n g e r . M o r e and m o r e o f t e n t h e child w a s h a v i n g t o
r e c u r r i n g d r e a m t h a t had p u r s u e d h e r since earliest childhood at w i t n e s s t h e strain b e t w e e n t h e p a r e n t s , t h e m o t h e r ' s g r o w i n g irritation
intervals of a few w e e k s to a f e w m o n t h s . J u s t t h e n i g h t b e f o r e she had and o u t b u r s t s a t t h e f a t h e r . T h e c o m p a r a b l e m e m o r y o f h e r o w n
a w a k e d from this d r e a m , terrified and b a t h e d in s w e a t . In t h e s e n i g h t childhood w i t h c o n s t a n t p a r e n t a l quarrelling w a s a g r u e s o m e o n e that
e v e n t s , the d r e a m e r always found h e r s e l f c o m p l e t e l y naked and a l o n e ,
A Test Case: Regula Zrcher IS
14 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

w o u l d m o v e i n t o in a f e w w e e k s . T h e y pictured it in t h e i r m i n d s in g r e . i I
she w a n t e d t o s p a r e h e r child. U n a c c u s t o m e d t o being o n h e r o w n , t h e r e
detail and t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e c o m i n g sun-filled h o u r s t o g e t h e r ,
was m u c h for h e r t o d o a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t e s e p a r a t i o n from h e r h u s b a n d .
s w i m m i n g and w a n d e r i n g in o p e n fields.
Having t o stand o n h e r o w n t w o f e e t w a s n o t e a s y for this w o m a n w h o
S o m e t i m e a f t e r this happy v a c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i t b e c a m e evident that
was used t o being indulged i n e x t e r n a l m a t t e r s . B u t she n e v e r r e g r e t t e d
c i r c u m s t a n c e s would n e v e r allow a p e r m a n e n t b o n d o f m a r r i a g e w i t h h e r
t h e step t o free h e r s e l f from h e r h o p e l e s s , f u t u r e l e s s m a r r i a g e .
l o v e r . A f t e r t w o y e a r s o f u n t r o u b l e d h a p p i n e s s , t h e m a n left for t h e F a r
After another year of further intensive psychotherapeutic work, the
East, never to return. T h r e e weeks after the separation, Regula Z r c h e r
patient m e t a y o u n g m a n at a cocktail p a r t y . He i m m e d i a t e l y i m p r e s s e d
b e c a m e u n b e a r a b l y agitated. S e v e r e irritability, s p i t e f u l n e s s , and
h e r b u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e disturbed h e r peculiarly. Afraid o f falling head
i n t o l e r a n c e seized her; ill will o v e r s h a d o w e d h e r w h o l e day. E v e r y t h i n g
o v e r heels in love w i t h him, she w a s glad to leave t h e party w h e n it w a s
she e n c o u n t e r e d u p s e t h e r and g o t i n h e r w a y . E v e n w i t h t h e b e s t o f
o v e r t o flee t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f h e r h o m e .
i n t e n t i o n s , she could no l o n g e r find e n o u g h t i m e to do h e r daily
A f e w days l a t e r s h e s a w t h e s a m e y o u n g m a n c o m i n g t o w a r d h e r o n
h o u s e w o r k . A c o n s t a n t i m p a t i e n c e p u s h e d h e r f r o m o n e thing t o
the o t h e r side o f o n e o f t h e t o w n ' s m a i n s t r e e t s . B e l i e v i n g t h a t h e had
a n o t h e r . S h e felt b o x e d in, like a p u r e b r e d h o r s e in a n a r r o w stall.
r e c o g n i z e d h e r and w a s a b o u t t o c r o s s t h e s t r e e t and speak t o h e r , she felt
B e c a u s e h e r life had b e e n r e d u c e d so suddenly to t a k i n g c a r e of h e r child
nailed t o t h e spot; she could n o t m o v e a n o t h e r step. S u d d e n l y she
and small a p a r t m e n t , she h e r s e l f spoke of a m e n a c i n g panic, like
collapsed, paralyzed. S h e had to be t a k e n to a hospital by a m b u l a n c e . B o t h
claustrophobia.
o f h e r legs w e r e limp w i t h h y s t e r i c a l paralysis.
In this situation of r e n e w e d l o n e l i n e s s and isolation, t h e old u r g e s to
F o l l o w i n g this incident, t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p y w a s c o n t i n u e d w i t h o u t a
s t a b and t o s t r a n g l e , w h i c h s h e had t h o u g h t g o n e f o r e v e r , r e t u r n e d t o
b r e a k in t h e hospital. In t h r e e w e e k s she w a s a b l e to use h e r legs again
h e r surprise and h o r r o r . T r y i n g t o e x p a n d h e r s e v e r e l y limited w a y o f
and leave t h e hospital. It r e q u i r e d j u s t o n e m o r e full y e a r of
life, s h e looked for an o u t l e t in p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t i c w o r k and also
p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c e f f o r t s for a m a t u r e w o m a n , able to love and w o r k , to
r e n e w e d social c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h f o r m e r friends and a c q u a i n t a n c e s .
evolve from t h e totally frigid childlike c r e a t u r e . T h r e e y e a r s a l t o g e t h e r
T h e s e d i v e r s i o n s , h o w e v e r , a c c o m p l i s h e d n o t h i n g . N e i t h e r h e r irritabili
o f analysis m a d e h e r ready for t e r m i n a t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t .
t y n o r h e r u r g e s t o stab o r s t r a n g l e disappeared. R e g u l a Z r c h e r longed
T h e y o u n g m a n w h o s e sudden a p p e a r a n c e o n t h e s t r e e t o n e y e a r
for t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e m a n s h e loved. H e r l o n g i n g for h i m n e v e r left h e r ,
b e f o r e had o c c a s i o n e d t h e h y s t e r i c a l paralysis of h e r legs and had not
e v e n during h e r daily r o u t i n e w h e n she m o s t w a n t e d t o b e d i s t r a c t e d .
been intimidated by the exceedingly impressive symptoms of the
A t t r i b u t i n g h e r a n i m o s i t y and t e n s e n e s s t o s e x u a l f r u s t r a t i o n , she tried
p a t i e n t ' s illness. S h e w a s barely back h o m e from t h e hospital b e f o r e h e
t o m a s t u r b a t e , hoping t o a c h i e v e s o m e s o r t o f r e l e a s e from h e r
b e g a n skillfully and p e r s i s t e n t l y c o u r t i n g h e r . S o o n t h e y w e r e l o v e r s .
d e s t r u c t i v e u r g e s . B u t she found she w a s c o m p l e t e l y u n a b l e t o satisfy
A n d n o w , for t h e first t i m e able t o e x p r e s s h e r m a t u r e capacity t o l o v e ,
h e r s e l f this w a y . It w a s n o t at all t h a t feelings of guilt g o t in h e r w a y , but
she lost t h e last t r a c e s o f h e r u r g e s t o s t a b h e r little d a u g h t e r . T h e y did
t h a t m a s t u r b a t i o n simply did n o t put h e r in t o u c h w i t h h e r s e l f , the
not r e t u r n , t h o u g h R e g u l a Z r c h e r w a s n e v e r h i n d e r e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e
w o m a n w h o had k n o w n the flowing feeling of loving a m a n body and
of h e r d a u g h t e r as m u c h as s h e w a s at this t i m e of h e r life w i t h its m a n y
soul, and w h o had g r o w n physically capable of a full f e m a l e o r g a s m in
undertakings.
s e x u a l t o g e t h e r n e s s w i t h a m a n . N o t o n c e did she reach any sexual
O n e day she h a p p e n e d t o m e e t h e r n e w l o v e r o n the s a m e s t r e e t w h e r e e x c i t e m e n t t h r o u g h h e r m a s t u r b a t i o n , let alone o r g a s m .
she had seen h i m t h e y e a r b e f o r e and had g o n e h y s t e r i c a l l y lame. T h i s
In h e r despair o v e r this a p p a r e n t l y i n e s c a p a b l e s i t u a t i o n , R e g u l a
t i m e , t o o , she s a w him c o m i n g t o w a r d h e r u n e x p e c t e d l y o n t h e o t h e r side
Z r c h e r e n t e r e d i n t o a s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with a n o t h e r m a n . A l t h o u g h
of the s t r e e t . T h i s t i m e , far from fear, t h e sight of him filled h e r with
he w a s a pleasant sort, he w a s in no w a y suitable for h e r , e i t h e r physically
jubilation. H e r h e a r t b e g a n to b e a t wildly, she said, as t h o u g h it would
or, especially, artistically. S h e had little t r o u b l e a t t a i n i n g a purely
leap from h e r b r e a s t . S h e was hardly a w a r e o f t h e b u s t l e o n t h e s t r e e t .
physical o r g a s m w i t h h i m , b u t h e r ability to a b a n d o n h e r s e l f to him
S h e ran to h e r l o v e r impulsively, h u g g e d him, and kissed him. He
r e m a i n e d o n l y a s h a d o w of w h a t it was w i t h h e r f o r m e r lover. S h e was
responded w i t h e m b r a c e s and equal pleasure. T h e n t h e y walked a r m in
c o n s t a n t l y a w a r e o f this m a n ' s distance from h e r o w n spiritual
arm down the s t r e e t , m a k i n g plans for t h e i r c o m i n g v a c a t i o n in the
sensibilities and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s and of his inability to s h a r e hei
C a n a r y Islands. T h e y w e r e both familiar with t h e vacation h o u s e they
16 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS A Test Case: Regula Zrcher 17

e n j o y m e n t of art, w h i c h w a s so e s s e n t i a l to h e r . S h e felt as lonely as e v e r S h e described t h e m o m e n t o f impact t h u s :


in his p r e s e n c e , e v e n w h e n s h e lay in bed w i t h him. S m a l l w o n d e r t h a t
S u d d e n l y , a hard, s t r o n g s i d e w a y s b l o w k n o c k e d me o f f balance.
h e r s e x u a l c o n t a c t s w i t h this m a n did n o t help c o u n t e r the u r g e s t o s t a b
B e f o r e I k n e w w h a t had h a p p e n e d , I w a s lying flat on my back on the
and s t r a n g l e t h a t s h e c o n t i n u e d t o e x p e r i e n c e t o w a r d h e r d a u g h t e r .
c e m e n t . A m a d d e n i n g pain s t a r t e d up s o m e w h e r e d o w n in my leg. I
A f t e r a few w e e k s of h o n e s t but futile e f f o r t s to r e s p e c t and accept h e r
didn't k n o w j u s t e x a c t l y w h e r e it w a s at first. It w a s d o w n low and
n e w p a r t n e r a s h e w a s , a s well a s t r y i n g t o l e a r n t o love him, s h e c h o s e t o
c a m e f r o m v e r y deep inside. In t h e first m o m e n t s t h e pain w a s like a
end t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e lack o f e s s e n t i a l h a r m o n y w i t h him had
ball of h o t , g l o w i n g s t e e l . B u t t h e n it flooded t h r o u g h me w i t h
brought her more anguish than release.
l i g h t n i n g speed. I b e c a m e n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n o n e e n o r m o u s ripping
T h i s friendship w a s followed by s e v e r a l o t h e r love r e l a t i o n s h i p s in the pain. I n e a r l y lost my s e n s e s and fell h a l f - u n c o n s c i o u s . I felt m y s e l f sink
c o u r s e o f t h e n e x t few y e a r s . T h e s e t o o w e r e o n l y o f a t e m p o r a r y n a t u r e . c o m p l e t e l y into this pain, b e c o m e lost in it. Luckily, I w a s able to t e a r
B u t w h e n e v e r R e g u l a Z u r c h e r allowed h e r s e l f a rich and full a b a n d o n m y s e l f o u t of this and pull m y s e l f t o g e t h e r again. O n l y t h e n did it
m e n t , and as long as s h e did, h e r s t a b b i n g and s t r a n g l i n g u r g e s and b e c o m e c l e a r to me t h a t I had p r o b a b l y b r o k e n my s h i n . I c o u l d n ' t m o v e
phobias disappeared c o m p l e t e l y . A n d , in t h e periods of f r u s t r a t i o n in my leg e v e n a m i l l i m e t e r , or a t e a r i n g pain would s h o o t f r o m my leg
b e t w e e n , t h e y set i n again w i t h p e r s i s t e n t r e g u l a r i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h r o u g h my w h o l e body. T h e n a first-aid a t t e n d a n t g a v e me a s h o t .
t h e s e u r g e s no l o n g e r e v o k e d a d a n g e r of suicide, as t h e y had b e f o r e T h e pain shifted t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d . T h e people and t h i n g s a r o u n d m e
p s y c h o t h e r a p y . T h e p a t i e n t had also lost all o f h e r fear o f going i n s a n e . also b e c a m e h a z y and distant. I fell asleep and a w a k e d n e x t , f a s t e n e d to
Finally, five y e a r s a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e a n a l y t i c c u r e , R e g u l a t h e bed by t r a c t i o n a p p a r a t u s , in a r o o m in t h e surgical clinic.
Z u r c h e r was f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h to find a m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r , a m a n she
could freely love, b o d y and soul, like h e r first real lover. He w a s T h e h e a v y pain o f t h e first f e w days e x h a u s t e d h e r c o n s i d e r a b l y . T i m e
e x c e p t i o n a l l y c h a r i s m a t i c and well k n o w n in his profession far b e y o n d dragged, but s o o n she w a s h e r old self again. D u r i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g
the b o r d e r s of his o w n c o u n t r y . He also r e s e m b l e d h e r to a g r e a t d e g r e e w e e k s o f h e r time a s a n invalid s h e w r o t e s h o r t s t o r i e s , w h i c h w e r e
in his s e n s i t i v i t i e s , a e s t h e t i c j u d g m e n t s , and a r t i s t i c e n d o w m e n t . s o u g h t a f t e r by t h e b e s t n e w s p a p e r s . B e s i d e s t h a t , hardly a day w e n t by
F u r t h e r m o r e , he easily adapted to h e r d e m a n d s for affection and w h e n h a l f a dozen friends didn't c o m e to visit h e r . S h e had r e c o v e r e d
s e x u a l i t y , loving his wife for h e r w o m a n l y g e n t l e n e s s , t e n d e r n e s s , and totally in t h r e e m o n t h s .
ability to love, as well as for h e r spirituality, h e r lively intellect, and h e r F r o m h e r hospital bed s h e w r o t e a l e t t e r o f a p p r e c i a t i o n t o h e r f o r m e r
n a t u r a l s e n s e o f h u m o r . H e appreciated h e r p r e s e n c e , w h i c h c o n s t a n t l y t h e r a p i s t , w h o had t r e a t e d h e r t h r o u g h e x i s t e n t i a l a n a l y s i s . In it s h e
inspired him t o n e w ideas and c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e s . S i n c e she has b e e n w i t h r e p e a t e d a richly i n f o r m a t i v e t h o u g h t she had o f t e n e x p r e s s e d , e v e n in
this m a n , R e g u l a Z u r c h e r has n o t e x p e r i e n c e d t h e least sign o f a n y u r g e s t h e last w e e k s o f h e r t r e a t m e n t .
to s t a b or s t r a n g l e . T o d a y e v e r y o n e delights in this radiant, vital, h i g h -
spirited w o m a n . I am a s t o n i s h e d by t h e c o u r s e of my d e v e l o p m e n t , w h e n I look b a c k at
m y life b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e e x i s t e n t i a l a n a l y t i c t r e a t m e n t . Y o u k n o w
R e g u l a Z u r c h e r is especially glad t h a t she is able to b e a r h e r h u s b a n d ' s
that under the influence of my utterly incompatible parents I was
a b s e n c e s on b u s i n e s s trips for l o n g e r and l o n g e r periods w i t h o u t h a v i n g
c o m p l e t e l y a l i e n a t e d from m y s e l f and could lead o n l y a s h a d o w life up
to fear e v e n a fleeting r e c u r r e n c e of t h e old u r g e s . S h e h e r s e l f r e c o g n i z e s
until t h e b e g i n n i n g of my c u r e by y o u . I m y s e l f basically n e v e r had
this as a sign of g r e a t e r f r e e d o m . S h e has n o t f o r g o t t e n h o w suddenly t h e
a n y t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e small p e r s o n t h a t I w a s t h e n ; t h a t w a s n o t m e
relapses used to set in w h e n she had to g e t along w i t h o u t the physical
at all. In reality I was first b o r n in t h e e x i s t e n t i a l a n a l y s i s t r e a t m e n t .
c l o s e n e s s of a l o v e r for e v e n t w o or t h r e e w e e k s .
A n d so, t o w a r d t h e end o f t h e t r e a t m e n t I t h o u g h t o f m y s e l f m o r e and
T h e r e has been o n l y o n e f u r t h e r disruption o f h e r well-being since her
m o r e o u t r i g h t as a woman without a past or earlier life.
s e c o n d m a r r i a g e . A r e c k l e s s y o u n g d r i v e r lost c o n t r o l of his s p o r t s c a r and
drove i n t o a g r o u p o f p e d e s t r i a n s . R e g u l a Z u r c h e r w a s a m o n g the
victims. S h e e m e r g e d w i t h only a b r o k e n s h i n b o n e , b u t had to stay in bed
for six w e e k s .
Chapter 2

THE NATURAL SCIENTIFIC VIEW OF MEDICINE

T h e field o f p h e n o m e n a t o w h i c h m o d e r n n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h
m u s t r e s t r i c t itself w a s precisely o u t l i n e d by its actual founder,
D e s c a r t e s . His s e c o n d L a w o f C o g n i t i o n reads:

It is advisable to a t t e n d o n l y to t h e circle of o b j e c t s for w h i c h o u r


n a t u r a l faculties suffice t o p e r c e i v e w i t h c e r t a i n t y and w i t h o u t d o u b t .

O n l y i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r g r a n t s u s s u c h p e r c e p t i o n ; s o t h o r o u g h l y does i t
satisfy n a t u r a l law t h a t this v e r y s a t i s f a c t i o n c o n t i n u e s today to s e r v e as
the only useful definition for t h e d o m i n a n t n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s .
W h i l e t h u s fencing o f f the a r e a w i t h i n w h i c h r e s e a r c h could b e
a u t h o r i t a t i v e , D e s c a r t e s e f f e c t i v e l y p r o m i s e d m a n d o m i n i o n o v e r all
p h e n o m e n a w i t h i n t h e s e limits. T h e n o t i o n o f h u m a n d o m i n a t i o n o f
n a t u r e had appeared long b e f o r e . T h e Bible enjoined m a n t o rule o v e r t h e
e a r t h and r e n d e r i t s u b j e c t t o h i m . D e m o c r i t u s , the a n c i e n t G r e e k
p h i l o s o p h e r , is credited w i t h h a v i n g said t h a t he would r a t h e r find o n e
cause t h a n sit on t h e t h r o n e of P e r s i a . He a p p a r e n t l y realized t h a t a m a n
w h o l e a r n e d t o r e c o g n i z e precisely calculable causal c o n n e c t i o n s would
b e the m i g h t i e r o f t h e t w o , for t h o u g h a n e m p e r o r m i g h t c o m m a n d the
lives and d e a t h s o f s u b j e c t s , h e would not k n o w t h e s o u r c e o f his p o w e r .
20 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View of Medicine 21

B u t D e s c a r t e s w a s t h e first t o p r o m i s e u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t m a n would c a n n o t e x i s t in t h e scientific c o n c e p t i o n of physics. P h y s i c a l - c a u s a l laws


indeed b e c o m e "lord and m a s t e r of n a t u r e " if he would o n l y learn h o w to could n e v e r explain, for e x a m p l e , w h y cell division in an o r g a n stops j u s t
use t h e n e w c o g n i t i v e m e t h o d o f calculating t h e fixed position o f o b j e c t s . w h e n t h e o r g a n r e a c h e s its p r o p e r (i.e., p r e d e t e r m i n e d ) f o r m . A c c o r d i n g
Physicians h a v e f r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p r i m a r y ly, t h e laws of p r o b a b i l i t y e n t i r e l y rule o u t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t an
o b j e c t i v e to be m a s t e r y o v e r at least t h e diseases of m a n . B e c a u s e it held o r g a n i s m o f the c o m p l e x i t y o f a s q u i r r e l m i g h t e m e r g e p h y l o g e n e t i c a l l y
o u t this p r o m i s e , t h e y u n h e s i t a t i n g l y adopted t h e i n v e s t i g a t i v e principle f r o m t h e d o m i n a n c e o f m e r e n a t u r a l laws.
of the c e r t a i n t y of e x a c t m e a s u r i n g calculation, and t r a n s f e r r e d it to t h e i r T h e s e o b j e c t i o n s from p h i l o s o p h y , physics, and b i o l o g y c h a l l e n g e d t h e
o w n o b j e c t of study, diseased m a n . It w a s n o t self-evident t h a t this u n c o n d i t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d i n
t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n o f m e t h o d would produce t h e a s t o u n d i n g s u c c e s s e s o f m e d i c i n e , b u t t h e y w e r e all t u r n e d aside w i t h a single parry by
m o d e r n m e d i c i n e , for in p u r s u i n g t h e i r task, physicians in fact flagrantly c y b e r n e t i c s . T h i s n e w science c l a i m s t h a t i t can r e s t o r e t o t h e rule o f o n e
i g n o r e d D e s c a r t e s ' s w a r n i n g . T h e y applied t h e C a r t e s i a n principle o f causal m o d e o f t h o u g h t all t h e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h had s e e m e d r e s e r v e d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n to an o b j e c t of studydiseased h u m a n b e i n g s w h o can in o n l y for the living. W i t h its t h e o r i e s of f e e d b a c k and i n f o r m a t i o n ,
no w a y be finally calculated and t h e r e b y fixed. T h e rich yield physicians c y b e r n e t i c s i s u n d e r t a k i n g t o a c c o u n t c o m p l e t e l y n o t o n l y for g o a l -
have reaped, in spite of t h e i r violation of the limits D e s c a r t e s indicated, o r i e n t e d equilibrium p h e n o m e n a in living b e i n g s (i.e., t h e s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g
s t e m s f r o m a r a t h e r a s t o n i s h i n g aspect o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . S o m e t h i n g h o m e o s t a s i s o f c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s ) , b u t for t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f
a b o u t this e x i s t e n c e (and this s o m e t h i n g c o n f o r m s w i t h t h e life o f o t h e r individuals and t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y f u n c t i o n s as well.
o r g a n i c b e i n g s ) does allow its i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as, simply, an o b j e c t in space. N o r b e r t W i e n e r , t h e f o u n d e r o f c y b e r n e t i c s , c h a r a c t e r i z e s his c o n c e p t
H u m a n e x i s t e n c e can in fact be i n v e s t i g a t e d as a calculable causal o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s s o m e t h i n g t o t a l l y n o v e l and d e s c r i b e s " i n f o r m a t i o n "
r e l a t i o n s h i p a m o n g o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e s , physical and c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s e s itself a s n o l o n g e r m e r e l y e n e r g e t i c o r m e r e l y m a t e r i a l . B u t t h e
in specific l o c a t i o n s in space. l e g i t i m a c y o f c y b e r n e t i c s and i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y falls e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e
T h r o u g h p r o c e d u r e s o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e t h e physical basis o f h u m a n d i m e n s i o n s o f scientific calculability n e v e r t h e l e s s , and t h e r e f o r e u n d e r
e x i s t e n c e can be i n t e r p r e t e d and the h u m a n body m a n i p u l a t e d , e v e n to a the rule o f t h e causal principle. C o n s e q u e n t l y W i e n e r defines t h e h u m a n
1

t h e r a p e u t i c end. T h i s , t h e n , is the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for applying t h e r e s e a r c h being as a " m e s s a g e , " w h i c h , as t h e t e r m is used in i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y ,


m e t h o d o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e t o medical p r a c t i c e . B u t n o m a n i p u l a t i o n , n o m e a n s n o t h i n g but a spatially or t e m p o r a l l y o r d e r e d s y s t e m or model of
m a t t e r h o w striking, also g u a r a n t e e s t h a t t h e o b j e c t s w h i c h are being c h e m i c a l particles or e l e c t r i c a l i m p u l s e s t h a t is a b s o l u t e l y quantifiable
successfully m a n i p u l a t e d are c o m p e t e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d . and e x a c t l y m e a s u r a b l e . O n e could hardly find a m o r e radical
K a n t , by this t i m e , had already r e c o g n i z e d t h a t scientific t h o u g h t , f o r m u l a t i o n for t h e i n t e n t o f t h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d t o
w h i c h applied only t h e principle of c a u s a l i t y , did n o t suffice to s e c u r e e x c l u s i v e , a b s o l u t e , and u n c o n d i t i o n a l r i g h t s t o m e d i c i n e .
c o m p r e h e n d living b e i n g s . T h e v e r y simplest b e i n g s , h e tells us, d e m a n d T h e m a t t e r o f deciding w h e t h e r this m e t h o d can l e g i t i m a t e l y m a k e
to be u n d e r s t o o d f r o m a second and teleological p e r s p e c t i v e . E v e n s u c h a claim is f u n d a m e n t a l l y i m p o r t a n t for medical s c i e n c e . T h i s
biological r e s e a r c h e r s placed additional c o n c e p t i o n s alongside t h e purely decision will d e t e r m i n e and limit b o t h t h e s o u n d n e s s o f any f o u n d a t i o n
causal p e r s p e c t i v e in t h e i r s c i e n c e and in m e d i c i n e . T h e old vitalists, for for m e d i c i n e possible n o w and t h e f u r t h e r practical and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l
i n s t a n c e , t h o u g h t it n e c e s s a r y to posit a u n i q u e life force to a c c o u n t for possibilities of t h a t f o u n d a t i o n as well. T h e r e is no r o o m for speculation
the m o s t c o n s p i c u o u s p r o p e r t i e s of living t h i n g s , particularly for the and a b s t r a c t i o n t h a t d o n o t directly c o n c e r n t h e p h e n o m e n a o f h u m a n
a s t o u n d i n g m a i n t e n a n c e o f equilibrium b e t w e e n t w o v a r y i n g c h e m o - p a t h o l o g y . W e shall call n a t u r a l s c i e n c e ' s p o w e r s o f e x p l a n a t i o n t o
physical p r o c e s s e s , and also for t h e i n c r e a s e of individuals. a c c o u n t and shall t e s t t h e i r ability to stand up in t h e face of c o n c r e t e data
B e y o n d this, physicists h a v e r e c e n t l y m a d e b i o l o g i s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y from a specific c a s e h i s t o r y .
a w a r e t h a t t h e laws o f physics can l e g i t i m a t e l y d e s c r i b e only e f f e c t s t h a t We shall t r y t h e s e e x p l a n a t o r y capabilities on a p r o c e s s t h a t m a k e s up
t r a v e r s e o n e point and its i m m e d i a t e vicinity and o c c u p y n e i g h b o r i n g R e g u l a Z u r c h e r ' s e x i s t e n c e after she has r e c o v e r e d . W e c h o o s e this r a t h e r
m o m e n t s i n t i m e . L a w s t h a t g o v e r n spatial o r t e m p o r a l e f f e c t s w h i c h t h a n a p a t h o l o g i c a l c a s e in point to w o r k from b e c a u s e s i c k n e s s is
m o v e f r o m a distance t o w a r d a goal, as m u s t be a s s u m e d for living t h i n g s , invariably n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n deficient h e a l t h i n e s s . O n l y w h e n w e have
22 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View of Medicine 23

seen well e n o u g h i n t o h e a l t h i n e s s can w e u n d e r s t a n d p a t h o l o g i c a l m a d e u p o f e v e n t s t h a t p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o e v e r y o b s e r v e r , even a


m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , w h i l e , on the o t h e r h a n d , we can n e v e r derive a p i c t u r e of n a t u r a l scientific i n v e s t i g a t o r , as n o n s o m a t i c s t r u c t u r e s and as p r o c e s s e s
h u m a n h e a l t h from d e f e c t i v e pathological m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . S i n c e the neither material nor energetic in nature.
n u m b e r o f n a t u r a l scientific a t t e m p t s t o explain t h e n o r m a l , h e a l t h y W h a t d o t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e say a b o u t p e r c e p t i o n ,
m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e h a s g r o w n s o i n o r d i n a t e l y large t h i n k i n g , feeling, r e m e m b e r i n g , desire, volition, a c t i o n , and c o n s c i o u s
lately, w e shall u s e single e x a m p l e s t o r e p r e s e n t w h o l e a r e a s o f related n e s s ? N a t u r a l scientific m e d i c i n e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y n e u r o l o g y , label
natural scientific f o r m u l a t i o n s . T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n will n o t h a r m the m a t t e r "psychic" anything which is not immediately perceived as somatic, which
at hand, for all i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w h i c h c o n f o r m in t h e i r f u n d a m e n t a l s is w h a t t h e m o d e r n r e s e a r c h e r is in t h e h a b i t of addressing as the s u m of
h a v e t h e s a m e kind o f l e g i t i m a c y and t h e s a m e limits. m a t e r i a l s t r u c t u r e s and c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s holding t h e h u m a n
T h e first m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h e a l t h i n e s s w e find i n R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s life body t o g e t h e r .
is her behavior when she unexpectedly meets the man at whose glance T h e psychic a s p e c t i s m o r e n a r r o w l y defined b y o n e leading
she had collapsed, h y s t e r i c a l l y lamed, t h e y e a r b e f o r e . T h i s t i m e she neurophysiologistI refer to McLeanas "the non-material attributes
2

r u s h e s a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t t o h e r lover, h e r h e a r t pounding w i t h delight, o f t h e ' m i n d . ' " ( T h e t e r m " m i n d " c o r r e s p o n d s t o D e s c a r t e s ' s cogitatw,
and h u g s and k i s s e s h i m . T h e n t h e y walk h o m e a r m in a r m , discussing w h i c h includes n o t o n l y t h e c o n c e p t o f t h i n k i n g , b u t also t h o s e o f
plans for t h e i r c o m i n g v a c a t i o n in a place both k n o w v e r y well. T h i s volition, r e c o g n i t i o n , and opinion.) N o w , " n o n - m a t e r i a l and n o n -
c o u r s e o f e v e n t s c o n f o r m s t h o r o u g h l y t o h e r vivacious, impulsive, e n e r g e t i c e n t i t i e s " a r e a s s u c h u n w e i g h a b l e , u n m e a s u r a b l e , and
c h e e r f u l n a t u r e and m a y s e r v e as a c o n v e n i e n t model of n o r m a l , h e a l t h y t h e r e f o r e also u n c a l c u l a b l e . B u t g i v e n its philosophical predisposition,
human behavior. n a t u r a l s c i e n c e can d o n o t h i n g b u t m e a s u r e and r e c k o n . Faced w i t h this
T h e n a t u r a l scientific m e t h o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e g i n s b y dividing such ticklish s i t u a t i o n , n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e taken widely
a p h e n o m e n o n i n t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e p r o c e s s e s . T h e first is identified as a v a r y i n g , e v e n opposing, p o s i t i o n s . M a n y will n o t discuss the psychic at
process of perception: R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r p e r c e i v e s a m a n a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t . T h i s all, b u t m o s t spend c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e and e f f o r t t r y i n g to find s o m e w a y
perception is followed by a r e c o g n i t i o n : this m a n is h e r lover. In r e f e r r i n g t o bring t h e psychic back i n t o t h e realm o f t h e m e a s u r a b l e , calculable
to this r e c o g n i t i o n , and especially r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r e m i n i s c e n c e s a b o u t a m a t e r i a l and e n e r g e t i c , o r t h e c y b e r n e t i c , b y a t t e m p t i n g t o derive t h e
past v a c a t i o n , n a t u r a l scientific e x p l a n a t i o n s speak n e x t of a memory psychic e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e s o m a t i c .
performance. Finally, h e r r u s h i n g to h e r l o v e r is s e e n as a third p r o c e s s , t h e M c L e a n o p e n s his a t t e m p t b y allowing t h a t e v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n
p e r f o r m a n c e of an impulse of will, a motor reaction. w h i c h c o m b i n e s t h e p s y c h e w i t h a s o m a is, from scientific s t a n d p o i n t ,
N a t u r a l scientific p h y s i o l o g y realizes t h a t a c e r t a i n artificiality contestable. For the assumption of a closer relationship between the two
a t t a c h e s to this subdividing. It has long b e e n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p r o c e s s e s of c a r r i e s t h e implicit n o t i o n t h a t t h e n o n m a t e r i a l p s y c h e m a y affect the
p e r c e p t i o n are a l w a y s a c c o m p a n i e d b y c e r t a i n m o t i v e impulses. A n d long s u b s t a n c e o f t h e body. M c L e a n holds t h a t this logical i n c o n s i s t e n c y can
a g o it w a s s e e n t h a t t h e m o d e of p e r c e p t i o n , particularly its " a f f e c t i v e be g o t t e n a r o u n d if we will avail o u r s e l v e s of a n e w definition for t h e
c o l o r a t i o n , " is i m p o r t a n t in d e t e r m i n i n g fixation in m e m o r y . "psychic."
B u t w h a t is m o s t significant h e r e is t h a t in d e s c r i b i n g an i n s t a n c e of
h e a l t h y b e h a v i o r in o u r test case we c a m e , a p p a r e n t l y in spite of In t h e past 1 0 0 y e a r s t h e old G r e e k n o t i o n t h a t t h e " p s y c h e " is capable
o u r s e l v e s , t o speak o f p h e n o m e n a t h a t clearly display s o m e t h i n g of an i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e h a s gradually died o u t and the mind h a s
n o n p h y s i c a l : t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e lover, t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n , the feeling o f c o m e to be looked upon as i n s e p a r a b l e from a f u n c t i o n i n g o r g a n i c
pleasure, t h e t h o u g h t o f r u s h i n g o v e r t o him, t h e desire t o b e c l o s e r t o s y s t e m . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o n e can today pick up a s t a n d a r d d i c t i o n a r y and
him, and the i m p u l s e of will. O u r s t a t e m e n t s a s s u m e d a c o n s c i o u s n e s s as find " p s y c h e " defined as " t h e mind, especially c o n s i d e r e d as an o r g a n i c
a precondition for t h e s e activities, and we did n o t begin to n o t i c e the s y s t e m s e r v i n g t o adjust t h e total o r g a n i s m t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . " T h e
physicality o f R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r until w e o b s e r v e d t h e m o t o r r e a c t i o n t o definition could h a v e g o n e a s t e p f u r t h e r and s t a t e d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l
t h e perceptual s t i m u l u s , h e r act of will in r u n n i n g to h e r lover. It is n e r v o u s s y s t e m i s r e c o g n i z e d a s being t h e e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t o f the
3

11 c m e n d o u s l y i m p o r t a n t to see t h a t this e n c o u n t e r w i t h h e r l o v e r is organic system.


24 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View of Medicine 25

His c o m m o n falsification o f t h e a n c i e n t G r e e k c o n c e p t o f p s y c h e aside, in t h e f o r m of a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a localization, an e s t i m a t e d m a g n i t u d e ,


5
M c L e a n i m m e d i a t e l y s e e s t h a t h e m u s t a c k n o w l e d g e t h e impossibility o f or a description of q u a l i t y .
deriving p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n s directly f r o m t h e c h e m o p h y s i c a l and
i n f o r m a t i o n a l data t h a t can be g a t h e r e d from t h e brain and its f u n c t i o n s . M o u n t c a s t l e ' s n o t i o n o f the " e s s e n c e " o f t h e psychic and t h e a t t r i b u t e s
H e also a d m i t s t h a t i f t h e r e w e r e n o s u b j e c t i v e i n t r o s p e c t i o n , M c L e a n assigns t o t h e psychic a r e s t r i k i n g l y similar. B o t h w r i t e r s are
n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i s t s would n e v e r h a v e b e e n able to f o r m u l a t e even a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , as typical as t h e y are f i r s t - r a t e , of t h e p s y c h o n e u r a l
single t h o u g h t a b o u t p s y c h i c realities o r a w a r e n e s s , feelings, p e r c e p identity t h e o r y w h i c h p r e d o m i n a t e s i n m o d e r n m e d i c i n e . B o t h are
t i o n s , e m o t i o n s , and t h o u g h t s . I n M c L e a n ' s t h i n k i n g , such i n t r o s p e c t i o n c o n v i n c e d t h a t it is t h e t a s k of n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y to explain all h u m a n
b e c o m e s possible b e c a u s e t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m can, as it w e r e , reflect and b e h a v i o r in n e u r a l t e r m s , including w h a t is called p s y c h i c .
i n t e r p r e t t h e flow of data t h r o u g h a m i r r o r l i k e s u b j e c t i v i t y in which it is Y e t only b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e u n t h i n k i n g l y t a k e n w h a t n a t u r a l s c i e n c e
r e f l e c t e d . F r o m this h e d r a w s t h e surprising c o n c l u s i o n : has declared to be t h e e s s e n c e of t h e o r g a n i c as c r i t e r i a for t h e i r
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the psychic a r e t h e y able t o s i m u l a t e a n y c o m p a t i b i l i t y
I t i s t h e e l e m e n t o f s u b j e c t i v i t y t h a t m o s t clearly d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n t h e i r definitions o f " p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n s " and scientific o b j e c
p s y c h o l o g i c a l from o t h e r f u n c t i o n s o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m . I n the light tivity.
of this and t h e f o r e g o i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s m i g h t H o w is M c L e a n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s u b j e c t i v e e l e m e n t to bring us o n e
be i n f e r e n t i a l l y defined as a n e u r o n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d p r o c e s s w h i c h step c l o s e r to u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n y t h i n g psychic if we are n o t at t h e s a m e
derives i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s o m e e l e m e n t o f s u b j e c t i v i t y t i m e given precise i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e n a t u r e o f this s u b j e c t i v e e l e m e n t ?
and w h i c h m a y or m a y n o t u s e this i n f o r m a t i o n to effect a decision. M c L e a n should be able to tell us at least h o w this e l e m e n t is so
c o n s t i t u t e d that, t h a n k s t o it, t h e c h e m o p h y s i c a l l y d e t e r m i n a b l e ,
S u c h a definition o f t h e " p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s o f the n e r v o u s m a t e r i a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m can hold a m i r r o r to itself and c o m p r e h e n d its
s y s t e m , " M c L e a n b e l i e v e s , i s " c o m p a t i b l e w i t h scientific o b j e c t i v i t y . " 4
o w n significance f r o m t h e r e f l e c t i o n it p e r c e i v e s .
V. S. M o u n t c a s t l e a d v a n c e s a " t h e o r e t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e " for clarifying M o u n t c a s t l e ' s proposal, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a b s t a i n s f r o m t r e a t i n g t h e
this p r o b l e m . In o r d e r to g r a s p physiologically t h e n o n m a t e r i a l psychic psychic as t h e p r o d u c t i o n of " n e u r a l a c t i v i t y " in o r d e r to indicate m o r e
aspect of a c o n s c i o u s n e s s and of p e r c e p t i o n , M o u n t c a s t l e b e l i e v e s t h a t accurately how we might envision a production of the "psychic through
n e u r a l a c t i v i t y . " Still less c o m p r e h e n s i b l e to him is t h e w a y in w h i c h a
On t h e o n e h a n d is t h e c o m m o n l y held idea t h a t t h e r e is r e p r e s e n t e d in n e u r a l activity m i g h t b e c o m e t h e actual e s s e n c e o f t h e p s y c h i c .
n e u r a l space and t i m e an i s o m o r p h i c p h a n t o m of the real w o r l d , a C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e similar s t a t e m e n t s o f d o u b t i n t h e M c L e a n and
phantom then surmised to be interfaced with some other process of M o u n t c a s t l e articles, it is n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t b o t h end in e s s e n t i a l l y t h e
u n c e r t a i n n a t u r e w h i c h , deriving input from this c o n j u n c t i o n , e v o l v e s s a m e s o r t o f r e s i g n a t i o n . H o w t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m can u s e c h e m o p h y s i
an activity of its o w n w h i c h is r e g a r d e d as a basically m e n t a l or psychic cal p r o c e s s e s t h a t take place in i t s e l f to p r o d u c e v o l u n t a r y decisions and
t h i n g , a s p e r c e p t i o n , c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and t h e o t h e r c o n c o m i t a n t a s p e c t s o t h e r psychic f u n c t i o n s u l t i m a t e l y r e m a i n s a " c o m p l e t e m y s t e r y " for
o f t h e i n n e r life o f m a n . M c L e a n . M o u n t c a s t l e c o n f e s s e s i n the end t h a t " o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
On t h e o t h e r hand is t h e set of a s s u m p t i o n s c o m p o s i n g t h e modus these things in these terms (the production of mental experience
labori o f m a n y n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i s t s , w h i c h m a y b e s u m m a r i z e d u n d e r t h r o u g h n e u r a l activity) i s p r e s e n t l y v e r y primitive i n d e e d . "
t h e t e r m p s y c h o n e u r a l identity. . . . T h a t is, t h a t t h e n e u r a l activity set T h e m o s t c o n s e q u e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t s o f t h e psychic aspect are b y
in m o t i o n by s e n s o r y stimuli, s u c c e s s i v e l y t r a n s f o r m e d t h r o u g h researchers working from cybernetics. H. Rohracher undertakes to
successively interconnected populations of neurons, complexed derive all psychic f u n c t i o n s f r o m " e x c i t a t i o n s " in t h e n e r v e cells. He says,
a g a i n s t s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o and c o n d i t i o n e d b y t h o s e "It is c l e a r t h a t a c e r e b r a l t h e o r y of psychic p r o c e s s m u s t c o n c e r n itself
neural locales and activities c o n c e r n e d w i t h set o r a f f e c t t h a t t h e s e a b o v e all w i t h t h e s e ' e x c i t a t i o n s , ' since w e h a v e a t o u r disposal n o o t h e r
neural activities do t h e m s e l v e s lead to and a r e in fact t h e v e r y e s s e n c e basis for c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e e x c e p t p r o c e s s e s of e x c i t a t i o n in t h e
of t he private e v e n t of p e r c e p t i o n , and, at c h o i c e , its public e x p r e s s i o n brain." R o h r a c h e r believes t h a t h e can d i f f e r e n t i a t e a m o n g t h e s e
2o EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View of Medicine 27

" f u n d a m e n t a l " c e r e b r a l e x c i t a t i o n s . As he s e e s it, it is possible t h a t " t h e C y b e r n e t i c t h i n k i n g is based on t h e c o n c e p t s of i n f o r m a t i o n and feed


d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t h o u g h t ' M a t t e r h o r n ' and the c o n t e n t 'social back of bits of i n f o r m a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n is n e i t h e r simply m a t e r i a l n o r
j u s t i c e ' c o n s i s t s n o t m e r e l y in a d i f f e r e n c e in t h e n u m b e r of participating simply e n e r g e t i c , b u t it is n e v e r t h e l e s s , in its f o u n d e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n ,
e x c i t a t i o n s , b u t r e q u i r e s as well a d i f f e r e n c e in the types of the quantitatively measurable.
participating e x c i t a t i o n s . " He h a s in mind d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e f r e q u e n c i e s W h a t could have b e e n m o r e w e l c o m e t o n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i s t s than such
and a m p t i t u d e s of t h e electrical impulses and d i f f e r e n c e s in the r a t e s at a c o n c e p t o f i n f o r m a t i o n ? W h a t else could h a v e g i v e n t h e m g r e a t e r h o p e s
w h i c h t h e y are p r o p a g a t e d in the n e r v o u s s t r u c t u r e of the brain. of h a v i n g found, at long last, a d e s c r i p t i v e principle t h a t m i g h t help t h e m
Rohracher's theory of cognition is grounded on the hypothesis that "the g e t a scientific hold on e v e n t h o s e psychic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s t h a t had b e e n
laws of logic a r e in t r u t h laws of e x c i t a t o r y a c t i v i t y in the c e r e b r u m . T h e o u t o f r e a c h b e c a u s e t h e y could n o t b e m e a s u r e d ?
solution (to a t h o u g h t - p r o b l e m ) lies in t h e u n i f i c a t i o n of the c o n s t e l l a F o r m a n y p h y s i o l o g i s t s , d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t set in at o n c e . H. H e n s e l , for
tions (of e x c i t a t i o n s ) to p r o d u c e a total c o n s t e l l a t i o n ; and the psychic i n s t a n c e , concluding a c h a p t e r - l o n g c r i t i q u e of i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y ,
s y m p t o m t h a t such a c o n s t e l l a t i o n has f o r m e d is t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e writes:
solution is c o r r e c t : t h e r e is no l o n g e r any c o n t r a d i c t i o n a m o n g the
0
individual e x c i t a t i o n s . " S e e n from a philosophical s t a n d p o i n t , i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n c e p t s add
T h i s t h e o r y et o n c e raises the o b j e c t i o n t h a t in a strict, scientific, n o t h i n g decisively n e w t o t h e t h e o r y o f t h e s e n s e s . I n relation t o t h e
s e n s e , t h e r e can b e n o s u c h t h i n g a s e x c i t e d n e r v e cells. T o speak o f p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y h a v e the s a m e a r b i t r a r y c h a r a c t e r a s t h e
excited n e r v e cells is t a n t a m o u n t to a n t h r o p o m o r p h i z i n g c h e m o e l e c t r i - c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s o f e v e r y o t h e r positive s c i e n c e . B a s i n g a
cal p r o c e s s e s . W h a t t a k e s place in t h e s e cells isproperly s p e a k i n g o n l y t h e o r y o f p e r c e p t i o n o n c y b e r n e t i c s would b e adding t o t h e old e r r o r o f
repetition o f such p r o c e s s e s a s t h e rapid e x c h a n g e o f p o t a s s i u m i o n s , n a t u r a l i s m a n e w o n e " c y b e r n e t i c i s m " or " i n f o r m a t i s m . " In addition,
w i t h all o f t h e c h e m o e l e c t r i c a l chain r e a c t i o n s t h a t g o w i t h it. N o m a t t e r this would c o n t i n u e p h y s i o l o g y ' s peculiar tradition of d r a w i n g its
h o w fast such an e x c h a n g e m a y g o , it h a s , s t r i c t l y speaking, n o t h i n g to do t e r m i n o l o g y from the m o m e n t a r i l y prevailing n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and
w i t h an e x c i t a t i o n . O n l y a w h o l e living being can ever be, or b e c o m e , t e c h n o l o g y instead of s e t t i n g up an i n d e p e n d e n t t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e
7
g e n u i n e l y e x c i t e d . T h i s h a p p e n s w h e n s o m e t h i n g t h a t has just s t a r t l e d i t w o r k for i t s e l f .
has been perceived as o b t r u s i v e and understood as s o m e h o w u n s e t t l i n g . A n d
the ability t o t h i n k a b o u t the M a t t e r h o r n o r social j u s t i c e , o r the M e a n t i m e , w h e n e v e r p h y s i o l o g y and biology i n t r o d u c e i n f o r m a t i o n
c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a s o l u t i o n to a p r o b l e m is c o r r e c t , can no m o r e be derived t h e o r y into their bodies o f k n o w l e d g e , t h e y a r e n o t m e r e l y b o r r o w i n g
from a sodium p o t a s s i u m e x c h a n g e in t h e cells of t h e brain t h a n an the c o n c e p t i o n s o f i n o r g a n i c o b j e c t s t h a t t e c h n i c a l scientific t h i n k i n g
e x c i t a t i o n could be. provides b u t a r e taking loans from sociology a s well. T h e v e r y n a m e
' Even less c o m p r e h e n s i b l e is h o w t h e r e could possibly be a " c o n t r a d i c w a s b o r r o w e d from s o c i o l o g y , for " i n f o r m a t i o n " originally m e a n s t h e
t i o n " a m o n g t h e e x c i t a t i o n s o f individual n e r v e cells. Cell r e a c t i o n s can t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a m e s s a g e a m o n g socially o r g a n i z e d people. I n f o r m a
w o r k a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r ; o n e billiard ball can b u m p into a n o t h e r , b u t tion i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n , a m o n g h u m a n b e i n g s , o f
n e v e r can it c o n t r a d i c t t h a t o t h e r . C o n t r a d i c t i o n a s s u m e s diction, t h e m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e n t w h i c h h a s b e e n revealed t o t h e i n f o r m a n t s b y
capacity to speak. B u t speech is a l w a y s an i n d i c a t o r of m e a n i n g w h i c h a s o m e t h i n g e n c o u n t e r e d in t h e i r s h a r e d w o r l d .
r e c e p t i v e being has perceived in s o m e t h i n g it e n c o u n t e r s . Cells can n e v e r W h e n e v e r c o n t e m p o r a r y i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y is applied to biology
perceive t h e m e a n i n g o f s o m e t h i n g o n t h e basis o f a n ion e x c h a n g e . and p h y s i o l o g y , i n f o r m a t i o n suddenly b e c o m e s a p a r t i c u l a r a r r a n g e
T h u s , cells t h e m s e l v e s can n e v e r c o n t r a d i c t e a c h o t h e r , j u s t a s t h e y are m e n t o f c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s and s t r u c t u r i n g s w h i c h e n t e r t h e
n e v e r in a position to e f f e c t t h e psychic s y m p t o m of t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a brain a l o n g w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , and w h i c h can b e
solution to a p r o b l e m is c o r r e c t . m e a s u r e d and quantified f r o m the brain m a t t e r . C y b e r n e t i c s
Despite such absurdities, the neurophysiological explanations of n o w h e r e p r o v e s t h a t this identification is justified, y e t i n f o r m a t i o n as
human phenomena inspired by c y b e r n e t i c s are e x e r t i n g an e v e r g r e a t e r the m e a s u r a b l y o r d e r e d s y s t e m o f c h e m o e l e c t r i c a l p r o c e s s e s i s
m l l u e n i e m medicine, and physicians c a n n o t dispense with a t h o r o u g h n o n e t h e l e s s c o n s i d e r e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e p s y c h i c and
c o n s i d e r a t i o n o l its f u n d a m e n t a l s . the s o m a t i c .
The Natural Scientific View of Medicine 29
28 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

at least t w o p h e n o m e n a w h i c h a r e t h o u g h t of as i n d e p e n d e n t of e.u h
T o stop r e l a t i n g t h e psychic aspect t o t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m ' s o t h e r . O n l y t h i n g s t h u s divided can c o r r e l a t e , coincide with o n e
c h e m o p h y s i c a l b a s e and r e l a t e i t i n s t e a d t o t h e s y s t e m ' s m o l e c u l a r a n o t h e r , b e c o u n t e r p a r t s t o o n e a n o t h e r , b e j o i n e d o r coupled. O n c e
structure, or to stochastic processes within the molecule, or to ordered a n y s u c h division o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e h a s b e e n a s s u m e d , t h e r e i s n o
s e q u e n c e s of electrical i m p u l s e s , is n o t to establish a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t is s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t can rejoin t h e p a r t s again t o m a k e t h e unified b e h a v i o r
a n y less q u e s t i o n a b l e . I t r e d u c e s t h e h u m a n ability t o perceive m e a n i n g w h i c h h u m a n e x i s t e n c e c o n s t a n t l y displays. N o o n e p r o c e e d i n g from
t o specific c h a i n r e a c t i o n s o f m o l e c u l a r p r o c e s s e s i n s t e a d o f c r u d e this dualistic m o d e o f t h o u g h t h a s m a n a g e d t o say a n y t h i n g
c h e m o p h y s i c a l b r a i n a c t i v i t y . In t h e p r o c e s s it e x a g g e r a t e s and c o m p r e h e n s i b l e a b o u t this p o s t u l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p s y c h e
anthropomorphizes these molecular systems into analogs to con and t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m , m u c h less a b o u t t h e n a t u r e and c o m p o s i t i o n
s c i o u s n e s s o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s l i k e m e s s a g e s . B o t h this and t h e c h e m o o f t h e s e supposedly p r e s e n t t h i n g s .
physical r e d u c t i o n p r e s u p p o s e o b l i v i o u s n e s s t o t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r
In looking back o v e r o u r e x a m p l e s of n a t u r a l scientific e x p l a n a t i o n s
and s u b s t a n c e of t h e r e a l m of m a t e r i a l - e n e r g e t i c p r o c e s s e s as well as
for h e a l t h y p s y c h e s , we c a n n o t avoid t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t n e u r o p h y s i -
t h e realm of l a n g u a g e and h u m a n c o n d u c t . It is impossible to o v e r l o o k
ological h y p o t h e s e s , e v e n w h e n t h e y a r e helped along b y t h e l a t e s t
t h e p r o f o u n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c h e m i s t r y and l a n g u a g e u n l e s s
i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r i e s , are dead e n d s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i r o b v i o u s
o n e ' s vision i s s o i n t e n t o n t h e c o n c e p t o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t e v e r y t h i n g
i n e x p e d i e n c y with r e g a r d to a full u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e h e a l t h y
else m u s t a p p e a r d i s t o r t e d . T h e v a g u e n e s s with w h i c h e x a c t s c i e n c e
p s y c h i c aspect does n o t a m o u n t to n o t h i n g and is n o t p u r e l y n e g a t i v e .
defines i n f o r m a t i o n s t r e n g t h e n s t h e t e n d e n c y t o use this definition a s
It is precisely the i n e x p e d i e n c y of this a p p r o a c h t h a t lets us r e c o g n i z e
t h e basis for supposed i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n all s o r t s of s y s t e m s .
s o quickly the r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e i n e x p e d i e n c y . A n d t o d i s c o v e r w h y
T h e c y b e r n e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of man is a l e g i t i m a t e offspring of t h e n a t u r a l scientific e x p l a n a t i o n s c a n n o t c o h e r e n t l y deduce t h e psychic
n a t u r a l scientific m e n t a l i t y . T h u s i t t a k e s t h e affiliations a m o n g f r o m t h e s o m a t i c is also to raise t h e possibility n o t m e r e l y of
e l e c t r o c h e m i c a l s y s t e m s and i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s t o b e j u s t a n o t h e r c i r c u m v e n t i n g t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s but o f g e n u i n e l y t r a n s c e n d i n g
cause-effect relationship. But the new vocabulary of information them.
t h e o r y t a m e s and plays d o w n the puzzling, disquieting v a c u u m t h a t is
A t first, only t h e n e g a t i v e e m e r g e s w i t h c e r t a i n t y . T h o s e n a t u r a l
f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n h e r e n t i n t h e c a u s a l i t y principle. C a u s a l i t y m e a n s
scientific h y p o t h e s e s i n t e n t o n explaining t h e psychic a s p e c t o n the
r e d u c t i o n t o t h e purely f o r m a l l e g i t i m a c y o f t e m p o r a l s u c c e s s i o n .
basis o f c h e m o p h y s i c a l o r c y b e r n e t i c s o m a t i c p r o c e s s e s n e v e r t o u c h
C a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g s y s t e m s , i n t h e m s e l v e s dark and e m p t y ,
t h a t r e a l m w h i c h is t h e actual place of all p e r c e p t i o n , feeling, t h o u g h t ,
look m o r e h u m a n and accessible w h e n t h e y a r e r e w r i t t e n for
m e m o r y , desire, and c o n s c i o u s n e s s , w h e r e e v e r y t h i n g psychic actually
information theory as "message relaying" or "symbol transference," as
dwells. T h a t realm is d a y - t o - d a y e x i s t e n c e in a w o r l d , w i t h all its
" m o l e c u l a r s c r i p t " or " t r a n s l a t i o n . " B u t in fact t h e r e is in i n f o r m a t i o n
c o m m o n p l a c e , and n o t s o c o m m o n p l a c e , j o y s and s o r r o w s . W e find all
p r o c e s s e s in t h e brain n o t a t r a c e of a m e s s a g e , relay, s y m b o l , script, or
the so-called psychic p h e n o m e n a i n o u r t e s t s u b j e c t ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h
l a n g u a g e to be found as such. R a t h e r , t h e s e specifically h u m a n
h e r l o v e r e c h o e d and s u s t a i n e d , w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g s and c o n t e x t s o f
p h e n o m e n a are a l w a y s directly r e l a t e d s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g t o the
r e f e r e n c e , i n t h e w o r l d t h e y s h a r e . B u t this w a s possible for t h e m
p e r c e p t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n of m e a n i n g . It is e n t i r e l y b e y o n d t h e
t w o a c t u a l individual h u m a n b e i n g s b e c a u s e t h e w a y all h u m a n
capabilities o f a n y t h i n g m a t e r i a l o r e n e r g e t i c , including m a t e r i a l -
b e i n g s a r e i n n a t e l y c o n s t i t u t e d as h u m a n beings is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an
e n e r g e t i c s y s t e m s , t o p e r c e i v e and c o m m u n i c a t e m e a n i n g .
o p e n w o r l d , t h a t is, an ability to p e r c e i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s in t h e w o r l d . It is
Even t h e m o s t c a u t i o u s brain r e s e a r c h e r s , p r e f e r r i n g t o set aside the a world, in o t h e r w o r d s , in w h i c h t h i n g s can reveal t h e m s e l v e s as
unclarified c o n c e p t o f i n f o r m a t i o n , c a n n o t c o m e t o t e r m s with t h e m e a n i n g f u l . B u t in s u c h a world t h e r e is n o t h i n g at all t h a t s u b m i t s
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p s y c h e and s o m a . W h e n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e t w o , directly t o m e a s u r e m e n t o r calculation. T h i s i s yet a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f
they speak only of a " c o r r e l a t i o n , " of " c o u n t e r p a r t s " and i n e v i t a b l e h o w t h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d c o m e s up a g a i n s t a s t o n e
" a t t e n d a n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , " of a " j o i n i n g " and " c o u p l i n g . " B u t a wall w h e n i t tries t o d i s c o v e r t h e particular n a t u r e o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e .
" c o r r e l a t i o n " is highly q u e s t i o n a b l e as long as o n e of t h e t w o t h i n g s
B u t for t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f medicine, d e t e r m i n i n g the limits o f
c o r r e l a t e d , the psyche, r e m a i n s as indefinite as it is in p h y s i o l o g y .
the n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d i s n o t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t
Besides, I he vei y nol ion of a " c o r r e l a t i o n , " " a t t e n d i n g , " or " j o i n i n g "
ass limes > previous dividing and objectifying of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e into
30 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View of Medicine 31

c o n c e r n . It is of far g r e a t e r c o n s e q u e n c e t h a t t h r o u g h its claims of e x i s t i n g as a g e s t u r e . F o r a g e s t u r e , no m a t t e r h o w slight, always


u n i v e r s a l validity it so o f t e n o v e r r e a c h e s its p r o p e r b o u n d a r i e s in the indicates s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s already b e e n perceived in its particular
field of m e d i c i n e . N a t u r a l s c i e n c e insists on t r y i n g to define and clarify significance. N e i t h e r the d i s c e r n i n g r e a l i z a t i o n of m e a n i n g , nor a
a set of p h e n o m e n a to w h i c h it h a s no a c c e s s , t h e p h e n o m e n a of h u m a n g e s t u r e in r e s p o n s e could e v e r o r i g i n a t e in c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s or
e x i s t e n c e . T h i s d o g g e d n e s s c o m p l e t e s t h e e f f e c t o f fascination and c y b e r n e t i c s t r u c t u r e s . A n d t h u s n e i t h e r biology, a n a t o m y , n o r
i n t i m i d a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e m a r v e l s o f n a t u r a l scientific m a n i p u l a t i o n p h y s i o l o g y d e s e r v e s to be called a basic s c i e n c e . If this is w h a t they call
h a v e e n t r a n c e d m a n k i n d in t h e a g e of t e c h n o l o g y . In t h e final a n a l y s i s , t h e m s e l v e s , a r r o g a n c e h a s blinded t h e m t o facts.
this p o w e r t o m a n i p u l a t e h a s tended t o blind n a t u r a l scientific B e c a u s e t h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d h a s n o t b e e n able t o
researchers to their own theoretical transgressions. b r i n g f o r t h a n a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , while
W e can b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d n o w t h e s t u b b o r n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e w i t h u n l o c k i n g u n d r e a m e d - o f possibilities for t h e medical m a n i p u l a t i o n o f
w h i c h n a t u r a l s c i e n c e holds u p biology, a n a t o m y , p h y s i o l o g y and h u m a n b e i n g s , it has n o t b e e n able to give a n y goal or purpose to
p a t h o l o g y as e v i d e n c e t h a t it is the g e n u i n e basis of m e d i c i n e . B u t to medical practice. As a r e s u l t , its t r a n s g r e s s i o n s b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y
justify this claim, t h e s e s u b s c i e n c e s m u s t first b e able t o prove t h a t t h e d a n g e r o u s to the survival of h u m a n n a t u r e as its p o t e n t i a l for
physical c o m p o n e n t t h e y m a n i p u l a t e so e f f e c t i v e l y is of p r i m a r y , basic t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n is r e f i n e d to p e r f e c t i o n . W h e n , s o m e t i m e in
i m p o r t a n c e . T h a t is, t h e y m u s t b e able t o s h o w t h a t the physical body the foreseeable future, deliberate intervention in c h r o m o s o m e
as t h e y define it is capable of i n d e p e n d e n t l y g e n e r a t i n g e v e r y s t r u c t u r e m a k e s c o n t r o l l e d b r e e d i n g o f t h e h u m a n race possible, its
c o n c e i v a b l e h u m a n a c t i v i t y . B u t such a p r o o f does n o t exist a n y w h e r e . scientific c r i t e r i a will give t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e o f h u m a n - b r e e d i n g n o
clue a b o u t w h i c h g e n e t i c d i r e c t i o n will be beneficial to m a n and his
B e s i d e s , n o w h e r e i n t h e s c i e n c e s o f biology, a n a t o m y , p h y s i o l o g y , o r
w o r l d and w h i c h m o r e apt t o a n n i h i l a t e b o t h .
p a t h o l o g y is t h e r e a n y precise indication of w h a t " b a s i c " m e a n s . It
m i g h t appear at first t h a t t h e n o t i o n c o m m o n in physics should apply in A d a w n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of the n a t u r a l scientific
medicine as well. H o w e v e r , in p h y s i c s , basic r e s e a r c h is r e s e a r c h t h a t r e s e a r c h m e t h o d and t h e d a n g e r s of raising it to an a b s o l u t e in biology
f o r m u l a t e s the t h e o r e t i c a l s u p p o s i t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f and m e d i c i n e h a s for s o m e t i m e n o w b e e n e n c o u r a g i n g p h y s i c i a n s t o
physical e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . E x p e r i m e n t s , in t u r n , are c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n look for a s o u n d e r basis for m e d i c i n e , a basis m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e to the
the h o r i z o n s o f t h e o r y s o prescribed and are a i m e d a t c o n f i r m i n g t h a t illness of h u m a n b e i n g s . A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e y should d i s c o v e r such a
t h e o r y . W h e n such c o n f i r m a t i o n is n o t f o r t h c o m i n g , it is n e c e s s a r y to b a s i s , it w o u l d still be illicit to simply discard p r e v i o u s n a t u r a l scientific
f r a m e a n e w t h e o r y w h i c h p e r m i t s the n e w findings to be fitted i n t o an a d v a n c e s ; a n e w , m o r e h u m a n f o u n d a t i o n o f m e d i c i n e would k n o w
u n b r o k e n p a t t e r n o f causality. S i n c e t h e w h o l e s p e c t r u m o f basic h o w t o i n t e r p r e t t h e findings o f n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m o r e
r e s e a r c h in physical s c i e n c e (including m e d i c i n e ) is g r o u n d e d on t h e suitably. S c i e n t i s t s h a v e l o o k e d particularly t o p s y c h o l o g y and
a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w h a t e v e r is real m u s t be m e a s u r a b l e and calculable, p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e for help in e l a b o r a t i n g a m o r e h u m a n
and since n o e x p e r i m e n t can c a r r y n a t u r a l s c i e n c e b e y o n d its o w n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the k n o w n p h e n o m e n a o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , with t h e
f u n d a m e n t a l p r e c e p t s , n a t u r a l scientific medicine will n e v e r h a v e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e i r e x p l a n a t o r y capabilities would c o m p l e m e n t
a n y t h i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y n e w to say a b o u t a h u m a n body w h o s e n a t u r e m e d i c i n e ' s s o m a t o l o g i c a p p r o a c h to f o r m a c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w p o i n t .
it has stipulated as calculable.
P r e s u m a b l y , medical r e s e a r c h e r s t h i n k of a basis primarily as s o m e NOTES
u n d e r m o s t , o b j e c t i v e level from w h i c h all h u m a n p h e n o m e n a can be
1. N. W i e n e r , The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (Boston: Hough tor
derived in a c a u s a l - g e n e t i c way. B u t n o t e v e n t h e least part of h u m a n
Mifflin, 1949); German t r a n s l a t i o n : Mensch-Maschine ( 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 94ff.
b e h a v i o r can b e t h o r o u g h l y explained o n t h e basis o f w h a t a n a t o m y , 2. M c L e a n ' s " P s y c h o s o m a t i c s , " in Handbook of Physiology ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : A m e r i c a r
biology, and p h y s i o l o g y h a v e b r o u g h t to light. E v e n a description of the Physiological Society, 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 1 7 2 4 .
c o u n t l e s s c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s in the h u m a n body, c o n c e p t u a l i z e d 3 . Ibid., p . 1 7 2 5 .
as a physical o r g a n i s m in a s p a c e - t i m e c o n t i n u u m , c a n n o t lead to a n y 4 . Ibid.
5. V . S . M o u n t c a s t l e , " T h e Neural Replication of S e n s o r y E v e n t s ' in the S o m a l i
u n d e r s t a n d i n g of even such a simple bodily p h e n o m e n o n of h u m a n
A f f e r e n t , " in Brain and Conscious Experience, ed., J . O E c c l e s ( N e w Y o r k : 19t>t>) p. 8 5 .
32 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

6. H. R o h r a c h e r , Die Arbeitsweise dea Gehirns und psychische Vorgnge, 3d ed., Die Vorgnge im
Gehirn und das geistige Leben (Munich: 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 87 a n d 153.
7. H. Hensel, Lehrbuch der Physiologie. Allgemeine Sinnesphysiologie, Hautsinne, Geschmack, Geruch
(Berlin Heidelberg, N e w York: 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 12.

Chapter 3

THE NATURAL SCIENTIFIC VIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY


AND PSYCHOSOMATICS

N a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s r e a c h t h e i r o b j e c t s o f study only i n


r e l a t i o n to t h e i r m e a s u r a b l e and calculable s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h is to say,
only w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s a n d t h e i r c y b e r n e t i -
cally q u a n t i f i a b l e c o m p o s i t i o n s . W h e n m e d i c i n e applies this t o h u m a n
b e i n g s , it is t h e body w h i c h p r e s e n t s i t s e l f for precise m e a s u r e m e n t s and
c a l c u l a t i o n s . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e o n m a n o p e n e d u n h e a r d - o f possibilities t o
m e d i c i n e for m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e h u m a n body, and its scientific a d v a n c e s
h a v e c o n t r o l l e d diseases t h a t used t o b e t h e m o s t c o m m o n a n d m o s t
dealy. B u t t h e overall m o r b i d i t y o f m a n k i n d has r i s e n , n o t fallen; i l l n e s s e s
have appeared which conventional therapeutic measures cannot combat.
F o r a w h i l e , p h y s i c i a n s looked hopefully to t h e f u t u r e , c e r t a i n t h a t w i t h
i m p r o v e d m e t h o d s t h e y w o u l d find o r g a n i c c h a n g e s t o explain t h e
p a t h o g e n e s i s o f t h e s e n e w d i s e a s e s . B u t a s t i m e passed, i t b e c a m e
a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e i r p a t h o g e n e s i s could n o t b e explained o n a n o r g a n i c ,
n a t u r a l scientific basis but instead had to do w i t h a p a t i e n t ' s o r i e n t a t i o n
t o w a r d his s u r r o u n d i n g s , t o w a r d o t h e r people, and t o w a r d h i m s e l f .
T h u s , it became necessary to make a theoretical distinction. T h e new
diseases w e r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h o s e w h o s e c a u s e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d
primarily o r g a n i c t h e s o m a t o g e n i c d i s e a s e s a n d w e r e called primarily
psychic d i s t u r b a n c e s , o r p s y c h o g e n i c n e u r o s e s .
34 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View 35

I t b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t t h e relative and a b s o l u t e n u m b e r o f psychic o r g a n , psychic s y s t e m , p s y c h i c a p p a r a t u s , ofin s h o r t t h e


t h e s e n e u r o s e s , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f the s u f f e r i n g t h e y e n g e n d e r e d , and t h e p s y c h e . In e l a b o r a t i n g his t h e o r y , F r e u d s u g g e s t e d t h a t this a p p a r a t u s be
e c o n o m i c d a m a g e for w h i c h t h e y w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e , w e r e s u r p a s s i n g t h e visualized as a t h r e e part e n t i t y , divided into t h e s u b s y s t e m s of a
e f f e c t s o f all t h e primarily o r g a n i c illnesses t a k e n t o g e t h e r . P h y s i c i a n s c o n s c i o u s , a p r e c o n s c i o u s , and an u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e c e n t r a l role assigned
w e r e compelled to a c k n o w l e d g e p a t i e n t s ' m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n s as a s e c o n d t o the m a t e r i a l s u b s t r a t u m o f the c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m b y physiology
and d i f f e r e n t a r e a o f r e a l i t y e x i s t i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e s o m a t i c , and t h e y had w a s a n a l o g o u s l y a s s u m e d by the u n c o n s c i o u s . If p h y s i o l o g y had declared
t o give this n o n s o m a t i c realm i n d e p e n d e n t scientific c o n s i d e r a t i o n . t h e m a t e r i a l c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m t o b e t h e basis o f all h u m a n
W h i l e the n a m i n g o f t h e n e w s c i e n c e s o f medical p s y c h o l o g y and b e h a v i o r , Freud w a s n o w d e s i g n a t i n g t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a s the e s s e n t i a l
p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y t o o k i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t all n o n s o m a t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f and o n l y real part o f all p s y c h i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . L a t e r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f this
h u m a n e x i s t e n c e w e r e s e e n a s e f f e c t s o r f u n c t i o n s o f the p s y c h e , t h e subdivision i n t o t h e triad of id, e g o , and s u p e r e g o b r o u g h t w i t h it n o t h i n g
fundamentally new.
n e o l o g i s m " n e u r o s i s " e c h o e s t h e old prejudice t h a t e v e n t h e p s y c h o g e n i c
illnesses c a n , in t h e final analysis, be ascribed to d i s t u r b a n c e s in t h e C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s medical s c i e n c e could
n e u r o n s , the physical n e r v e cells and the n e r v e p a t h w a y s . t r a c e in t h e realm of the s o m a t i c , so, F r e u d believed, w a s t h e psychic
a p p a r a t u s filled w i t h psychic m a t e r i a l . B y this h e m e a n t psychic
PSYCHOLOGICAL HYPOTHESES r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f o b j e c t s from t h e world o u t s i d e t h e mind, also called
c o n c e p t i o n s , and q u a n t a of p s y c h i c e x c i t a t i o n , t h e so-called affects and
S i g m u n d F r e u d o p e n e d n e w d i m e n s i o n s t o medicine t h r o u g h his drives. T h e s e affects and drives w e r e t h o u g h t t o b e c o m e a t t a c h e d t o the
o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e p s y c h i c b e h a v i o r o f his p a t i e n t s , r e c o g n i z i n g t h e p s y c h i c c o n c e p t i o n s , b e able t o b r e a k l o o s e f r o m t h e m , and t h e n b e
s i g n i f i c a n c e , for t h e g e n e s i s o f m a n y i l l n e s s e s , o f a p a t i e n t ' s c o n c e p t i o n s displaced o n t o n e w c o n c e p t i o n s . F r e u d tried to fit all of t h e s e a s s u m e d
of good and evil, of beautiful and ugly, of e n t a n g l i n g guilt and o u t l e t s to c o m p o n e n t s i n t o a flawless c a u s a l c o n t e x t t h a t w o u l d follow e x a c t l y
f r e e d o m . B e s i d e s t h i s , F r e u d t a u g h t p h y s i c i a n s t o see the t h e r a p e u t i c physical m e d i c i n e ' s p r e c e p t s r e g a r d i n g t h e c h e m o p h y s i c a l , o r g a n i c
value i n t h e w a y s t h e y dealt w i t h p a t i e n t s . H e pointed t o t h e n e e d f o r s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s o f t h e body.
t r e a t i n g p a t i e n t s not j u s t from t h e p r e s c r i b e d position o f d i s t a n c e , w h e r e F r e u d c o m p l e t e d his p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y w i t h t h e f u r t h e r a s s u m p
t h e y w e r e o r g a n i s m s t h o u g h t o f a s o b j e c t s , and h e m a d e p h y s i c i a n s s e e tion of a psychic e n e r g y , t h e libido, to w h i c h he could n o w a s c r i b e t h e
t h a t a specifically h u m a n , close, m u t u a l l y e n g a g i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m o s t varied kinds of drives and partial drives. He visualized t h e s e drives
physician and p a t i e n t was in i t s e l f p o w e r f u l l y t h e r a p e u t i c . a s " q u a n t i t i e s o f e x c i t a t i o n " t h a t w e r e variable, capable o f s u b l i m a t i o n
N o t least, F r e u d c o n s i d e r e d it i m p o r t a n t to i n t r o d u c e i n t o m e d i c i n e a and r e a c t i o n , and displaceable, able to be m i x e d and t h e n isolated again,
r e s e a r c h m e t h o d a t t u n e d t o m e a n i n g , w h i c h would stand beside t h e and in this w a y he m a d e his p s y c h i c apparatus w o r k a b l e . S u c h a p s y c h e
n a t u r a l scientific p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t s a w o n l y m e a n i n g - f r e e , causally had o n l y to t r a n s f e r to t h e o u t s i d e world p a r t s of t h e libidinal q u a n t i t i e s it
had c o l l e c t e d and t h e n u s e t h e s e q u a n t i t i e s to i n v e s t ( " c a t h e c t " )
c o n n e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g q u a n t i t i e s . His first g r e a t w o r k , The
p h e n o m e n a in the s u r r o u n d i n g s , and already, in F r e u d ' s opinion, t h e
Interpretation of Dreams, b e g a n w i t h t h e bold s e n t e n c e s : "In the following
originally a u t o e r o t i c o r totally n a r c i s s i s t i c p s y c h e had m a d e ties t o t h e
pages, I shall deliver p r o o f t h a t t h e r e is a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e w h i c h
outside world.
p e r m i t s d r e a m s to be i n t e r p r e t e d and t h a t w h e n this p r o c e d u r e is applied
e v e r y d r e a m t u r n s o u t to be a meaningful p s y c h i c s t r u c t u r e w h i c h can be P a t h o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a w e r e explained b y a s s u m i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s o f
fitted i n t o t h e m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n s o f the w a k i n g s t a t e a t specific p o i n t s . " 1
t h e drives w i t h i n t h e p s y c h i c a p p a r a t u s . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n F r e u d ' s
In all of his s u b s e q u e n t a t t e m p t s to m a s t e r t h e psychic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s t h e o r y are defects in t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of m e n t a l drives; p a t h o l o g i c a l
o f h u m a n b e i n g s t h e o r e t i c a l l y , F r e u d held s t e a d f a s t l y t o t h e old fixation o f t h e libido o n a r c h a i c c o n c e p t i o n s ; r e g r e s s i o n t o f o r m e r
c o n c e p t i o n s of biology and p h y s i o l o g y . J u s t as t h e s e s c i e n c e s had d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s of t h e libido; and d i s p l a c e m e n t of painful m e n t a l
visualized t h e h u m a n body as a physical o r g a n i s m e x i s t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y associationsalong with the affects accompanying t h e m t o inaccessi
and p r e s e n t at a specific point in a p r e e x i s t i n g e m p t y space, so the ble s y s t e m s o f t h e p s y c h i c a p p a r a t u s , o r the m e r e d i s e n g a g e m e n t o f such
nonphysical p h e n o m e n a of h u m a n e x i s t i n g , a w a k e n e d to a n e w reality, a s s o c i a t i o n s from their libidinal i n v e s t m e n t s .
appeared in Freud's p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y as e f f e c t s or f u n c t i o n s of a S i n c e Freud m a d e his initial t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s , t h e crudely
m e c h a n i c a l notion of a psychic a p p a r a t u s h a s g o n e t h r o u g h m a n y
36 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View 37

r e f i n e m e n t s , c o r r e c t i o n s , and additions. T h e s e c a m e f r o m Freud h i m s e l f , r e c o g n i z a b l e t h i n g s , as for e x a m p l e o n e of c a u s e and e f f e c t , " is


from his disciples, and f r o m his o p p o n e n t s . Fairly early, Adler a c c e n t e d a b a n d o n e d for t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e l a t i o n to an " u n o b j e c t i f i a b l e b a s i s . "
the so-called a g g r e s s i v e drives and the " m a s c u l i n e p r o t e s t . " S h o r t l y A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l m e d i c i n e w a s a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t left
a f t e r w a r d s , J u n g e x p a n d e d Freud's c o n c e p t of the libido, so t h a t it p s y c h o l o g y ' s w o r l d o f n a t u r a l scientific c o n c e p t s far b e h i n d . T h e s e
coincided g e n e r a l l y w i t h the n o t i o n of psychic e n e r g y . In addition, he anthropologists among physicians, of w h o m Eugene Minkowski, V. E.
h u n g from t h e F r e u d i a n p s y c h e an e v e n d e e p e r layer, w h i c h he called the von G e b s a t t e l , and Ludwig B i n s w a n g e r w e r e p r o m i n e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,
collective u n c o n s c i o u s . In this layer he a s s u m e d the p r e s e n c e of a b a n d o n e d from t h e o u t s e t t h e n o t i o n o f p r e c i s e , n a t u r a l scientific
a r c h e t y p e s , w i t h w h i c h h e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t r a p s y c h i c i n s t i n c t i v e drives calculability o f h u m a n p h e n o m e n a . B i n s w a n g e r criticized w i t h p a r t i c u l a r
and m e n t a l f o r c e s t h a t equally affected all people. J u n g believed t h a t in f o r c e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s m e d i c i n e placed on its o b j e c t of study; in place of t h e
t h e last analysis t h e s e a r c h e t y p e s c o n t r o l people's p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e calculability o f h u m a n p h e n o m e n a h e and t h e o t h e r s t h r u s t h u m a n
outside w o r l d and d e t e r m i n e t h e i n n e r p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r o f e v e r y f r e e d o m i n t o the f o r e g r o u n d . In f r e e d o m t h e y saw t h e basis for t h e i r
h u m a n being. c e n t r a l t h e m e o f " b e c o m i n g , " a n d t h e y held t h a t its o p p o s i t e , "dis-
In a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n , H. H a r t m a n n w o r k e d on refining t h e n o t i o n of b e c o m i n g , " prevailed in p a t h o l o g i c a l s y m p t o m s .
e g o . He and his circle s u g g e s t e d t h a t e g o be visualized as a c o m p o s i t e of T h e r e h a v e been m a n y e f f o r t s t o m a k e a n e v e r m o r e refined and
various partial-ego a p p a r a t u s e s , e a c h o f w h i c h w a s a s s u m e d t o b e inclusive t h e o r y o f l a y e r s i n h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y . T h e s e e f f o r t s b r o a d e n e d
specialized for a p a r t i c u l a r e g o f u n c t i o n p e r c e p t i o n , t h o u g h t , and so Freud's conceptual framework to the extent that they no longer took the
f o r t h . F r o m its v e r y b e g i n n i n g , this b r a n c h o f p s y c h o l o g y a t t r i b u t e d t o layer o f t h e e r o g e n o u s z o n e s , o r t h e so-called v e g e t a t i v e d e p t h - s u b j e c t ,
the ee o an a u t o c h t h o n o u s s t r u c t u r e , and e n e r g y r e s o u r c e s t h a t did n o t o r t h e l a y e r o f t h e drives t o b e t h e actual e s s e n c e o f t h e p s y c h i c . T h u s , t o
h a v e t o b e d r a w n from t h e g e n e r a l r e s e r v o i r o f e r o t i c libido. t h e m t h e n o n i n s t i n c t i v e p s y c h i c p h e n o m e n a w e r e n o l o n g e r m e r e l y the
Even b e f o r e H a r t m a n n , F. A l e x a n d e r and K. H o r n e y set F r e u d ' s p r o d u c t s o f s u b l i m a t i o n and r e a c t i o n .
apparatus on its head by pointing o u t t h a t h u m a n b e h a v i o r could n o t be C u r r e n t t h e o r i e s o f l a y e r s see t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n e w p s y c h i c layer o r
u n d e r s t o o d o n t h e basis o f individual drives o r partial drives. R a t h e r , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a g e i n t h e p e r s o n a s " s o w o v e n i n t o e a r l i e r o n e s t h a t the
e v e r y t h i n g i n s t i n c t i v e w a s always s u b s u m e d in t h e total p e r s o n a l i t y and older d e s i g n s are n o t o n l y e x p a n d e d and c h a n g e d b y t h e n e w e r , b u t t o
could be g r a s p e d o n l y by e x a m i n i n g t h e total p e r s o n a l i t y . s o m e e x t e n t actually p e r m e a t e d , s t a m p e d by, and i n t e g r a t e d w i t h
V . von W e i z s c k e r a t t a c k e d the s t r i c t d e t e r m i n i s m o f t h e original 3
t h e m . " T o bring s o m a n y l a y e r s o f p e r s o n a l i t y u n d e r o n e r o o f , a s i t w e r e ,
p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y . F i r s t , h e replaced t h e psychic apparatus w i t h t h e t h e l a y e r - t h e o r i s t s call upon K a n t ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t living m a t t e r can
c o n c e p t of t h e s u b j e c t . While this d e s i g n a t i o n had long had a p l a c e - n e v e r be fully c o m p r e h e n d e d f r o m a causal d e r i v a t i o n a l o n e and r e q u i r e s
purely as a titlein p s y c h o a n a l y t i c l i t e r a t u r e , W e i z s c k e r s t h e o r y a n additional teleological p e r s p e c t i v e . A c c o r d i n g l y , s o m e p s y c h o l o g i s t s
c o n t r a s t e d sharply w i t h all n a t u r a l scientific b r a n c h e s o f p s y c h o l o g y a r e a s s u m i n g an unspatial, i m m a t e r i a l , planned, and e s s e n t i a l e n t e l e c h y
b e f o r e and since in a s s e r t i n g t h a t this s u b j e c t w a s always "causally as t h e e n d c a u s e of all layer f o r m a t i o n . T h e goal of all l a y e r f u n c t i o n s is to
2
u n d e r - d e t e r m i n e d . " It had to be accorded its o w n " s p o n t a n e i t y " and " b e realize this e n t e l e c h y as fully as possible, b o t h in t h e physical o r g a n i s m
seen as an e n t i t y acting i n d e p e n d e n t l y in r e l a t i o n to i t s e l f . " For this and in t h e psychic f u n c t i o n s .
r e a s o n , the s u b j e c t w a s to a large e x t e n t r e s p o n s i b l e for d e t e r m i n i n g t h e In t h e s a m e g e n e r a l a r e a , H. Ey sees a plane w h i c h develops into the
particular t i m e a p e r s o n would b e c o m e ill, t h e p a r t i c u l a r type of illness, p e r s o n a l i t y c o m p l e x and is r e s p o n s i b l e for m a k i n g a h u m a n b e i n g
and t h e particular o r g a n affected. B u t h e w a r n e d a g a i n s t m i s t a k i n g the g e n u i n e l y h u m a n , and calls it a "field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " K. C o n r a d calls
s u b j e c t for a solipsistic m o n a d . On the c o n t r a r y , i n t r i n s i c to t h e subject this s a m e psychic realm a "field of e x p e r i e n c e , " He visualizes t h e p s y c h e ' s
was a close and vital bond with its s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e t w o being so life as figuratively projected o n t o s u c h a s c r e e n and i n t e r p r e t s d i f f e r e n c e s
" j o i n e d , " " f u s e d , " and " m e s h e d " t h a t it w a s n e c e s s a r y to speak of a in t h e clarity of c o n s c i o u s n e s s as differences in t h e s t r u c t u r e of this
"polarly b o u n d federalism o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t . " W e i z s c k e r ^ m o s t psychic field of e x p e r i e n c e . 4

pointed opposition t o t h e n a t u r a l scientifically o r i e n t e d b r a n c h e s o f A m e r i c a n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c e g o p s y c h o l o g y w a s f r o m its b e g i n n i n g s


psychology lies in his c o n c e p t of the " f u n d a m e n t a l c a t e g o r y of the directed far m o r e t h a n E u r o p e a n depth p s y c h o l o g y t o w a r d e n v i r o n m e n
pathic." H e r e causality's c o n c e r n for s o m e " r e l a t i o n s h i p a m o n g tal and social r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W h i l e Freud r e m a i n e d a b s o r b e d e s s e n t i a l l y
38 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View

by s t r u c t u r e s and m e c h a n i s m s w i t h i n t h e m i n d , Sullivan and his pupils t h e s e a l g o r i t h m s o r t h e s e c o n t r o l s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s c i e n c e s from


1 0
d r e w a t t e n t i o n q u i t e e a r l y t o t h e fact t h a t h u m a n b e i n g s begin t h e i r lives p h i l o s o p h y , and not t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m s a t h a n d .
in an i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e a l m and e x i s t p r i m a r i l y in " i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v e
relationships." 5 We need not here go into the theories w h o s e intent it is to be absorbed
E v e n o u t s i d e t h e rapidly s p l i n t e r i n g s c h o o l s of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s in i n t o n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y l i k e A m e r i c a n b e h a v i o r i s m , for i n s t a n c e o r
America, theorists of wholeness have gained prominence among t h o s e t h a t try t o divest t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r
p s y c h o l o g i s t s . G o r d o n A l l p o r t , o n e o f its n o t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w r i t e s : s p o n t a n e i t y . B e h a v i o r i s t s say t h a t s u c h t h i n g s h a v e no place at all in
" T h e y all a g r e e t h a t t h e individual p e r s o n as a p a t t e r n e d e n t i t y m u s t scientific s y s t e m , s i n c e , factually s p e a k i n g , h u m a n b e h a v i o r r e p r e s e n t s
s e r v e a s t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y for p s y c h o l o g y . T h e i n t e n t i o n o f m e r e l y t h e s u m o f all r e a c t i o n s t o s t i m u l i , a n d t h e s e c a n b e m e a s u r e d and
p e r s o n a l i s m i s t o r e w r i t e t h e s c i e n c e o f m e n t a l life e n t i r e l y a r o u n d this put i n t o m a t h e m a t i c a l t e r m s . W e w o u l d d o a n i n j u s t i c e t o t h e s e m e t h o d s
0
f o c u s . " Allport in p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n e s p e r s o n a l i t y as a s y s t e m and c o m p l e x o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i f w e c o u n t e d t h e m a m o n g t h e c o r r e c t i o n s and
psychic u n i t y o f m a n y a r e a s w h i c h m u t u a l l y a f f e c t o n e a n o t h e r , b u t s u p p l e m e n t s t o F r e u d ' s t h e o r i e s o r called t h e m p s y c h o l o g i e s , t h a t is,
b e y o n d this, t h e p e r s o n a l i t y is an open i n t e r p e r s o n a l s y s t e m e x i s t i n g teachings about the psyche.
o n l y i n social a c t i o n s a m o n g people. R o b e r t W . W h i t e p r e f e r s t h e c o n c e p t
of self to p e r s o n a l i t y , c o n s i d e r i n g it a c o n c e p t n e c e s s a r y to p s y c h o l o g y PSYCHOSOMATIC HYPOTHESES
b e c a u s e o n l y s e l f can help us s t a y focused on t h e basic fact t h a t an
o r g a n i s m is a u n i t y . 7
W h e n t h e p s y c h i c , t h e s u b j e c t i v e , and t h e p e r s o n a l had c o m e i n t o t h e i r
Independent of America's concepts of intersubjective humanness, o w n again a s distinct a r e a s o f r e a l i t y , t h e old b o d y - s o u l c o n t r o v e r s y
c o r r e s p o n d i n g ideas d e v e l o p e d i n E u r o p e , e v e n t o t h e point o f a s s e r t i o n s gained n e w importance in medicine. Intimated relationships that
t h a t m a n a c t u a l l y lives i n a n " i n - b e t w e e n o f d i a l o g u e . " F o r M a r t i n B u b e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t w o a s p s y c h e and s o m a had o f c o u r s e b e e n familiar t o
this w a s t h e m i d d l e g r o u n d b e t w e e n t h e " 1 " and t h e " t h o u " j o i n i n g t h e m e d i c i n e for a g e s , n o r w a s t h e r e a n y lack o f e x p r e s s i o n s w h i c h could b e
two. 8 used i n t r y i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e u n i q u e n a t u r e o f this r e l a t i o n s h i p
T h e " I , " t h e " t h o u , " and t h e u n i t i n g middle g r o u n d w e r e d e s i g n a t e d a s b e t w e e n p s y c h e and s o m a . A t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e m a c h i n e age i n m e d i c i n e ,
t h e ' ' w e - r e l a t i o n s h i p " e s s e n t i a l f o r h u m a n b e i n g . T h i s idea has b e c o m e t h e p s y c h i c a s p e c t s had dwindled to a m e r e c e r e b r a l s e c r e t i o n , b u t today
v e r y w i d e s p r e a d , especially i n G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g a r e a s . E r i k s o n supple t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f scientific f o r m u l a t i o n s address s o m a t i c p h e n o m e n a
mented it with the notion of "basic trust," which is intended to function 0 a s e x p r e s s i v e , o r a t t e n d a n t , m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e p s y c h i c aspect; o r vice
as t h e basis of t h e I, t h o u , and we r e l a t i o n s h i p s . versa.
N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s e m a n y and varied a t t e m p t s t o b r e a k its hold, F r e u d w a s , o n c e a g a i n , t h e first t o lay t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c
n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c , c a u s a l i t y - b a s e d p s y c h o l o g y r e m a i n s p o w e r f u l . Leading d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p s y c h o s o m a t i c t h e o r y . H e h i m s e l f s a w his w h o l e
r e s e a r c h e r s c o n t i n u e t o r e g a r d a s real and scientific only t h o s e h u m a n p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e a s p r o v i s i o n a l , n e v e r d o u b t i n g
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c a n b e m e a s u r e d , calculated, o r t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . t h a t s o m e day, a f t e r f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s i n s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e , t h e p s y c h i c
N o t long a g o , J e a n P i a g e t a s s e r t e d t h a t in p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y n o aspect could b e t r a c e d back t o t h e e x c h a n g e o f m a t e r i a l i n s o m a t i c
less t h a n in, say, m a t h e m a t i c s , biology, or l i n g u i s t i c s t r u t h could be p r o c e s s e s . T h e idea of a p s y c h e , t h e n , w a s o n l y a t e m p o r a r y r e q u i s i t e .
arrived at only through deductions that meet criteria of mathematical Freud came into the realm of psychosomatic medicine through the
logic, o r t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t s w h o s e r e s u l t s could b e verified u n e q u i v o n o t i o n of a psychic a p p a r a t u s t h a t o p e n e d i n t o t h e s o m a t i c at its id end.
cally. T h i s s t a r t l i n g p a s s a g e reads: T h r o u g h this portal, t h e p s y c h e and t h e s o m a could e x e r t m u t u a l
influence o n each o t h e r . O n s u c h a path, for i n s t a n c e , q u a n t i t i e s o f
N o w t h e f u n d a m e n t a l illusion a g a i n s t w h i c h w e s e e k t o a s s e r t psychic e x c i t a t i o n s w h i c h for s o m e r e a s o n could n o t find s u f f i c i e n t o u t l e t
o u r s e l v e s c o n s i s t s i n believing t h a t o n e c a n find t r u t h t h r o u g h simple i n t o a p e r s o n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and a c t i o n s m i g h t b e c o m e d a m m e d up
reflection w i t h o u t stepping out o f his study o r library. T r u t h i s n o t t o within t h e body's o w n i n n e r v a t i o n ; t h i s would give rise t o h y s t e r i c a l
b e gained e x c e p t t h r o u g h d e d u c t i o n b u t b y m e a n s o f precise c o n v e r s i o n s y m p t o m s o r n e u r o t i c o r g a n i c d i s t u r b a n c e s . T h i s s a m e open
a l g o r i t h m s , or t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e b u t aided by precise c o n t r o l . It is space w o u l d also c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f n o r m a l physical
e x p r e s s i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f c o n s c i o u s a f f e c t s . Finally, w i t h t h e help o f
40 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Natural Scientific View 41

this c o n c e p t , F r e u d explained the origins of allied p s y c h o s o m a t i c " b o d y , " " w o r l d , " " m i n d , " as if we w e r e dealing w i t h firm, e s t a b l i s h e d
m a n i f e s t a t i o n s like t h o s e w h i c h m i g h t be e n c o u n t e r e d in anal e r o t i c s , facts, (p. 8 1 )
w h o w e r e a t the s a m e t i m e stingy, pedantic, and c o n s t i p a t e d .
All t h e t h e o r i e s of l a y e r s in m o d e r n p s y c h o s o m a t i c medicine produced Uexkiill tries to take a n e w , p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s t a n c e in opposition to
analogous conceptual schemes. To our knowledge, only one of these traditional c o n c e p t s . H e s u g g e s t s " t h e a c t i o n " a s t h e " n e w model which
h y p o t h e s e s s e t s o u t to a t t a c k the p s y c h o s o m a t i c problem in an original will allow p h e n o m e n a to be i n t e r p r e t e d . " He t h e n g o e s on at o n c e to ask
and f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t w a y . It is to be found in Uexkull's w o r k , Basic w h a t an action, as an i n d e p e n d e n t p h e n o m e n o n , really is. By his o w n
11
Questions of Psychosomatic Medicine. In the p h e n o m e n a t h a t i n t e r e s t definition, "action i s i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h t h e w o r l d . " T h e c o n c e p t o f action
p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e , he says, "a circle s e e m s to close w h e n leads h i m t o a " n e w c o n c e p t o f m o t i v a t i o n . " T h e s e m o t i v a t i o n s , h e says,
pathological a c t i v i t y is allowed an unlimited o v e r f l o w from t h e psychic and n e v e r t h e h u m a n e g o , a r e p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e b e i n g a s t h e y a r e
into the s o m a t i c . " He g o e s on to say, " T o be able really to prove t h i s , using t h e f o r c e s and potentialities t h a t c o n f r o n t us
s o u n d scientific m e t h o d s , h o w e v e r , w e would n e e d t o revise b e y o n d t h e i r
p r e s e n t s t a t e all o u r n o t i o n s and c o n c e p t s c o n c e r n i n g the life p r o c e s s e s for i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , for s e c t i o n i n g it and t h r o w i n g up
and the i n t e r a c t i o n of the psychic and the s o m a t i c . " L a t e r he says: backdrops from which I can m a k e my a p p e a r a n c e , in the c o m p a n y of
my fellow a c t o r s and props. . . . In the i n s t a n t in w h i c h a m o t i v a t i o n
T h e m a t t e r o f h o w psychic and s o m a t i c p r o c e s s e s m a y i n f l u e n c e and i n t e r p r e t s t h e w o r l d , it gives me acting i n s t r u c t i o n s and s e t s up a role
c h a n g e e a c h o t h e r can b e a n s w e r e d n e i t h e r w i t h physical, n o r with for my i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h t h e w o r l d . . . . T h e e s s e n t i a l and i r r e v e r s i b l e
psychological, m e t h o d s . Each o f t h e s e m e t h o d s sees only its o w n e l e m e n t h e r e is t h e r e f o r e t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a m o t i v a t i o n into a
domain and is incapable of r e c o g n i z i n g t h e affiliations t h a t e x i s t specific a c t i o n . W e m u s t see i n t h e m o t i v a t i o n t h e p o t e n t i a l t h a t gives
b e t w e e n t h e m . H e r e within m e d i c i n e , t h e n , we collide w i t h a birth to t h e a c t i o n . . . . In this p r o c e s s , t h e e g o fills the role of a d i r e c t o r
philosophical d i l e m m a . It c a n n o t be solved as long as we s t a r t w i t h the m o r e t h a n t h a t of a producer, (pp. 9 4 - 9 7 )
traditional idea t h a t reality is m a d e up of s o m a t i c and psychic
c o m p o n e n t s . M e d i c i n e m u s t instead look for its o w n solution. W e m u s t In U e x k u l l ' s e y e s , t h e r e f o r e , " w o r l d " is n o t a given thing w h o s e p r e s e n c e
clearly r e c o g n i z e t h a t b o t h t h e psychic and t h e s o m a t i c m e t h o d s are h e r e is i n d e p e n d e n t of us. W h a t is initially " h e r e " is, r a t h e r , m e r e l y
n o t h i n g m o r e than a t t e m p t s to find o u r w a y in an u n k n o w n and " u n a r t i c u l a t e d m a t t e r t h a t can be c o n n e c t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d in t h e
puzzling reality. B o t h m e t h o d s take s e c t i o n s from this reality and, g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y of w a y s . . . . T h i s ' p r e - r e a l m a t t e r ' is . . . shaped to all
depending on the fixed a s s u m p t i o n s built i n t o t h e m , i n t e r p r e t w h a t is s o r t s o f disparate realities, t h a t is, t o s e c t i o n i n g s o f t h e w o r l d w h i c h can
seen a s e i t h e r c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s o r a s psychic e v e n t s . T h e affect us, and w h i c h we can also a f f e c t . B e f o r e a m o t i v a t i o n e m e r g e s ,
physical and psychic factors w h i c h t h e n c o n f r o n t each o t h e r s as t h e r e can be no o b j e c t upon w h i c h s o m e t h i n g can be p r o j e c t e d . " N o r can
i n c o m m e n s u r a b l e o p p o s i t e s are in factand h e r e is the fruit of o u r t h e r e be a n y t h i n g able to proclaim as its " a c t o r s " both the physical aspect
t h o u g h t s n o t originally parts o f reality. R a t h e r , b o t h start w i t h t h o s e ( r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s i m p l e r c o n t e x t s o f life) and t h e psychic ( r e p r e s e n t i n g
a s p e c t s o f reality w h i c h w e m a r k off for t h e i r particular possibilities o f the more complex).
a s s o c i a t i o n . It is we w h o c a r r y the idea of opposition into n a t u r e , (p. 4 2 ) W i t h this s k e t c h o f U e x k u l l ' s t r a i n o f t h o u g h t , w e m a y c o n c l u d e o u r
o v e r v i e w o f t h e leading c o n c e p t s o f m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o s o
F r o m this Uexkiill c o n c l u d e s t h a t the c o n c r e t e t a s k o f m e d i c i n e matic medicine. In the next chapter, these attempts to supplement
c o n s t r a i n s physicians m e d i c i n e ' s c u r r e n t foundation will be t e s t e d against t h e case h i s t o r y .

to s e e k out a s p e c t s of reality w h i c h do n o t c a r r y into n a t u r e the NOTES


opposition b e t w e e n t h e psychic and t h e s o m a t i c and to develop
m e t h o d s w h i c h p e r m i t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h o u t a division i n t o p s y c h i c 1. S. F r e u d , Gesammelie Werke, v o l . 2 / 3 ( L o n d o n : 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 1.
and physical. . . . R e c e n t k n o w l e d g e c o m p e l s us to r e v i s e o u r e n t i r e 2. V . v . W e i s a c k e r , Der Geslalllcreis: Theorie der Einheit von Wahrnekmm und Bewegen ( S t u t t g a r t :
1 9 4 7 ) , p. 177.
c o n c e p t u a l s y s t e m . W e can n o l o n g e r simply a s s u m e c o n c e p t s like 3. H. B i n d e r , Die menschlicke Person ( B e r n a n d S t u t t g a r t : 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 4 1 .
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
42

4. K. C o n r a d , " D i e s y m p t o m a t i s c h e n P s y c h o s e n , " in Psychiatrie der Gegenwarts-Forschung und


Praxis, v o l . 2 ( B e r l i n , G t t i n g e n a n d H e i d e l b e r g : S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 3 6 9 .
5. C o m p a r e also; P. M u l l a h y , ed., The Contributions of Harry Stack Sullivan: A Symposium ( N e w
Y o r k : 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 1 0 5 ; a n d C . T h o m p s o n , Psychoanalysis and Development ( N e w Y o r k : 1 9 5 0 ) , p .
105.
6. G o r d o n W. A l l p o r t , Pattern and Growth in Personality ( N e w Y o r k : 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 5 5 2 .
7 . R o b e r t W . W h i t e , The Abnormal Personality, 2 n d ed. ( N e w Y o r k : 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 1 5 5 .
8. M a r t i n B u b e r , Dialogisches Leben ( Z u r i c h : 1 9 4 7 ) , pp. 13 ff.
9 . E r i k H . E r i k s o n , Insight and Responsibility ( N e w Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n & C o . , 1 9 o 4 ) p . 6 9 .
Chapter 4
1 0 . J e a n P i a g e t , Encyclopdie de la Pliade: Logique et Connaissance Humaine ( P a r i s : P l i a d e ,
1 9 6 7 ) , p. 13.
11. T. von Uexkll, Grundfragen der psychosomatischen Medizin (Rheinbeck-bei-Hamburg:
Rowohlt-Taschenbuchverlag, 1963). APPLYING THIS VIEW TO REGULA ZRCHER

PSYCHOLOGICAL HYPOTHESES

Psychological explanations of healthy behavior


T o explain t h e b e h a v i o r R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r e x h i b i t e d a f t e r h e r r e c o v e r y
w h e n s h e s a w h e r l o v e r a p p r o a c h i n g o n t h e o p p o s i t e side o f t h e s t r e e t ,
t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y o f f e r s t h e following:
1. T h o u g h they would not refer to distinct organic regions of the
brain, t h e F r e u d i a n t h e o r y o f t h e i n s t i n c t s and all r e l a t e d t h e o r i e s would
affirm h y p o t h e s e s v e r y m u c h like t h o s e f o u n d i n c o n t e m p o r a r y
p h y s i o l o g i e s o f t h e brain and o f t h e s e n s e s . F r e u d i a n h y p o t h e s e s would
point o u t t h a t s e n s o r y stimuli f r o m t h e l o v e r had b e e n r e f l e c t e d t h r o u g h
Regula Ziircher's sense organs as though through a telescope or camera
i n t o h e r p s y c h i c s y s t e m o f w a k i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F r o m t h e s e stimuli
would a r i s e s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n s w h i c h would b e i m m e d i a t e l y i n t e g r a t e d
to form an endopsychic image or consciousness-immanent representa
tion o f h e r lover.
G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y g o e s a g a i n s t this only t o t h e e x t e n t that its
e x p e r i m e n t s h a v e led it to speak a b o u t w h o l e and o r d e r e d f o r e g r o u n d
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s in p r e f e r e n c e to m o r e diffuse p e r c e p t i o n of a b a c k g r o u n d .
B u t t h e r e is no change in the notion that perception involves endopsychic
consciousness-immanent images.
2 . T h e drives and e m o t i o n s d o r m a n t i n R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s u n c o n s c i o u s
Applying This View to Regula Zrcher 45
44 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

behavior no evidence that supports assertions of the presence of


would b e a r o u s e d b y t h e e n d o p s y c h i c i m a g e o f h e r lover. A s psychic
e n d o p s y c h i c s e n s o r y stimuli, e n d o p s y c h i c g e s t a l t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ,
s t r u c t u r e s , t h e y a r e said t o a t t a c h t h e m s e l v e s i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e i m a g e
t r i g g e r i n g i m a g e s , and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , o r a r g u e s for t h e e x i s t e n c e o f
of t h e l o v e r i m m a n e n t in t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s and to i n v e s t ( c a t h e c t ) it as a
i n s t i n c t s t h a t could set an e g o or p s y c h e in m o t i o n from w i t h i n , or a r g u e s
libidinal o b j e c t . F u r t h e r m o r e , the e x c i t a t o r y q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e mobilized
for t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n e n t e l e c h y and o t h e r psychic l a y e r s . T h e proposed
drives and a f f e c t s w o u l d a c t i v a t e t h e a u t o n o m i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m , c a u s i n g
i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e m i d d l e g r o u n d d o e s n o t bring u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e actual
h e r h e a r t t o pound, and would also, via the c e r e b r a l c o r t e x , a r o u s e t h e
e n c o u n t e r , f o r i t leaves b o t h t h e I o f R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r and the t h o u o f h e r
i n s t i n c t i v e desire to fall i n t o t h e l o v e r ' s a r m s .
l o v e r w i t h o u t clarification.
3. T h i s desire w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be fulfilled a f t e r modification i n t o a
c o r r e s p o n d i n g act o f will, and a f t e r the p s y c h i c e n e r g y o f t h e desire had
b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e m o t o r c e n t e r s o f t h e brain. T h e only p r e r e q u i s i t e
Psychological interpretations of the stereotypical boxcar dream.
for this p r o c e s s w o u l d b e t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n W e can c o n s i d e r R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s b o x c a r d r e a m a p h e n o m e n o n j u s t a s
back o n t o its original in t h e outside world. In t h e m o t o r a b r e a c t i o n t h e i m p o r t a n t t o h e r e x i s t e n c e , and a s w o r t h y o f s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n , a s the
actual e m b r a c e o f t h e l o v e r and t h e s e x u a l act w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y f o l l o w s waking encounter with her lover. T h i s dream belongs unmistakably to
t h e drives first mobilized b y p e r c e p t i o n would a c h i e v e t h e i r goal. T h e t h e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a o f h e r e x i s t e n c e ; w e h a v e n e v e r yet
e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n would find its r e l e a s e , and a s t a t e of rest, as it had c o m e a c r o s s a h e a l t h y p e r s o n w h o could h a v e s u c h a d r e a m .
e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e e x c i t a t i o n o f t h e drives, w o u l d b e r e c o v e r e d . (In the Until F r e u d , t h e r e w e r e n o e x p l i c a t i o n s o f d r e a m s t h a t had t h e
s c h e m e o f F r e u d ' s m e t a p s y c h o l o g y , this stasis p r o p e r t o lifeless i n o r g a n i c a p p e a r a n c e , at least, of b e i n g b a s e d on s y s t e m a t i c and scientifically
m a t t e r is t h a t to w h i c h all o r g a n i s m s , t o o , basically i n t e n d . ) f o r m u l a t e d t h e o r i e s . S i n c e his Interpretation of Dreams a p p e a r e d , m a n y
T o t h e s e older F r e u d i a n c o n c e p t s g e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y and c o n t e m p o r d r e a m t h e o r i e s h a v e c o m e f o r t h t o c o r r e c t and c o m p l e m e n t h i s , b u t n o n e
ary animal p s y c h o l o g y w o u l d a t t a c h t h e idea t h a t t h e i m a g e o f the lover, differs basically from Freud's original. We shall limit o u r s e l v e s t h e r e f o r e
w h e n i t h a s g o t t e n i n t o t h e brain o r p s y c h e f r o m t h e outside, c o i n c i d e s t o a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f its e x p l a n a t o r y capabilities. A n d since w e h a v e m a d e
w i t h a p r e f o r m e d i m a g e i m m a n e n t in t h e p s y c h e , t h e " t r i g g e r i n g i m a g e . " e x t e n s i v e studies o f F r e u d i a n and m o d e r n d r e a m t h e o r i e s i n t w o o t h e r
1

T h i s allows the significance o f t h e e x t e r n a l object t o b e grasped and t h e n w o r k s , w e shall focus h e r e o n a f e w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s .


allows t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e a c t i o n t o t a k e place. T o b e g i n , p s y c h o a n a l y t i c d r e a m t h e o r y would a s s e r t t h a t o u r p a t i e n t ' s
T h e layer t h e o r i e s would see i n the b e h a v i o r o f R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r and r e c u r r i n g n i g h t t i m e e x p e r i e n c e s o n t h e o c e a n floor w e r e p r o d u c t s o f
her lover the operation of two mental entelechies. T h e s e theories would endopsychic, hallucinatory dream images. T h e s e manifest dream images
bring into play t h e d e e p e r psychic l a y e r s o f t h e v e g e t a t i v e d e p t h - s u b j e c t , would be f u r t h e r explained as e f f e c t s of a d r e a m c a u s a t i o n or as p r o d u c t s
t h e drives, and t h e e m o t i o n s , and would t h e n b r i n g t h e s e l a y e r s t o g e t h e r of a d r e a m m o t o r w h i c h g e n e r a t e d all d r e a m s in o n e and t h e s a m e w a y . In
into a unified " p s y c h i s m , " s h o w i n g t h a t t h e y had g e n e r a t e d t h e m u t u a l Freud's view, this is a l w a y s an i n f a n t i l e , i n s t i n c t i v e d e s i r e . W i t h
embrace. r e f e r e n c e t o o u r patient's b o x c a r d r e a m , t h e i n f a n t i l e , i n s t i n c t i v e desire
T o t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and dialogical b r a n c h e s o f p s y c h o l o g y t h e m o s t t o r e t u r n t o t h e w o m b would b e held r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e
i m p o r t a n t t h i n g would b e t h a t i n this e n c o u n t e r t h e h u m a n s u b j e c t o r d r e a m i m a g e . T h e d r e a m o b j e c t , t h e w o m b , w o u l d b e seen disguised i n
p e r s o n o f R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r and t h e s e c o n d p e r s o n o f h e r l o v e r had, a s a n the representation of the dreamed ocean. T h e image of the ocean has
" I " and a " t h o u , " e n t e r e d i n t o a " w e - d i a l o g u e . " H e r e t h e I of t h e o n e and u p s t a g e d t h e o n e actually i n t e n d e d b e c a u s e , to this prudish d r e a m e r , a
the t h o u of t h e o t h e r would dwell in a h u m a n " i n - b e t w e e n , " an " i n t e r - w o m b w o u l d p r o b a b l y be t o o indelicate a t h i n g to appear undisguised.
s u b j e c t i v e " r e a l m . B o t h people e n g a g e d in such a w e - r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l d M a s k e d in t h e n e u t r a l i m a g e of an o c e a n , it can appear by duping t h e
be led t o g e t h e r to a fuller realization of self by a single g e n e r a t i v e dream censor.
impulse. T h e r e is a s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t d r e a m t h e o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h e
All t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s s k e t c h e d h e r e s h a r e t h e s a m e s e r i o u s deficiency i n s u b j e c t i v e l e v e l w h i c h i s c o m m o n l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e first type
the analysis o f a n o r m a l h u m a n e n c o u n t e r . N o t o n e o f t h e p s y c h i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h e o b j e c t i v e level. It t o o is f o r e s h a d o w e d in
p h e n o m e n a t h e y put forth to m a k e the puzzling object of study Interpretation of Dreams b u t w a s n o t fully developed until later by S i l b e r e r ,
c o m p r e h e n s i b l e can be s h o w n to be actually t h e r e in or behind the M a e d e r , and J u n g . T h e d r e a m t h e o r y o n the s u b j e c t i v e level w o u l d see i n
p h e n o m e n a ol R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s e n c o u n t e r . T h e r e is in her perceivable the d r e a m i m a g e o f t h e o c e a n t h e p a t i e n t ' s o w n individual u n c o n s c i o u s
Applying This View to Regula Zrcher 17
46 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

Psychological explanations of the knife phobia


r e p r e s e n t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y , or projected o u t w a r d in the f o r m of an i m a g e .
P h o b i a s r e g a r d i n g s t r a n g l i n g and k n i v e s are a s e c o n d pathological
J u n g ' s analysis in p a r t i c u l a r would a s s u m e t h a t the o c e a n s y m b o l i z e d a
m a n i f e s t a t i o n in R e g u l a Z r c h e r ' s life h i s t o r y . T h e y p r o d u c e d in h e r the
collective u n c o n s c i o u s w i t h i n t h e d r e a m e r . T h e o c e a n ' s coldness and t h e
m o s t p r e s s i n g and t o r m e n t i n g s y m p t o m s . T h e a t t a c k s o f t h e s e u r g e s t o
d r e a m e r ' s s e n s e of being lost t h e r e would p r o b a b l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as the
s t a b and t o s t r a n g l e w e r e n o t , i n t h e s t r i c t e s t s e n s e o f t h e t e r m , t r u e
g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h e r poor r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s e levels o f h e r
o b s e s s i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to t h e definition c u r r e n t in
psyche.
psychiatry, a proper obsessional symptom must evidence the foreignness
N o w , if we hold t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s up to w h a t we actually see
of t h e o c c u r r i n g t h o u g h t and u r g e to act, and a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e of t h e
h a p p e n i n g w i t h o u r d r e a m e r , R e g u l a Z r c h e r , and w i t h the w a y she
s u b j e c t f r o m t h e m . T h e s e t w o r e q u i r e m e n t s are c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t i n
c o n d u c t s h e r s e l f t o w a r d w h a t is in h e r d r e a m world, we can find little
R e g u l a Z r c h e r ' s s t r a n g l i n g and s t a b b i n g u r g e s .
validity in t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t all of this is m e r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or m e r e l y
T o explain s u c h m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y p r o f f e r s t h e
hallucinated u n r e a l i t y . T h e r e is no e v i d e n c e in t h e s e p h e n o m e n a to
idea t h a t an u n c o n s c i o u s d e a t h w i s h a g a i n s t t h e p a t i e n t ' s child m u s t be
support t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t R e g u l a Z r c h e r , while d r e a m i n g , has done
w o r k i n g i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d , b r e a k i n g halfway t h r o u g h i n h e r s y m p t o m s .
nothing but project mental images of external objects or symbols of
T h e v i c t i m of t h e d e s t r u c t i v e a g g r e s s i v e drives, as t h e child of a m a n
s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f h e r o w n self.
h a t e d for his lack o f love, i t s e l f b e c o m e s the object o f u n c o n s c i o u s h a t r e d .
S t r i c t l y speaking, R e g u l a Z r c h e r did n o t have a dream at all. T h e
A s e c o n d , c o n t i n g e n t h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g the u r g e to stab, in
d r e a m ' s puzzling p h e n o m e n a are n o t t h i n g s a p e r s o n can have, n o t e v e n in
p a r t i c u l a r , says t h a t u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s such a s y m p t o m could
t h e f o r m o f a n e n d o p s y c h i c s t r u c t u r e . R a t h e r , while s h e was d r e a m i n g
also be a w o r k i n g o u t of u n c o n s c i o u s , phallic, h o m o s e x u a l feelings t h e
R e g u l a Z r c h e r found h e r s e l f e x i s t i n g in a world, perceiving and
m o t h e r h a r b o r s t o w a r d h e r d a u g h t e r . T o s u p p o r t this, t h e t h e o r y would
c o n d u c t i n g h e r s e l f t o w a r d t h e p h e n o m e n a o f t h a t d r e a m i n g world j u s t a s
point o u t t h a t t h e u r g e s t o s t a b w o u l d o c c u r o n l y (and a l w a y s ) w h e n the
she did t o w a r d h e r w a k i n g world.
p a t i e n t h a d n o adult m a l e s e x u a l p a r t n e r . D u r i n g t i m e s o f s u c h s e x u a l
F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t h e b o x c a r d r e a m t h e r e w a s n o i n s t i n c t i v e infantile
f r u s t r a t i o n , h e r w h o l e libido would b e applied t o h e r h o m o s e x u a l
desire to be f o u n d as c a u s e or m o t i v e . F r e u d h i m s e l f a d m i t t e d t h a t s u c h a
2
c o m p o n e n t i n s t i n c t , c o m p e l l i n g h e r t o a s s u m e t h e p h a l l i c - m a s c u l i n e role
s u p p o s i t i o n w e n t b e y o n d w h a t can b e d e m o n s t r a t e d . F r e u d i a n d r e a m
o f p e n e t r a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o t h e r f e m a l e . T h e final point o f
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o n t r a s t s m o s t strikingly w i t h the actuality o f the
e v i d e n c e for this v e r s i o n i s t h a t t h e s e u r g e s tended t o s u r f a c e w h e n t h e
p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s w h e n i t claims t h a t t h e o c e a n o f t h e d r e a m really
p a t i e n t w a s i n p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e physical c o n t a c t w i t h h e r little d a u g h t e r .
m e a n s t h e w o m b . W i t h its icy cold and its t e r r i f y i n g l o n e l i n e s s , this o c e a n
P s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y w o u l d close its case b y calling o n t h e w i d e s p r e a d
is t h e d i a m e t r i c a l o p p o s i t e of a w o m b , w h i c h is w a r m , safe, n o u r i s h i n g ,
v i e w t h a t w h e n e v e r a k n i f e a p p e a r s in d r e a m s or n e u r o t i c s y m p t o m s it
and s h e l t e r i n g .
a l w a y s r e f e r s s y m b o l i c a l l y t o t h e penis. A c c o r d i n g l y , o n e m i g h t infer,
P s y c h o a n a l y t i c d r e a m t h e o r y deals w i t h c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n its from R e g u l a Z r c h e r ' s u r g e s to stab, t h e i n f l u e n c e of a symbolically
e x p l a n a t i o n s and t h e actual p h e n o m e n a b y c o n t r i v i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f disguising d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e o u t w a r d direction o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s
u n c o n s c i o u s d r e a m - w o r k w h i c h can t h e n b e said t o employ the trick o f desire t o p e n e t r a t e t h e d a u g h t e r ' s g e n i t a l s w i t h a n i m a g i n a r y penis.
" r e v e r s a l i n t o t h e o p p o s i t e . " B u t t h e t h e o r y i s hard put t o e x t r a c t f r o m
B o t h p s y c h o a n a l y t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s for t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l s y m p t o m s o f
the actual p h e n o m e n a o f this d r e a m a single p r o o f for t h e e x i s t e n c e o f
R e g u l a Z r c h e r deal i n u n c o n s c i o u s desires and u n c o n s c i o u s i n s t i n c t s .
such d r e a m - w o r k .
T h r e e w h o l e y e a r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n , h o w e v e r , failed t o elicit from this
Interpretation of the boxcar dream from the theory of the subjective
p a t i e n t t h e s l i g h t e s t s u b s t a n t i a t i o n t h a t a n y such e n d o p s y c h i c c o n s t i t u
l e v e l , too, c a n n o t c o m m a n d e v i d e n c e in its b e h a l f w h e n it would say t h a t
e n t s w e r e actually p r e s e n t , and t o identify t h e s l i g h t e s t indications o f
I he ocean r e p r e s e n t s t h e d r e a m e r ' s u n c o n s c i o u s , individual or c o l l e c t i v e .
u n c o n s c i o u s desires t o kill o r h o m o s e x u a l l y a b u s e h e r d a u g h t e r .
I his c o n s t r u c t i o n , t o o , m u s t be s e e n in t h e light of a d m i s s i o n s m a d e by
C e r t a i n l y , t h e p a t i e n t o f t e n a n d quite c o n s c i o u s l y f e l t h e r d a u g h t e r a s
I i e n d and |ung t h e m s e l v e s . B o t h had t o allow t h a t t h e t w o u n c o n s c i o u s
a n e n c u m b r a n c e , especially w h e n caring for t h e child kept h e r f r o m being
n e s s e s c o u l d n e i t h e r be o b s e r v e d as such n o r d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be actual
c o n s t a n t l y w i t h h e r l o v e r . B u t j u s t a t t h o s e t i m e s , w h e n she could have
e n t i t i e s bul must be i n t e r r e d from the o b s e r v a b l e p h e n o m e n a (which are
been the s e x u a l p a r t n e r of a m a n , w h e n h e r child's p r e s e n c e was
already a^sutned t o h e t h e i r effects).
48 EXISTENTIAL F O U N D A T I O N S Applying This View to Regula Zrcher

h i n d e r i n g h e r t h e m o s t , t h e u r g e s t o s t r a n g l e and s t a b w e r e e n t i r e l y d i s c e r n e d i n t h e p h e n o m e n a o f o u r p a t i e n t ' s i m p u l s e s t o s t a b and


a b s e n t . M o r e o v e r , t h e a w a r e n e s s t h a t a beloved child is a b u r d e n strangle. On the contrary, these urges overcame her only in extremely
s o m e t i m e s is still miles f r o m being a d e a t h w i s h . pressing c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w h e n h e r e n t i r e being, w r a c k e d w i t h t h e t e r r o r
P s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y c o u n t e r s o b j e c t i o n s like t h e s e b y saying t h a t w e of s u f f o c a t i o n , cried o u t for space and f r e e d o m , for life and b r e a t h .
are dealing h e r e w i t h u n c o n s c i o u s , r e p r e s s e d d e s i r e s w i t h d e s i r e s T h e p s y c h o l o g i e s of dialogue w o u l d be c o r r e c t in c l a i m i n g t h a t a
w h i c h , b e i n g p r e s e n t o n l y i n the u n c o n s c i o u s o f t h e p a t i e n t ' s p s y c h e , s e r i o u s disruption o f t h e I - t h o u r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l d g o along w i t h t h e s e
c a n n o t b e o b s e r v e d directly. B u t t h e t h e o r y n e g l e c t s t o explain t h e n h o w p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a . B u t this f o r m u l a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s
it can k n o w in t h e first place t h a t such u n c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e s do e x i s t . It n o t h i n g t o help u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h e n o m e n a .
fails also t o m e n t i o n w h a t t h e n a t u r e o f a n u n c o n s c i o u s desire o r i n s t i n c t
is and of w h a t s t u f f it is m a d e . N o r m a l l y , e v e r y act of w i s h i n g i n e v i t a b l y Psychological explanations for the knife hallucinations
p r e s u p p o s e s a w a r e n e s s of w h a t is w i s h e d for. H o w t h e n is an A t t i m e s o f g r e a t e s t t o r m e n t for R e g u l a Z r c h e r , k n i v e s w h i r r e d
unconscious, unknowing knowledge supposed to be constituted? t h r o u g h t h e air b e f o r e h e r e y e s . T h e s e k n i v e s w e r e s o palpable t o h e r t h a t
T h e same thing happens to the psychoanalytic interpretation of the s h e w o u l d g r a b for t h e m and fear r u n n i n g a m o k w i t h t h e m .
knife as phallic s y m b o l , w h i c h is so i m p o r t a n t in all t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l T h e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y o n l y give a n a m e t o
explanations. As the patient perceived them, the knives always remained t h e s e p h e n o m e n a . T h e y a r e called h a l l u c i n a t i o n s and t h e r e b y s t a m p e d a s
m e r e l y k n i v e s . N e i t h e r she n o r the p h y s i c i a n - o b s e r v e r w a s e v e r able t o p h a n t o m s , s e n s o r y illusions, o r p r o j e c t i o n s o f m e n t a l c o n t e n t s o u t w a r d
e s t a b l i s h b e t w e e n t h e k n i v e s and t h e m a l e g e n i t a l s the s o r t o f c o n n e c t i o n into t h e e x t e r n a l world. B u t this does n o t e n a b l e u s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e
p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y has in mind. m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . T o begin w i t h , t o t h e h a l l u c i n a t i n g p e r s o n , t h e t h i n g s
C o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y would o f c o u r s e b e prepared t o hallucinated are i n n o w a y m e r e l y illusory, o r m e r e l y o u t w a r d
a m e n d its original s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o m e w h a t . M a n y a n a l y s t s p r o j e c t i o n s o f s o m e t h i n g inside. Q u i t e t h e r e v e r s e . T h e y a r e distin
would no longer reduce the unconscious symbolic content of the knives g u i s h e d by a singularly i n t e n s e p r e s e n c e and reality in t h e w o r l d of t h e
to a literal penis. T h e y would p r e f e r to see in t h e s t a b b i n g u r g e t h e patient. M o r e o v e r , while t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p r o j e c t i o n t h e o r y could a t
disguised b r e a k t h r o u g h of a g e n e r a l m a l e - a g g r e s s i v e aspect of t h e b e s t tell u s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e f o r m i n g m e c h a n i s m o f a n h a l l u c i n a t i o n ,
p a t i e n t ' s n a t u r e . B u t e v e n this e x p l a n a t i o n does n o t keep t o facts t h a t it can tell us n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e h a l l u c i n a t i o n as such. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e
could actually b e e x p e r i e n c e d . T h e p a t i e n t ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n h a s a n p s y c h i a t r i c c o n d e m n a t i o n o f so-called h a l l u c i n a t i o n s t o t h e s t a t u s o f t h e
u n e q u i v o c a l l y f e m i n i n e s t a m p . S h e n e v e r e x p e r i e n c e d t h e desire to be a unreal is o n l y a n e g a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n . If we could d e s c r i b e b e f o r e h a n d
m a n . O n the c o n t r a r y , h e r h a p p i n e s s depended, and still does, o n h e r e x a c t l y w h a t reality is, i t w o u l d h a v e s o m e scientific v a l u e . N e e d l e s s t o
being free t o b e a w o m a n . E v e n w h e n s h e w a s o v e r c o m e b y t h e u r g e t o say, p a t h o l o g y is still far from such an a c c o m p l i s h m e n t .
stab, she n e v e r felt a n y t h i n g m a s c u l i n e a b o u t h e r s e l f . T o t h e m a n y It is no m o r e successful to c h a r a c t e r i z e h a l l u c i n a t i o n s as s e n s o r y
q u e s t i o n s h e r t h e r a p i s t asked while l o o k i n g for e v i d e n c e o f m a s c u l i n e illusions. B y t h e m s e l v e s , t h e h u m a n s e n s e o r g a n s a r e w h o l l y u n a b l e t o
t e n d e n c i e s , R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r r e p e a t e d l y r e s p o n d e d b y h e r s e l f asking perceive, t h a t is, t o g r a s p t h e m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e n t o f s o m e t h i n g . E v e n
w h e t h e r it was senseless to inquire into the gender of the thrashing given c o n t e m p o r a r y m e d i c i n e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s e n s a t i o n a s w h a t
a b o u t t h a t h a p p e n e d w h e n a m a n o r w o m a n w a s being t h r o t t l e d . scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s can r e g i s t e r from t h e c h e m o p h y s i c a l
F o r t h e s e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a , t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f medical p r o c e s s e s o f all t h e s e n s e o r g a n s , plus t h e i r c o n n e c t i v e p a t h w a y s i n t h e
a n t h r o p o l o g y a r e a s crudely i n c o n s i s t e n t a s t h o s e o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c brain, w i t h its fields of p r o j e c t i o n , still t h e s e n s e o r g a n s a l o n e c a n n o t
t h e o r y . T h e u r g e s t o s t r a n g l e and stab would d o u b t l e s s b e e x p l a i n e d perceive. W h a t c a n n o t p e r c e i v e c a n n o t b e deceived.
according to t h e i r t h e o r y of sadism. As this t h e o r y h a s it, all sadism A n o t h e r s c h o o l of p s y c h i a t r y , w h i c h w a s called for a t i m e " p s y c h i a t r i c
e x p r e s s e s a s e c r e t inclination to m o v e " f r o m a b o v e to b e l o w , " from I )aseinsanalysis", a t t r i b u t e d h a l l u c i n a t i o n s to o v e r w h e l m i n g i n n e r
" e l e v a t i o n t o d e g r a d a t i o n , " from " w e a l t h t o p o v e r t y , " from " w h o l e n e s s s u b j e c t i v e t h e m e s . I n t h e actual case o f R e g u l a Z r c h e r ' s knife
t o d i s m e m b e r m e n t , " f r o m " a n i m a t i o n t o a n n i h i l a t i o n , " from " a f f i r m a h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , w e can d i s c e r n n o e v i d e n c e t o a r g u e for t h i s .
3
tion t o n e g a t i o n , " from " f o r m t o c h a o s , " from " b e i n g t o n o n - b e i n g . " I he p a t i e n t a l w a y s r e c e i v e d t h e u r g e n t c o m m a n d s to p l u n g e t h e knife
N o t h i n g w h a t s o e v e r o f t h a t s o r t o f e x i s t e n t i a l m o v e m e n t can b e into h e r child's body j u s t at t h e m o m e n t of h e r h a l l u c i n a t i o n , and from a
50 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Applying This View to Regula Zrcher

knife u n e q u i v o c a l l y p e r c e i v e d to be o u t s i d e , at s o m e p a r t i c u l a r spot in h e r man and t h e p s e u d o m o r a l c o m m a n d m e n t a g a i n s t it, i n t r o j e c t e d by h e r


s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h u s , i t w a s n o spell c a s t b y t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a n parents. A n o t h e r assumption enters here: that the inverse Oedipus
endopsychic t h e m e but externally present objects that t h r e a t e n e d to c o m p l e x had b e e n decisive in s t a v i n g o f f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s i n s t i n c t i v e
m a k e R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r a blind slave. A n d it w a s no e n d o p s y c h i c t h e m e desire t o w a r d t h e y o u n g m a n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f the
w h i c h m a d e the knife and t h e h a n d s a p p e a r a f t e r a t i m e o n l y as young m a n would i n s t a n t l y have a c t i v a t e d the i m a g e o f h e r o w n f a t h e r ,
instruments of murder. R a t h e r , the pathological a t t u n e m e n t to a most i m m a n e n t in r e p r e s s e d form in h e r u n c o n s c i o u s . T h i s i m a g e would still
e x t r e m e fear o f s u f f o c a t i o n , w h i c h d o m i n a t e d all h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e be in t h e p a t i e n t ' s u n c o n s c i o u s b e c a u s e h e r libido had r e m a i n e d
world, w a s r e s p o n s i b l e . u n c o n s c i o u s l y fixated on h e r f a t h e r in a childish w a y . U n d e r t h e s e
Finally, t h e r e a r e m a n y e x p l a n a t i o n s w h i c h would call R e g u l a c o n d i t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e y o u n g man would h a v e r e l e a s e d i n s t i n c t i v e
Z i i r c h e r ' s knife h a l l u c i n a t i o n s p s y c h o g e n i c p h e n o m e n a . G e n e t i c e x p l a sexual drives t o w a r d the f a t h e r i m a g e . I t g o e s w i t h o u t saying t h a t s u c h
n a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , are basically limited to s e e k i n g out m o t i v e s in t h e life i n c e s t u o u s i n s t i n c t i v e desires would appear particularly depraved and
h i s t o r y t h a t u l t i m a t e l y lead t o t h e o u t b r e a k o f s y m p t o m s . A s w e will have t o b e fully r e p r e s s e d . T h e a c c u m u l a t e d e x c i t a t o r y q u a n t i t i e s o f
discuss in detail l a t e r , this s o r t of e x p l a n a t i o n c o n f u s e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t these u n c o n s c i o u s incest w i s h e s w o u l d furnish additional c o n v e r s i o n
o f m o t i v e s and c o n d i t i o n s for t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r m o d e s o f e n e r g y and, o n c e c o n v e r t e d i n t o t h e s o m a t i c , w o u l d h a v e c o d e t e r m i n e d
human behavior with the understanding of these phenomena t h e m and s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e h y s t e r i c a l s y m p t o m s .
selves. lung's a n a l y t i c p s y c h o l o g y adds a n o t h e r supposition. A c c o r d i n g to his
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e psychic e x c i t a t i o n o c c a s i o n e d b y the p e r c e p t i o n o f the
PSYCHOSOMATIC HYPOTHESES young m a n would h a v e g o n e b e y o n d the f a t h e r i m a g e i n R e g u l a
/ u r c h e r ' s individual u n c o n s c i o u s t o c o n s t e l l a t e the a r c h e t y p e o f t h e
Psychosomatic explanations of the hysterical paralysis of the leg a n i m u s i n t h e e v e n d e e p e r layer o f the collective u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e
A m o n g t h e p s y c h o s o m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o f physical h y s t e r i c a l s y m p patient's e g o , still w e a k , would h a v e b e e n n o m a t c h for t h e o v e r w h e l m
t o m s , the F r e u d i a n t h e o r y o f r e p r e s s i o n and c o n v e r s i o n still h a s t h e ing p o w e r s o f this layer. W i t h t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f the a n i m u s - a r c h e t y p e ,
largest following. It can also call itself the first scientifically modified I he fear of libidinal i m p u l s e s t o w a r d t h e y o u n g m a n has b e e n multiplied,
p s y c h o s o m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n in c o n t e m p o r a r y m e d i c i n e . and r e s i s t a n c e to, and r e p r e s s i o n of, the u n c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e s h a s b e e n
doubled.
I n t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e o f R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s h y s t e r i c a l paralysis a t
t h e y o u n g m a n ' s g l a n c e , Freudian t h e o r y w o u l d s e e the r e l e a s e o f
a r o u s e d s e x u a l drives and c o r r e s p o n d i n g e m o t i o n s . T h e e n d o p s y c h i c Psychosomatic explanations of the irritable colon
f r o m h e r fifteenth y e a r , t h e t i m e of h e r first m e n s t r u a t i o n , R e g u l a
i m a g e o f the lover, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e e m o t i o n s a t t a c h i n g t o t h e i m a g e ,
would h a v e a r o u s e d t h e i n s t i n c t i v e desire t o r u s h o v e r t o the a r o u s i n g / i m her suffered from c o n s t i p a t i o n s o s e v e r e t h a t m e d i c a t i o n w a s o f
m a n and e m b r a c e h i m . W h e n i t appeared, h o w e v e r , this desire w o u l d little use. O f t e n s h e w o u l d n o t pass s t o o l s for t h r e e to ten days. A few
have b e e n totally i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p s e u d o m o r a l i t y forced u p o n m o n t h s a f t e r h e r m a r r i a g e , this w a s j o i n e d b y a t t a c k s o f s t o m a c h and
R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r b y h e r p a r e n t s . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f this i r r e c o n c i l a b l e Intestinal c r a m p s w h i c h , i n c r e a s i n g l y f r e q u e n t , w e r e a s s u m i n g a n
c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n an i n s t i n c t i v e desire and m o r a l i s t i c p r e c e p t s iii' i easingly s e r i o u s f o r m . T h e s e w e r e followed by m u c o u s y and bloody
would b e r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e desire. T h e a c c u m u l a t e d e n e r g y o f t h e dial i h e a s . In a s h o r t t i m e , t h e p a t i e n t h a s w a s t e d a w a y to a n e a r s k e l e t o n .
r e p r e s s e d drive would finally h a v e s w i t c h e d i t s e l f o v e r o n t o the s o m a t i c Such disturbances in the realm of the control system of the autonomic
i n n e r v a t i o n of the leg, and in this w a y t h e a c c u m u l a t e d libininal n e r v o u s c e n t e r s are usually called o r g a n i c n e u r o s e s as opposed to
e x c i t a t o r y q u a n t i t y would h a v e c a u s e d t h e h y s t e r i c a l l a m e n e s s . F r e u d hystei ical s y m p t o m s . M a n y p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t h e r a p i s t s a r g u e
n a m e d this a s s u m e d s w i t c h i n g p r o c e s s " h y s t e r i c a l c o n v e r s i o n . " 4 thai o r g a n i c n e u r o t i c s y m p t o m s h a p p e n e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e body's
a u t o n o m i c , i n v o l u n t a r y s y s t e m , w h i l e h y s t e r i c a l g e s t u r e s claim o n l y the
F r e u d would have c o n s i d e r e d the h y s t e r i c a l paralysis o f t h e p a t i e n t ' s
voluntary m u s c l e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , o r g a n i c n e u r o t i c d i s t u r b a n c e s , i n
legs the s y m b o l i c physical m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a conflict in the u n c o n s c i o u s ,
i outcast to h y s t e r i c a l o n e s , a r e t a k e n to be m e r e l y a u t o n o m i c bodily
m this case, the t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s desire to e m b r a c e the
52 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
Applying This View to Regula Zrcher 53

accompaniments of emotional tensions, not expressions of unique, illnesses. P s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e w o u l d n o t b e d e t e r r e d b y t h e fact t h a t


s y m b o l i c a l l y disguised m e a n i n g . If, for s o m e i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l r e a s o n , we are no l o n g e r dealing h e r e simply w i t h f u n c t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s , as in
e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n s o r affects w e r e p e r s i s t e n t l y h i n d e r e d i n t h e i r n o r m a l the case o f t h e i n t e s t i n a l s p a s m s , b u t w i t h c h a n g e s i n t i s s u e s t r u c t u r e .
d i s c h a r g e , t h e i r a c c u m u l a t i o n w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y c a u s e their n o r m a l T h e b r e a s t pains, w h i c h had for t h e m o s t part defied all simple h o r m o n e
physical m a n i f e s t a t i o n s t o b e c o m e c h r o n i c a l l y e x a g g e r a t e d i n t o o r g a n i c t r e a t m e n t s , disappeared r e l a t i v e l y quickly during p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c
neurotic disturbances. t r e a t m e n t . B u t in spite of this, the pain and r o c k h a r d s w e l l i n g of R e g u l a
O t h e r t h e o r i e s o f depth p s y c h o l o g y insist, h o w e v e r , t h a t bloody and Z i i r c h e r ' s b r e a s t s m a y justifiably be a t t r i b u t e d to a h y p e r f u n c t i o n i n g of
m u c o u s y d i a r r h e a s , like t h o s e t o r m e n t i n g o u r organically n e u r o t i c her o v a r i e s . P s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e h e r e posits simply a periodic
patient, are, like h y s t e r i c a l s y m p t o m s , physical m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f hyperfolliculation, b r o u g h t a b o u t b y p e r s i s t e n t u n c o n s c i o u s e m o t i o n a l
overcompensation, charged with meaning. For instance, such sufferers impulses t h a t issue f o r t h f r o m a libidinally o v e r l o a d e d p s y c h e to affect
a r e t h o u g h t t o c a r r y w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s s o g r e a t a n u n c o n s c i o u s desire t o the s e x u a l o r g a n s .
be set at p e a c e and c a r e d for t h a t t h e y u n c o n s c i o u s l y feel obligated to
yield j u s t a s m u c h . B u t instead o f giving t h e i r fellow m e n s o m e t h i n g Somatopsychic explanations of Regula Ziircher's behavior after her leg
useful, t h e y a r e o n l y able t o give o u t t o o m u c h e x c r e m e n t . O n t h e o t h e r (racture
hand, t h e r e are m a n y o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i s t s w h o believe t h a t c h r o n i c a l l y R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s leg f r a c t u r e o c c u r r e d w h e n s h e w a s c o m p l e t e l y
c o n s t i p a t e d people h a v e n o t received e n o u g h in t h e i r lives. T h e r e f o r e , healthy, b e c a u s e of a r e c k l e s s driver. N o t h i n g h e r e p o i n t s to a
t h e y u n c o n s c i o u s l y d o n o t w a n t t o give o u t a n y t h i n g e i t h e r and w o u l d p s y c h o n e u r o t i c accident p r o n e n e s s , and s o h e r leg f r a c t u r e m a y b e
like t o k e e p e v e n t h e i r feces for t h e m s e l v e s . S o m e p s y c h o s o m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an e n t i r e l y s o m a t i c h e a l t h d i s t u r b a n c e . N a t u r a l l y , a
speculation g o e s so far as to see in t h e painful a b d o m i n a l s u r g i n g t h e powerful psychic c h a n g e set in as an i m m e d i a t e r e s u l t of t h e accident,
e x p r e s s i o n of a life-and-death s t r u g g l e w i t h an i n t r o j e c t e d u n c o n s c i o u s with t h e p a t i e n t ' s circle of i n t e r e s t s h r i n k i n g to t h e t h i n g s and people in
i m a g e of an evil m o t h e r . her hospital r o o m . T h i s can be d e s i g n a t e d a s o m a t o p s y c h i c o c c u r r e n c e ,
distinct f r o m h e r earlier p s y c h o s o m a t i c illnesses. P s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y
T h i s dispute o v e r d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n h y s t e r i c a l and o r g a n i c n e u r o t i c
explains t h e loss of i n t e r e s t as a r e t r e a t of t h e libido to an infantile,
s y m p t o m s h a s b e e n g o i n g o n i n t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s c h o o l s for decades.
narcissistic s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t .
B u t all of t h e s e depth psychological e x p l a n a t i o n s h a v e o n e t h i n g in
c o m m o n . T h i s i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p a t i e n t s like o u r s h a v e b e e n visited
by a libidinal r e g r e s s i o n w h i c h h a s t h r o w n t h e m back to t h e anal-sadistic In s u m m i n g up, we m u s t s t a t e t h a t t h e v a r i o u s p s y c h o s o m a t i c
s t a g e of libidinal d e v e l o p m e n t , also called t h e a n a l - e r o t i c s t a g e . H e r e all e x p l a n a t i o n s w e h a v e s e e n o f f e r e d for individual, physical p a t h o l o g i c a l
sexual aspiration c o m e s from s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e e r o g e n o u s z o n e o f t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s in R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r all r e f e r to p u r e l y psychic c o n s t r u c t s
last part o f t h e i n t e s t i n e . T h e feces b e c o m e t h e o b j e c t o f t h e drive, and w h o s e p r e s e n c e in t h e p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s is n o t s u p p o r t e d by actual
their p l e a s u r a b l e e x p u l s i o n o r r e t e n t i o n t h e i n s t i n c t i v e goal o f this I'vidence. H y s t e r i c a l and o r g a n i c n e u r o t i c s y m p t o m s w e r e m o s t o f t e n
aspiration. explained by n o t i o n s of v a r i o u s d e s i r e s , a s p i r a t i o n s , c o n f l i c t s , drives, and
T h e n o t i o n o f c o n g e n i t a l o r g a n i n f e r i o r i t y s t e m m i n g from Adler's an h e t y p e s , all supposedly b u r i e d in an individual or collective u n c o n -
I i o n s , in a psychic l a y e r so deep t h a t it is by definition inaccessible. Y e t
individual p s y c h o l o g y , and the c o n c e p t o f u n c o n s c i o u s m a s c u l i n e p r o t e s t ,
w e r e for s o m e t i m e v e r y popular i n e x p l a n a t i o n s o f n e u r o t i c s y m p t o m s . t lie actual p r e s e n c e of s u c h u n c o n s c i o u s , e n d o p s y c h i c i m p u l s e s could n o t
In t h e case of o u r s u b j e c t ' s s e v e r e colitis, a c o n g e n i t a l defect of the he verified in R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s b e h a v i o r .
i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t w o u l d no d o u b t h a v e b e e n allotted first place as a c a u s e . I )espite m o n t h s of i n t e n t l i s t e n i n g as t h e p a t i e n t d e s c r i b e d the
T h e a r g u m e n t would h a v e b e e n t h a t , w i t h t h e p r o p e r e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n s in u m s t a n c e s t h a t c u l m i n a t e d in h e r h y s t e r i c a l collapse w h e n she m e t
and conflicts, this w e a k a r e a o f t h e physical c o n s t i t u t i o n would h a v e b e e n i he man w h o w a s later to be h e r lover, and despite d e l i b e r a t e q u e s t i o n i n g
the first t o b e c o m e involved. .11 id ( l o s e a t t e n t i o n to t h e free a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t followed, t h e r e w a s to be
f o u n d no t r a c e of a desire to fall i n t o the y o u n g m a n ' s a r m s .
Psychosomatic explanations of Regula Ziircher's breast pains II may be o b j e c t e d t h a t this desire w a s t o o w e a k to a t t r a c t t h e p a t i e n t ' s
O u r p a t i e n t ' s u n u s u a l l y painful b r e a s t swelling would also be classified notice. T h e n w e m u s t w o n d e r h o w s o m e t h i n g s o w e a k could e f f e c t such a
by c u r r e n t medicine as an o r g a n n e u r o t i c s u b f o r m of p s y c h o s o m a t i c
54
Applying This View to Regula Ziircher 55
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

b e t w e e n t h e s o m a and t h e p s y c h i c e n t i t i e s it p o s i t s . P s y c h o s o m a t i c
d r a m a t i c paralysis. If, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , it is a r g u e d t h a t t h e desire w a s
thinking d e s c r i b e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p s y c h e and soma a s
so u n b e a r a b l y s t r o n g t h a t it had to be r e p r e s s e d i n t o the u n c o n s c i o u s , the
i n t e r a c t i o n , o r a s e x p r e s s i o n o f o n e b y t h e o t h e r . B u t i t n e v e r explains
m a t t e r b e c o m e s totally i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . An u n c o n s c i o u s desire is a
how a n y such r e l a t i o n s h i p could e x i s t at all b e t w e e n t w o such
c o n t r a d i c t i o n in itself.
heterogeneous things.
N o t only w a s t h e r e n o e v i d e n c e o f a n u n c o n s c i o u s s e x u a l desire i n t h e
I f w e c o n s i d e r h o w , i n aspiring t o c o m p l e t e t h e scientific t h e o r y o f
h y s t e r i c a l paralysis of the leg, b u t n o t h i n g in this p a t h o l o g i c a l e v e n t
physical m e d i c i n e , e a c h o f t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , the
could be f o u n d to a r g u e t h e p r e s e n c e of an active a r c h e t y p e in t h e
p s y c h o s o m a t i c , and t h e s o m a t o p s y c h i c t r e a t s t h e p h e n o m e n a o f o u r
collective u n c o n s c i o u s .
lest c a s e , we reach a c o n c l u s i o n as u n m i s t a k a b l e as it is striking. T h e i r
Psychoanalytic theory attributes the patient's intestinal symptoms to a
e x p l a n a t i o n s for R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s h e a l t h y b e h a v i o r and h e r p a t h o l o g i c a l
r e g r e s s i o n of t h e libido to t h e a n a l - e r o t i c s t a g e , b u t at no t i m e did R e g u l a
s y m p t o m s a s well c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r t o psychic e n t i t i e s . T h e s e e n t i t i e s
Z i i r c h e r e x h i b i t libidinal p l e a s u r e in h e r feces or in rectal s t i m u l a t i o n .
suffer from o n e o r b o t h o f t h e following s e v e r e flaws: t h e precise n a t u r e
S i m i l a r l y , Adler's t h e o r y o f i n n a t e o r g a n i c i n f e r i o r i t y does n o t m e r i t
and m o d e of being of s o m e of t h e m is n e v e r specified; and t h e r e is no
s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s a n e x p l a n a t i o n for t h e s e d i s t u r b a n c e s , s i n c e ,
e v i d e n c e w h a t s o e v e r t h a t m o s t o f t h e m actually exist.
w h e n h e r t h e r a p y ended, R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s i n t e s t i n a l tract w a s far m o r e
robust than average. T h e o n l y q u e s t i o n r e m a i n i n g i s w h e t h e r this o b s e r v a t i o n i s justified
only w i t h r e g a r d t o R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s particular c a s e o r w h e t h e r i t h a s
Psychoanalytic theory construes the temporary narrowing of interests
g e n e r a l and f u n d a m e n t a l validity.
w h i c h t h e p a t i e n t e x p e r i e n c e d a f t e r h e r leg f r a c t u r e as t h e libido's
w i t h d r a w a l from t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d and its s u b s e q u e n t r e t r e a t i n t o
itself, particularly i n t o t h e affected part. T h o u g h such a n e x p l a n a t i o n NOTES
deals w i t h a s o m a t o p s y c h i c p h e n o m e n o n , it m u s t n e v e r t h e l e s s be held
a c c o u n t a b l e for e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t s o m e t h i n g like a libido actually e x i s t s 1 M. B o s s , DerTraum und seine Auslegung ( B e r n : H a n s H u b e r , 1 9 5 3 ) , a n d Es trumte mir
vergangene Nacht ( B e r n : H a n s H u b e r , 1 9 7 5 ) .
and can be e x t e n d e d or w i t h d r a w n . T h e r e is a g r e a t e r m y s t e r y h e r e ,
2 . F r e u d , Die Traumdeutung, i n G e s a m m e l t e W e r k e , vol 2 / 3 ( L o n d o n : I m a g o , I n c . , 1 9 4 3 ) , p .
h o w e v e r , and it applies f u n d a m e n t a l l y to all p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o s o m a t eil.
ic, and s o m a t o p s y c h i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : n o kind o f psychic e n e r g i e s o r 3 . V . E . v o n G e b s a t t e l , " S c h t i g e s V e r h a l t e n i m G e b i e t s e x u e l l e r v e r i r r u n g e n , " Monatssch
i n s t i n c t i v e f o r c e s could, i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s , c o n s t r u c t o r d i s m a n t l e t h e rift fur Psychologie. 8 2 . ( 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. 1 3 7 a n d 1 8 3 .
I S. F r e u d , Die Abwehr-Neuropsychosen, in Gesammelte Werke, vol. 1. ( L o n d o n : I m a g o , I n c . ,
w o r l d of a h u m a n being. Invariably, this w o r l d is, and is perceived as, a
1942), p. 6 3 .
c o n t e x t o f m e a n i n g s and r e f e r e n c e s .
F r o m o u r b e g i n n i n g s , and e v e r y day of o u r lives, we all live in such a
perceived world. R e g u l a Z u r c h e r , t o o , e x i s t s i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e
p h e n o m e n a of h e r w o r l d and as t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S h e lived in this w a y
even w h e n , a f t e r h e r leg f r a c t u r e , h e r w o r l d s h r a n k t o the d i m e n s i o n s o f
h e r hospital r o o m and to o b j e c t s and people she could perceive in t h a t
r o o m . T h e r e is no libido or drive capable of seeing or h e a r i n g or of
c o m p r e h e n d i n g s o m e t h i n g as s o m e t h i n g . As a c o n s e q u e n c e of this,
p s y c h o s o m a t i c and s o m a t o p s y c h i c e x p l a n a t i o n s w h i c h o p e r a t e w i t h t h e
c o n c e p t s of libido and drive h a v e n e v e r m a n a g e d to get at the basis of t h e
puzzling p h e n o m e n a o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e n o s u r p r i s e , since this basis
c o n s i s t s in e x i s t i n g b e i n g ' s r e l a t e d n e s s to t h e w o r l d at a g i v e n t i m e . It
does n o t appear likely t h a t t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s will e v e r b e h o l d individual
pathological s y m p t o m s a s t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e t h e y
are.
Yet the m o s t q u e s t i o n a b l e o u t c o m e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o s o m a t i c
(and s o m a t o p s y c h i c ) thinking is the r e l a t i o n s h i p it e n v i s i o n s e x i s t i n g
57

Chapter 5

THE FUNDAMENTAL C O N D I T I O N A L L Y OF
PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS

PSYCHOLOGICAL HYPOTHESES

N o o n e w o u l d dispute t h a t m o s t o f t h e ruling c o n c e p t s i n t h e b r a n c h e s
dl c u r r e n t medical p s y c h o l o g y o r i g i n a t e in F r e u d i a n t h i n k i n g . T h o u g h
Freud r a i s e d t h e h u m a n p s y c h i c a s p e c t o n c e m o r e t o t h e s t a t u s o f a
unique reality, it was characteristic of him that he never thought of
developing a n e w m e t h o d o f r e s e a r c h suited t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o f
I his r e a l m . As a r e s e a r c h e r w h o w a n t e d to be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y , F r e u d
believed h e w a s d u t y - b o u n d t o f o r c e h u m a n p h e n o m e n a e v e r y last o n e
o l t h e m i n t o t h e old c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e . H e
e x p r e s s e d this i n a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h s e t s f o r t h t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i n t e n t o f
his e n t i r e p s y c h o l o g y : " W e a r e w o r k i n g t o w a r d a dynamic p s y c h o l o g y . In
o u r view, p e r c e i v e d p h e n o m e n a m u s t t a k e a s e c o n d place t o a s s u m e d
1
drives."
W h y t h i s m u s t b e so, t h o u g h , F r e u d n e v e r says, and i n fact h e did n o t
1 n o w w h y . A s a child o f his t i m e , h e w a s totally u n d e r t h e spell o f t h e
natural scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d . F o r him i t w a s t h e o n l y p a t h t o t r u t h ,
and he w a s willing to pay a n y price to m e e t its d e m a n d t h a t t h e o b j e c t of
M s i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e a s c e r t a i n a b l e b y its m e t h o d o f e x a c t m e a s u r e m e n t
and c o m p u t a t i o n .
I l o w little Freud realized w h e r e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i n t e n t of his
l isy< h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y had actually c o m e f r o m is d e m o n s t r a t e d clearly in
58 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Fundamental Conditionality 50

an especially v e h e m e n t p o l e m i c against " p h i l o s o p h e r s . " A n d it is t h e r e b y i g n o r e d t h a t i n h e r e n t l y all such m e t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s


precisely h e r e t h a t he r e v e a l s t h e philosophic spirit t h a t sired him. In beg the question: F r e u d could i n t e r p r e t p h e n o m e n a w h i c h he could
Inhibition, Symptom and Anxiety we m a y read: perceive directly as f u n c t i o n s w h i c h implied t h e p r e s e n c e of a psychic
apparatus he could not p e r c e i v e directly o n l y b e c a s s e he had already
I am n o t at all in f a v o r of f a b r i c a t i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s of life. T h a t I leave to a s s u m e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f this a p p a r a t u s . I n t h e p s y c h i c p h e n o m e n a
p h i l o s o p h e r s , w h o , b y t h e i r o w n a d m i s s i o n , find life's j o u r n e y t h e m s e l v e s t h e r e i s n o t h i n g f o r c i n g u s t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e y are e f f e c t s o f
impossible to m a k e w i t h o u t s u c h a B a e d e c k e r as their t o u r guide. L e t a n y c a u s e at all.
us humbly accept the contempt with which philosophers gaze down F r e u d , h o w e v e r , believed t h a t e v e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y simple p h e n o m e n a o f
upon u s from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e i r h e i g h t e n e d need. A s w e t o o h u m a n p e r c e p t i o n could n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t this m e t a p s y c h o l o g i
c a n n o t d e n y o u r n a r c i s s i s t i c pride, let us s e e k c o m f o r t in the t h o u g h t cal c o n s t r u c t . He had a p e n c h a n t for c o m p a r i n g it to a c a m e r a , n e g l e c t i n g
t h a t all t h e s e "guides to l i v i n g " a r e s o o n o u t of date, t h a t it is precisely to c o n s i d e r t h a t a c a m e r a is w o r t h n o t h i n g w i t h o u t a p h o t o g r a p h e r w h o
t h e s p a d e w o r k o f o u r m y o p i c vision t h a t m a k e s a n e w edition can see and perceive b e f o r e he e v e r lays h a n d s on it. N o t o n l y does he n o t
n e c e s s a r y , and, finally, t h a t e v e n t h e m o s t u p - t o - d a t e B a e d e c k e r is an need a c a m e r a to see a s u b j e c t as s o m e t h i n g w o r t h p h o t o g r a p h i n g , b u t he
a t t e m p t to replace an old c a t e c h i s m t h a t is v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e and v e r y could n e v e r focus his a p p a r a t u s on a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t and c a p t u r e it on
c o m p l e t e . W e k n o w quite well h o w little light s c i e n c e h a s s o far b e e n film if he w e r e n o t already a s e e i n g and c o m p r e h e n d i n g b e i n g . F u r t h e r ,
able t o c a s t o n t h e puzzles o f this world. N o n u m b e r o f h e c t o r i n g film i t s e l f does n o t see t h e significance of w h a t has b e e n r e p r o d u c e d on it;
p h i l o s o p h e r s can c h a n g e t h a t a hair; o n l y p a t i e n t c o n t i n u a t i o n of w o r k only a h u m a n being w h o is already seeing can " s e e " i m a g e s in t h e i r
t h a t s u b o r d i n a t e s e v e r y t h i n g to a single Demand for Certainly [Freud's m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . T h e n o t i o n of a c a m e r a as a c r u t c h to facilitate
e m p h a s i s ] can slowly bring a b o u t c h a n g e . 2
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h u m a n ability t o perceive i s t h e r e f o r e s u p e r f l u o u s .
In fact, it is b a c k w a r d , t o o , for t h e o p e r a t i o n of a c a m e r a can be
In d e m a n d i n g t h a t all psychic p h e n o m e n a be established w i t h u n d e r s t o o d o n l y o n t h e basis o f t h e h u m a n ability t o see and p e r c e i v e .
c e r t a i n t y , F r e u d ( t h o u g h h e h i m s e l f m a y n e v e r have s u s p e c t e d t h i s ) B u t e x a c t l y this specifically h u m a n ability to see and perceive as such, is
s h o w s h i m s e l f a C a r t e s i a n o f t h e p u r e s t dye. B u t Freud's i n t e n t as i n a c c e s s i b l e to F r e u d i a n m e t a p s y c h o l o g y as it is to t h e m o d e r n
i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r force N i e t z s c h e ' s a p h o r i s m t h a t the n i n e n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f p e r c e p t i o n a n d for t h e s a m e r e a s o n s .
t e e n t h c e n t u r y had so far b r o u g h t a b o u t n o t t h e v i c t o r y of s c i e n c e b u t P s y c h o a n a l y s i s depends o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a
r a t h e r t h e v i c t o r y of m e t h o d o l o g y over s c i e n c e , and this still holds. tions o f o b j e c t s o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d t o explain t h e h u m a n ability t o
We h a v e already pointed o u t t h a t F r e u d , in t r u e technical spirit, perceive a thing as s o m e t h i n g m e a n i n g f u l . B u t the p r e s e n c e of such
i n t e r p r e t e d t h e n o n p h y s i c a l , psychic aspect o f m a n a s t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s can n e v e r b e a s c e r t a i n e d . T h e y are i n v e n t i o n s . Y e t , even
an apparatus a n a l o g o u s to the c h e m o p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n s m e a s u r a b l e in il t h e y did c o n s t i t u t e t h e mind's initial k n o w l e d g e of t h e e x t e r n a l world,
t h e physical o r g a n i s m . F r e u d did c o n c e d e t h a t he could find no direct how would a person ever k n o w thet these were images coming from an
p r o o f for t h e actual p r e s e n c e o f this p s y c h i c a p p a r a t u s , w h i c h could o n l y outside w o r l d , or, for t h a t m a t t e r , t h a t t h e r e w a s a n o u t s i d e w o r l d a t all?
be i n f e r r e d from its o b s e r v a b l e e f f e c t s and f u n c t i o n s . So he assigned this O b v i o u s l y , this k n o w l e d g e can c o m e to a p e r s o n t h i s b e a r s c o n s t a n t
basic c o n c e p t i o n , w i t h all t h e individual psychic s t r u c t u r e s and r e p e a t i n g o n l y if t h a t p e r s o n ' s s i g h t and p e r c e p t i o n dwell from t h e v e r y
d y n a m i s m s supposedly p r e s e n t w i t h i n it, to "mefapsychology"a t h e o r y beginning, and b e f o r e a n y s u b s e q u e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , w i t h t h e w o r l d
of psychic e n t i t i e s beyond the o b s e r v a b l e . He o n c e even exiled this basic outside.
a s s u m p t i o n o f his t h e o r y r o t h e r e a l m o f s h e e r m e n t a l i n v e n t i o n (the Y e t F r e u d w e n t o n t o i m a g i n e t h a t a p e r s o n gained a c c e s s t o t h e outside
italics are h i s ) : " W e hed i m m e r s e d o u r s e l v e s in t h e fiction of a primitive world primarily t h r o u g h an e n e r g y a s s u m e d to be p r e s e n t in t h e p s y c h e
psychic a p p a r a t u s w h o s e o p e r a t i o n w a s m o t i v a t e d b y t h e t e n d e n c y t o a n d t h r o u g h t h e drives and e m o t i o n s t h a t c a m e from this e n e r g y . H e
avoid the a c c u m u l a t i o n of e x c i t a t i o n and to m a i n t a i n the g r e a t e s t believed t h a t t h e s e c a t h e c t e d t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d . B u t n o
3
possible t r a n q u i l i t y . " o n e has y e t been able t o establish t h e p r e s e n c e o f the libido, t h e drives, o r
T h i s episodic insight did n o t keep F r e u d from t u r n i n g a r o u n d to posit it e m o t i o n s in a psyche. E v e n if t h e r e w e r e s u c h t h i n g s , t h e libido would
again as a fact. He and, by implication, all w h o followed his t h e o r y , have to possess sight in o r d e r to direct itself to e x t e r n a l t h i n g s as o b j e c t s
60 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Fundamental Conditionality 61

of its drives, or to c a t h e c t t h e m in o r d e r to a t t a i n t h e goal of the drives p s y c h i c . A s far a s t h e p s y c h i c p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s a r e c o n c e r n e d ,


r e l a x a t i o n o f t e n s i o n . B u t n o e n e r g y o r e x c i t a t o r y q u a n t i t y has the ability t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n w h y t h e y m i g h t n o t b e a b r o k e n s u c c e s s i o n , especially
to perceive s o m e t h i n g in its m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . No h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p to if this s u c c e s s i o n is t h o u g h t ofas it is in F r e u d ' s t h e o r y a s a m e r e chain
the world can b e u n d e r s t o o d o n t h e basis o f a s s u m e d q u a n t i t i e s o f o f c a u s e s and e f f e c t s . B u t F r e u d w o u l d n e v e r h a v e s u c c e e d e d i n applying
e m o t i o n , libidinal s t a g e s , or libidinal p r o c e s s e s . t h e n a t u r a l scientific m o d e o f t h o u g h t t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e psychic i f h e
F r e u d w a s n o t a l o n e in giving a f f e c t i v i t y t h e c e n t r a l role in psychic life. had b e e n forced t o a d m i t t h a t b r o k e n causal c h a i n s w e r e p r e s e n t i n this
T h e t e r m i t s e l f c a m e n o t from F r e u d b u t f r o m E u g e n B l e u l e r , w h o r e a l m . S u c h f r a g m e n t a t i o n i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h u n i v e r s a l calculability,
s u b s u m e d all t h e e m o t i o n s u n d e r it. In fact, he considered affectivity and it is precisely this calculability t h a t is p o s t u l a t e d as a basic a x i o m
practically the o n l y d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n h u m a n c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t . applicable to all t r u e b e i n g s by t h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d .
B u t i t w a s F r e u d w h o e m p h a s i z e d i t m o s t . H e c h a r a c t e r i z e d the e m o t i o n s W h e n this i s n o l o n g e r t a k e n a s a b s o l u t e and n o l o n g e r u n t h i n k i n g l y
as all t h a t m a t t e r e d for m a n ' s i n n e r life. P s y c h i c e n e r g i e s , he said, are p r e s u p p o s e d a s applying t o all p h e n o m e n a o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , t h e
i m p o r t a n t only in r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a p t i t u d e for e v o k i n g feelings. observable "successions of conscious actions" no longer appear in the
I f c o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i s t s a r e u n a n i m o u s least f r a g m e n t a r y .
in giving affectivity such p r e d o m i n a n c e in h u m a n life, t h e y are
I t w a s t h e r e f o r e o n l y i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d
c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y u n a n i m o u s i n t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f its
t h a t F r e u d h y p o t h e s i z e d a p s y c h i c u n c o n s c i o u s as t h e b o t t o m - m o s t layer,
n a t u r e . H e r e a s n e a r l y e v e r y w h e r e i n m e d i c i n e todaywe c o m e u p
o r d e e p e s t s y s t e m , o f t h e p s y c h e . O n c e this supposition w a s t h e o r e t i c a l l y
against t h e f r i g h t e n i n g fact t h a t this s c i e n c e , so precise in the t h e o r i e s
e s t a b l i s h e d , F r e u d w a s free t o a s s u m e , w h e n e v e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a
t h a t derive from the p h e n o m e n a it a s s u m e s , r e l a x e s this precision to an
p h e n o m e n o n could n o t t u r n up a link to c o m p l e t e t h e causal c h a i n he had
a s t o n i s h i n g d e g r e e r e g a r d i n g the p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s . P s y c h i a t r y i n
i n v e n t e d , t h a t t h e m i s s i n g link w a s t o b e found w i t h i n this u n c o n s c i o u s .
particular is t o o o f t e n c o n t e n t to adopt ideas from popular p s y c h o l o g y
H e sidestepped his scientific d u t y t o d o c u m e n t t h e w o r k i n g p r e s e n c e o f
w i t h o u t s u b j e c t i n g t h e m t o f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n and clarification
these endopsychic, unconscious entities by arguing that in the darkness
b e f o r e it uses t h e m in analysis. J a s p e r s , for i n s t a n c e , w r o t e :
of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s n o t h i n g could be s e e n in its basic detail.
T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n t e n t s o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , F r e u d held, w e r e
Feeling is the n a m e we give to all m e n t a l a c t i v i t y t h a t does n o t clearly
drives, d e s i r e s , t e n d e n c i e s , and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e i n c o m p a t i b l e
belong e i t h e r t o t h e p h e n o m e n a o f o b j e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r t o
w i t h a p e r s o n ' s s e l f - r e g a r d or m o r a l v i e w s and w h i c h had b e e n r e p r e s s e d
e m o t i o n a l drives and v o l u n t a r y a c t s . E v e r y u n d e v e l o p e d and foggy
precisely b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . O n c e m o r e , h o w e v e r , t h e s e w e r e
m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e , e v e r y t h i n g impalpable t h a t eludes analysis, is called a
4
pure i n v e n t i o n s w h o s e actual p r e s e n c e w a s n o t scientifically c o n f i r m e d .
feeling; in a w o r d , e v e r y t h i n g to w h i c h we c a n give no o t h e r n a m e .
B e s i d e s , as we pointed o u t in t h e last c h a p t e r , t h e r e is a c o n t r a d i c t i o n
i n h e r e n t i n this m a t t e r s o c e n t r a l t o Freudian t h e o r y . H u m a n desire and
F r e u d said t h a t he did n o t c o n s i d e r his u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e m o t i o n s
striving c a n n o t e x i s t in a v a c u u m ; t h e y m u s t r e f e r to s o m e t h i n g o t h e r
very solid and t h o u g h t of it as a first a t t e m p t to g e t o r i e n t e d in this dark
t h a n t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t e v e r y act of w i s h i n g or striving is aware
realm. In Inhibition, Symptom and Anxiety, he b r o a d l y c o n f e s s e s t h a t we
5
o f the m e a n i n g f u l n e s s t h a t m a k e s u p w h a t i s desired o r s t r i v e n for. T h e
have n o idea w h a t a n e m o t i o n i s . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i e s a r e
n o t i o n of u n c o n s c i o u s desire is an i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n .
c e r t a i n at least t h a t e m o t i o n s , feelings, and m o o d s are t h i n g s p r e s e n t
C o n s i d e r i n g h o w forcibly F r e u d tried t o fit t h e p h e n o m e n a o f h u m a n
w i t h i n t h e p s y c h e , b u t as the c e n t r a l e n d o p s y c h i c activity, this foggy
e x i s t e n c e i n t o t h e mold o f n a t u r a l scientific t h o u g h t , i t w a s i n e v i t a b l e
n o t i o n of affectivity is hardly in a position to r e n d e r h u m a n b e h a v i o r
that his o b j e c t s o f s t u d y w o u l d suffer s o m e m u t i l a t i o n . T h i s fate befell
comprehensible.
e v e n t h e p h e n o m e n a h e t o o k a s t h e t h e m e o f his first e p o c h - m a k i n g
T h e a t t e m p t t o dispose t h e o r e t i c a l l y o f " f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n the
6
w o r k , and w h i c h h e h i m s e l f had called t h e " r o y a l r o a d " o f his depth
s u c c e s s i o n o f c o n s c i o u s a c t i o n " was a t a s k e v e n m o r e p r e s s i n g for F r e u d .
p s y c h o l o g y : t h e d r e a m . T o m a k e his d r e a m t h e o r y c o n f o r m r e a s o n a b l y t o
O n c e again, his p r i m a r y c o n c e r n h e r e w a s n o t w i t h explaining o b s e r v a b l e
the d e m a n d s of t h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d , he had to find a
psychic p h e n o m e n a as s u c h but with g e t t i n g rid of f r a g m e n t a t i o n solely
u n i v e r s a l l y valid c a u s a t i o n and e n e r g y for t h e p r o d u c t i o n of d r e a m s . In
for t h e sake of t h e scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d and its application to the
62 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
The Fundamental Conditionally 03

infantile d e s i r e s he believed he had found b o t h . T h i s desire was supposed O n e i n s t a n c e of this is " w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s , " w h i c h is used
t o r e p r e s e n t t h e m o t o r and the e n e r g y needed t o c r e a t e t h e " m a n i f e s t i n c r e a s i n g l y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r e m s . D e s p i t e the shared
d r e a m i m a g e " out o f p r e c o n s c i o u s m a t e r i a l . S o t h a t e v e r y d r e a m m i g h t t e r m , t h e r e is an u n b r i d g e a b l e gap b e t w e e n t h e s u p p o s i t i o n s ol
appear in this light, F r e u d c o n c e i v e d a c o m p l e x , u n c o n s c i o u s d r e a m - p s y c h o a n a l y s i s and t h e w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s e s o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . T h e
w o r k . B u t t o r e i t e r a t e w h a t w e have already s t a t e d : n o d r e a m i n g p e r s o n l a t t e r a r e i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i n g s and t h e p r o c e s s e s
has e v e r g i v e n a n y e v i d e n c e for this. T h e e n t i r e Freudian c o n c e p t i o n o f t h a t o c c u r a m o n g t h i n g s , a l w a y s adducible t o p h e n o m e n a t h a t are
the d r e a m , w h i c h i s also t h e m o d e l for t h e later t h e o r y o f t h e n e u r o s e s , available t o s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n and a l w a y s adducible t o p h e n o m e n a t h a t
r e s t s on an i n v e n t e d f o u n d a t i o n . a r e available t o s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n and can b e p r e c i s e l y d e t e r m i n e d . T h e
T h e r e is an equally p o w e r f u l e x a m p l e of t h e m u t i l a t i n g f o r c e e x e r t e d in n a t u r a l scientific w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s can b e verified t h r o u g h i n c r e a s i n g
Freud's p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t psychic p h e n o m e n a in his " A n a l y s i s of the ly p r e c i s e o b s e r v a t i o n until it is finally e i t h e r raised f r o m c o n j e c t u r e to
7
Phobia o f a Five Y e a r - O l d B o y . " I n t e n t o n explaining t h e child's b e h a v i o r scientific fact or else r e c o g n i z e d as e r r o r and a b a n d o n e d .
at a n y price on a n a t u r a l scientific, c a u s a l , p s y c h o d y n a m i c basis, this N o t h i n g like this is possible w i t h t h e w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s e s of
t r e a t i s e is such an a c c u m u l a t i o n of u n v e r i f i a b l e , a r b i t r a r y s u p p o s i t i o n s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , b e c a u s e t h e s e deal w i t h t h i n g s n o t r a c e o f w h i c h
t h a t it c a n n o t be classified as a scientific i n v e s t i g a t i o n . can b e a s c e r t a i n e d i n t h e o b j e c t s o f study t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r c o n t e x t s are
A f e w h e s t i t a n t and a m b i g u o u s a n s w e r s w h i c h esacped five y e a r - o l d a s s u m e d , and t h e i r i n f e r e n c e s t a k e place only in t h e mind. W h a t e v e r is
H a n s u n d e r a b a r r a g e of heavily s u g g e s t i v e q u e s t i o n s from his f a t h e r posited b y p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y c o n s i s t e n t l y and f u n d a m e n t a l l y b a c k s
sufficed t o " p r o v e " t h e s o n ' s u n c o n s c i o u s death wish a g a i n s t his f a t h e r . off f r o m all a t t e m p t s to s u b s t a n t i a t e its actual p r e s e n c e , b e i n g a s s u m e d
T h i s death w i s h , s o called, along w i t h t h e a t t e n d a n t f e a r o f p u n i s h m e n t to reside in a black b o x called t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , w h i c h is n e v e r a c c e s s i b l e
a s s u m e d to be in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , was declared t h e cause of the boy's f e a r to direct i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
o f h o r s e s . F r e u d did n o t even s h r i n k f r o m t r a n s f o r m i n g the frantic A s e c o n d t e c h n i c a l t e r m p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y has b o r r o w e d from
s t r u g g l e s of a h o r s e t h a t had fallen into t h e i r opposite, implying t h a t in physics for t h e sake of appearing like a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e is " m o d e l , " or
t h e s t r u g g l e s o f t h e h o r s e a vitally powerful c r e a t u r e y o u n g H a n s had "model r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " B u t w e a r e n e v e r told e x a c t l y w h a t t h e t e r m
s e e n t h e a n i m a l ' s d e a t h t h r o e s . F u r t h e r on, t h e accidental fall of a t o y m e a n s w h e n it is applied in p s y c h o l o g y . M o d e l s are s u p e r f l u o u s and
h o r s e is read as a g e s t u r e of d e s t r u c t i v e a g g r e s s i o n e x p r e s s i n g an senseless to an understanding of human nature, anyway, because human
u n c o n s c i o u s desire to upset t h i n g s . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w a s in t u r n still beings are s e l f - c o n s c i o u s b e i n g s capable o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s
a n o t h e r p r o o f for t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f the death wish p r e s u m e d p r e s e n t i n t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e . T h e m o d e l - b u i l d i n g o f p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o p a t h o l -
Hans's unconscious. ogy m i s s e s and m i s c o n s t r u e s t h e decisive c h a r a c t e r o f h u m a n n a t u r e i n
It is no surprise t h a t Freud could claim t h a t direct o b s e r v a t i o n of a visualizing h u m a n n a t u r e as an o b j e c t t h a t , like all o t h e r o b j e c t s in t h e
phobic child e x p o s e d n o t h i n g he had n o t already s e e n in the b e h a v i o r of world, is o c c u p y i n g at a n y o n e t i m e o n l y a single place in a given space.
phobic adults. In y o u n g H a n s ' s case, F r e u d was c o n c e r n e d n o t w i t h O n c e h u m a n n a t u r e has b e e n t h u s m i s r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e m o s t a n y t h e r a p y
o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n o f phobic b e h a v i o r b u t w i t h fitting this b e h a v i o r can h o p e to do is m a k e a b e t t e r o b j e c t , n o t a h e a l t h i e r p e r s o n .
i n t o a t h e o r y t h a t already e x i s t e d and w h i c h he had already applied to E f f o r t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e scientific s o u n d n e s s o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c
adult phobias. T h u s t h e s a m e n e s s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f b o t h s o r t s o f t h e o r y p o i n t t o its supposedly empirical basis. F r e u d ' s t h e o r y o f
phobias, as well as the d e a r t h of n e w m a t e r i a l in t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e p r e s s i o n , for i n s t a n c e , is said to be g r o u n d e d in empirical fact.
young Hans's anxieties. M e e r w e i n w r i t e s t h a t i n F r e u d ' s first a t t e m p t s a t t h e r a p y h e d i s c o v e r e d
D e s p i t e t h e s e and c o u n t l e s s similar p r o o f s o f t h e fictitious and that r e c o l l e c t i o n e f f e c t e d b y h y p n o s i s o r b y the analysis o f r e s i s t a n c e
u n o b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , F r e u d ' s pupils n e v e r tire, could bring a b o u t an a b n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n or t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of a
even today, of trying to establish its scientific s o u n d n e s s . B u t e v e r y e f f o r t s y m p t o m . T h i s is said to h a v e led F r e u d to infer a p r o c e s s w h i c h w e n t in
o f w h i c h w e h a v e b e e n a w a r e , m e a n w h i l e , has avoided a n a d e q u a t e I he o p p o s i t e direction to f o r m s y m p t o m s , n a m e l y , r e p r e s s i o n . He t h e n
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the f u n d a m e n t a l n a t u r e o f t h e n a t u r a l scientific w e n t on to prove this hypothesis w i t h additional r e s e a r c h . H e r e v/e need only
r e s e a r c h m e t h o d . In fact, m o s t of the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c w r i t i n g s in this a r e a r e m e m b e r t h e s t o r y o f y o u n g H a n s , w i t h w h o s e help F r e u d d e m o n s t r a t
a r c c o n t e n t m e r e l y t o adopt o u t r i g h t t e c h n i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y from physics. ed his t h e o r i e s of the libido and d e f e n s e .
64 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Fundamental Conditionally 65

P s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r e t i c i a n s , o n e and all, fail to indicate h o w t h e y have o b v i o u s and self-evident t o t h e m . E x p e r i e n c e s o f this " A h a ! " type too
used t h e t e r m " p r o o f . " I f w e u n d e r s t a n d " p r o o f " t o m e a n a d e m o n s t r a often c o n f i r m a m e c h a n i s t i c s e l f - i m a g e p r o f o u n d l y at odds w i t h the
tion o f t r u t h o r e v e n m e r e l y a s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f c o r r e c t n e s s , t h e n n o p a t i e n t as a h u m a n being.
n u m b e r o f case h i s t o r i e s can e v e r " p r o v e " F r e u d ' s r e p r e s s i o n h y p o t h e s i s . T h e i n a d e q u a c y o f F r e u d ' s o r i g i n a l libidinal m o d e l did n o t escape the
T h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c o n c r e t e empirical facts r e s u l t s only i n e n c a p s u l a t notice of many modern theoreticians, even those within the psychoana
ing t h e m o s t d i v e r s e s o r t s of h u m a n b e h a v i o r in a single p r e c o n c e i v e d lytic fold, and t h e b e s t a m o n g t h e m w o r k e d w i t h a s e n s e o f u r g e n c y t o
t h e o r y w h i c h i s o c c a s i o n a l l y read i n t o t h e p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s . S u c h t r a n s f o r m it. T h e m o s t n o t a b l e w o r k h e r e w a s p e r h a p s t h a t d o n e b y the
" p r o o f " calls up t h e i m a g e of a m a n w h o l o o k s at all t h e o b j e c t s he studies F r e n c h w r i t e r s P. M a r t y , M. de M ' U z a n , and C. D a v i d as well as by the
t h r o u g h r o s e - c o l o r e d g l a s s e s and t h i n k s he h a s " p r o v e n " all t h i n g s are 8
A m e r i c a n , M . S c h u r . T h e i r a l t e r e d c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l can b e s t b e
red. visualized using t h e i m a g e of a s t u d e n t petrified during an e x a m i n a t i o n .
On the o t h e r hand, Waelder believes that psychoanalytic theory is A c c o r d i n g t o t h e m o s t r e c e n t p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , this s t u d e n t o r
j u s t i f i e d as a n a t u r a l scientific discipline on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t it h a s t h e p a t i e n t w o u l d begin b y losing his c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p e r t i n e n t
e x a m i n e d a l a r g e e n o u g h n u m b e r o f life h i s t o r i e s t o c o m p a r e t h e m and o b j e c t i n t h e e x t e r n a l worldin this case, t h e e x a m i n e r . N e x t this
e x t r a c t w h a t t h e y all h a v e i n c o m m o n . B u t t h e p r o c e s s o f t h u s e x t e r n a l o b j e c t would be replaced by a m e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A t r u e
crystallizing a c o n c e p t t r a n s f e r e n c e , for e x a m p l e i s n o t pure e m p i r i neurotic condition is said to arise at this point. T h e e x a m i n i n g p r o f e s s o r , at
cism b u t a v e r y specific i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r h u m a n b e h a v i o r . B y h e a r t an a m i a b l e m a n i n t e r e s t e d in a d v a n c i n g t h e c a n d i d a t e , would take
i n t e r p r e t i n g this b e h a v i o r in t h e s a m e w a y e a c h t i m e it o c c u r s we are o n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a n e n e m y o u t t o d e s t r o y h i m , and this would
m e r e l y a m a s s i n g a large n u m b e r of i n s t a n c e s of a p r e d e t e r m i n e d a c t i v a t e r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e n would c o m e " o b j e c t - f r e e
interpretation, nothing more. psychic a c t i v i t y " during w h i c h h e m i g h t feel n o t h i n g b u t a n x i e t y , for
It is s o m e t i m e s said t h a t psychological h y p o t h e s e s can c o m m a n d t h e i n s t a n c e , o r d e s t r u c t i v e u r g e s . T h i s s t a t e would r e s e m b l e psychosis.
a u t h o r i t y o f p r o v a b l e scientific fact o n l y i f t h e y allow o t h e r p h e n o m e n a U l t i m a t e l y , e v e n the feeling o f a n x i e t y m i g h t go. T h e s t u d e n t would sit
to be e x p l a i n e d or i n t e r p r e t e d . It is n o t e n o u g h t h a t t h e y suffice for petrified, s h o w i n g signs o f i n c r e a s e d blood p r e s s u r e and c o r o n a r y
u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e single o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t g a v e rise t o t h e m . Y e t , t o activity, in a state of functionally disturbed somatic activity. W h e n a n x i e t y is
define t h e p r o v a b i l i t y o f a n h y p o t h e s i s this w a y m i s s e s t h e p o i n t o f believed to o r i g i n a t e like this, it is n o t difficult to i m a g i n e t h e r e s u l t i n g
scientific p r o o f . A h y p o t h e s i s m u s t allow us to predict t h e b e h a v i o r of like s t a t e b e c o m i n g p e r m a n e n t i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . P e r s o n a l i t y traits
p h e n o m e n a and to reproduce t h e m at will. B u t t h e r e is no h y p o t h e s i s in all would t h e n c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y to t h o s e found in t h e p s y c h o s o m a t i c a l l y ill
o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y t h a t m e e t s t h e s e d e m a n d s . I t i s n o g r e a t feat t o p a t i e n t s o f M a r t y e t al.
explain like p h e n o m e n a c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h t h e s a m e s u p p o s i t i o n s , and this T h e t r o u b l e h e r e i s t h a t w e h a v e p r o o f a t o u r f i n g e r t i p s t h a t even this
is e v e n e a s i e r to do w h e n t h e o b j e c t is s o m e t h i n g u n c o n s c i o u s w h o s e m o s t r e c e n t m o d e l o f n e u r o s i s a i m s v e r y wide o f its m a r k : o b s e r v a b l e
actual p r e s e n c e n e e d n o t be verified. h u m a n reality. It is simply n o t t r u e a n d a n y o n e willing to o b s e r v e
P s y c h o a n a l y s t s are p a r t i c u l a r l y fond o f pointing t o the flashes o f h i m s e l f o r o t h e r s can c o n v i n c e h i m s e l f o f t h i s t h a t s u c h a n e x a m i n e e
insight patients may experience as proof of the correctness of would find t h e e x t e r n a l o b j e c t , t h e p r o f e s s o r , replaced by a m e r e
psychoanalytic theory. Certainly, it is not u n c o m m o n in therapy that the e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s o m e o n e b e n t o n his d e s t r u c t i o n . O n t h e
a n a l y s t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r trait suddenly appears so o b v i o u s c o n t r a r y , an e x a m i n e e would be b o u n d h e a r t and soul to t h e p r o f e s s o r in
t o t h e p a t i e n t t h a t h e a b a n d o n s t h e trait w i t h a n " A h a ! " B u t this s o r t o f I ront of him. He would m e r e l y mistake him, but it is t h e p r o f e s s o r h i m s e l f
" A h a - e x p e r i e n c e " is a n y t h i n g b u t definitive p r o o f t h a t an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h o w o u l d b e m i s t a k e n for a n e n e m y , n o t s o m e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f him i n
is faithful to the p h e n o m e n o n itself. M o r e o f t e n t h a n n o t , it appears to I h e s t u d e n t ' s p s y c h e . W e m a y dispense for the m o m e n t w i t h biographical
r e s u l t w h e n a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n fits readily i n t o t h e p a t i e n t ' s already m a t t e r s t h a t m a k e this kind o f e r r o r inevitable. T h e point i s t h a t while i t
e x i s t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i m s e l f . People w h o live in the t e c h n o l o g i c a l is o n e t h i n g to e n u m e r a t e e v e r y t h i n g in the s t u d e n t ' s life t h a t tends to
age are a t h o m e w i t h m a c h i n e s and e v e n p r o n e t o d r a w i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t limit his perceptual ability, so t h a t o n l y t h e h o s t i l e t e n d e n c i e s of
h u m a n n a t u r e from t h e m . A n d t h u s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a u t h o r i t y figures would be perceived, it is a n o t h e r thing a l t o g e t h e r to
based as t h e y are on c h e m i c a l and m e c h a n i c a l p r o c e s s e s , m a y look
66 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Fundamental Conditionality 07

u n d e r s t a n d t h e sole p r e s e n t l y available m o d e s o f perceiving and domain of physical s c i e n c e , t r u t h is e q u a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y ; truth


b e h a v i n g a s t h e p h e n o m e n a w h i c h t h e y are. c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e validity o f t h e s c i e n c e ' s a f f i r m a t i v e proposition.
We can s h o w f u r t h e r t h a t it is n o t valid to say t h a t t h e s t u d e n t ' s s e c o n d W i t h o u t f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n , for e x a m p l e , he tells us t h a t a child, w h o
step w o u l d b e p u t t i n g u p r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e a s s u m e d hostile e n d o p s y c h i c (like m a n y p o e t s ) sees a t r e e giving shade, is m u c h f u r t h e r from the
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , p r o d u c i n g o b j e c t - f r e e psychic activity. W h a t m i g h t this t r u t h t h e c o r r e c t e x p l a n a t i o n t h a n a n older p e r s o n , w h o can explain
o b j e c t - f r e e p s y c h i c a c t i v i t y be? To claim t h a t it c o n s i s t s m e r e l y in t h e s e s h a d o w s according t o t h e laws o f physics a s r e s u l t i n g from t h e
perceiving a n x i e t y and d e s t r u c t i v e feelings is to c o n t r a d i c t b o t h o n e s e l f a b s o r p t i o n of e l e c t r o - m a g n e t i c light w a v e s by a c o n g l o m e r a t i o n of
and t h e m o d e r n m o d e l s o f r e g r e s s i o n , for feelings o f a n x i e t y and 9
m o l e c u l e s : t h e t r e e . P i a g e t c o n s i d e r s i t u n n e c e s s a r y t o j u s t i f y his v e r y
d e s t r u c t i o n a r e a n y t h i n g b u t o b j e c t - f r e e psychic activity. I n perceiving different valuation o f t h e s e t w o w a y s o f looking, a p p a r e n t l y u n a w a r e o f
t h e s e feelings, t h e e x a m i n e e i s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e t h r e a t e n i n g e x a m i n e r a s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a d e q u a t e c r i t e r i a a r e lacking for his j u d g m e n t .
well as to t h e c o n d i t i o n of his being t h r e a t e n e d , and it is his v e r y r e l a t i o n 10
A n y o v e r v i e w o f t h e s t a t e o f m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y m a k e s i t clear t h a t
t o t h e s e t w o " o b j e c t s " t h a t i s t h e s o u r c e o f his a n x i e t y .
even younger psychologists, too, who have abandoned the
E v e n if, in t h e third p h a s e , t h e s t u d e n t did sit in his seat petrified, p s y c h o a n a l y t i c b u t n o t t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h a r e open t o t h e
e x h i b i t i n g i n c r e a s e d h e a r t activity and blood p r e s s u r e , his e x i s t e n c e c h a r g e o f giving t o o little t h o u g h t t o t h e s u p p o s i t i o n s b e h i n d t h e i r
w o u l d by no m e a n s h a v e r e g r e s s e d to a " s t a t e of functionally d i s t u r b e d m e t h o d o l o g y and t h e r e f o r e insufficiently r e s p e c t i n g l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h
s o m a t i c a c t i v i t y . " I f this actually h a p p e n e d , w e w o u l d n o l o n g e r b e t h o s e s u p p o s i t i o n s i m p o s e . F o r if F r e u d seized on t h e n o t i o n of a psychic
dealing w i t h a living, b r e a t h i n g h u m a n being. T h o u g h he a p p e a r s u n c o n s c i o u s t o g e t o u t o f p r o v i n g t h e u n p r o v a b l e p a r t s o f his t h e o r y ,
petrified, t h e s t u d e n t h a s n o t b e c o m e a m e r e l u m p o f physical m a t t e r . H e t h e r e a r e p s y c h o l o g i s t s o f a n o t h e r n a t u r a l scientific p e r s u a s i o n t h e s e
r e m a i n s t h r o u g h and t h r o u g h a n e x i s t i n g h u m a n being, a n " o b j e c t - days w h o e m p l o y t h e d u b i o u s t e c h n i q u e called b u r y i n g o n e ' s head i n t h e
r e l a t e d " c r e a t u r e w h o dwells i n his c o n d u c t t o w a r d w h a t h e e n c o u n t e r s . sand. T h e y a r e t h e n o n m e d i c a l l y t r a i n e d p s y c h o l o g i s t s w h o r e t r e a t i n t o
In relation to t h e e x a m i n e r , he b e c a m e e x t r e m e l y u n f r e e , all but totally neurology whenever the phenomena of human behavior present them
s w a y e d by his p r e s e n c e , and at o n e w i t h t h i s , he lost t h e relation to his w i t h a difficulty. T h e s e p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e o b v i o u s l y s u b j e c t to t h e s a m e
o w n selfhood. H e lacked, t h e n , t h e f r e e d o m t o w a r d , and distance f r o m , c r i t i c i s m w e applied e a r l i e r t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s o m a t i c t h e o r y o f
t h e e x a m i n e r t h a t a r e t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n o f a t h e m a t i c self- t h e p s y c h e . N o m a t t e r h o w n u m e r o u s o r diverse t h e findings o f
a w a r e n e s s o f being afraid o f a n o t h e r . n e u r o l o g y m a y b e c o m e , t h e y will n e v e r b e able t o m a k e o n e part o f
O u t s i d e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y are m a n y o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i e s : n a t u r a l human behavior understandable.
scientific p s y c h o l o g i e s , g e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , and t h e p e r s o n a l and M a n y c o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o l o g i s t s , o f c o u r s e , u s e n a t u r a l scientific
a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g i e s . F o r an e x a m p l e of a natural scientific t e c h n i q u e s o f m e a s u r e m e n t w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o n e u r o l o g y . Y e t all t h e i r
p s y c h o l o g i s t w h o r e m a i n e d outside t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c school w e m a y o b j e c t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n likewise p r e s u p p o s e a h u m a n c a p a c i t y for
t u r n again to P i a g e t . H i s peculiar s k e t c h of t h e s e a r c h for t r u t h as it is perceiving t h e p r e s e n c e s of t h i n g s in t h e i r particular m e a n i n g f u l n e s s and
m a d e by c l o s e t e d p h i l o s o p h e r s we m a y leave to speak for itself. W h a t is c o n t e x t o f r e f e r e n c e . B u t a s such, n e i t h e r the p r i m a r y p e r c e p t i o n o f a
i m p o r t a n t for us is t h e u n e x a m i n e d w a y in w h i c h P i a g e t has c o n t i n u e d , p h e n o m e n o n , n o r its m e a n i n g f u l n e s s and c o n t e x t , s u b m i t s t o m e a s u r e
e v e n a s late a s 1 9 6 7 , t o t r a n s f e r t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e o r e t i c a l and m e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , n o scientific p s y c h o l o g y can set forth t h e
e x p e r i m e n t a l physics o n t o p s y c h o l o g y ; t h e w a y i n w h i c h , w i t h o u t c o n d i t i o n s for t h e p h e n o m e n a o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r , w h e t h e r t h e s e
j u s t i f i c a t i o n , h e d o g m a t i c a l l y declares t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o f this p h e n o m e n a a r e called h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p e r c e p t i o n , s e n s a t i o n ,
physical s c i e n c e to be the standard of t r u t h in his o w n scientific r e a l m of e x p e r i e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n , o r l e a r n i n g and r e a c t i n g .
p s y c h o l o g y as well. L i k e all of his n a t u r a l s c i e n c e - o r i e n t e d p r e d e c e s s o r s ,
Modern "scientific" branches of psychology congratulate themselves
Piaget c a n n o t see t h a t applying e i t h e r deductive, t h e o r e t i c a l , o r 11
for having " d e m y t h o l o g i z e d " h u m a n b e h a v i o r . B u t , to t a k e a case in
e x p e r i m e n t a l physics t o h u m a n b e i n g s i n a n y w a y m a k e s v e r y specific
point, i s a n y t h i n g m o r e " m y t h o l o g i c a l " i n this s e n s e t h a n t h e s t a t e m e n t :
p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . It can be done only a f t e r h u m a n n a t u r e h a s b e e n
r e i n t e r p r e t e d along t h e lines of n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s as a c o n t i n u o u s and
quantifiable causal n e x u s of particles h a v i n g m a s s and e x t e n s i o n . In the It is t h e r e f o r e my h y p o t h e s i s t h a t we e x p e r i e n c e c e r t a i n of the
p r o c e s s e s that o c c u r in t h e brain, but n o t o t h e r s . If this h y p o t h e s i s is
The Fundamental Conditionality 69
68 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

of h u m a n n a t u r e . In and of t h e m s e l v e s , q u a n t i f y i n g p s y c h o l o g i e s can do
a c c e p t e d , it follows as a c o r o l l a r y t h a t n e r v e impulse activity, and
n o m o r e t h a n locate and m e a s u r e c o n c r e t e p r o c e s s e s and c h a n g e s o f the
t h e r e f o r e b e h a v i o r (including linguistic b e h a v i o r ) , is n o t n e c e s s a r i l y
12
psychic aspect. T h e y are n o t equipped even to ask w h a t this psychic aspect
directly and i m m e d i a t e l y available to c o n s c i o u s n e s s .
is or w h a t part it plays in m a k i n g a h u m a n life. W h a t is e s s e n t i a l in h u m a n
b e h a v i o r o u r p e r c e p t i o n s , a c t i o n s , and r e s p o n s e s i n t h e face o f d e m a n d s
N o t h i n g o b j e c t i v e (i.e., factually p r e s e n t ) d e m o n s t r a t e s a n ability t o
made b y o t h e r people and w h a t s u r r o u n d s usis f r o m t h e o u t s e t b e y o n d
e x p e r i e n c e e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e brain, n o r t h e i r r e t e n t i o n i n m e m o r y ,
the p o w e r s of statistical c o m p u t a t i o n . Even F r e u d s p o k e in his practical
n o r t h e identity o f n e r v e i m p u l s e a c t i v i t y and h u m a n b e h a v i o r , n o r t h e
writings of greater freedom through psychoanalytic therapy, though
identity o f n e r v e i m p u l s e activity and l a n g u a g e , n o r the availability o f
this principal w a s in radical o p p o s i t i o n to his o w n t h e o r y . A n a t u r a l
n e r v e impulses t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s .
scientific, d e t e r m i n i s t i c basis for h u m a n freedom is a c o n t r a d i c t i o n in
N o less " m y t h o l o g i c a l " i s t h e s c i e n t i f i c - p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o t i o n t h a t w h e n
terms.
s o m e t h i n g w h i c h has b e e n s e e n b e f o r e is r e c o g n i z e d , it is t h e t h i n g ' s
S i n c e its inception, G e s t a l t t h e o r y has e m p h a s i z e d t h a t o u r initial
d e n o t a t i o n t h a t i s s e e n i n t h e f o r m o f s o m e n e u r a l a l t e r a t i o n . H o w , and
e x p e r i e n c e i s o f unified s t r u c t u r e s o f m e a n i n g f u l " G e s t a l t q u a l i t i e s . " T h e
by w h o m , this n e u r a l a l t e r a t i o n is read, r e m a i n s a m y s t e r y . Finally,
w h o l e is n o t o n l y greater t h a n t h e sum of its p a r t s b u t also p r e c e d e s its
n o n m e d i c a l l y t r a i n e d p s y c h o l o g i s t s are j u s t as fond as their medically
parts, since the w a y parts a r e p e r c e i v e d depends o n t h e G e s t a l t , t h e
t r a i n e d c o u n t e r p a r t s o f using t h e m a g i c w o r d s " e n c o d i n g " and
w h o l e . B u t like its p r e d e c e s s o r , G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y r e m a i n s fixed o n a n
" d e c o d i n g " for t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e x p e r i e n c e d e v e n t s and specific
e n d o p s y c h i c e x p e r i e n c i n g o f s t r u c t u r e s . S t u m p f m e n t i o n s t h e possibility
cerebral processes.
t h a t u n k n o w n (that is, a s y e t u n k n o w n ) c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t m a y b e t h e
H a s e l o f f , a m o n g o t h e r s , t h e r e f o r e e r r s i n saying t h a t o n l y this type o f p r e r e q u i s i t e for unified p e r c e p t i o n . O t h e r G e s t a l t t h e o r e t i c i a n s still
s t r i c t l y scientific p s y c h o l o g y is n o t set a g a i n s t t h e realities of a c h a n g i n g dispute w h e t h e r the e x p l a n a t i o n lies in c h e m o p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s and
s o c i e t y and t h a t o n l y it is in a position to i n t e r p r e t h u m a n b e i n g s and "shifting force fields" in t h e c e r e b r a l c o r t e x or in u n c o n s c i o u s and
1 3
s o c i e t y in a s o b e r , r a t i o n a l w a y . W h e r e t h e r e is so m u c h i n h e r e n t e x t r e m e l y rapid e v e n t s r a t h e r like t h e o b s e r v a b l e e n d o p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s
" m y t h o l o g y " t h e r e can b e n o talk o f s o b e r t h o u g h t . B e s i d e s , t h e s t r i c t l y of calculating, m a k i n g a j u d g m e n t , or r e a c h i n g a c o n c l u s i o n . For o t h e r
n a t u r a l scientific b r a n c h e s o f p s y c h o l o g y are v e r y m u c h opposed t o t h e t h e o r i s t s , G e s t a l t f o r m a t i o n t a k e s place "in the p r i m i t i v e m a t e r n a l soil o f
realities of c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y , as far as t h e y a r e m e s m e r i z e d by the f e e l i n g . " A n d , again, t h e r e i s C o n r a d ' s e n d o p s y c h i c "field o f e x p e r i e n c e "
prevailing spirit of t e c h n o l o g y c u t t i n g t h e m s e l v e s o f f from a c o n s i d e r a o n t o w h i c h o b j e c t s o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d are p r o j e c t e d a s i m a g e s , w i t h
ble part of h u m a n reality and liableif t h e y w e r e given full r e i n t o c h a n g i n g " e m p h a s i s given t o t h e basic c o n f i g u r a t i o n . "
preclude a n y f u n d a m e n t a l social c h a n g e .
W e can o n l y r e p e a t t h a t t h e r e i s n o h u m a n e v i d e n c e y e t t o a r g u e for t h e
T h e v e r y n a t u r e o f n a t u r a l scientific ( q u a n t i f y i n g ) p s y c h o l o g i e s w h i c h
actual o c c u r r e n c e o f this s o r t o f e n d o p s y c h i c , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l " c o n
are not p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y inclined limits t h e i r practical p e r f o r m a n c e to
scious c o n t e x t , " and t h a t t h e s e n o t i o n s are h y p o t h e t i c a l i n v e n t i o n s .
c o m p a r a t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . F o r t h e m e a n s o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e can
G e s t a l t t h e r a p y h a s n o t c o m e u p w i t h any e x p l a n a t i o n for t h e p i c t u r e i t
only c o m p a r e t h e m o s t peripheral t r a i t s o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r w i t h e a c h offers.
o t h e r . O n l y t h o s e t r a i t s can b e m a t h e m a t i c a l l y p r o c e s s e d a d d e d
W h a t w e perceive f r o m t h e o u t s e t , r a t h e r , a r e v a r i o u s i n a n i m a t e
together or subtracted from one anotherto produce average values.
o b j e c t s , living c r e a t u r e s , fellow h u m a n b e i n g s , and w h a t e v e r else w e
C o n s e q u e n t l y , the c l o s e r a psychological i n v e s t i g a t i o n aims for t h e
c o m e u p o n o u t t h e r e i n the w o r l d , w h e r e t h e y address t h e m s e l v e s t o us,
n a t u r a l scientific ideal o f t r u t h , the m o r e e x t e r n a l l y f o r m a l , and
w i t h all t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f r a m e s of r e f e r e n c e in t i m e
i n t e r n a l l y e m p t y , t h e scientific e l a b o r a t i o n s o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r m u s t
and space. T h e q u e s t i o n o f h o w precisely o r i m p r e c i s e l y t h e s e t h i n g s
b e c o m e . T h e r e i s n o o t h e r w a y t o e x p r e s s b e h a v i o r statistically. T h i s i s a s
s h o w t h e m s e l v e s to us is of s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e .
clear i n statistical a n a l y s e s o f t h e b e h a v i o r o f p a r e n t s w h o h a v e
T h e i n n a t e s t r u c t u r e s p r o p o s e d b y c u r r e n t a n i m a l p s y c h o l o o y are
s c h i z o p h r e n i c children as it is, for i n s t a n c e , in m a r k e t i n g a n a l y s e s or
likewise e n d o p s y c h i c o r c e r e b r a l i n n a t u r e and t h e r e f o r e elso e n t i r e l y
statistical s u r v e y s o f large g r o u p s o r studies o f epidemic diseases d o n e o n
h y p o t h e t i c a l . O f c o u r s e , a n i m a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s believe t h a t t h e i r
e n t i r e cities and r e g i o n s .
e x p e r i m e n t s , w h i c h u s e so-called c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n s , succeed in
All of t h e s e studies m a y have c o n s i d e r a b l e t h e r a p e u t i c and p r o p h y l a c -
ti< application. B u t n o n e is likely to p r o m o t e f u n d a m e n t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g
The Fundamental Conditionally 71
70 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

e s t a b l i s h i n g identity b e t w e e n t h e i r o w n a s s u m e d i n t e r n a l s c h e m e s and similarly has c o n s c i o u s n e s s " e m e r g e from t h e s h o c k i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of a


t h e actual e v e n t s . B u t a t best, controlled e x p e r i m e n t s can d e m o n s t r a t e r e s i s t a n c e t h a t m u s t b e o v e r c o m e , " while t h e r e could b e n o r e c o g n i t i o n
t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h a c r e a t u r e can be deceived by an e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h e y w i t h o u t a n already e m e r g e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s .
tell u s n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o r n o n e x i s t e n c e o f i n n a t e , i n h e r i t e d In t h e end, Ey s h a r e s a f o r m u l a w i t h B i n d e r , in w h i c h b o t h speak of a
s t r u c t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s within an o r g a n i s m , n o r do t h e y help level o r l a y e r d e v o t e d t o t h e field o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h unfolds t o
illuminate t h e ability to p e r c e i v e a thing as s o m e t h i n g . become the subjective system that makes human beings human. Neither
W e have s e e n t h a t r e c e n t psychological t h e o r i e s o f layers i n t r o d u c e d explains precisely w h a t " s u b j e c t " m e a n s o r h o w t h e l a y e r o f c o n s c i o u s
14

m a n y m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n c e p t s like field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s u b j e c t , self, n e s s is e m p o w e r e d to u n f o l d .


e x i s t e n c e , and e n t e l e c h y i n t o medicine. T h e m o r e s h a l l o w psychic layers T h e c o n c e p t of an e x i s t e n t i a l l a y e r , w h i c h is i n a c c e s s i b l e to r e a s o n and
a r e allowed to s t a n d on t h e i r o w n as primal m e n t a l e n t i t i e s , and t h e i r i n h a b i t s s o m e h i g h e r m e t a p h y s i c a l plane, is gaining c u r r e n c y . It, t o o , is
g r e a t e s t possible e x t e n s i o n i n t o t h e o r g a n i s m and the deeper psychic c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a surprising lack of definition; its n a t u r e and s t r u c t u r e
f u n c t i o n s is seen as the end c a u s e of all layer f o r m a t i o n . T h e primal upper a r e left o b s c u r e . T h i s is n o t m e r e l y an o v e r s i g h t t h a t will be c o r r e c t e d in
psychic l a y e r s are the place of t h a t h u m a n f r e e d o m and r e s p o n s i b i t i t y time.
w h i c h n a t u r a l s c i e n c e c a n n o t grasp, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n s c i e n c e are T h e psychological t h e o r i e s o f drives and layers will n e v e r explain
w h a t actually defined self, s u b j e c t , e x i s t e n c e , and e n t e l e c y , in t h e m s e l v e s human existence. T h i s is because each of these theories posits human
and a g a i n s t h i g h e r t h i n g s . But a s far a s w e k n o w , n o n e o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s n a t u r e as s o m e sort of geological f o r m a t i o n , s o m e t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s in and
o f layers g e t s t h r o u g h t o the q u e s t i o n o f the specific n a t u r e o f psychic of i t s e l f a m o n g all t h e o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s t h a t m a k e up t h e w o r l d , a t h i n g
layers, t h o u g h only an a d e q u a t e a n s w e r to this q u e s t i o n can m a k e t h a t can be located at a specific point in space. G i v e n this a priori
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n s c i e n c e c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . T h e n o t i o n o f a s u p r e m e conceptualization of human beings, even the latest existentially oriented
e n t e l e c h y is, as a scientific h y p o t h e s i s , p u r e i n f e r e n c e . No d i s c e r n i b l e l a y e r t h e o r y p s y c h o l o g i e s c o n j u r e u p t h e s a m e riddle t h a t w r a c k e d t h e
p h e n o m e n o n o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e o f f e r s p r o o f for t h e actual p r e s e n c e o f e a r l i e r t h e o r y o f i n s t i n c t s : i f m a n e x i s t s i n and o f himself, a n i m m a n e n t
any entelechy. being from his v e r y b e g i n n i n g s , f u n d a m e n t a l l y e n c a p s u l a t e d w i t h i n his
T h e latest t r e a t i s e o f H . E y i s b a s e d n o d o u b t b o r r o w i n g from the p s y c h e , h o w does h e e v e r gain the s o r t o f vision t h a t would p e r m i t him
field t h e o r y of m o d e r n p h y s i c s o n t h e n o t i o n of a h u m a n field of e v e n t o i n t u i t s o m e w o r l d o u t s i d e ? H o w does h e leave and t r a n s c e n d
c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Ey himself, h o w e v e r , admits t h a t t h e t e r m , derived from a h i m s e l f t o a p p r o a c h t h i n g s o u t s i d e , and h o w d o t h e s e t h i n g s o f e x t e r n a l
m e r e i n f e r e n c e , is n o t h i n g m o r e than a " h y p o t h e t i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n " of reality g e t i n t o t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s of a p e r s o n w h o is m a d e this w a y ?
c o n s c i o u s n e s s . S e c o n d l y , his definition allows him to d e s c r i b e o n l y t h e In this d i s t r e s s i n g s i t u a t i o n , m o r e and m o r e p s y c h o l o g i s t s and
b e h a v i o r and n o t t h e actual n a t u r e of this a s s u m e d field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i s t s h a v e looked for help to H e i d e g g e r ' s e x p r e s s i o n
A n d his description of this field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s as an o r d e r e d s t r u c t u r e " b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d . " M o d e r n p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y o w e s a special debt to
does n o t help us v e r y m u c h ; a rock c r y s t a l is also an o r d e r e d s t r u c t u r e , yet B i n s w a n g e r for d r a w i n g its a t t e n t i o n t o his t h o u g h t . B u t all o t h e r
it can n e v e r p e r c e i v e a t h i n g as s o m e t h i n g t h a t m e a n s this or that. psychological t h e o r i e s , including B i n s w a n g e r ' s o w n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f
In trying to define h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s on t h e basis of its ability to s u b j e c t i v i t y , r e t a i n an i n h e r i t e d p i c t u r e of m a n as a p s y c h i c , or s u b j e c t i v e ,
c o n s t r u c t a model w o r l d from v a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e n to a r r a n g e stratified thing primarily e n c a p s u l a t e d w i t h i n itself, and c o n s i s t e n t l y
actual e x p e r i e n c e s to f o r m a field, Ey p u t s this definition u n d e r t h e s a m e c o n s t r u e t h e " b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d " o f e x i s t e n t i a l analysis a s o n e m o r e
r e s e r v a t i o n s t h a t apply to all h y p o t h e s i s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e n d o p s y c h i c p r o p e r t y to be added to t h e n o t i o n of m a n as s u b j e c t , in v o g u e since
c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a model w o r l d D e s c a r t e s . W h a t i s t h e use o f c h a r a c t e r i z i n g " b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d " a s t h e
p r e s u m e s prior a w a r e n e s s , a k n o w l e d g e t h a t a t h i n g is s o m e t h i n g in ability t o t r a n s c e n d s u b j e c t i v e i m m a n e n c e and a p p r o a c h o b j e c t s o f the
particular, a p a r t i c u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e w o r l d . Ey's " c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " e x t e r n a l w o r l d as long as this " b e i n g " is s e e n as j u s t o n e m o r e trait of a
in c o n s t r u c t i n g , a r r a n g i n g , and o r d e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e , directs itself to primarily e n c a p s u l a t e d s u b j e c t i v i t y ?
things w h i c h c a n n o t e x i s t at all if t h e r e is n o t prior a w a r e n e s s . O f the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g i e s H . G o p p e r t h a s r i g h t l y said that
E x p e r i e n c e is always of s o m e t h i n g specific, of s o m e t h i n g as being despite t h e i r u n i q u e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g points, t h e i r a n a l y s e s a r e
s o m e t h i n g , of s o m e t h i n g we s o m e h o w already h a v e a s e n s e of. Ey
72 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
The Fundamental Conditionality 73

s t r i k i n g l y similar t o p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h e m o s t a p p a r e n t T h e s e o b j e c t i o n s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , c o n t e m p o r a r y b r a n c h e s o f psy
similarity i s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f u n d a m e n t a l opposition a m o n g t h e c h o l o g y and p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y h a v e c o m e a long w a y since Freud's
d y n a m i c f a c t o r s o f d e s t r u c t i v e a g g r e s s i o n , t h e u r g e t o o r d e r , and e r o t i c b e g i n n i n g , h e e x t r e m e l y n a r r o w original f r a m e w o r k f o r m e d b y the
d e v e l o p m e n t . B u t t h e precise n a t u r e of t h e subject as it is v i e w e d by t h e s e n o t i o n of a primarily a u t o e r o t i c , t o t a l l y n a r c i s s i s t i c p s y c h i c apparatus
t h e o r i e s r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . Fifteen y e a r s b e f o r e , M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r said o f w a s exploded long ago. W h i l e t h e m a i n focus w a s for a t i m e t h e various
t h e field: " A n t h r o p o l o g y i s t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m a n w h i c h k n o w i n g i n s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s a s s u m e d t o e x i s t w i t h i n t h e individual p s y c h e ,
a d v a n c e w h a t m a n basically i s can n e v e r ask w h a t h e is. T h e q u e s t i o n t h e i n t e r e s t o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s s o o n e x p a n d e d t o include e v e r l a r g e r
would b e a n a d m i s s i o n o f s h a k i n e s s and defeat. H o w can a n t h r o p o l o g y b e c o m p l e x e s o f social r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h i c h w e r e s e e n m o r e and m o r e a s the
e x p e c t e d to ask this q u e s t i o n w h e n its sole t a s k is to s h o r e up t h e self- primary phenomena of human existence.
certainty of the s u b j e c t ? " 1 5
B e c a u s e o f this failing, t h e c o n c r e t e But in the meantime, the phrases current in the most recent theories
m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r r e m a i n u n c l e a r and inaccessible t o t h e " i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s " and " i n t e r a c t i o n s " a r e n o m o r e t h a n
e x i s t e n t i a l p s y c h o l o g i e s and psychological a n t h r o p o l o g i e s w h i c h , like e x p r e s s i o n s g r o p i n g in t h e dark. T h i s s i t u a t i o n will n o t be r e m e d i e d until
p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , w o u l d i l l u m i n a t e dark places w i t h s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t are s c i e n c e h a s actually discovered t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t m a k e s u c h r e l a t i o n
even more obscure. ships possible.
American ego psychology, always m o r e oriented to the h u m a n
e n v i r o n m e n t , physical and i n t e r p e r s o n a l , t h a n E u r o p e a n p s y c h o l o g i e s , PSYCHOSOMATIC HYPOTHESES
claims t h a t from his b e g i n n i n g s m a n lives in an i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e a l m and
e x i s t s primarily i n his i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s and e x c h a n g e s w i t h o t h e r W e h a v e s h o w n t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based o n t h e traditional
people. W h i l e t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t a g r e a t a d v a n c e , the f o u n d a t i o n s o f m e d i c i n e could h a n d l e n e i t h e r t h e e x c l u s i v e l y s o m a t i c
i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e r e l a t e d n e s s of m a n is viewed o n l y as a psychologically m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f o u r t e s t s u b j e c t , n o r h e r purely psychic b e h a v i o r . T h e y
describable p r o p e r t y , an unclarified p s y c h e , b u t n o t as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t i c u l a r l y failed t o c o m e t o t e r m s w i t h R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s p s y c h o s o m a t
d e t e r m i n a n t o f h u m a n n a t u r e itself. ic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . Y e t p s y c h o s o m a t i c medicine itself s t a n d s helpless
S i m i l a r ideas a b o u t h u m a n e x i s t e n c e developed i n d e p e n d e n t l y in h e r e , and n o t only w i t h r e s p e c t to o u r particular case, as it faces t h e
E u r o p e , c u l m i n a t i n g in t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t m a n actually lives in a h e r c u l e a n t a s k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g t w o c o n c e p t s , n e i t h e r o f
" b e t w e e n . " B u b e r ' s " I , " " t h o u , " and ' w e " s c h e m e f o u n d global r e s o n a n c e w h i c h h a s b e e n a d e q u a t e l y or appropriately elucidated by t h e s c i e n c e of
i n c o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o l o g y . Y e t even i n this " t h e o r y o f d i a l o g u e " t h e m e d i c i n e . T h e s e t w o c o n c e p t s are p s y c h e and s o m a .
n a t u r e of m a n is n o t e x p l a i n e d clearly e n o u g h to c o n v i n c e us t h a t it is P s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e usually d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o b y
m a n k i n d as a w h o l e and n o t o n l y t h e t e s t c a s e t h a t can be e x p e r i e n c e d as saying t h a t t h e s o m a can b e w e i g h e d and m e a s u r e d , w h e r e a s the psychic
a n " I , " " t h o u , " and " w e . " O n e thing o n l y e m e r g e s w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t all aspect is o n l y intuitively p e r c e i v a b l e . In m a k i n g this claim, h o w e v e r ,
of t h e s e p s y c h o l o g i e s of dialogue posit h u m a n b e i n g s as individual p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e h a s o v e r s t e p p e d its b o u n d s as a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e .
s u b j e c t s i n h e r e n t l y opposed to e a c h o t h e r . A " b e t w e e n " can take place In voicing an opinion c o n c e r n i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e reality of
only a m o n g a t least t w o s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , and s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , e n t i t i e s . W e s o m e actual being, t h e b e i n g n e s s of s o m e being, it is in fact p h i l o s o p h i z
c a n n o t learn f r o m t h e s e t h e o r i e s h o w t h e s e s u b j e c t i v e poles are m a d e s o ing, and this is n o t t h e affair of a science. M o r e o v e r , the n o t i o n s of
t h a t t h e y e n t e r i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a n y kind w i t h o n e a n o t h e r m e a s u r a b i l i t y and i m m e a s u r a b i l i t y are n o t c r i t e r i a i n t r i n s i c t o the
e s s e n t i a l o r i n e s s e n t i a l , direct o r indirect, i n t i m a t e o r r e m o t e . psychic and s o m a t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e m s e l v e s . T h e fact t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s
Because of their inadequate determinations of human nature, m e a s u r a b l e tells u s n o t h i n g a b o u t the n a t u r e o f t h e t h i n g itself;
a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g i e s and p s y c h o l o g i e s of dialogue also fail to m e a s u r e m e n t is j u s t a w a y by w h i c h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a p p r o a c h e s t h e
establish a s o u n d basis for an a d e q u a t e l y h u m a n m e d i c i n e . I n s t e a d of object he is investigating. T h e definitions that result from characterizing
clarifying t h e basic n a t u r e o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e t h e m s e l v e s , b o t h the t w o a s p e c t s on such a basis a r e , t h e n , highly s u b j e c t i v e .
p s y c h o l o g i e s adopt a f e w traditional W e s t e r n v i e w s of m a n w h i c h h a v e W h a t m a t t e r s m o r e , h o w e v e r , is a s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n in w h i c h this
e m e r g e d in the c o u r s e of h i s t o r y and t h e n u s e t h e s e c o n c e p t i o n s to c r i t e r i o n of m e a s u r a b i l i t y e n t a n g l e s p s y c h o s o m a t i c medicine. It is a
support their o w n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . T h e n a m e s b y which these' f u n d a m e n t a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o a t t r i b u t e i m m e a s u r a b i l i t y t o t h e psychic
conceptions go"subjectivity," "self," "existence," " I , " "thou," " w e , "
"basic t r u s t , " or "basic d i s t a n c e " m a k e little d i f f e r e n c e .
74 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Fundamental Conditionality

aspect w h i l e i n t h e s a m e b r e a t h d e m a n d i n g for p s y c h o s o m a t i c C o n s i d e r as a simple p s y c h o s o m a t i c s y m p t o m , for i n s t a n c e , the l e u ol


r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o o f s t h a t w o u l d c o n v i n c e e v e n a physician schooled in t h e a p e r s o n in m o u r n i n g . B e i n g psychic, m o u r n i n g can be n e i t h e r weighed
n a t u r a l scientific o r i e n t a t i o n . n o r m e a s u r e d . T h e t e a r , h o w e v e r , can b e w e i g h e d and c h e m i c a l l y
A n a t u r a l scientific proof, if it f u n c t i o n s according to its a x i o m t h a t analysed. O n c e a t e a r h a s b e e n w e i g h e d and m e a s u r e d , h o w e v e r , is il si ill
e v e r y t h i n g actual is also calculable, m u s t a l w a y s place the m a t t e r s it a t e a r ? Hardly, for if we m e a s u r e it, w h a t we e n d up holding is j u s t a drop
i n v e s t i g a t e s i n t o a set of r e l a t i o n s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d to this law, w h i c h can of liquid; it is no l o n g e r a tear. Is the t e a r t h e n p s y c h i c or s o m a t i c , or is 11
be m e a s u r e d and e x p r e s s e d in n u m b e r s . B u t the actuality of a n e i t h e r ? If it is n e i t h e r , t h e n w h a t actually c o n s t i t u t e s a t e a r ? T h e
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t w o t h i n g s can be so p r o v e n o n l y if each is n a t u r a l scientific c r i t e r i o n o f m e a s u r a b i l i t y d o e s not allow this q u e s t i o n
m e a s u r a b l e and q u a n t i f i a b l e . If t h e p s y c h i c e n t i t y is by definition e v e n to be raised, m u c h less a n s w e r e d .
i m m e a s u r a b l e , it follows t h a t the possibility of a valid, n a t u r a l scientific A s with t h e tear, traditional p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e c a n n o t specify
p r o o f for a p s y c h o s o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p is precluded. T h e basis for a the t r u e n a t u r e of any o t h e r so-called p s y c h o s o m a t i c s y m p t o m s , so it has
calculated p r o o f would have to be e n t i r e l y s o m a t i c in n a t u r e , for o n l y t h e r e s t r i c t e d itself t o c l a r i f y i n g t h e g e n e s i s o f t h e s e s y m p t o m s instead. T h i s ,
s o m a t i c aspect of h u m a n being can be m e a s u r e d . A p r o o f b a s e d on o n l y of c o u r s e , is totally d i f f e r e n t f r o m an a d e q u a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of what
o n e o f t h e t w o t e r m s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p can affirm n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e s u c h a g e n e r a t e d s y m p t o m is, in and of itself. On its w a y to a s c e r t a i n i n g
p s y c h o s o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p itself. It leaves t h e psychic aspect a l t o g e t h e r the biographical c a u s e s o f s y m p t o m s , p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e alludes t o
out of consideration. the p o t e n t i a l o f e n d o p s y c h i c p h e n o m e n a for affecting o r g a n i c f u n c t i o n s ,
T h e d e m a n d for a n a t u r a l scientific (i.e., quantifiable) p r o o f of t h e and vice v e r s a . B u t w h e r e t w o such h e t e r o g e n e o u s t h i n g s are c o n c e r n e d ,
p s y c h o s o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p is n o t only f u n d a m e n t a l l y i m p o s s i b l e b u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a r e n e v e r scientifically
w h o l l y unjustified a s well. T h i s d e m a n d g r o w s n o t o u t o f t h e m a t t e r s o u n d and m u s t a l w a y s r e m a i n h a z y .
u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n but c o m e s from the traditional n a t u r a l scientific W h i l e t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e t o c o n s i d e r relation
r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t all reality be empirically m e a s u r a b l e . B e h i n d this ships b e t w e e n t w o t o t a l l y h e t e r o g e n e o u s t h i n g s calls its scientific
r e q u i r e m e n t is a d o g m a t h a t puts t r e m e n d o u s r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e scope of s o u n d n e s s into q u e s t i o n , w h a t u n d e r c u t s i t m o r e i s t h e fact t h a t t h e s e
reality, and, w h a t is m o r e i m p o r t a n t , is n o t itself open to a n y s o r t of t h i n g s simply d o n o t e x i s t . W e h a v e indicated b e f o r e t h a t t h e n a t u r a l
scientific c o n f i r m a t i o n . T h u s , t h e failure of such a poorly founded p r o o f scientific i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e living h u m a n body as a m e r e s o m a m i s s e s
does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e actual r e l a t e d n e s s o f w h a t i s c o m m o n l y s e p a r a t e d its peculiar m o d e of b e i n g . T h e additional e x i s t e n c e of a p s y c h e , likewise
and given t h e n a m e s " p s y c h i c " and " s o m a t i c . " p r e s e n t and in s o m e w a y j o i n e d to t h e s o m a , is a b s o l u t e l y b e y o n d
T h i s being so, e v e n p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d h o w proving.
i m p o r t a n t it is to see t h a t a strictly scientific s e p a r a t i o n a d e q u a t e to each W h e n psychosomatic medicine abandons the notion of interaction
o f the t w o r e s u l t i n g o b j e c t s o f study would b e possible o n l y a f t e r b e t w e e n p s y c h e and s o m a in favor of a r e l a t i o n s h i p of e x p r e s s i o n -
bringing to light t h e similarities t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e a s e p a r a t i o n . E v e n t w o imagining, for i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e s o m a t i c a l l y r e g i s t e r e d t e a r is an
p r o p e r t i e s as e l e m e n t a r y as the r e d n e s s and g r e e n n e s s of a thing can be expression of the psychic mourningthen the connection between
distinguished only i f w e h a v e already g r a s p e d t h e significance o f c o l o r . p s y c h e and s o m a is still f u r t h e r confused. We are n e v e r told e x a c t l y what
B o t h red and g r e e n are s u b s u m e d u n d e r t h e c o m m o n c a t e g o r y " c o l o r . " " e x p r e s s i o n " m e a n s , or w h e t h e r it suffices to d e t e r m i n e t h e puzzling,
By c o n t r a s t , " r e d " and " h e a v y " do n o t b e l o n g to a c o m m o n c a t e g o r y , and r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o m a and p s y c h e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p
t h u s n o t h i n g m e a n i n g f u l can c o m e o u t o f a n a t t e m p t t o distinguish b e t w e e n t w o e n t i t i e s d o e s n o t a d e q u a t e l y explain e i t h e r t h e expressive, or
between them. the expressed. T h e expressive one is assigned only o n e quality, t h e capacity for
Traditional psychosomatic medicine generally construes the one thing s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and e x c e p t for this i t r e m a i n s e n t i r e l y o b s c u r e . T h e
uniting b o t h p s y c h e and s o m a to be t h e u n i f o r m i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a expressed one, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , is r e d u c e d to t h e s t a t u s of a m e r e
p s y c h o p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s m . B u t this s o r t o f n o t i o n o b j e c t i f i e s t h e derivative o f this o b s c u r i t y , its o w n n a t u r e n e v e r b e i n g analyzed.
u n d e r l y i n g h u m a n n a t u r e i n such a n e x t r e m e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e m a n n e r If it is t r u e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l approach of p s y c h o s o m a t i c medicine has
that not even t h e simplest p s y c h o s o m a t i c p h e n o m e n o n is m a d e not made it possible to d e t e r m i n e a d e q u a t e l y w h a t kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p
comprehensible. o p e r a t e s b e t w e e n p s y c h e and s o m a , it follows t h a t all s e c o n d a r y
76 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS The Fundamental Conditionality 77

c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the activation of specific s y m p t o m s in the L e t us n o w s u m up the j u s t i f i c a t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n s of p s y c h o l o g y and


body t h r o u g h specific psychic conflicts are futile. T h e c o n c e p t s o f p s y c h o s o m a t i c medicine i n light o f o u r discussion. T h e i r j u s t i f i c a t i o n
traditional p s y c h o s o m a t i c medicine will t h e r e f o r e n e v e r yield an c o n s i s t s in t h e fact t h a t b o t h disciplines e m p h a t i c a l l y r e a s s e r t s o m e t h i n g
explanation o f the i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r o f the specificity o f p s y c h o s o m a t i c n o n s o m a t i c in h u m a n e x i s t e n c e as a p r o p e r a r e a of h u m a n reality. B u t
symptoms. this s e e m s t o e x h a u s t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . T h e n a r r o w r a n g e o f t h e i r
A t t e n t i o n has already b e e n d r a w n to U e x k u l l ' s a t t e m p t from t h e c o m p e t e n c e is due to the fact t h a t t h e i r p r o m i s i n g b e g i n n i n g s s o o n fell
q u a r t e r o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g y t o c o r r e c t t h e faults o f earlier u n d e r t h e s w a y o f a r e s e a r c h m e t h o d t h a t i s n o t suited t o h u m a n n a t u r e .
p s y c h o s o m a t i c t h i n k i n g and t o d e t e r m i n e a d e q u a t e l y just w h a t does T h e y yielded t o p r e s s u r e from t h e old r a t i o n a l i s t i c tradition w h i c h holds
unite the psychic and s o m a t i c a s p e c t s . In s u m m a r i z i n g the c o n c e p t u a l t h a t all b e i n g is by n a t u r e s u b s t a n t i a l and physically p r e s e n t .
approach of his Foundation of Psychosomatic Medicine, we said t h a t a E v e r y o n e o f t h e n o t i o n s o f p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e i s
" m o t i v a t i o n " is a l w a y s seen as the unifying basis of all h u m a n based upon t h e C a r t e s i a n division o f the w o r l d into t w o c o m p o n e n t s , the
p h e n o m e n a . It is r e s p o n s i b l e for i n t e r p r e t i n g his s u r r o u n d i n g s and e x a c t l y calculable e x t e n d e d (tangible) s u b s t a n c e and w h a t is i m a g i n e d as
g e n e r a t i n g o n its o w n a p p r o p r i a t e action. B e f o r e a m o t i v a t i o n t h e e n c a p s u l a t e d t h i n k i n g s u b s t a n c e o f the h u m a n s u b j e c t . S i n c e this
e m e r g e s , the world is m e r e l y t h e r e , u n a r t i c u l a t e d m a t t e r . M o t i v a t i o n is image o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e b e c a m e a s c e n d a n t , i n q u i r y into t h e precise
w h a t shapes the " p r e - r e a l m a t t e r " into t h e m o s t diverse realities. T o c h a r a c t e r o f h u m a n n a t u r e a s " b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d " has b e e n n e i t h e r
produce an action, t h e m o t i v a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e s b o t h t h e psychic e g o (as r e f o r m u l a t e d n o r advanced b y t h o s e w h o p r a c t i c e p s y c h o l o g y and
director) and t h e h u m a n b o d y (as props), to appear in the s c e n e w h i c h it psychosomatic medicine. And thus the phenomena of human existence,
(the m o t i v a t i o n ) h a s laid out. in t h e i r t r u e c h a r a c t e r , h a v e r e m a i n e d as closed to t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s of
U e x k u l l gives the c a s e of a p e r s o n c o n f r o n t i n g an apple t r e e to t h e s e s c i e n c e s a s t h e y h a v e b e e n t o t h e older s c i e n c e s o f biology,
illustrate t h i s . T h e m o t i v a t i o n i n t e r p r e t s t h e apples h a n g i n g o n the t r e e s a n a t o m y , and p h y s i o l o g y . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r u n s u i t a b l e c o n c e p t u a l
a s things t o b e e a t e n t h e n produces t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h u m a n r e a c t i o n s ; a p p r o a c h e s , the ideas o f p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e h a v e
picking apples and eating t h e m . He c o n c l u d e s , "In o u r illustration, we can been in part m e r e r a t i o n a l i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n v e n t i o n , and in part the
say t h a t t h e appetite is e t e r n a l but t h a t t h e e a t e r and t h e scenic p r o p e r t i e s o u t c o m e o f psychic p h e n o m e n a w h o s e significance r e m a i n s largely
are subject to change." o b s c u r e . N o d o u b t t h e r e a r e m a n y w h o believe t h a t t h e s e f o r m u l a t i o n s i n
B u t t h e r e is no e v i d e n c e for the p r e s e n c e of an i n n a t e , all- imitation of m a t h e m a t i c a l p r e c i s i o n c o n s t i t u t e a solid t h e o r e t i c a l
e n c o m p a s s i n g m o t i v a t i o n such a s U e x k u l l p r o p o s e s , n o r does e x p e r i e n c e g r o u n d i n g . In reality, h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e a false f o o t i n g for t h e
c o n f i r m t h a t o u r w o r l d appears to us initially as m e r e l y " p r e - r e a l " and u n t h i n k i n g . C u r r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o s o m a t i c t h e o r i e s h a v e i n
" u n a r t i c u l a t e d " m a t t e r o n t o w h i c h , i f w e are t o c r e a t e s e p a r a t e o b j e c t s , c o m m o n t h e desire t o explain t h e u n k n o w n p h e n o m e n a o f h u m a n
we m u s t project m e a n i n g s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s u c h a depiction of t h e e x i s t e n c e o n the basis o f s o m e t h i n g e v e n less k n o w n .
situation leaves t h e n a t u r e o f a n ego, w h o s e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e m e a n i n g o r All o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s o far point t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l
significance of s o m e t h i n g is dictated by a m o t i v a t i o n , quite o b s c u r e . f e a t u r e s o f t h e h e a l t h y and p a t h o l o g i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f h u m a n n a t u r e
T h e a s c e r t a i n a b l e facts indicate, r a t h e r , t h a t w h e n t h e p h e n o m e n a o f are inaccessible t o the h y p o t h e s e s o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and t o t h e m o r e
m y w o r l d c o n f r o n t m e t h e y reveal, o f t h e i r g r e a t s t o r e o f m e a n i n g s , o n l y r e c e n t h y p o t h e s e s o f p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e . T h i s
t h o s e t o w h i c h m y p e r c e p t i o n i n t h e s t a t e o f m y e x i s t e n c e a t the t i m e c o n c l u s i o n also indicates t h a t medical r e s e a r c h has n o t a s k m o r e u r g e n t
is open. At o n e and t h e s a m e t i m e n o t in s o m e s u c c e s s i o n of p r i m a r y than t h e s e a r c h for a n e w , m o r e broadly h u m a n a p p r o a c h to its o b j e c t of
and s e c o n d a r y e v e n t s t h e s e p h e n o m e n a induce o r m o t i v a t e m e t o a n study, t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m a n .
action, or n o n a c t i o n , appropriate to t h e m e a n i n g I have perceived in I n this e n t e r p r i s e , t h e special l e s s o n s t h a t g r o w o u t o f r e n o u n c i n g t h e
t hem. T h u s the m o t i v a t i o n does not stand opposite m e , a b o v e me and t h e traditional r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s can b e o f g r e a t help. T h e y indicate, first,
w i n Id's "pre-real m a t t e r . " M o t i v a t i o n s , o r i n d u c e m e n t s , can o c c u r o n l y w h a t we m u s t at all c o s t avoid in f u t u r e e f f o r t s to lay a s t u r d i e r
in r e s p o n s e to my perception of w h a t I e n c o u n t e r in my world. foundation for m e d i c i n e . T h e y t e a c h u s t h a t h u m a n e x i s t e n c e can n o
A'. I l e x ! Lill's proposal does not a m o u n t to a factual p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l longer be v i e w e d , in r a s h a n a l o g y to the lifeless o b j e c t s of t h e world, as
description ol demonst i able m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , his t h e o r y does n o t allow us m e r e l y a n o t h e r t h i n g w h i c h is p r e s e n t at a p a r t i c u l a r point in a
io understand what we actually o b s e r v e in a p s y c h o s o m a t i c s y m p t o m .
78 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

p r e c o n c e i v e d space. A b o v e all, h o w e v e r , t h e inadequacies o f traditional


medical o r i e n t a t i o n s c o u n s e l us to a b a n d o n , o n c e and for all, e f f o r t s to
explain o b s e r v a b l e p h e n o m e n a directly on the basis of t h i n g s a s s u m e d to
be operating behind them.
In c o n t r a s t to traditional psychological and p s y c h o s o m a t i c h y p o t h e s e s ,
a m o r e broadly h u m a n medical r e s e a r c h m e t h o d will n o t need to v i e w its
findings as m e r e supplements to the o u t c o m e s of n a t u r a l scientific
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . In t h e n e x t part of this book we will test a p e r s p e c t i v e
w h i c h m e a n s assiduously to avoid, as o b v i o u s l y injurious to h u m a n
n a t u r e , the traditional c o n c e p t u a l a p p r o a c h o f m e d i c i n e . T h i s n e w
o r i e n t a t i o n will be applied to t h e very s a m e h e a l t h y and p a t h o l o g i c a l
m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e c a s e h i s t o r y against w h i c h w e t e s t e d the c u r r e n t
Part II
r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s o f s c i e n c e , p s y c h o l o g y , and p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e .
F o r r e a s o n s t h a t will b e c o m e a p p a r e n t later, w e shall call the n e w , m o r e
broadly h u m a n o r i e n t a t i o n an existential, phenomenological i n v e s t i g a t i v e
An Adequately H u m a n
m e t h o d . It s t a k e s e v e r y t h i n g on keeping s t r i c t l y to p h e n o m e n a t h a t are
directly visible to it, and it h a s no p u r p o s e o t h e r t h a n to a r t i c u l a t e t h e Foundation for Medicine
m e a n i n g f u l n e s s and c o n t e x t s o f r e f e r e n c e w h i c h the p h e n o m e n a
t h e m s e l v e s reveal.

NOTES

1. S. Freud, Vorlesungen zur Einfhrung in die Psychoanalyse, in Gesammelte Werke, vol. II


( L o n d o n : I m a g o , Inc., 1 9 4 0 ) , p. 6 2 .
2. S. F r e u d , Gesammelle Werke, vol. 14 ( L o n d o n : 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 123.
3. S. Freud, Die Traumdeutung, in Gesammelte Werke, vol, 2/3 (London: 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 604).
4 . K . J a s p e r s , Allgemeine Psychopathologie ( B e r l i n : I. S p r i n g e r , 1 9 2 3 ) , p. 2 3 .
5. Freud, op. at. (Gesammelte Werke, vol. p. 162.
6 . S . F r e u d , " D a s U n b e w u s s t e , " i n Gesammelte Werke, vol. 1 0 ( L o n d o n : I m a g o , I n c . , 1 9 4 1 ) ,
p. 2 6 5 .
7. S. F r e u d , Gesammelte Werke, vol. 7 (London: Imago, 1 9 4 1 ) , p. 243ff.
8. P. M a r t y , M. de M ' U z a n , a n d C h . D a i d , L investigation psychosomatique ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d ,
1963).
9. J. P i a g e t , Le causalite physique chez [enfant ( P a r i s : 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 2 1 5 . S e e also: La representation du
monde chez lenfant; Les Origines de 1'animisme enfantin ( P a r i s : 1 9 2 6 ) , pp. 2 0 3 - 5 2 ; and La formation du
Symbole chez I'enfant; Le symbolisme mconsaent et les schemes affectives, 3rd ed. (Neuchatel:
Delachauxet Nieshe, 1 9 6 4 ) .
10.See O. W. Haseloff, ed., Struktur und Dynamik des menschlichen Verhallens. (Stuttgart,
Berlin, Cologne, Mainz: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1 9 7 0 ) .
1 1 . Ibid., p . 1 0 .
1 2 . K. H. P r i b r a m , " D i e S t r u k t u r des G e d c h t n i s s e s , " in Struktur und Dynamik.
1 3 . H a s e l o f f , op. c i t . , p . 1 4 .
14. H . Ey, Das Bewusstem ( B e r l i n : W . d e G r u y t e r , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 3 0 , 3 2 , 9 4 , 182.
15. M. Heidegger, Holzwege: Die Zeil des Weltbildes (Frankfurt-am-Main: Klostermann,
1950), p. 103.
Chapter 6

APPLYING THE EXISTENTIAL OUTLOOK TO SOME


ASPECTS OF THE TEST CASE

S e e i n g h e r l o v e r a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t , R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r d a s h e d o v e r and
kissed and h u g g e d h i m a s t h o u g h this w e r e t h e m o s t n a t u r a l t h i n g i n t h e
world. T h e n t h e couple strolled h o m e a r m i n a r m , discussing plans for
I heir c o m i n g v a c a t i o n in t h e C a n a r y Islands on t h e w a y . All in all, this
looks like an u n c o m p l i c a t e d s e q u e n c e of e v e n t s . B u t it is w o r t h asking
what new aspects might turn up if we examined this sequence in a way
t h a t a l l o w e d t h e e v e n t s t o speak for t h e m s e l v e s and kept e x c l u s i v e l y t o
w h a t t h e y r e v e a l e d directly.
A s R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r w a l k e d along t h e main s t r e e t o f h e r t o w n b e f o r e
she ran i n t o h e r lover, h e r a t t e n t i o n w a s f o c u s s e d o n c l o t h e s s h e w a s
going t o b u y for t h e v a c a t i o n . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e spell t h e s e c l o t h e s
( ast, s h e w a s fully a w a r e of t h e s i d e w a l k on w h i c h s h e walked, of fleeting
g l i m p s e s o f people h u r r y i n g by, o f t h e sign o f park r u l e s s h e had t o s t e p
a r o u n d , and o f d o z e n s o f o t h e r t h i n g s s h e e n c o u n t e r e d . T h o u g h t h e s e
things did n o t h a v e t h e s a m e s o r t o f i m m e d i a t e , f o r e g r o u n d p r e s e n c e a s
the c l o t h e s s h e w a s c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n , t h e y w e r e j u s t a s m u c h t h e r e for
her, helping d e t e r m i n e h e r walk. W i t h o u t perceiving t h e i r p r e s e n c e and
s i g n i f i c a n c e , h o w e v e r p e r i p h e r a l and u n t h e m a t i c this p e r c e i v i n g m a y
h a v e b e e n , s h e w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n able t o find h e r w a y . Y e t i t w a s n o t
only t h e m o m e n t a r i l y p r e s e n t t h i n g s o f h e r world t h a t w e r e t h e r e i n
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Applying the Existential Outlook 83
82

t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e places. H e r walk w a s c o d e t e r m i n e d , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , b y Z i i r c h e r ' s w h o l e and indivisible e x i s t e n c e . S i n c e t h e i r love affair had


e v e r y t h i n g t h a t had e v e r b e e n ; she w o u l d n o t h a v e had t h e n o t i o n t o buy begun, R e g u l a Z u r c h e r felt t h a t h e r lover w a s in h e r h e a r t . In r u n n i n g
a n e w w a r d r o b e had s h e n o t r e m a i n e d c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e r old, w o r n - o u t o v e r to him, she was m e r e l y actualizing bodily an already e x i s t i n g
c l o t h e s . A n d a p p r o a c h i n g h e r from t h e f u t u r e w a s h e r v a c a t i o n . I t w a s e x i s t e n t i a l c l o s e n e s s to him. B u t it w a s precisely in this fulfillment that
h e r r e l a t i o n t o t h e f u t u r e , a b o v e all, t h a t m o t i v a t e d h e r walk during t h e she b e c a m e totally u n a w a r e o f h e r o w n b o d y h o o d .
present. T h e s a m e i s t r u e o f t h e couple's stroll h o m e a r m i n a r m . H e r body was
A l t h o u g h s h e w a s n o t t h i n k i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y o f h e r l o v e r o n this o u t i n g , not s o m e physical i n s t r u m e n t s e p a r a t e from h e r used t o t r a n s p o r t h e r
her relationship to him continued as much more than the mere cerebral p s y c h e . W a l k i n g this w a y w a s a n i n t e g r a l part o f the couple's i n t i m a c y ,
e n g r a m posited by n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y . He had, in fact, n e v e r stopped being and t h u s it can be u n d e r s t o o d as t h e h u m a n p h e n o m e n o n it is as t h e
p r e s e n t t o h e r , o u t s i d e , i n t h e w o r l d t h e y b o t h s h a r e d , even w h e n h e had bodying f o r t h of t h e i r i n t i m a t e w a y of being t o g e t h e r in a s h a r e d world.
disappeared f r o m h e r optical field of vision at t h e i r last parting and could T h i s sort o f physical p r o c e s s b e t w e e n t w o people can n e v e r b e
n o l o n g e r s t i m u l a t e h e r r e t i n a l cells. C e r t a i n l y , his p r e s e n c e did n o t c o m p r e h e n d e d from the s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e b o d y h o o d o f a n e x i s t e n c e s o
persist in such a w a y t h a t s h e w a s pointedly a w a r e of him e v e r y m o m e n t , long as t h a t b o d y h o o d has b e e n p r e c o n c e i v e d as a m e r e l y physical s y s t e m
b u t he r e m a i n e d an i m p o r t a n t c o d e t e r m i n a n t in t h e affairs of h e r life. o f m u s c l e s , b o n e s , and n e r v e s .
Because of this, Regula Ziircher's unexpected sighting of her lover A n o t h e r manifestation of the bodyhood of her existence here was a
c a n n o t b e called " r e - c o g n i t i o n . " T h e r e i s n o " r e - " a b o u t t h e m a t t e r , since n o t i c e a b l y i n c r e a s e d pulse r a t e and a c o n s i d e r a b l y f r e e r c o n t r a c t i o n and
h e had n e v e r disappeared from h e r w o r l d . T h o u g h , since t h e y had last dilation o f h e r h e a r t . S h e h e r s e l f did n o t discern t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n o r g a n
seen e a c h o t h e r , his p r e s e n c e m a y s o m e t i m e s h a v e g r o w n v e r y dim, h e a n y w h e r e w i t h i n h e r body, or of a n y t h i n g she had inside. S h e felt a
w a s n o n e t h e l e s s a l w a y s t h e r e . All t h a t c h a n g e d in this physical d i s t a n t r u s h i n g in t h e r e g i o n of h e r h e a r t , a p o u n d i n g t h a t was h e r s e l f , or
e n c o u n t e r w a s t h e m o d e of his p r e s e n c e in h e r w o r l d , in w h i c h a d i s t a n t she would n o t h a v e b e e n in a position to say, "I h u r r i e d t o w a r d him, my
p r e s e n c e w a s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a n i m m e d i a c y s h e could see and t o u c h . h e a r t p o u n d i n g . " W i t h t h e s e w o r d s she u t t e r s h e r a w a r e n e s s o f
b e c o m i n g a b s o r b e d body and s o u l w i t h e v e r y t h i n g s h e w a s , h e r w h o l e
A n o t h e r p h e n o m e n o n t h a t d e s e r v e s a t t e n t i o n i s t h e feeling t h a t c a m e
beingin h e r powerful e x i s t e n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h e r lover. W h a t
with her e n c o u n t e r with her lover. If we restrict ourselves to
appears in a scientific i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to be t h e b e a t i n g and p u m p i n g of a
d e m o n s t r a b l e , o b j e c t i v e findings, t h e r e can be no talk of a feeling or
physical o r g a n r e v e a l s i t s e l f a s t h e bodying f o r t h o f R e g u l a Z u r c h e r and
e m o t i o n a s a n e n t i t y p r e s e n t w i t h i n t h e p s y c h e . All w e m a y factually
her lover's w a y o f b e i n g t o g e t h e r .
s t a t e is t h a t as a h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h
h e r l o v e r w a s happily disposed. T h e u n e x p e c t e d c h a n c e t o b e close t o h i m W h e n , o n t h e w a y h o m e , t h e t w o b e g a n talking o v e r plans for t h e i r
a t o n c e c h a n g e d h e r m o o d o f n e u t r a l i t y t o w a r d t h e world, the vacation, w h a t e m e r g e d w a s n o t s o m e dialogue i n t h e u s u a l psychological
a n o n y m o u s p a s s e r s - b y , and s h o p w i n d o w s , i n t o a m o o d o f h a p p i n e s s . usage. D i a l o g u e m e a n s speaking back and f o r t h . N o w , according t o
W h a t b e c a m e a t t u n e d t o h a p p i n e s s w a s n o t j u s t s o m e t h i n g within R e g u l a c u r r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e a c h i n g , t w o s u b j e c t s could talk back and forth
Z r c h e r , b u t R e g u l a Z r c h e r h e r s e l f , h e r w h o l e e x i s t e n c e . T h i s happy only a b o u t e n t i r e l y c o n s c i o u s n e s s - i m m a n e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f s o m e
h u m o r did n o t o r i g i n a t e w i t h this e n c o u n t e r . T h e p o t e n t i a l for b e i n g o b j e c t of t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , in this case e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a
a t t u n e d t o h a p p i n e s s had always b e e n a n i n n a t e part o f h e r e x i s t e n c e , a s r e s o r t h o t e l , w i t h an i m a g e in e a c h brain. All t h a t could be factually
it is of e v e r y h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . T h e physical n e a r n e s s in the e n c o u n t e r d e t e r m i n e d , h o w e v e r , is t h a t t w o people visualized t h e s a m e building at
w i t h h e r l o v e r simply allowed h e r to live this p o t e n t i a l . the s a m e t i m e . In this v i s u a l i z a t i o n , b o t h w e r e freely being t o g e t h e r in
their r e l a t i o n t o t h e s a m e t h i n g and during t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n w e r e a t the
To an outside observer, the most striking manifestation in her
h o t e l itself, far to t h e s o u t h .
e n c o u n t e r would h a v e b e e n the m o v e m e n t o f h e r b o d y from o n e side o f
the s t r e e t t o t h e o t h e r . R e g u l a Z r c h e r h e r s e l f , h o w e v e r , did n o t s e n s e A c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n w o u l d n o doubt a s c r i b e the l o v e r s ' t h o u g h t s o f
the p r e s e n c e of a body, or of a p s y c h e or psychic drives t h a t seized this their old v a c a t i o n spot t o m e m o r y . B u t strictly speaking, the visualization
body and impelled it into m o t i o n . W h a t a scientific o b s e r v e r would ol the h o t e l w a s o n l y a m a i n point of focus: t h e pair was c o n c e r n e d
i n t e r p r e t as a physical body m o v i n g t h r o u g h space appears, from the primarily w i t h t h e h o t e l as a building presently appearing in a c e r t a i n w a y
1
standpoint ol the p h e n o m e n o n itself, as t h e approach of R e g u l a and as a future place to b e . G e n u i n e r e m e m b e r i n g r e q u i r e s an e x p r e s s
84 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

relation to the past. T h e only r e m e m b e r i n g t h e y did w a s the l o v e r ' s


r e m a r k , " D o y o u r e m e m b e r h o w , a y e a r a g o today, w e flew into Las
P a l m a s i n t h a t dazzling s u n l i g h t ? " F o r t h e i n s t a n t o f the q u e s t i o n , b o t h
people stopped to c o n t e m p l a t e an e v e n t of s o m e t i m e past w h i c h had
b e e n p r e s e r v e d in t h e lives.

If any of these existential descriptions of healthy human phenomena is


c o m p a r e d w i t h h y p o t h e s e s o f traditional p h y s i o l o g y o r p s y c h o l o g y a s Chapter 7
t h e y are applied t o the s a m e e v e n t , the e x i s t e n t i a l description can b e seen
at o n c e to be c l o s e r to reality. O u r e x i s t e n t i a l point of v i e w allows us to
dispense w i t h d e d u c t i o n s t h a t a r e alien to the actual a p p e a r a n c e of o u r FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
o b j e c t s o f study, w i t h a b s t r a c t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t depart f r o m
HUMAN BEINGS
w h a t can actually b e s e e n , and w i t h t h e u s e o f psychic e n t i t i e s w h i c h ,
t h o u g h t h e y c a n n o t b e d e m o n s t r a t e d , supposedly take place b e h i n d the
p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s . T h e m e a n i n g s and c o n t e x t s o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t
belong to and c o m p r i s e t h e p h e n o m e n a are simply allowed to reveal
themselves.
O f c o u r s e , w e m a y n o t o v e r l o o k t h a t t h e r e can b e n o appearing o r
revealing of a n y p h e n o m e n a t h a t is n o t already in a d v a n c e b o r n by a
specific insight into t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r m o d e o f being. W i t h o u t the
illumination o f such i n s i g h t i n t o t h e basic n a t u r e o f t h e appearing
p h e n o m e n a n o m a t t e r h o w u n d e t e r m i n e d and u n r e f l e c t e d this insight Preliminary remarks
m a y b e n o h u m a n b e i n g would e v e r see a n y t h i n g , n o t t o speak o f his S i n c e h u m a n beings c a n n o t q u a l i t a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e o r u n d e r s t a n d
e v e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g it as a thing of this or t h a t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . e x c e p t i n light o f s o m e p r i o r i n s i g h t s into the m e a n i n g and n a t u r e o f each
F o r this r e a s o n , t h e following q u e s t i o n n o w i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e s : w h a t thing t h e y p e r c e i v e , w e should n o w direct o u r a t t e n t i o n t o explicating
s o r t o f basic i n s i g h t s m a d e possible the a b o v e , simple, a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e the f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h u m a n being, using e x a m p l e s o f
D a - s e i n description of a few h e a l t h y p h e n o m e n a of o u r test c a s e ' s h e a l t h y p h e n o m e n a from R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s life t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e s e traits.
e x i s t i n g ? I n o t h e r w o r d s , w e have t o c o n s i d e r t h e m a t i c a l l y t h o s e basic T h e m o r e strictly o u r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t r a i t s o f h e a l t h y e x i s t e n c e
f e a t u r e s o f h e a l t h y h u m a n e x i s t i n g m o s t significant for m e d i c i n e and a d h e r e s t o t h e i r h u m a n c h a r a c t e r , the m o r e solid this e x i s t e n t i a l
w h i c h we h a v e up to n o w illustrated only in t h e description of a few f o u n d a t i o n for m e d i c i n e will b e . O u r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t r a i t s , t h e n ,
e x a m p l e s o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r , and t o e x p l i c a t e t h e m t o the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g will be a n y t h i n g but a philosophical diversion. It is a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h u m a n being as a w h o l e . e v e r y t h i n g a b o u t t h e actual m o d e o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e t h a t h a s s o far
been o v e r l o o k e d by, o r b e e n i n a c c e s s i b l e to, the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s .
L e t us begin by asking in w h a t w a y , and as w h a t , m a n m a n i f e s t s
h i m s e l f . T h e a n s w e r c l o s e s t t o hand h a s long b e e n t h a t m a n ' s e x i s t e n c e i s
such t h a t he is p r e s e n t in a w o r l d , and t h a t m a n ' s p r e s e n c e in this w o r l d is
such t h a t as long as he is h e r e , he is to be found, at any g i v e n t i m e , at s o m e
particular point i n space. T h u s w e are led t o t h e i n f e r e n c e t h a t h u m a n
beings a r e , along w i t h e v e r y t h i n g else that is, s o m e h o w in space and in
time.
T h e first task of m e d i c i n e as a strictly rational s c i e n c e of m a n is to
define precisely p r e s c i e n t i f i c n o t i o n s of " s o m e w h e r e in s p a c e " and
Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 87
86 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

B u t let u s a s s u m e t h a t m y t r a n s f o r m e d friend h a s b e e n equipped with


" s o m e h o w in t i m e , " w h i c h h a v e b e e n used familiarly for a g e s . If it would
roller s k a t e s and an i n t e r n a l m o t o r t h a t can i n i t i a t e m o t i o n in any
g e t past t h e v a g u e n e s s o f " s o m e w h e r e " and " s o m e h o w , " medicine m u s t
d i r e c t i o n . It is the least of o u r c o n c e r n s t h a t such an a p p a r a t u s would
leave b e h i n d t h e p r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y and m a k e a n e w
probably leave the print of its skull on the s i g n p o s t in a m a t t e r ol
b e g i n n i n g in looking at t h e spatial and t e m p o r a l p r e s e n c e of h u m a n
m o m e n t s . S u c h a m i s h a p could be forestalled by installing a p h o t o s e n s i
beings.
tive s e l e n i u m cell w i t h a closed circuit or feedback m e c h a n i s m . T h i s r o b o t
could also be fitted out w i t h a v a r i e t y of c o m p u t e r s , h o o k e d up in t u r n to
The spatiality of existence
other computers attached to objects in the surroundings. Now, certain
We are all familiar w i t h t h e idea t h a t e v e r y t h i n g in t h e w o r l d is p r e s e n t
s e q u e n c e s o f electrical i m p u l s e s fed i n t o and s t o r e d b y t h e r o b o t ' s
in space, t h a t a g i v e n t h i n g is to be f o u n d at a n y g i v e n t i m e at s o m e
c o m p u t e r s m i g h t impel the r o b o t t o c h a n g e s o f location w h i c h f r o m a
specific point w i t h i n a p r e e x i s t i n g h o l l o w c o s m i c c o n t a i n e r and t h a t it
purely g e o m e t r i c p e r s p e c t i v e w o u l d c o n f o r m e x a c t l y t o t h e shopping
would o c c u p y a part of t h a t space c o r r e s p o n d i n g to its m e a s u r a b l e
e x p e d i t i o n my friend would h a v e m a d e if he had r e m a i n e d an e x i s t i n g
d i m e n s i o n s and calculable v o l u m e . A n d we can i m a g i n e i n t e r v a l s in
h u m a n being, possibly w i t h the s a m e effects. T h e r o b o t w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y
space, gap-like d i s t a n c e s , e x t e n d i n g b e t w e e n individual o b j e c t s . S i n c e
e v e n h a v e b e e n able to c a r r y a s p o r t s s h i r t from t h e s t o r e to my friend's
h u m a n b e i n g s b e l o n g a m o n g all t h e o t h e r t h i n g s i n t h e world, t h e i r
home.
p r e s e n c e in space, t o o , is g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d in this way.
N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p h e n o m e n a o f t h e r o b o t and t h e shopping
T h i s c o n c e p t i o n of space provided a felicitous point of d e p a r t u r e for
e x p e d i t i o n o f a n e x i s t i n g h u m a n being r e m a i n for m a n y r e a s o n s
the g e o m e t r i c a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n q u e s t o f space b y m o d e r n n a t u r a l
i n c o m p a r a b l e . First, like e f f e c t s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y imply like m e a n s of
s c i e n c e , w h i c h w a s originally c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s as it
producing o r r e l e a s i n g t h e s e e f f e c t s . N e x t , n o r o b o t could p e r f o r m i n
s o u g h t to establish a reliable basis for calculating and fixing spatial
w a y s like this w i t h o u t a p r o g r a m supplied by a h u m a n being w h o , as a
r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g t h e m . It achieved this by totally e m p t y i n g t h e
h u m a n being, would h a v e already a p p r e h e n d e d the s p o r t i n g - g o o d s s t o r e
r e g i o n s and places o f space, t h a t w e r e p r e v i o u s l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e
as a s p o r t i n g - g o o d s s t o r e . C o m p u t e r s are n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n p r o d u c t s of
significations o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t o c c u p e d t h e m . S c i e n c e t h u s r e a c h e d its
h u m a n b e i n g s w h o can u n d e r s t a n d the c o n t e x t s o f m e a n i n g and
c o n c e p t i o n o f u n i f o r m p o i n t s i n space. T h r o u g h t h e r e d u c t i o n o f space t o
r e f e r e n c e o f p h e n o m e n a t h a t appear t o t h e m .
the i n t e r v a l s b e t w e e n t h e s e points, i t c r e a t e d t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f m e r e
B u t a b o v e all, t h e world of d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a r o b o t ' s c h a n g e s of
m e a s u r a b l e , h o m o g e n e o u s d i s t a n c e s , g o m e t r i c d i m e n s i o n s and m a t h e m
location and t h e a c t i o n s of an e x i s t i n g h u m a n being is due to t h e fact t h a t
atical spatial f u n c t i o n s . T h i s g e o m e t r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f space,
t h e s e t w o are spatial in f u n d a m e n t a l l y different w a y s . A c o m p u t e r ,
admirably suited t o t h e m a s t e r y o f i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s , w a s t r a n s f e r r e d
w h a t e v e r its capabilities, is an i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t . It is p r e s e n t o n l y at s o m e
w i t h o u t t h o u g h t t o t h e spatiality o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . T h e r e are s t r o n g
specific point in a space t h a t is p r e c o n c e i v e d as a h o l l o w c o n t a i n e r , and it
a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t this s o r t o f spatiality i n h u m a n b e i n g s , h o w e v e r , and
occupies o n l y a part of space t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s to its m a t e r i a l v o l u m e and
s o w e m u s t e x a m i n e a n e w the special n a t u r e o f m a n ' s spatial p r e s e n c e i n
t h e r a n g e of its electrical fields. It ends at t h e s e physical and electrical
t h e world.
b o r d e r s , f r o m w h i c h the d i s t a n c e t o o t h e r o b j e c t s m a y b e m e a s u r e d w i t h
Let us take a simple e x a m p l e . I am going on a w a l k w i t h my friend to a
precision, as w i t h a r u l e r .
s p o r t i n g - g o o d s s t o r e b o t h o f u s k n o w well. W e w a l k along t h e m a i n
T h e e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n for a h u m a n being's shopping e x p e d i t i o n is
s t r e e t of o u r t o w n , w h e r e t h e s t o r e we w a n t is l o c a t e d . I can see my fftrend
t h a t he d o e s n o t exist spatially as does a r o b o t , w h i c h e x t e n d s to t h e limits
ahead of me on the sidewalk. In front of h i m is a s i g n p o s t of park r u l e s ,
of its m a t e r i a l body or e n e r g e t i c fields. All non-living b e i n g s , from
and o n e yard b e y o n d t h a t is a thick black l a m p p o s t . We w a n t to k n o w
parking s i g n s to c o m p u t e r s , a r e spatial o n l y in this l a t t e r s e n s e . No
w h a t would b e c o m e of my friend's shopping e x p e d i t i o n if, at this v e r y
m a t t e r t h e n , h o w g e o m e t r i c a l l y " c l o s e " I am to t h e m , I am n e v e r
m o m e n t , his r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h space w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d into o n e like t h a t
"there""da"for them. In other words, not the most modern computer
o f the i n a n i m a t e s i g n p o s t o r lamppost.
has a w o r l d , i n t o w h o s e o p e n n e s s o t h e r b e i n g s can appear, reveal
First, t h e r e would no l o n g e r be any friend w a l k i n g beside m e . He would
t h e m s e l v e s , and b e r e c e i v e d . N o m a t t e r h o w m a n y o r h o w i n t e n s e the
have stopped e x i s t i n g as a h u m a n being. S e c o n d , such a being would be
impulses r e a c h i n g t h e e n e r g e t i c fields of a c o m p u t e r , it is n e v e r so open
m i apable o l taking even o n e m o r e h u m a n step t o w a r d the s p o r t i n g o o d s
stoi e
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 89
88

t h a t it can p e r c e i v e t h e i m p u l s e s as such, g r a s p their significance and As in o u r e x a m p l e , t h e spatiality of t h e h u m a n world is open,


r e s p o n d appropriately to w h a t is u n d e r s t o o d of t h e m . W h a t e v e r is in u n o b s t r u c t e d and clear t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t p h e n o m e n a m a y address u s
space as n o n - l i v i n g m a t t e r is, p e r c e i v e s n o t h i n g of its own p r e s e n c e in t h r o u g h i t w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g s and c o n t e x t s o f r e f e r e n c e . B u t i f this
" s p a c e , " n o r o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r b e i n g s , n o r o f t h e significance and o p e n n e s s , this clearing is t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r of spatiality in the
r e f e r e n t i a l c o n t e x t t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the specific c h a r a c t e r o f w h a t i s h u m a n world, t h e n logically this spatiality c a n n o t b e t h e o p e n n e s s and
p r e s e n t . It is n o t even so t h a t non-living b e i n g s , in c o n t r a s t to h u m a n c l e a r n e s s t h e m s e l v e s . A s a n o a k o r birch, t h o u g h its e s s e n c e i s " t r e e -
b e i n g s , are simply closed t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r o w n p r e s e n c e and the n e s s , " i s n o t itself this " t r e e - n e s s , " o p e n n e s s and c l e a r n e s s c a n n o t b e
p r e s e n c e s of o t h e r b e i n g s . S u c h c l o s e d n e s s o c c u r s only as a privative s e c o n d a r y d e r i v a t i v e s o f h u m a n spatiality. R a t h e r , n o t h i n g like h u m a n
p h e n o m e n o n of o p e n n e s s . T h e p r e s e n c e of a parking sign " n e a r " a l a m p spatiality could e v e r c o m e i n t o being in a p a r t i c u l a r w o r l d u n l e s s
m e a n s only t h a t t h e t w o points in space occupied by t h e s e b e i n g s a r e o p e n n e s s and c l e a r n e s s w e r e already r e i g n i n g t h e r e . T h e s e c o n s t i t u t e
s e p a r a t e d by a given s h o r t i n t e r v a l . T h e i r spatial r e l a t i o n s h i p is the s h o r t the t r u e n a t u r e o f spatiality i n the h u m a n world.
distance b e t w e e n t h e m , w h i c h can be m e a s u r e d by a h u m a n being and B u t h o w is the e x i s t i n g h u m a n being related, for his part, to the
u n d e r s t o o d by h i m as a s h o r t d i s t a n c e . spatiality o f his w o r l d ? W h a t e v e r c o n f r o n t s man t h r o u g h t h e o p e n n e s s
M y space and t h a t o f m y friend, a s t h e spatiality o f e x i s t i n g h u m a n and c l e a r n e s s of space will i n e v i t a b l y address him in its s i g n i f i c a n c e ,
b e i n g s , is of a f u n d a m e n t a l l y different kind. T h e space b e t w e e n us and o w i n g to t h e fact t h a t h u m a n e x i s t e n c e is i t s e l f spatial. It is spatial in t h e
t h e parking sign is t h e o p e n n e s s , t h a t w h i c h a l l o w s p a s s a g e t h r o u g h das s e n s e t h a t t h e basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of its e x i s t e n c e is o p e n n e s s and
"Durchlssige"), b e t w e e n us and it. As such an o p e n n e s s , it is free and clear. receptivity. H u m a n p r e s e n c e is in no w a y c o n f i n e d to t h e p o i n t in space at
O t h e r w i s e , t h e sign could n e v e r appear as a sign to us t h r o u g h space. w h i c h t h e h u m a n b o d y (as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d physical o b j e c t ) is to be found.
O n e could build a wall b e t w e e n us and t h e sign, and this space would t h e n If, on my walk to t h e s p o r t i n g - g o o d s s t o r e , I am to p e r c e i v e t h e s i g n p o s t
n o l o n g e r b e o p e n for o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e sign. B u t t h e n n o h u m a n o f park r u l e s , t h e l a m p p o s t , o t h e r p e d e s t r i a n s , t h e c u r b o n m y left and the
could have raised t h e wall if t h e space w e r e n o t c o m p r e h e n s i b l e to h i m as buildings o n m y r i g h t a s w h a t t h e y are, each a t t h e p r o p e r i n s t a n t , t h e n
open, clear and a c c e s s i b l e for t h e e r e c t i o n of a wall. my spatial p r e s e n c e m u s t be of a kind e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t of
inanimate objects.
I n the G e r m a n l a n g u a g e , the s u b s t a n t i v e " s p a c e " R a u m (closely
related to t h e English " r o o m " ) i s derived from t h e v e r b rumen. Rumen W h a t m a d e my b e h a v i o r human w a s t h a t I w a s p r e s e n t n o t o n l y as my
means to clear, make room for, perhaps in order to installeinrumensomething in w a l k i n g , physical body, but at the s a m e time as already being w i t h w h a t I
the cleared space, to give it a worldly dwelling place in the cleared set m y c o u r s e by. W e r e this n o t so, e v e n the m o s t m i n i m a l , ill-defined and
aufgerumtenopenness. It is n o t o n l y possible to i n s t a l l e i n r u m e n a fleeting p e r c e p t i o n would n o t h a v e b e e n possible, m u c h less the
piece of f u r n i t u r e in a cleared aufgerumtenroom. O n e can be in an possibility of s t e e r i n g m y s e l f t o w a r d s o m e t h i n g . N o w , c o n c e i v e d of as a
expansiveaugerumtenmood. O n e is then attuned to openness, physical body, I c a n n o t be w a l k i n g h e r e and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t h e r e in the
f r e e d o m , s e r e n i t y , and r e a d i n e s s for t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f o t h e r b e i n g s . O n e s t o r e ; n o physical o b j e c t can o c c u p y t w o p o s i t i o n s i n s p a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s
i s able t o m a k e r o o m R a u m g e b e n f o r t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s , t o allow ly. B u t as an e x i s t i n g h u m a n being, as the o p e n i n g and s p a n n i n g of a
that another may be right"ihm einrumen, etwas zu Recht zu realm by my ability to p e r c e i v e , I am b o t h h e r e and t h e r e . I can p e r c e i v e
b e h a u p t e n . " R u m e n h a s primarily t h e m e a n i n g o f clearinglichten. T h i s only w h a t I h a v e already r e a c h e d or arrived at; h o w else could I e v e r h a v e
lichten is f u n d a m e n t a l l y different from the m e r e illuminating of a a n y s e n s e t h a t a n y t h i n g in t h e w o r l d even e x i s t s and t h a t it is w h e r e it is?
p r e v i o u s l y dark r o o m w i t h physical lightLicht, R a t h e r , lichten as rumen, H o w could I desire or a p p r o a c h a n y t h i n g in t h e r e a l m of my w o r l d if I had
i.e., a s clearing, m a k i n g r o o m for, c o r r e s p o n d s m o r e closely t o w h a t not a l r e a d y grasped it p e r c e p t i v e l y and t h e r e b y already b e e n w i t h it?
h a p p e n s t o b o o k s h e l v e s w h e n s o m e o n e h a s b e e n c a r e l e s s i n lending his A h u m a n b e i n g can c o n d u c t h i m s e l f this w a y t o w a r d t h e o p e n n e s s t h e
b o o k s . It is also idiomatic in G e r m a n to speak of h a i r "clearing itself"sich c l e a r n e s s of his world's spatiality b e c a u s e his being, t o o , is f u n d a m e n t a l l y
lichtenfalling o u t to m a k e " r o o m " for b a l d n e s s . S i m i l a r l y , a " c l e a r i n g " o p e n n e s s in t h e s e n s e of a c a p a c i t y to perceive s o m e t h i n g as s o m e t h i n g .
L i c h t u n g i s o p e n e d up in the forest w h e n all of t h e t r e e s w i t h i n a c e r t a i n 1 l u m a n e x i s t e n c e does n o t possess this o p e n n e s s in t h e form of o n e of a
area have b e e n felled and cleared a w a y . n u m b e r of d i s c r e t e p r o p e r t i e s . R a t h e r , it is n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n b e i n g open
Yel I he spatial quality of the h u m a n w o r l d is in no w a y c o m p a r a b l e to for perceiving and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t h i n g s it e n c o u n t e r s for w h a t t h e y
are, and n o t for a n y t h i n g else.
the g e o m e t ric space in w h i c h i n a n i m a t e , " w o r l d - l e s s " o b j e c t s are p r e s e n t .
90 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 9I

In t h e f o r m of p e r c e p t i v e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h all it e n c o u n t e r s , each p e r s o n h e is, n o t s o m e b a c k l e s s , m u t i l a t e d h u m a n s h a p e . Evidently, then,


h u m a n e x i s t e n c e spans t h e open spatiality o f its o w n world, s u s t a i n i n g i t the e x p r e s s i o n " v i s i o n " is a m b i g u o u s . In o n e i n s t a n c e , " v i s i o n " refers
and m a i n t a i n i n g its e c - s t a t i c f r e e d o m . If this w e r e n o t so, n o t h i n g could solely to w h a t o c c u r s to t h e optical field; in t h e o t h e r , " v i s i o n " m e a n s
e n t e r t h e field of vision of a h u m a n e x i s t e n c e in its actual significance and perceiving a being as t h e w h o l e w h i c h it is.
shine f o r t h . H u m a n e x i s t e n c e i s c o n t i n u a l l y o p e n t o t h e claim o f each T h i s p r o c e s s o f " c o m p l e t i o n , " w h e r e b y a purely optical s i g h t b e c o m e s
thing it e n c o u n t e r s , is i n h e r e n t l y o p e n to c o m p r e h e n d i n g t h e possiblity an i n t e g r a l l y perceived p h e n o m e n o n , is a p r i m a r y c o n c e r n of m o d e r n
o f t h e i r b e i n g s o m e t h i n g r a t h e r t h a n n o t h i n g a t all. p h y s i o l o g i s t s o f s e n s a t i o n . B u t w h e n e v e n t h e optical p e r c e p t i o n c a n n o t
A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , no less i m p o r t a n t , is t h a t to e x i s t as a h u m a n be fully explained on t h e basis of physiological brain p r o c e s s e s ,
being is to be r e c e p t i v e l y o p e n n o t m e r e l y in a passive or u n s p e a k i n g w a y . physiological h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t t h e s u b s e q u e n t " c o m p l e t i o n " a r e d o o m e d
H u m a n e x i s t e n c e i s n o t m e r e l y a n open space i n t o w h i c h o t h e r t h i n g s can to failure.
be i n s e r t e d , as f u r n i t u r e is put i n t o an e m p t y r o o m . It is n o t m e r e l y T h e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r o f h u m a n e x i s t i n g , its perceiving
r e c e p t i v e to t h e e x t e n t t h a t it passively r e c e i v e s and r e c o r d s t h e p r e s e n c e o p e n n e s s , holds o u t possibilities of m a n y o t h e r kinds of vision. As a "being
and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f w h a t e v e r a d d r e s s e s it. H u m a n e x i s t e n c e i s with this t h i n g or t h a t , " h u m a n vision ordinarily m e a n s s e e i n g s o m e t h i n g
r e s p o n s i v e , able t o r e l a t e i t s e l f t o t h i n g s , a n s w e r t h e m i n p a r t i c u l a r w a y s . w h i c h is physically p r e s e n t and t h u s s e n s e - p e r c e p t i b l e . Y e t all of us
A n y o n e w h o insists t h a t all t h i n g s b e r e g a r d e d a s i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s e n g a g e in a kind of " v i s i o n " of s o m e t h i n g t h a t is n o t physically p r e s e n t
e x i s t i n g in and of t h e m s e l v e s at s o m e specific location in space, w h o w h e n e v e r w e p i c t u r e s o m e physical p r e s e n c e w e h a v e perceived b e f o r e .
would i n t e r p r e t e v e n h u m a n b e i n g s a s psychic a p p a r a t u s e s a n a l o g o u s t o We can e v e n visualize s o m e t h i n g w h i c h is n o t available to t h e s e n s e s at all
the c a m e r a or t h e t e l e s c o p e , will n a t u r a l l y r e m a i n blind to t h e peculiar b e c a u s e it does n o t actually e x i s t . We can, for i n s t a n c e , visualize a golden
n a t u r e o f h u m a n r e c e p t i v e o p e n n e s s t o t h e significance o f w h a t i t mountain.
e n c o u n t e r s . Y e t this r e c e p t i v i t y i s t h e o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n for m a n ' s ability N o w , t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y would c h a r a c t e r i z e the visuali
t o b e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y h e r e and t h e r e w i t h w h a t e v e r h e p e r c e i v e s . H u m a n zation of s o m e t h i n g n o t physically p r e s e n t , like a d i s t a n t vacation
beings are, as an open, clear r e a l m of p e r c e p t i o n , so e s s e n t i a l l y spatial t h a t c o t t a g e , b y saying t h a t t h e p e r s o n involved has " a c t u a l l y " r e m a i n e d , " o f
t h e y dwell from t h e b e g i n n i n g with w h a t e v e r is a c c e s s i b l e to p e r c e p t i o n , c o u r s e , " in t h e r o o m in w h i c h he h a s b e e n physically sitting. At m o s t , he
and in a w a y suited to t h e m e a n i n g t h e y p e r c e i v e . is at t h e c o t t a g e "in t h o u g h t . " No o n e is claiming t h a t this p e r s o n
D i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s can be m e a s u r e d w i t h a s t a n d a r d , physically t r a n s p o r t e d h i m s e l f , during his visualization, to s o m e far o f f
but an i n h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r e applies to d i s t a n c e s in the h u m a n thing, or t h a t he u l t i m a t e l y s t o o d n e x t to it as a taxi t h a t pulls up to a h o t e l
world. In people, c l o s e n e s s and d i s t a n c e c o n c e r n if and h o w w h a t we s t a n d s n e x t t o t h e h o t e l . B u t t h e v e r y fact t h a t w e can visualize
e n c o u n t e r m a t t e r s to us. A friend w h o m a y be t h o u s a n d s of miles apart s o m e t h i n g d i s t a n t s h o w s t h a t w e a r e capable o f having s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s
from m e , is i n c o m p a r a b l y c l o s e r to me t h a n t h e c o n c r e t e I am w a l k i n g on not optically p e r c e p t i b l e b e f o r e o u r e y e s , and t h a t we can easily be
right n o w , t h o u g h t h e r e is no physically m e a s u r a b l e d i s t a n c e at all s o m e w h e r e besides w h e r e w e a r e physically.
s e p a r a t i n g it from t h e soles of my s h o e s . W h e n it p i c t u r e s s o m e d i s t a n t t h i n g , h u m a n e x i s t e n c e as a r e a l m of
If m a n did n o t e x i s t as a w o r l d - s p a n n i n g r e c e p t i v e r e a l m of p e r c e p t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n is w i t h w h a t it visualizes and with t h e physically perceptible
if he w e r e n o t e n g a g e d in this capacity, n o t h i n g at all could e x i s t . " B e i n g , " o b j e c t s o f its i m m e d i a t e s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h i s m e a n s , w i t h r e g a r d t o o u r
i n its traditional u s a g e , m e a n s " p r e s e n c e " and " p e r s i s t e n c e . " T o a c h i e v e e x a m p l e , t h a t a p e r s o n ' s " b e i n g h e r e " as t h e open realm of p e r c e p t i o n he
p r e s e n c e , and t h e r e b y being, a n e n t i t y r e q u i r e s s o m e s o r t o f o p e n r e a l m is also e n t a i l s "being t h e r e " at t h e visualized c o t t a g e in t h e distant
i n w h i c h p r e s e n c e and p e r s i s t e n c e can take place. T h u s a n o p e n r e a l m o f m o u n t a i n s , likewise as an o p e n r e a l m of p e r c e p t i o n .
p e r c e p t i o n like t h a t of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e is the o n e being t h a t m a k e s being It is n o t sufficient to say t h a t we can be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y h e r e w i t h the
possible. physical, s e n s e - p e r c e p t i b l e o b j e c t s of o u r place in the city and at the
T h i n g s can appear in this open r e a l m of p e r c e p t i o n in a wide r a n g e of visualized c o t t a g e i n t h e m o u n t a i n s . W e a r e n o t dealing h e r e with t w o
locations and p e r s p e c t i v e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , an a p p r o a c h i n g p e r s o n is s e e n m o d e s o f being w h i c h are b o t h t a k i n g place a t t h e s a m e t i m e . R a t h e r , the
from t h e f r o n t . To the strictly optical field of vision, t h e back of him is not r e c e p t i v e " b e i n g h e r e " of e x i s t e n c e , t h e physical p r e s e n c e in the city, is
actually p r e s e n t at all. N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e figure is perceived as the w h o l e also, by its very nature, and in its ability to visualize, t h e r e c e p t i v e "being
92 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 93

t h e r e " a t t h e c o t t a g e . T h e " b e i n g h e r e " i n t h e city place i s n o t l e s s e n e d but t h e visualizer h i m s e l f to be p r e s e n t at w h a t is visualized. It is a special


m e r e l y modified in such a w a y t h a t during t h e visualization of t h e c o t t a g e mode of being-at-something.
a t t e n t i o n is no long f o c u s s e d primarily on t h e o b j e c t s in t h e i m m e d i a t e W h i l e h u m a n e x i s t e n c e is able to retain and visualize w h a t it has
surroundings. e n c o u n t e r e d in the past and to p e r c e i v e w i t h t h e s e n s e s w h a t is p r e s e n t at
T h e i m p o r t a n t fact of this p h e n o m e n o n r e m a i n s t h a t in visualizing a a g i v e n m o m e n t , it is also directed and r e l a t e d to w h a t stirs its a w a r e n e s s
spatially d i s t a n t physically n o n p r e s e n t o b j e c t , a h u m a n being, e x i s t i n g as from t h e direction o f t h e f u t u r e . T h i s r e l a t e d n e s s t o t h e f u t u r e o p e n s o u t
an open r e a l m of p e r c e p t i o n , is with t h a t t h i n g , actually at the place w h e r e to h u m a n e x i s t e n c e a third primal m o d e of being, t h e a w a i t e d or
t h e thing i s p r e s e n t . W e m u s t e m p h a s i z e t h a t w e a r e not dealing h e r e w i t h expected.
a p r o c e s s in w h i c h s o m e s o r t of e n d o p s y c h i c i m a g e of the visualized In speaking of the spatiality of e x i s t e n c e as a m e r g i n g i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p
c o t t a g e c o m e s to v i e w first, o n l y to be p r o j e c t e d o u t w a r d as a s e c o n d step w i t h w h a t has b e e n , w h a t n o w is, and w h a t i s e x p e c t e d t o be, w e have
from t h e locus of a s u b j e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . If, in v i e w of the open r e a l m already c o m e upon t h e i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e m p o r a l i t y t o spatiality.
of p e r c e p t i o n i n h e r e n t to h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , t h e r e w e r e a n y s e n s e at all in Past, p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e are t e r m s indicating s o m e t h i n g t e m p o r a l .
d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n a n i n t e r n a l and a n e x t e r n a l w o r l d , w e would still
h a v e t o c o n c e d e t h a t o n t h e basis o f this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e c e p t i v i t y h u m a n The temporality of existence
e x i s t e n c e is, f r o m t h e v e r y first, o u t s i d e , i n t h e i m m e d i a t e p r e s e n c e o f T i m e , like space, is in s o m e w a y familiar to us from o u r v e r y
w h a t it e n c o u n t e r s . b e g i n n i n g s . H u m a n b e i n g s a r e i n s o m e sort o f p e r m a n e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o
A s w e h a v e said, t r a d i t i o n a l psychological t h e o r y claims the opposite, t i m e , a l t h o u g h t h e y seldom pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n e i t h e r t o t i m e itself
t h a t a p e r s o n can be at a far a w a y v a c a t i o n c o t t a g e o n l y in t h o u g h t and or to this r e l a t i o n s h i p .
t h a t he h a s really s t a y e d in his city r e s i d e n c e all t h e t i m e . In stating t h a t it N o w a d a y s , w a t c h e s are o u r m o s t c o m m o n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t i m e . B u t
is possible to be s o m e w h e r e in t h o u g h t , traditional p s y c h o l o g y c o n c e d e s can time actually be read from a w a t c h ? Is time in t h e w a t c h , o r i s it in u s ?
t h a t in s o m e w a y at l e a s t i n t h o u g h t a p e r s o n can be w i t h a visualized P e r h a p s b o t h we and the w a t c h a r e in t i m e ? W h a t h a p p e n s to t i m e if t h e
o b j e c t . O n c e this c o n c e s s i o n h a s b e e n m a d e , t h e r e i s n o t u r n i n g back. w a t c h s t o p s ? T i m e does n o t simply disappear. I t m a y b e o b j e c t e d t h a t this
W h e n we visualize s o m e t h i n g , we e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e t h i n g q u e s t i o n "'Where' is t i m e ? " is spatial, and t h a t if we really h o p e to track
itself, n o t t o s o m e m e r e s u b j e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t inside us. T h u s , d o w n t i m e w e have t o ask i n s t e a d , ' W h e n ? " B u t " W h e n i s t i m e ? " i s asking
w h a t s e n s e can t h e r e b e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g o u r visualized p r e s e n c e a t the a b o u t a t i m e e n c l o s e d in s o m e o t h e r t i m e . It is no m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e to ask
v a c a t i o n c o t t a g e a s " b e i n g t h e r e only i n t h o u g h t " ? W h a t can "in t h o u g h t " w h e n time i s t h a n t o ask w h e r e space is. T h e first s t e p o u t o f this
m e a n ? A c c o r d i n g t o the m a i n s t r e a m o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , w e o n l y c o n f u s i o n is to see t h a t g l a n c i n g at a w a t c h does n o t let us see i n t o t h e
think we a r e at the visualized c o t t a g e . B u t does a simple visualization n a t u r e of t i m e . A w a t c h can o n l y tell us how much t i m e it is, how much t i m e
require the thought: Here I am at the cottage? Certainly not. Psychology has passed, or how much t i m e m u s t still pass b e f o r e s o m e t h i n g will o c c u r .
w o r k e d o u t its n o t i o n a f t e r t h e fact; i n t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f visualization T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s are related n o t t o time i t s e l f b u t o n l y t o its
i t s e l f t h e r e is n o t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g t h o u g h t , and t h e r e is no e v i d e n c e in m e a s u r e m e n t o r calculation. N o w , o n l y s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s already t h e r e
a c t u a l findings to s u p p o r t a n y claim t h a t t h e r e is. can b e m e a s u r e d and calculated. E v e r y m e a s u r e m e n t o f t i m e c o n f i r m s
t h a t we h a v e already t i m e as a g i v e n , h o w e v e r foggy or illdefined this
If to visualize t h e d i s t a n t c o t t a g e m e a n t o n l y to think t h a t we w e r e
perception may be.
s t a n d i n g n e x t to it, w h a t we would be visualizing would be n o t the
c o t t a g e but t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n visualizing the c o t t a g e . T h i s i s n o t I n a n y e v e n t , s o m e t h i n g besides m e a s u r e m e n t o c c u r s w h e n e v e r w e
w h a t w e i n t r o d u c e d i n o u r e x a m p l e and h a s b e c o m e , m o r e o v e r , a m e r e read t i m e f r o m a w a t c h . I could n e v e r e v e n read t h e w a t c h w i t h o u t
illusion in w h i c h we fancy we are at t h e c o t t a g e . T h i s is v e r y different t h i n k i n g : "Now it is such and such a t i m e . " T h e v e r y fact t h a t his " n o w " is
f r o m visualizing the c o t t a g e itself. I n s t e a d of k e e p i n g o u r vision free and usually u n a r t i c u l a t e d s h o w s t h a t it is t a k e n for g r a n t e d . B u t " n o w " is n o t
open we h a v e i n a d v e r t e n t l y supposed t h a t a p e r s o n is actually physically limited to t h e t i m e s we c o n s u l t o u t w a t c h e s . Is it a l w a y s " n o w " ? Is e v e r y
p r e s e n t at a d i s t a n t c o t t a g e . B u t if we a t t e n d e x c l u s i v e l y to w h a t is in the " n o w " a d i f f e r e n t n o w ? In w h a t w a y ? T h e difference is simply in t h a t o n e
visualization itself, we find n o t h i n g to indicate t h a t it is in t h o u g h t o n l y . " n o w " is earlier or later than another.
T h e peculiarity of visualization c o n s i s t s in t h e v e r y fact that it p e r m i t s But w e d o n o t address o u r s e l v e s t o time o n l y w h e n w e t h i n k o f this
" n o w . " W h e n e v e r I say, "It w a s jwsf such and such a t i m e , " I am addressing
94 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings

t h e past. W h e n I say, " W a i t a few m i n u t e s until then," 1 am r e f e r r i n g to a e v e n i n g for t h e t h e a t e r and t h a t h e h a s s p e n t t h e w i n t e r w o r k i n g o n the


time t h a t h a s n o t yet arrived, the f u t u r e . B u t t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s plans f o r his h o u s e . T h i s e x t e n s i o n of t i m e o v e r a w h o l e e v e n i n g or an
d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e n u m e r a l s o n the w a t c h are n o t t h e only w o r d s w e have e n t i r e w i n t e r m a n i f e s t s its third f e a t u r e : expansiveness.
for addressing p r e s e n t , past, and f u t u r e . T h e s a m e holds t r u e w h e n I say Finally, n o indication o f t i m e i s m e a n t for m e a l o n e . F o r i n s t a n c e , w h e n
" t o d a y , " " y e s t e r d a y , " and " t o m o r r o w , " w h i c h e x p r e s s a r e l a t i o n s h i p to I tell my wife t h a t I h a v e w r i t t e n e n o u g h for o n e day and am g o i n g to bed
time m o r e e l e m e n t a r y than the n u m e r i c a l " h o w m u c h " the w a t c h n o w , this " n o w " can be u n d e r s t o o d i m m e d i a t e l y , n o t o n l y by me but by
provides. T h e w a t c h can lead u s t o m o r e precise d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f s o m e b o t h m y wife and m e and a n y o n e else w h o h a p p e n s t o b e t h e r e t o h e a r , a s
y e s t e r d a y , today, o r t o m o r r o w , b u t w i t h o u t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e the w a t c h t h e i n t e n d e d m o m e n t . T h e r e i s n o n e e d t o e n t e r first i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
would be u s e l e s s . a b o u t t h e individual people involved. If e a c h p e r s o n e x p r e s s e d a p e r s o n a l
T i m e can be divided i n t o past, p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e , yet while space is " n o w , " a s u b s e q u e n t c o n f e r e n c e would be needed to a g r e e upon a single
usually t h o u g h t of as h a v i n g t h r e e s i m u l t a n e o u s d i m e n s i o n s , t i m e is identity for t h e s e " n o w s . " B u t no " n o w " is r o o t e d e n t i r e l y in o n e
given only o n e . Past, p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e are supposed to exist only in individual h u m a n being. T i m e ' s f o u r t h f e a t u r e , t h e n , is its public character.
s u c c e s s i o n . In this v i e w , time is p i c t u r e d as s o m e sort of line of " n o w - T h e four f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t i m e apply n o t o n l y t o " n o w "
p o i n t s . " T h e p r e e m i n e n c e o f " n o w " i s based solely upon t h e idea, but t o e v e r y " t h e n " and " w h e n " a s well, even w h e n t h e s e a r e e x a c t l y
a x i o m a t i c since t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g s o f W e s t e r n philosophy, t h a t being i s d e t e r m i n e d w i t h a w a t c h . T h e s e indications o f " n o w , " w h i c h appear t o b e
p r e s e n c e . C o r r e s p o n d i n g to this physical idea of p r e s e n c e is the n o t i o n of m e r e l y n u m e r i c and q u a n t i t a t i v e , actually h a v e a q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e , t o o .
p r e s e n t time: t h e o n l y t h i n g p r e s e n t a b o u t t i m e i s the n o w . T h u s w e see T h e y r e f e r to t i m e as significant, datable, e x p a n s i v e , and public. Even as it
h o w time could c o m e to be t h o u g h t of, m o r e and m o r e , as m e r e l y a is c o m m o n l y m e a s u r e d w i t h a w a t c h , t i m e is n e v e r m e a n t simply as a
s u c c e s s i o n of " n o w - p o i n t s . " A n y o n e w h o posits such a t i m e a n d all of q u a n t i t a t i v e r e c k o n i n g . W h e n a downhill race on skis is t i m e d on a stop
m o d e r n s c i e n c e doeswill find it s t r a n g e to h e a r time spoken as h a v i n g w a t c h i n h u n d r e d t h s o f s e c o n d s , t h e r e s u l t i n g t i m e still actually indicates
t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , particularly w h e n it is claimed t h a t t h e s e are t h a t o n e c o n t e s t a n t has b e e n f a s t e r t h a n a n o t h e r ; i t signifies elapsed t i m e
simultaneous, not successive. w i t h r e g a r d to an optimal p e r f o r m a n c e . L i k e w i s e , e v e r y d a y time as
All o u r m e a s u r i n g and p a r t i t i o n i n g o f t i m e reveals n e i t h e r the m e a s u r e d w i t h a w a t c h is a l w a y s so and so m u c h t i m e for s o m e t h i n g or
c h a r a c t e r o f o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t i m e n o r t h e n a t u r e o f t i m e itself. A s w e other.
have said, e v e r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h o w m u c h t i m e a s s u m e s t h a t w e In l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s all t h a t is m e a s u r e d is t h e d u r a t i o n of a
" h a v e " t i m e . B u t w h a t d o e s " h a v i n g t i m e " m e a n ? H e r e , and e v e n m o r e p r o c e d u r e . T h e application of n o w is c o n f i n e d to a specific location of
obviously in its c o n v e r s e , " n o t h a v i n g a n y t i m e , " t h e w o r d is being used s o m e m o v i n g o b j e c t at a g i v e n t i m e . U l t i m a t e l y , e v e n t h a t application
as time for s o m e t h i n g . In "I don't have t i m e , " t h e n e g a t i o n is n o t of t i m e disappears, and " n o w " c o m e s to be u n d e r s t o o d only in r e l a t i o n to itself as
but of h a v i n g time for a particular t h i n g . If I s a y I don't h a v e t i m e for "this i n s t a n t . " I n this w a y , t h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r p r e t s
skiing, I am really saying t h a t I plan to spend my t i m e doing s o m e t h i n g time h o m o g e n o u s l y as a s u c c e s s i o n of " n o w - p o i n t s " b u t o n l y while he
else. We a l w a y s c o n s t r u e time as t i m e nor s o m e t h i n g or o t h e r . T h o u g h it is c o n d u c t i n g e x p e r i m e n t s in his l a b o r a t o r y . If this n o t i o n of t i m e , w h i c h
m a y r e m a i n u n c l e a r w h a t a particular t i m e is for, this r e f e r r a l to an r e d u c e s its four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o a n e m p t y s u c c e s s i o n o f " n o w s " w e r e t o
activity or e v e n t for which a given t i m e is p r e s e n t is a p r i m a r y be t h e o n l y w a y he e x p e r i e n c e d t i m e in his life, he would no doubt go
c o n s t i t u e n t of t i m e . By indicating t h a t t i m e is a l w a y s time for s o m e t h i n g i n s a n e . Y e t , he would be u n a b l e to do even this. For to b e c o m e dis
we n a m e t h e first f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t i m e : significance. t r a c t e d , we m u s t first be in a position to be e x - t r a c t e d from o n e t h i n g and
T i m e i s n o t always m e r e l y " t i m e for s o m e t h i n g , " h o w e v e r . W h e n e v e r a t - t r a c t e d to a n o t h e r . Applied to t i m e , this m e a n s t h a t it would h a v e to be
we say s o m e t h i n g like, "now, as I w r i t e this c h a p t e r a b o u t t i m e , " or "hack possible for us to be e x t r a c t e d from the t i m e n o r m a l l y given to us and
then, w h e n I m i s i n t e r p r e t e d t i m e as a l i n e a r chain of ' n o w - p o i n t s , ' " or c a u g h t up in an e m p t y and u n i f o r m time s e q u e n c e in which the
"when I g e t this b o o k finished," we e x p r e s s a s e c o n d f u n d a m e n t a l e x p r e s s i o n " t i m e f o r " had n o m e a n i n g . N o h u m a n e x i s t e n c e could
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of time: dalability. c o n t i n u e , h o w e v e r , in s u c h a t i m e s e q u e n c e , and so no living p e r s o n could
But time n e v e r c o n s i s t s only in " p o i n t s . " T i m e c o n s i s t e n t l y s h o w s a e v e r be d i s t r a c t e d into it. By the s a m e r e a s o n i n g , time i n t e r p r e t e d as a
certain e x p a n s i v e n e s s . S o m e o n e m i g h t say t h a t he has r e s e r v e d the simple s u c c e s s i o n of " n o w - p o i n t s " could n e v e r c o n t r i b u t e to an
understanding of human phenomena
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 97
9t>

In spite of t h i s , m a n y physicists will p e r s i s t in claiming t h a t the o b j e c t i v e t i m e , w e hold t o t h e n o t i o n s o f C a r t e s i a n dualism, o f o b j e c t i v i t y


s u c c e s s i o n o f " n o w s " c o n s t i t u t e s real, a c t u a l t i m e . T h e i r u n s h a k a b l e and s u b j e c t i v i t y . B u t in r e s p e c t to t h e s e c o n c e p t s , t h e q u e s t i o n is o p e n
c o n f i d e n c e in this v i e w c o m e s from t h e fact t h a t t i m e a s physics w h e t h e r t h e y can b e a p p r o p r i a t e l y defined b e f o r e t h e n a t u r e o f t i m e has
m e a s u r e s itis a l w a y s s u b j e c t t o o b j e c t i v e , q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n f i r m a t i o n been adquately illuminated.
w h i c h i s t h e n o b j e c t i v e l y binding. O b j e c t i v e h e r e m e a n s " f o r e v e r y o n e , " W e h a v e already m e n t i o n e d o n e h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t i m e t h a t can b e
b u t " e v e r y o n e " includes o n l y people w h o h a v e a c c e p t e d t h e w a y physics e x p e r i e n c e d directly. H u m a n b e i n g s can e i t h e r have t i m e or not have t i m e .
t h i n k s a b o u t n a t u r e and believe t h a t t h e s c i e n c e of physics is t h e o n l y N o w w e m u s t ask w h a t m a k e s this r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t i m e possible. I s o u r
valid f o r m for d i s c o v e r i n g t r u t h and for h u m a n k n o w l e d g e in g e n e r a l . b e i n g - i n - t i m e t h e basis o f o u r h a v i n g t i m e , o r i s t h e r e v e r s e t r u e ? W h a t
T h i s " e v e r y o n e " also p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t o n l y t h e findings o f physics can d o e s b e i n g - i n - t i m e m e a n ? D o w e n e e d t o ask this a t all? N a t u r a l s c i e n c e
deliver strictly scientific t r u t h and t h a t it is no l o n g e r i m p o r t a n t to a s k m e a s u r e s all n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s a s t h e y o c c u r i n t i m e , a n d i n o u r e v e r y d a y
w h a t i s b e h i n d t h e n o t i o n o f s c i e n c e itself. M a c h i n e s c a n b e c o n s t r u c t e d t h i n k i n g we find t h a t t h i n g s and e v e n t s o c c u r , p e r s i s t , and perish in t i m e .
on t h e basis of p h y s i c s ' c o n c e p t u a l a p p r o a c h , and for the m a n on t h e N o w , I can say simply t h a t t h e table in f r o n t of me w a s already p r e s e n t
s t r e e t t h e t r u t h of physics is p r o v e d by its effects: his car is p r o o f e n o u g h b e f o r e I s e t e y e s on it and will r e m a i n w h e r e it is w h e n I am no l o n g e r
for him t h a t p h y s i c s h a s t h e capacity t o u t t e r t h e t r u t h a b o u t t i m e a s well. looking a t it. H o w long i t h a s b e e n o r will r e m a i n t h e r e i s o f n o c o n c e r n t o
T h e r e are those w h o think that Einstein's theory of relativity m e , but t h e fact t h a t it w a s already and will r e m a i n t h e r e m e a n s t h a t it
s u p e r s e d e d t h e n o t i o n s o f time h a n d e d d o w n from the philosophical has p e r s i s t e d during, o r in, t i m e . D o e s o u r indication o f this p e r s i s t e n c e
tradition, but this t o o is a f u n d a m e n t a l e r r o r . T h e t h e o r y of relativity is a a d e q u a t e l y define t h e o b j e c t ' s b e i n g - i n - t i m e ? A n d i s t h e b e i n g - i n - t i m e o f
physical t h e o r y c o n c e r n e d w i t h finding o u t h o w t i m e , c o n c e i v e d of as a such a t h i n g identical to t h e b e i n g - i n - t i m e of an e x i s t i n g h u m a n b e i n g ? In
s u c c e s s i o n of " n o w s , " can be measured. B u t w h a t is s u b j e c t e d to this e i t h e r c a s e w e m u s t avoid falling i n t o t h e easy e r r o r t h a t time i s s o m e h o w
m e a s u r e m e n t i s i t s e l f t a k e n a s a g i v e n . T h e t h e o r y o f relativity m e r e l y spatial, s o m e kind of c o n t a i n e r in w h i c h t h i n g s are.
asks, after t h e fact, w h e t h e r it is possible to m e a s u r e time a b s o l u t e l y or P e r s i s t e n c e is a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of all o b j e c t s . S o m e p e r s i s t for a long
w h e t h e r e v e r y m e a s u r e m e n t is n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t i v e . It a t t e n d s as little as time, s o m e only for a short time. Do objects need to do anything to
a n y o t h e r scientific t h e o r y o f t i m e t o t h e n a t u r e o f w h a t i s b e i n g p e r s i s t ? W h e r e is p e r s i s t e n c e to be found in a t h i n g ? W h a t h a p p e n s to an
m e a s u r e d . W e t h e r e f o r e feel justified i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e w h o l e o b j e c t w h e n t h e r e i s n o l o n g e r a n y o n e n e a r it? D o e s i t c o n t i n u e t o
e s s e n c e of t i m e c a n n o t possibly be r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e ideas c u r r e n t in persist?
contemporary natural science. A d r i n k i n g g l a s s m a y be b r o k e n w h i l e t h e table is b e i n g c l e a r e d . We a r e
M a n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t i m e , t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f m a n and t i m e , h a s b e e n t h e n left w i t h the b r o k e n pieces. I f t h e s e f r a g m e n t s g e t i n t o t h e g a r b a g e ,
a m a j o r t h e m e in r u m i n a t i o n s a b o u t t i m e for a g e s . A r i s t o t l e said: "It is t h e y a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r and are j u s t isolated pieces o f glass.
w o r t h e x a m i n i n g h o w t i m e i s related t o t h e soul. I f t h e soul w e r e n o t As glass pieces t h e y c o n t i n u e to p e r s i s t , b u t t h e y no l o n g e r p e r s i s t as a
capable o f perceiving and e x p r e s s i n g itself a b o u t t i m e , t h e n t i m e could d r i n k i n g g l a s s . W e realize, t h e n , t h a t t h e d r i n k i n g glass h a s its o w n t i m e
n o t possibly e x i s t u n l e s s t h e soul also e x i s t e d . " C o n t e m p o r a r y t h o u g h t , to be a drinking glass. Its t i m e is n o t simply e m p t y p e r s i s t e n c e but a t i m e
t o o , p r e s u p p o s e s t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f t i m e and t h e h u m a n e s s e n c e . T h i s i s for. Its t i m e has to do w i t h its u s e , and its u s e w i t h m a n , w h o h a s t i m e for
e v i d e n t f r o m t h e w a y t h e p r o b l e m o f t i m e i s posed. W e s p e a k t h e s e days, t h i n g s . M a n gives t i m e t o t h e g l a s s . A n d , w e m a y ask, i f m a n c e a s e d t o
for i n s t a n c e , a b o u t " t i m e s e n s e " o r s e n s e o f t i m e , a b o u t " t i m e e x i s t w o u l d t h e r e b e a n y d r i n k i n g g l a s s e s ? T h e a n s w e r is, o f c o u r s e , n o ,
experience," about "consciousness of time," mentally coordinating these since o n l y m a n can m a n u f a c t u r e d r i n k i n g g l a s s e s . O b j e c t s like t h e g l a s s
w i t h t i m e . T h i s h a b i t , a s well a s t h e c o m m o n d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t a r e m a d e e n t e r t i m e b y v i r t u e o f t h e fact t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n m a d e . W h a t t h e n o f a
b e t w e e n s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e t i m e , w o r l d and e g o t i m e , m e a s u r e d and m o u n t a i n ? Y e s , it t o o h a s its t i m e , c o n t i n u e s to persist. W a s it in t i m e
e x p e r i e n c e d t i m e , q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e t i m e , all r e s t on ill- already b e f o r e m a n a r r i v e d o n t h e s c e n e ? N o o n e t o d a y w o u l d h e s i t a t e a
c o n s i d e r e d , u n p r o v e n , and u n e x p l a i n e d p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a b o u t t h e m o m e n t i n saying y e s . Y e t e v e n t h e t i m e w e r e f e r t o w h e n w e say " b e f o r e
n a t u r e o f m a n and his r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t i m e . T h e y a r e t o o q u e s t i o n a b l e t o m a n " is u n e q u i v o c a l l y r e l a t e d to m a n as t h e t i m e w h i c h r e v e a l s itself to
form the basis for a f u n d a m e n t a l study of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a n him, t h e h u m a n being, a s long past. T h a t i s w h y w e can n e v e r k n o w w h a t
and t i m e . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n we d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n a s u b j e c t i v e and w a s h e r e w h e n m a n had n o t y e t arrived. W e c a n n o t e v e n decide w h e t h e r
Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings
98 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

o r n o t i t i s p r o p e r t o say t h a t t h e Alps w e r e h e r e b e f o r e t h e r e w e r e C e r t a i n l y , w e c a n n o t simply t r a n s f e r o u r s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t " h a v i n g " . 1


h u m a n b e i n g s . S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , w e can n e v e r say w h a t was b e f o r e m a n . w o r r y to t h e h a v i n g of t i m e . O n e o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the two 8
G e o l o g i s t s m e a s u r i n g t i m e w i t h t h e a t o m i c clock a r e c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h a t w o r r y , unlike t i m e , does n o t affect us i n e v i t a b l y and at e v e r y
t h e y h a v e b e e n able t o find e r a s o f t i m e c o n t a i n i n g t h i n g s millions o f m o m e n t . B u t w e have discussed " h a v i n g " w o r r i e s b e f o r e w e consider
y e a r s b e f o r e t h e r e w e r e h u m a n b e i n g s . B u t e v e n t h e a t o m i c clock does " h a v i n g " t i m e t o point o u t t h e peculiarities t h a t o b t a i n b e t w e e n the
n o t bring u s a n y c l o s e r t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , b e c a u s e w o r d ' s c o m m o n u s a g e and t h e p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s t h a t a r e " h a d , " a s well a s
t h e data it p r o d u c e s a r e also tied to t h e h u m a n b e i n g w h o reads t h e m . It is t o s h o w h o w i n e x a c t and u n s c i e n t i f i c w e would b e i f w e w e r e t o lump
t o this h u m a n being t h a t t h e t e s t e d e n t i t i e s appear t o b e o f such and s u c h t o g e t h e r all i n s t a n c e s o f " h a v i n g . "
an age. W i t h o u t t h e possibility of indicating t i m e to a r e c e p t i v e and N o w , a friend m a y ask m e , "Will you h a v e time for a w a l k t o m o r r o w
p e r c e i v i n g c r e a t u r e like m a n , all f u n d a m e n t a l w o r d s like " b e i n g , " " i s , " a f t e r n o o n ? " A f t e r t h i n k i n g it o v e r briefly, I a n s w e r , " Y e s , I'll h a v e t i m e . "
" w a s , " " h a s b e e n " and "will b e " lose all m e a n i n g . AH p r e s u p p o s e t h e H e r e t i m e has n o t b e e n m a d e i n t o an o b j e c t , n o r is it e v e n w h a t is
possibility o f p r e s e n c e e n t e r i n g i n t o a n open r e a l m o f p e r c e p t i o n and f o c u s s e d on. My a t t e n t i o n is f o c u s s e d r a t h e r on t h e t h i n g for which I shall
being p e r c e i v e d t h e r e . h a v e t i m e , on w h a t is to be d o n e t h e t h i n g I am e x p e c t i n g . My
e x p e c t a t i o n is so c o n s t i t u t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t e v e n w h i l e I am e x p e c t a n t , I
I f e v e r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f time available from n o n h u m a n e v e n t s and
am also dwelling in w h a t is p r e s e n t to me at this m o m e n t . I a l s o t h o u g h I
o b j e c t s is i n e v i t a b l y r e l a t e d to m a n , we will n e v e r g e t past their b e i n g - i n -
a m n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a w a r e o f i t r e t a i n all t h a t has e v e r o c c u p i e d m e u p t o
time t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t i m e . T h e r e v e r s e i s m o r e
this m o m e n t . Any timel "have," 1 have in such a way that I am expectant of which is
likely, t h a t an a d e q u a t e i n s i g h t i n t o the h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p to time will
to come, aware of what is present, and retentive of what has been. This threefold mode in
give us a v i e w of t h e b e i n g - i n - t i m e of i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s as well.
what 1 am constitutes "having" time for this or that. " H a v i n g t i m e , " in this v e r y
M a n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o his t i m e i s c e r t a i n l y s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n the
s e n s e of a t h r e e f o l d e x i s t e n c e is a m o d e of h u m a n being. In this having of
w a y in w h i c h a d r i n k i n g g l a s s , for i n s t a n c e , is in t i m e . In o r d e r to see in its
t i m e and the c a r r y i n g o u t o f p o t e n t i a l w a y s o f being, a n e x i s t e n c e
p r o p e r light t h e special w a y in w h i c h time applies to h u m a n b e i n g s , we
develops and m a t u r e s . It e x p e n d s its t i m e and finally w h e n it has used up
m u s t first b r e a k a w a y from o u r o r d i n a r y h a b i t s o f s p e e c h . W e a r e u s e d t o
t h e t i m e a p p r o p r i a t e t o a n e x i s t e n c e , e f f e c t s its o w n d e m i s e , w h i c h i s t h e
saying t h a t we a r e in t i m e , and also t h a t we have t i m e . To s t a r t w i t h , this
fulfillment o f t h e e x t r e m e , u n s u r p a s s a b l e e x i s t e n t i a l possibility. T h u s ,
" i n " should n o t be t a k e n in a n y spatial s e n s e . We a r e n o t in t i m e as s m a l l e r
t h e " h a v i n g " i n t h e h a v i n g o f t i m e i s t h e actual t e m p o r a l i t y o f h u m a n
C h i n e s e ivory balls can b e found inside l a r g e r o n e s . Similarly, w e m u s t
being, in t h a t w h a t m a t u r e s sich zeitigt in this " h a v i n g " is w h a t we m a y
n o t c o n c l u d e t h a t " h a v i n g t i m e " m e a n s t h a t t h e r e i s time o n t h e o n e 1
d e s i g n a t e a s m a n ' s b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , o r his worldly dwelling ( v e r b a l ) .
h a n d , and on t h e o t h e r a " h a v i n g " t h a t h a s n o t h i n g to do w i t h t h e t i m e
itself. We can h a v e c e r t a i n t h i n g s in this s e n s e a car, a h o u s e , a N o b e l T h i s dwelling in t h e w o r l d is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by its c o n t a i n i n g a l l
P r i z e b u t n o t t i m e . W e can also have s u c h t h i n g s a s affect u s directly, d i f f e r e n t b u t all equally e l e m e n t a r y w h a t is c o m i n g to m a n , w h a t he is
being part of us: I have a b r o k e n a r m , an e a r a c h e , pain, or a w o r r y . a w a r e o f p r e s e n t l y , and w h a t h a s already b e e n . I n its t h r e e f o l d capacity,
t h e dwelling of h u m a n being holds o u t a t i m e for e a c h t h i n g . It has on
B e f o r e w e can u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n h e r e n t n a t u r e o f " h a v i n g " t i m e , w e
hand t h e " w h e n e v e r , " t h e ' n o w , " and t h e ' t h e n " w h i c h w e use i n o u r
m u s t carefully d i s t i n g u i s h a m o n g t h e v a r i o u s possibilities o f " h a v i n g . "
c a l c u l a t i o n s of t i m e . A n d , as h a v i n g a w o r r y actually m e a n s being
T h e e x a m p l e o f " h a v i n g a w o r r y " s h o w s m o s t readily t h a t " h a v i n g " can
w o r r i e d , s o , similarly, h a v i n g t i m e is being e x p e c t a n t of t h e f u t u r e , being
m e a n far m o r e t h a n j u s t p o s s e s s i n g s o m e t h i n g . I nave a w o r r y . I am
a w a r e o f t h e p r e s e n t , and r e t a i n i n g w h a t h a s passed.
w o r r i e d , or b e t t e r still (to s h o w t h a t it is n o t I w h o c r e a t e t h e w o r r y ) : I am
o v e r c o m e b y w o r r y . H o w does " h a v e " w o r k h e r e ? W e see t h a t w h a t w e All o f this should d e m o n s t r a t e a t least t h a t w e d o n o t c o m p r e h e n d t h e
s e e m e d to " h a v e , " t h e w o r r y , w a s in fact n o t " h a d . " It would be m o r e p h e n o m e n o n of h a v i n g t i m e for s o m e t h i n g simply by r e f o r m u l a t i n g it to
a p p r o p r i a t e to say t h a t t h e w o r r y has a p e r s o n . It is s o m e m o d e in w h i c h say t h a t t i m e i s p r e s e n t , w h i c h would sidestep t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f
we find o u r s e l v e s . " H a v e , " as in t h e e x p r e s s i o n " t o h a v e a w o r r y , " r e f e r s " h a v i n g . " B u t t i m e or s o m e t h i n g does n o t lie b e f o r e us like s o m e object
t h e n to a specific m o d e in w h i c h a p e r s o n is, and is e x i s t i n g , at a given w h i c h w e can i g n o r e o r pick up, according t o w h i m . O u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o
time. t i m e w h a t e v e r it m a y be at a n y m o m e n t i s t h e basis of o u r dwelling in
the w o r l d . W h e t h e r w e h a v e i t o r n o t , w h e t h e r w e plan o r squander it,
100 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings

t i m e is s o m e t h i n g t h a t is, in a s e n s e , at o u r disposal, t h e r e for us to e n e r g y , was p o s t u l a t e d b y t h e vitalists o f t h e last c e n t u r y and the


o r g a n i z e as we w i s h . W h a t we c a n n o t do is a l t e r t h e fact t h a t it is t i m e . At n e o v i t a l i s t s of this. All s u c h s u p p o s i t i o n s s h a r e t h e c o n v i c t i o n thai the
a n y g i v e n t i m e , w e a r e c o n s t a n t l y bringing past, p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e h u m a n body h a s at least o n e c h e m o p h y s i c a l - c y b e r n e t i c , purely biologk al
t o g e t h e r i n a u n i q u e w a y . T h u s , w e p r o d u c e and f o r m t h e m o m e n t a r y c o m p o n e n t . Y e t n o o n e h a s b e e n able t o s u r m i s e h o w t w o t h i n g s a s
s t r u c t u r e of t i m e , and so c a r r y out o u r w o r l d l y dwelling in its f u n d a m e n t a l l y different as m e t a p h y s i c a l life f o r c e and i n a n i m a t e
t e m p o r a l i t y . We can t a k e and h a v e o u r t i m e in t h a t we r e t a i n it in c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e could e v e r m e r g e t o f o r m t h e u n i t y t h a t i s h u m a n
visualizing, m a k e it p r e s e n t , and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y hold it ready for f u t u r e bodyhood.
t h i n g s . T h e disposable and disposed of t i m e is c o n s t i t u t e d in w a i t i n g , In looking for the special w a y in w h i c h t h e h u m a n body is b o d y h o o d ,
r e t a i n i n g , and b e i n g p r e s e n t . T h i s , in its t h r e e f o l d u n i t y , is t h e we shall begin by looking a w a y from b o d y h o o d to s o m e t h i n g else. All of
t e m p o r a l i t y o f t h e t i m e w h i c h w e h a v e o r d o n o t h a v e . T o b e s u r e , i t i s still o u r e x p e r i e n c e tells us t h a t j u s t w h e n a h u m a n being is e x i s t i n g in t h e
o b s c u r e h o w t h e u n i t y o f t h e " t h r e e f o l d n e s s " o f t i m e i s t o b e defined. m o s t h i g h l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h u m a n w a y , h e i s totally u n a w a r e o f his body
W h i l e dwelling i n t h e w o r l d m e a n s e x t e n d i n g o u r s e l v e s s i m u l t a n e o u s as s u c h . To exist in a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h u m a n w a y m e a n s to be e n g a g e d body
ly into the three temporal dimensionsextensions or ecstasiesof the and soul by s o m e t h i n g t h a t claims o n e , and to r e s p o n d to t h a t address or
past, p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e , t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s are n a t u r a l l y n o t a l w a y s o p e n claim. T h e h u m a n being c o m p l e t e l y loses his a w a r e n e s s o f his b o d y h o o d
equally t o e a c h e x i s t e n c e . A t v a r i o u s t i m e s , o n e o r a n o t h e r o f t h e as a physical body j u s t w h e n he is a c t i n g m o s t g e n u i n e l y h u m a n .
d i m e n s i o n s will be m o s t c o m m a n d i n g , and at t h o s e t i m e s we e n t e r i n t o it A t t h e m o m e n t w h e n she w a s d a s h i n g a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t t o h e r lover,
m u c h m o r e t h a n t h e o t h e r s . W e m a y e v e n b e trapped i n o n e o f t h e t h r e e . R e g u l a Z u r c h e r was n o t a w a r e o f p o s s e s s i n g a body. H e r b o d y h o o d w a s
Even t h e n , h o w e v e r , t h e o t h e r t w o a r e n e v e r n e g a t e d o r d e s t r o y e d b u t e n g a g e d c o m p l e t e l y in h e r longing to be w i t h h e r lover and in h e r
only deprived o r c o n c e a l e d . h u r r y i n g t o close t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e m . T h a t s h e was n o l o n g e r
a w a r e o f h e r b o d y h o o d does n o t m e a n t h a t h e r b o d y h o o d had
Human bodyhood 2 disappeared. T h i s u n a w a r e n e s s h a p p e n s a t t i m e s i n h e a l t h y h u m a n
T h e traditional, n a t u r a l scientific f o u n d a t i o n o f m e d i c i n e a s s i g n s t h e e x i s t i n g but in no w a y implies t h a t this particular m o d e of e x i s t e n c e is n o t
h u m a n b o d y a position of singular p r o m i n e n c e . It is t h e o n l y aspect of t h e bodily.
h u m a n c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h can b e posited, i n v e s t i g a t e d and m a n i p u l a t e d T h e r e is no m a n i f e s t a t i o n of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e w h i c h is n o t bodily. A
as a c h e m o p h y s i c a l or c y b e r n e t i c s t r u c t u r e . B o d y h o o d i t s e l f s u g g e s t s p e r s o n ' s c o n c r e t e dealings w i t h o t h e r people and his direct p e r c e p t i o n o f
t h a t it be c o n s i d e r e d as t h o u g h it w e r e a m a t e r i a l o b j e c t , s o m e self- o b j e c t s t h a t p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s physically t o his s i g h t and t o u c h a r e
c o n t a i n e d t h i n g p r e s e n t at s o m e specific l o c a t i o n in a p r e e x i s t i n g space. especially o b v i o u s bodily r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b u t t h e y are n o t all t h a t is bodily.
O n l y w h e n it is defined this w a y is b o d y h o o d a c c e s s i b l e to t h e n a t u r a l V i s u a l i z a t i o n s o f t h i n g s t h e s e n s e s d o n o t p e r c e i v e a r e also bodily,
scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d , w h i c h t h e n t a k e s this definition as the r e a l i t y t h o u g h w h a t w e visualize m a y b e visible only t o t h e mind's e y e . E v e n
of human existence. w h a t w e m e r e l y visualize, c o n s i d e r , i m a g i n e , o r r e m e m b e r appears
B y positing t h e h u m a n body a s s o m e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d m a t e r i a l t h i n g , h a v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s h a p e , a p a r t i c u l a r c o l o r and shading, a particular
n a t u r a l s c i e n c e d i s r e g a r d s e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s specifically h u m a n a b o u t smell, t a s t e , t e x t u r e . A n d e v e n w h e n w e are e n g a g e d i n purely
h u m a n b o d y h o o d . T h e n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a c h m e t h o d t r e a t s t h e body i n t e l l e c t u a l and a b s t r a c t t h o u g h t , w h a t we visualize still b e a r s relation to
as it m i g h t t r e a t w o r k s of a r t . G i v e n a collection of P i c a s s o p a i n t i n g s , for w h a t we h a v e s e e n w i t h o u r e y e s in, say, a m a t h e m a t i c s t e x t , and w h a t
i n s t a n c e , this m e t h o d would see o n l y m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s w h o s e l e n g t h and we h a v e h e a r d w i t h o u r e a r s , p e r h a p s in a sociology l e c t u r e . E v e r y t h i n g
b r e a d t h could b e m e a s u r e d , w h o s e w e i g h t could b e d e t e r m i n e d , and we s e e in t h e mind's e y e is s e e n , t h e n , w i t h the s e n s e s , is s e e n bodily.
w h o s e s u b s t a n c e could be analyzed c h e m i c a l l y . All t h e r e s u l t i n g data N e v e r t h e l e s s , w e d o n o t s e e i t a s physically p r e s e n t . O n the c o n t r a r y , w e
lumped t o g e t h e r would tell u s n o t h i n g a b o u t w h a t m a k e s t h e s e p a i n t i n g s see it as n o t physically p r e s e n t , b u t as r e - p r e s e n t e d .
w h a t t h e y a r e ; t h e i r c h a r a c t e r a s w o r k s o f art i s n o t e v e n t o u c h e d b y this To u n d e r s t a n d t h e b o d y h o o d t h a t i n h e r e s in all h u m a n e x i s t e n t i a l
approach. p h e n o m e n a , w e m u s t distinguish b e t w e e n h u m a n b o d y h o o d and the
N o r will it suffice to say t h a t s o m e t h i n g else is p r e s e n t in t h e a n i m a t e m a t e r i a l n a t u r e o f i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . W e can approach this distinction
body of a h u m a n being, s o m e s u p e r n a t u r a l life f o r c e closed to I he nal ural from t w o different s t a r t i n g p o i n t s . T h e first is t h e a b s o l u t e difference
scientific r e s e a r c h m e t h o d . S u c h a f o r c e , s e p a r a t e from h u m . i n physical b e t w e e n t h e limits of o u r b o d y h o o d and the m a t e r i a l b o r d e r s of i n a n i m a t e
Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 103
102 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

w h i c h we are dwelling and w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e o u r e x i s t e n c e at any given


o b j e c t s . T h e s e c o n d i s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l dissimilarity o f t h e local
m o m e n t . T h u s , j u s t a s t h e r e can b e n o i n d e p e n d e n t l y e x i s t i n g t i m e , t h e r e
c h a r a c t e r s o f e x i s t i n g h u m a n b e i n g s and i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s , t h e d i f f e r e n t
can be no s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , f u n d a m e n t a l , and final h u m a n b o d y h o o d . And
w a y s in w h i c h t h e i r l o c a t i o n s at a given t i m e are d e t e r m i n e d .
j u s t as m a n ' s actual t e m p o r a l i t y e m e r g e s o n l y in t h e p a r t i c u l a r m o d e s of
If h u m a n b o d y h o o d w e r e a physical, m a t e r i a l b o d y , t h e n its b o r d e r s
h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , s o his b o d y h o o d o c c u r s e x c l u s i v e l y a s t h e bodying
would b e t h e skin. T h e fact is, h o w e v e r , t h a t n o m a t t e r w h e r e w e are w e
f o r t h o f his e x i s t e n t i a l dwelling amid t h e b e i n g s t h a t a d d r e s s t h e m s e l v e s
a r e always i n s o m e s o r t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o m e t h i n g outside o u r skin.
at a n y g i v e n time to his p e r c e p t i o n and r e q u i r e of him an a p p r o p r i a t e
S h o u l d w e t h e n c o n c l u d e t h a t w e a r e c o n s t a n t l y b e y o n d o u r physical
r e s p o n s e . T h e b o r d e r s o f m y b o d y h o o d coincide w i t h t h o s e o f m y
body's b o r d e r s , and n e v e r w h o l l y w i t h i n t h e m ? S u c h a c o n c l u s i o n is
o p e n n e s s to the w o r l d . T h e y are in fact at a n y given t i m e identical,
appealing, b u t it is d e c e p t i v e . It w o u l d be a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e
t h o u g h t h e y are a l w a y s c h a n g i n g w i t h t h e fluid e x p a n s i o n and
p h e n o m e n o n of b o d y h o o d as well as t h e p h e n o m e n a of Da-sein. We can
c o n t r a c t i o n o f m y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e world.
n e v e r grasp t h e p h e n o m e n o n of b o d y h o o d if we c o n t i n u e to i m a g i n e it as
a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d physical s t r u c t u r e e x i s t i n g in i t s e l f and of itself, in I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e b o r d e r s o f h u m a n b o d y h o o d , t h e limits o f w h a t w e
isolation from t h e w o r l d . At best, this m i g h t allow us to d e t e r m i n e t h a t c o n c e p t u a l i z e as o u r physical b o d y usually r e m a i n fixed, at m o s t
t h e b o r d e r s o f the h u m a n body e x t e n d b e y o n d t h o s e o f t h e physical body c h a n g i n g slightly w h e n w e gain o r lose w e i g h t . Y e t e v e n t h e s e a r e n o t
and t h a t , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o types o f b o r d e r i s simply m a t e r i a l p h e n o m e n a b u t bodily e v e n t s to be u n d e r s t o o d in
simply q u a n t i t a t i v e . B u t b o d y h o o d and its limits differ from t h o s e of a c o n t e x t w i t h a c h a n g e d r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e w o r l d .
physical body n o t q u a n t i t a t i v e l y b u t qualitatively. T o i l l u s t r a t e t h e special quality o f h u m a n b o d y h o o d a s t h e bodying
f o r t h of t h e p o t e n t i a l w a y s of b e i n g t h a t m a k e up a h u m a n e x i s t e n c e at
It is t h e o r e t i c a l l y possible to i m a g i n e the h u m a n body physically
a n y g i v e n m o m e n t , we m a y t u r n to a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n f r o m the life
e x t e n d i n g t o s o m e w i n d o w t h a t p r e s e n t l y f o r m s the b o u n d a r y o f t h e
h i s t o r y o f o u r t e s t s u b j e c t . O n e day, R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r and h e r friend had
optical field of my p e r c e p t i o n . In this c a s e , t h e b o r d e r s of the h u m a n b o d y
m o v e d i n t o h e r parlor for c o f f e e , and as she r e l a x e d in h e r a r m c h a i r she
would coincide w i t h t h e body's physical limits. Y e t t h e v e r y a s s u m p t i o n
c h a t t e d w i t h him a b o u t v a c a t i o n plans. N o w , e v e n t h e w a y s h e sat in the
of this possibility c l e a r l y reveals t h a t t h e t w o types of b o r d e r s are
a r m c h a i r b e l o n g e d i m m e d i a t e l y t o h e r relaxed r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the
fundamentally different.
visualized r e - p r e s e n t e d r e s o r t and t o t h e peaceful s t a y s h e h o p e d t o h a v e
W h e n I direct s o m e o n e t o w a r d a w i n d o w s i l l w i t h a g e s t u r e of my r i g h t
t h e r e w i t h h e r friend. In fact, h e r bodily sitting b e l o n g e d so i n t i m a t e l y to
h a n d , my bodily e x i s t e n c e as a h u m a n being does n o t end at t h e tip of my
h e r m o m e n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e world t h a t h e r a w a r e n e s s o f h e r s e l f a s
index finger. While perceiving the w i n d o w s i l l and m y c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d physical body sitting in an a r m c h a i r disappeared. S h e
p a r t n e r w i t h m y e y e s , I e x t e n d m y s e l f bodily far b e y o n d this f i n g e r t i p t o
w a s e x i s t i n g as all eyes and e a r s for w h a t w a s being talked a b o u t .
t h a t windowsill. In fact, bodily I r e a c h o u t e v e n f u r t h e r t h a n this to t o u c h
A t r e s t i n h e r a r m c h a i r , she w a s n o static physical m a s s . S h e was
all the p h e n o m e n a o f m y w o r l d , p r e s e n t o r m e r e l y visualized r e
bodying f o r t h h e r p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e r e s o r t , w h i c h she
p r e s e n t e d o n e s , t h o u g h m a n y o f t h e m m i g h t r e m a i n u n t h e m a t i c and
visualized j u s t as it w a s to be s e e n . As a r e c e p t i v e , open r e a l m of
v a g u e in t h e b a c k g r o u n d at this m o m e n t .
p e r c e p t i o n , s h e s p a n n e d t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n from h e r h o m e i n E u r o p e t o
N o r is t h e g e s t u r e t o w a r d the w i n d o w s i l l t h e r e s u l t of a t w o - s t a g e
the warm waters of the Equator. We know, by way of comparison, how
p r o c e s s in w h i c h , initially, my o u t s t r e t c h e d a r m and index f i n g e r
i m p o s s i b l e t h o u g h t f u l c o n v e r s a t i o n is at a cocktail p a r t y as the
c o n s t i t u t e a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , m a t e r i a l m e d i u m t h r o u g h w h i c h can be s e n t ,
p a r t i c i p a n t s ' milling a b o u t bodies f o r t h t h e i r superficial a s s o c i a t i o n amid
s e c o n d l y , s o m e flow o f m e n t a l o r e x i s t e n t i a l relating t h a t t r a n s c e n d s the
t h e trifles o f t h e i r social w o r l d .
physical a s p e c t of b o d y h o o d . All my e x p e r i e n c e tells m e , I am i n h e r e n t l y
If th is is t h e real n a t u r e of h u m a n b o d y h o o d , t h e n e v e n t h e least
settled into t h e open space of my world to t h e e x t e n t t h a t I, w i t h
g e s t u r e of t h e h a n d can n e v e r be fully u n d e r s t o o d u n l e s s t h e hand is no
e v e r y t h i n g I am, actually dwell in my perceiving r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e
l o n g e r r e g a r d e d as m e r e l y a p h y s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t m a d e of m u s c l e and
windowsill. T o this e c s t a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e l o n g b o t h m y optical
b o n e , n e r v e and s i n e w . Like e v e r y t h i n g else bodily, t h e h u m a n hand
perception o f t h e o b j e c t and, w i t h t h e s a m e i m m e d i a c y , m y g e s t u r e
b e l o n g s so directly to h u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d t h a t it is d e t e r m i n e d in
t o w a r d it. B o t h m a y p e r h a p s b e s t be d e s i g n a t e d as t h e bodying forth of this
e v e r y t h i n g it is and does by h o w its o w n e r is relating to w h a t he is at t h a t
existential relationship.
m o m e n t e n c o u n t e r i n g . It c a n n o t e x i s t e x c e p t as the bodying forth ol
1 luman bodyhood is always the bodying forth of the ways ol being in
104 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 105

active h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s to t h e w o r l d . Even at r e s t a hand still bodies s p h e r e o f d i s t u r b e d e x i s t e n c e . T h e r e f o r e w e shall hold o u r investigal ion


forth an act of r e s t . of pain for o u r discussion of p a t h o l o g y . M e a n w h i l e , n o t h i n g about pain
B y v i r t u e o f t h e fact t h a t i t b e l o n g s t o h u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , a p p e a r s to c o n t r a d i c t o u r findings on b o d y h o o d in undisturbed e x i s t e n t e
bodying f o r t h is i n h e r e n t l y s e t t l e d into space. C o n s e q u e n t l y , it is N o w , w e can s e e t h e radical d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h u m a n bodyhood and
endowed with the whole range of temporal-spatial-ecstatic relationships t h e physical n a t u r e o f i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s n o t o n l y i n t h e fundament.d
t o w h a t m a n e n c o u n t e r s . B u t o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o w h a t w e p e r c e i v e varies dissimilarity of t h e i r b o r d e r s but in where each is at a p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t .
with w h i c h of t h e s e n s e s is in o p e r a t i o n . A h u m a n being is a l w a y s " h e r e " w i t h r e s p e c t to s o m e place, and h u m a n
S i g h t and h e a r i n g r a n g e f u r t h e r t h a n s m e l l , t a s t e , and t o u c h . I do n o t b o d y h o o d s e e m s to play an e s s e n t i a l role in this " b e i n g - h e r e . " T h e
perceive w i t h my e y e s t h e w a y I p e r c e i v e w i t h my f i n g e r s . W h e n I s e e a q u e s t i o n is, w h a t r o l e ? W h e n w e say t h a t s o m e o n e "is h e r e , " w e usually
glass I do n o t p e r c e i v e my o w n e y e s , but w h e n I pick up a glass, I feel n o t r e f e r his body's specific location in space and t h i n k of his p r e s e n c e at that
j u s t t h e glass but t h e h a n d w i t h w h i c h I pick it up as well. Y e t , is it actually location confined to t h e v o l u m e of space b o u n d e d by his skin.
my hand t h a t is perceived in t h e p r o c e s s ? Isn't it, r a t h e r , t h a t I am n o t at all N a t u r a l l y , I can i m a g i n e t h a t I am seated at a t a b l e , my body on a chair
a w a r e of my h a n d as a distinct area of the body but am perceiving m y s e l f and p r e s e n t i n t h e s a m e w a y a s t h e chair. B u t this i m a g e r e f e r s n o l o n g e r
as a w h o l e e n t i t y , a p e r s o n holding a glass ? While t o u c h i n g does n o t b r i n g to h u m a n " b e i n g - h e r e , " o n l y to t h e p r e s e n c e of a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and
a w a r e n e s s of t h e hand as s u c h , it d o e s include a s e n s a t i o n of tangible i n d e p e n d e n t l y p r e s e n t physical body.
c l o s e n e s s . My e y e does n o t . A l s o , I can see o n l y w h a t is in front of m e . B u t On the other hand, there is some ambiguity attached to the statement
my sight (like my h e a r i n g ) o p e r a t e s at g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s from t h i n g s t h a n t h a t e v e r y h u m a n being is a l w a y s " h e r e " w i t h r e s p e c t to s o m e place. I am
m y t o u c h does. always " h e r e , " but ' h e r e " i s n o t a l w a y s t h e s a m e place. F o r h u m a n b e i n g s ,
T h e fact t h a t s i g h t e x t e n d s f u r t h e r t h a n t o u c h only c o n f i r m s t h a t b o t h ' h e r e " is a l w a y s t h e dwelling place of t h e m o m e n t ; and people dwell in
a r e r o o t e d in t h e spatial relationships of h u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d . T h i s in their relationship to what they encounter, with p h e n o m e n a that are
t u r n a r g u e s t h a t h u m a n e x i s t e n c e is n o t spatial b e c a u s e it is bodily, b u t "there." At a n y given m o m e n t my " h e r e " is defined by t h e " t h e r e " o f the
t h a t s o m e t h i n g like b o d y h o o d can c o m e a b o u t o n l y b e c a u s e e x i s t e n c e (as beings at w h i c h las an open r e a l m of p e r c e p t i o n dwelling in an open, free
e n t e r i n g i n t o close or d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s to o b j e c t s ) is itself spatial. It is t i m e - s p a c e a m dwelling, e n c o u n t e r i n g t h e m w h e r e t h e y a r e . T h i s
n o t the e x i s t e n c e o f o u r bodily s e n s e o r g a n s t h a t allows u s t o s e e , h e a r , ' b e i n g - h e r e " is f u n d a m e n t a l l y different from t h e kind of p r e s e n c e
t a s t e , t o u c h , and smell. R a t h e r , w e can h a v e and u s e such t h i n g s a s s e n s e n a t u r a l science a s s i g n s to bodies, w h i c h , since it is n e v e r open to
o r g a n s only b y v i r t u r e o f t h e fact t h a t w e a r e e s e n t i a l l y r e c e p t i v e perceiving a " t h e r e " a s a p h e n o m e n o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e
seeing, h e a r i n g , s m e l l i n g , t a s t i n g , t o u c h i n g c r e a t u r e s . Put a n o t h e r can n e v e r u n d e r s t a n d its " b e i n g - h e r e " o n t h e basis o f t h e " t h e r e " o f
w a y , t h e w o r l d w i d e perceiving o p e n n e s s w h i c h is the e s s e n t i a l b e i n g s t h a t reveal t h e m s e l v e s t o it. H u m a n b e i n g s can.
o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i t of o u r being bodies i t s e l f f o r t h in the distinct o n t i c W h i c h e v e r a n g l e w e take t o a p p r o a c h b o d y h o o d , w e discover t h a t
m o d e s in w h i c h we s e e , h e a r , smell, t a s t e , and t o u c h t h i n g s . bodying f o r t h p r e s u p p o s e s p e r c e i v i n g and acting e x i s t e n c e . E x i s t e n c e is
O n e kind o f e x p e r i e n c e m i g h t appear t o radically c o n t r a d i c t t h e s e t h a t w h i c h bodies f o r t h . A c t u a l l y , t h e n , h u m a n b o d y h o o d i s p h e n o m e n o -
findings on t h e bodying f o r t h of o u r e x i s t e n c e . W h e n I am blinded by an logically s e c o n d a r y , t h o u g h o u r s e n s e s tell us t h a t it is p r i m a r y .
e x t r e m e l y b r i g h t light, f r i g h t e n e d by an u n b e a r a b l y loud e x p l o s i o n , or W e i n e v i t a b l y e n c o u n t e r c r e a t u r e s o f o u r o w n kind a m o n g all the
burn my finger on a tea k e t t l e , it s e e m s I am no l o n g e r u n a w a r e of my t h i n g s we m a y c o m e upon. In light of w h a t we h a v e said so far a b o u t t h e
own b o d y h o o d . In fact, my eyes or e a r s or f i n g e r s c a u s e me pain and peculiar w a y in w h i c h h u m a n e x i s t e n c e is p r e s e n t in t i m e and space, it is
m o v e into the f o r e g r o u n d as painful bodily o r g a n s . T h e y do n o t p e r m i t n o t e n o u g h t o i n t e r p r e t h u m a n coexistence simply a s the a p p e a r a n c e ,
me to p e r c e i v e a n y t h i n g but t h e fact t h a t I am body. B u t is this w h a t t h e y " h e r e " and " h e r e , " o f physical h u m a n bodies. T h e p e r s o n walking t o w a r d
actually do? In m a k i n g this claim, h a v e n ' t we fallen into the prejudice of me m i g h t be t h i n k i n g j u s t n o w of a friend in S a n F r a n c i s c o , and as long as
t r e a t i n g the bodying f o r t h of o u r e x i s t e n c e as if it w e r e simply a physical he does, he is o v e r " t h e r e , " his w h o l e e x i s t i n g a b s o r b e d in this
body? It is significant t h a t t h e s e pains involve t h e p e r c e p t i o n of extremes r e l a t i o n s h i p to his friend in s u c h a w a y t h a t he e x t e n d s far b e y o n d the
w h i c h strain o u r bodily s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n s to t h e b r e a k i n g point, it they do o b s e r v a b l e v o l u m e of his body a c r o s s an o c e a n . If he is e x i s t e n t i a l l y t h e r e
not actually d a m a g e t h e m . W h e n e v e r bodily pain o c c u r s , we are in the and I am h e r e , t h e n h o w and w h e r e do h u m a n b e g i n s c o e x i s t in the
world?
106 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 107

Human coexistence in a shared world


T h e h u m a n c a p a c i t y to be l o n e l y is a g o o d point to s t a r t f r o m in
understanding the inherent coexistence of h u m a n beings in their shared
w o r l d . No o n e c a n be l o n e l y w h o s e b e i n g is n o t ordinarily m a r k e d by a
t o g e t h e r n e s s w i t h o t h e r s o f his kind. L o n e l i n e s s a l w a y s p o i n t s b e y o n d
i t s e l f t o s o m e c o e x i s t e n c e , and h u m a n l o n e l i n e s s e x i s t s o n l y a s p r i v a t i o n
o f m a n ' s p r i m a r y t o g e t h e r n e s s w i t h o t h e r s . T h e f u n d a m e n t a l trait o f t h e
existential coexistence of human beings appears in their jointly
s u s t a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o p e n n e s s o f t h e w o r l d t h e y c l e a r i n
c o m m o n . It is c a r r i e d o u t in s h a r e d w a y s of p e r c e i v i n g and r e s p o n d i n g to
whatever is commonly encountered.
T h i s e x i s t e n t i a l c o e x i s t e n c e in a s h a r e d w o r l d s h o u l d n o t be p i c t u r e d as
s o m e kind o f c o l l e c t i v e p r e s e n c e o f individual s u b j e c t s , each c o n s i s t i n g o f
a strictly delimited and spatially localized p s y c h i c or c o n s c i o u s capsule in
w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f o b j e c t s o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d are m i r r o r e d . I f
h u m a n e x i s t e n c e a c t u a l l y w e r e m a d e a l o n g s u c h lines, i t would b e
impossible for people t o discuss t h i n g s w i t h i m m e d i a t e r e c o g n i t i o n o f
w h a t i s b e i n g discussed. T h e y could only try t o say s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e
i m a g e each h a s in his isolated p s y c h e . B u t in t h e p h e n o m e n a of collective
h u m a n b e h a v i o r t h e r e i s n o e v i d e n c e o f individual p s y c h e s h a v i n g
dialogues a b o u t e n d o p s y c h i c m a t e r i a l . P s y c h o l o g i s t s do claim t h a t it is
self-evident that the c o n s c i o u s n e s s - i m m a n e n t representations of the
e x t e r n a l w o r l d are p r o j e c t e d o u t w a r d again, i m m e d i a t e l y and automatical
ly. B u t no o n e has y e t actually s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h i s claim w i t h p r o o f , and no
o n e has m a n a g e d e v e n t o o f f e r a n h y p o t h e s i s t o explain h o w s u c h
SUBJECTIVISTIC REPRESENTATION OF THE INTERPERSONAL DIALOGUE
p r o j e c t i o n could a r i s e in a s u b j e c t a s s u m e d to be originally w o r l d - l e s s , or
i n t o w h a t this p r o j e c t i o n m i g h t b e p r o j e c t e d . T h e fact i s t h a t , w h e n
la Body of Regula Zrcher. lb Body of her lover.
people are t o g e t h e r , t h e y r e v e a l o n l y t h a t t h e y are j o i n t l y and i n h e r e n t l y
2a Brain of Regula Zrcher. 2b Brain of her lover.
dwelling i n t h e s a m e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c o m m o n o b j e c t s o f t h e i r s h a r e d
3a Psyche of Regula Zrcher. 3b Psyche of her lover.
world.
4a Endopsychic representation 4b Endopsychic representation
I n t h e s a m e w a y i n w h i c h o b j e c t s r e v e a l t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s and m e a n i n g - of the external-world hotel
of the external-world hotel
fulness directly in t h e o p e n n e s s of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , so a h u m a n b e i n g in h e r l o v e r .
in Regula Zrcher.
also p e r c e i v e s o t h e r people directly, w i t h o u t a n y h y p o t h e t i c a l e m p a t h y ,
5: External world.
but simply b y v i r t u r e o f t h e fact t h a t all a r e b e i n g s o f t h e s a m e kind w h o
6: Light stimuli of t h e
dwell t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e s a m e
external-world object.
phenomena which shine through the world-openness they sustain in
7: External-world object,
common.
8a b : S p e a k i n g b a c k and f o r t h (dia-logue) o f R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r and h e r
It is difficult to give e v e n an a p p r o x i m a t e g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of this
l o v e r a b o u t t h e i r s e p a r a t e e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the
existence, but we have nevertheless reproduced t w o drawings in an
external-world hotel.
a t t e m p t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e decisive d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e traditional
psychological view o f m a n and his c o e x i s t e n c e a n d t h e e x i s t e n t i a l
c o u n t e r p a r t o f this view.
108 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 10' I

It is n o t o n l y m e d i c i n e t h a t n e e d s to see this p r i m a r y t o g e t h e r n e s s ol
h u m a n beings around the objects of their shared world. Sociology, now
enjoying great popularity, always concerns itselfconsciously or
u n c o n s c i o u s l y w i t h this o n t o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a of e x i s t e n c e . In fact,
this p r i m a r y t o g e t h e r n e s s is explicitly t h e sole b a s i s of s o c i o l o g y , and
u n l e s s e a c h m o d e of o n t i c social b e h a v i o r is s e e n in r e l a t i o n to the
p r i m a r y c o e x i s t e n c e o f h u m a n b e i n g , a n y s t a t e m e n t a b o u t sociological
p h e n o m e n a is left h a n g i n g in thin air. T h i s e s s e n t i a l c o e x i s t e n c e is t h e
basis n o t only o f o u r j o i n t u n d e r t a k i n g s w i t h t h e t h i n g s o f o u r world but
of every sort of relationship among human beings themselves, w h e t h e r
t h e y a r e dealing w i t h e a c h o t h e r a s useful o b j e c t s o r e x p r e s s i n g s o m e
f o r m o f love o r h a t e t o w a r d e a c h o t h e r .

The question of mood (attunement)


We have seen that existence is essentially an o p e n n e s s to perceiving
w h a t e v e r e n t e r s t h e r e a l m o f this o p e n n e s s , s h i n e s f o r t h w i t h i n it, and s o
5 c o m e s to be p r e s e n t as a b e i n g w i t h its o w n m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . T h e " p r e - "
of " p r e s e n t " p r e s u p p o s e s an open r e a l m . I n t o this a being can s h i n e forth
as " p h e n o m e n o n , " w h i c h d e r i v e s f r o m a G r e e k w o r d t h a t m e a n s "a
being's r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f . " W i t h o u t this r e a l m o f p e r c e p t i v e o p e n n e s s a s
w h i c h h u m a n being is e n g a g e d n o t h i n g at all could b e , n e i t h e r a world
n o r a n y t h i n g in a world. B e i n g as p r e s e n c e is n o t possible e x c e p t i n t o a
OPTIMAL EXISTENTIAL SKETCH OF HUMAN EXISTENCE AS PRIMARY BEING
r e a l m t h a t is p e r c e p t i v e l y o p e n , clear, and free.
TOGETHER AT THE COMMON OBJECTS OF A SHARED WORLD
B e c a u s e h u m a n e x i s t e n c e i s b y n a t u r e a n o p e n and c l e a r r e a l m o f
1: T h e existence of Regula Z u r c h e r and the existence of her lover as u n d e r s t a n d i n g , it is i n h e r e n t l y attuned in s o m e w a y or o t h e r . T h i s
t h e j o i n t l y s u s t a i n e d , c l e a r e d r e a l m o f p e r c e p t i v e and r e s p o n s i v e f u n d a m e n t a l , o n t o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t t u n e m e n t m a k e s i t possible
o p e n n e s s t o t h e w o r l d o f p h e n o m e n a a s localized p r e s e n c e s . for e x i s t e n c e to be p e r m e a t e d a l w a y s by s o m e d i s p o s i t i o n t h a t is
2: Hiddenness. demonstrable, accessible to psychological description, and, in the jargon
3: T h e couple's t h e m a t i c being t o g e t h e r a t t h e i r r e s o r t h o t e l i n t h e of p h i l o s o p h y , " o n t i c . " T h e r e is no s u c h t h i n g as an initially u n a t t u n e d
C a n a r y Islands, in t h e f o r m of a p e r c e p t i v e visualization of this e x i s t e n c e in w h i c h a disposition of s o m e kind simply a r i s e s n o w and t h e n
object. through the intrusion of some internal or external cause. Supplementary
4 , 5 , 6 : T h e lovers' being t o g e t h e r with the sense-perceptible street-car, c a u s e s h a v e no part in p r o d u c i n g d i s p o s i t i o n s . All t h e d i s p o s i t i o n s , or
buildings, and sidewalk; t h e m o d e of this r a n g e s f r o m a s c a r c e l y m o o d s , of w h i c h a p e r s o n is c a p a b l e a r e given to him i n n a t e l y as
n o t i c e d c o m m o n p e r c e p t i o n t o totally u n t h e m a t i c a w a r e n e s s o f e x i s t e n t i a l possibilities and as s u c h a r e a l w a y s m a k i n g up his e x i s t e n c e .
them. For example, even the happy mood into which Regula Z u r c h e r c a m e
+++ C r o s s e s i n d i c a t e t h e l o v e r ' s e c - s t a t i c dwelling in t h e w o r l d , in t h e w h e n s h e m e t h e r l o v e r w a s n o t c a u s e d b y t h e e n c o u n t e r . S h e could b e
s e n s e o f a n open and p e r c e p t i v e b e i n g a t w h a t h e e n c o u n t e r s . joyful o n l y in so far as t h e possibility of a happy, spirited a t t u n e m e n t had
C i r c l e s indicate R e g u l a Z i i r c h e r ' s o p e n a n d p e r c e p t i v e b e i n g a t a l w a y s b e l o n g e d to h e r . S i n c e h e r happy m o o d e x i s t e d a l r e a d y as an
what she encounters, i n n a t e p o t e n t i a l of h e r b e i n g , it did n o t need to be p r o d u c e d or e f f e c t e d . In
ooo T h e varied t h i c k n e s s e s o f t h e c r o s s e s and circles indicate the s u r p r i s e e n c o u n t e r , t h e possibility w a s c a r r i e d to fulfillment. If the
m o m e n t a r y variations in the existential closeness of relation l o v e r h i m s e l f w e r e a c t u a l l y t h e c a u s e o f h e r h a p p i n e s s , i t would b e
ships to w h a t is p r e s e n t in t h e s h a r e d w o r l d . difficult t o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e s a m e c a u s e (the s a m e m a n ) could have
produced t h e radically d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t o f c a t a s t r o p h i c a n x i e t y b e f o r e I h e
110 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings

y o u n g w o m a n ' s r e c o v e r y . B u t i n t h e m e a n t i m e h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the B u t if a n g e r and h a t e , or j o y and love are d i s t i n g u i s h e d not o n h SI


world had b e c o m e free and o p e n e n o u g h to let t h e i n n a t e possibility of a different a f f e c t s , b u t as a f f e c t s and p a s s i o n s , t h e y d e m a n d m o r e pie. Ill
happy m o o d be realized, and the s e c o n d e n c o u n t e r with t h e y o u n g m a n definition. Like a n g e r , h a t e is n o t p r o d u c e d at will and it t o o seems to
ended i n t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f happy a t t u n e m e n t . W h e n e v e r w e s e e o v e r c o m e us like an a t t a c k of a n g e r . B u t b e c a u s e of its a t t u n e m e n t , tin
s o m e o n e e n t e r a p a r t i c u l a r m o o d , w h a t we are actually w i t n e s s i n g is o n l y a t t a c k o f h a t e i s quite unlike t h a t o f a n g e r . H a t e can e r u p t suddenly i n t o
a r e a t t u n e m e n t of his e x i s t e n c e from an old r e i g n i n g disposition into a an a c t i o n , but o n l y b e c a u s e it h a s had us u n d e r a t t a c k for a long t i m e . C >ui
new one. w h o l e being is c o n c e n t r a t e d in its a t t u n e m e n t to a p a s s i o n like love and
But i n t h e e s s e n t i a l a t t u n e m e n t o f o u r e x i s t e n c e are r o o t e d n o t o n l y a l s o , in a c e r t a i n s e n s e , in its a t t u n e m e n t to h a t e . In its a t t u n e m e n t , o u r
the manifold p a r t i c u l a r o n t i c m o o d s and dispositions of h a p p i n e s s and being is m u c h m o r e with t h a n beside itself, w h i l e t h e r e v e r s e is t r u e
s o r r o w , s o b r i e t y and e q u a n i m i t y , i n d i f f e r e n c e , b o r e d o m and a n x i e t y , but c o n c e r n i n g i m m o d e r a t e p l e a s u r e , o v e r p o w e r i n g a n g e r , and o t h e r
also o u r e m o t i o n s , o u r feelings and a f f e c t s . Like m o o d s and dispositions, sudden, forceful a f f e c t s .
t h e s e n e v e r appear a s isolated s e l f - c o n t a i n e d e n d o p s y c h i c e n t i t i e s o f t h e T h e fact t h a t h u m a n being is c o n s t a n t l y c o n c e n t r a t e d in its
sort that a p e r s o n m i g h t have or p o s s e s s ; t h e y a r e particular m o d e s in a t t u n e m e n t t o t h e p a s s i o n s o f g r e a t love o r g r e a t h a t e does n o t m e a n that
w h i c h h u m a n e x i s t e n t i a l a t t u n e m e n t is fulfilled. the h u m a n being b e c o m e s closed off, blind. O n the c o n t r a r y , a s g r e a t
E v e r y a t t u n e m e n t as a t t u n e m e n t is a particular m o d e of t h e p e r c e p t i v e l o v e r s and h a t e r s we a r e especially w i s e and p e r c e p t i v e w i t h regard to
o p e n n e s s o f o u r e x i s t e n c e . T h e prevailing a t t u n e m e n t i s a t any given c e r t a i n qualities, for t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o u r being is an
time the c o n d i t i o n o f o u r o p e n n e s s for perceiving and dealing w i t h w h a t o p e n n e s s to p e r c e p t i o n and this is j u s t w h a t is in s o m e w a y c o n c e n t r a t e d
we e n c o u n t e r ; the pitch at w h i c h o u r e x i s t e n c e , as a set of r e l a t i o n s h i p s to in t h e p a s s i o n s . It is well k n o w n h o w s e n s i t i v e p a r a n o i d h a t r e d is to e v e n
o b j e c t s , o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r people, is v i b r a t i n g . W h a t we call m o o d s , t h e m o s t subtle s t i r r i n g s i n o t h e r s , w h o r e c o g n i z e t h e s e feelings a s
feelings, a f f e c t s , e m o t i o n s , and s t a t e s are the c o n c r e t e m o d e s in w h i c h u n f r i e n d l y , or u n k i n d , or e v e n h o s t i l e . And people p a s s i o n a t e l y in love
the possibilities for being o p e n are fulfilled. T h e y are at the s a m e time t h e have a special s e n s e for t h e hidden g o o d n e s s and b e a u t y , t h e p o t e n t i a l
m o d e s in w h i c h this p e r c e p t i v e o p e n n e s s can be n a r r o w e d , d i s t o r t e d , or h u m a n r i c h n e s s , o f t h o s e t h e y love.
closed off. T h e a n g r y p e r s o n , o n t h e o t h e r hand, "beside h i m s e l f , " loses all s e n s e
O p e n n e s s , or r e c e p t i v i t y , can e x i s t only in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h of p r o p o r t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to t h e o p e n or closed p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h is t h a t
r e s t r i c t i o n . Each predicates the o t h e r . It can t h e r e f o r e be said t h a t e v e r y self. As long as he is furious or i n f a t u a t e d t h e a f f e c t - l a d e n individual has
r e s t r i c t i o n is a p a r t i c u l a r privation of o p e n n e s s . W h a t e v e r its m o m e n t a r y lost a c l e a r vision of t h e significant m e a n i n g s a d d r e s s i n g him in his
3
a t t u n e m e n t , t h e o p e n n e s s t h a t i s o u r e x i s t e n c e a l w a y s d e t e r m i n e s a s well world.
the particular breadth or narrowness, brightness or obscurity of that It w a s a p p a r e n t l y n o t so r a r e o n c e for kings to h a v e b e a r e r s of bad
existence. tidings s u m m a r i l y e x e c u t e d . T r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y t r i e s t o explain a w a y
In traditional medical r e s e a r c h , t h e v a r i o u s s h a d i n g s of e x i s t e n c e w e r e this s o r t of t h i n g as " a f f e c t i v e irradiation," a s s u m i n g w i t h its o b j e c t i f i c a -
crudely g r o u p e d a s " a f f e c t i v i t y . " T h e d i s t i n c t i o n s a m o n g t h e m w e r e n o t tion of h u m a n b e i n g s t h a t a f f e c t i v e e x c i t a t i o n s are e n t i t i e s p r e s e n t in t h e
scientifically m a i n t a i n e d . All t h a t e x i s t s for a p a r t i c u l a r p h e n o m e n o l o g y p s y c h e of t h e a n g r y p e r s o n and have spread or " i r r a d i a t e d " like an
of m o o d s , e m o t i o n s and feelings are a f e w t e n t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s , and in electrical field from t h e i r actual c e n t e r , t h e writer of t h e l e t t e r , to its
the f r a m e w o r k o f this g e n e r a l f o u n d a t i o n for m e d i c i n e , w e o u r s e l v e s can deliverer. B u t t h i n g s like e l e c t r i c a l fields, having no feeling for a d v e r s i t y ,
only give a f e w clues c o n c e r n i n g a possible d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . can n e v e r b e beside t h e m s e l v e s w i t h a n g e r . W h a t actually h a p p e n s with
A n g e r , for i n s t a n c e , is called an affect. W h e n we say " h a t e , " we r e f e r to the a n g r y king is t h a t his e n t i r e e x i s t e n c e , as the realm of p e r c e p t i o n it is,
a passion. Y e t both are called feelings. T h i s o v e r l o o k s i m p o r t a n t shifts to b e c o m e "beside i t s e l f , " i t s vision so impaired in t h e p r o c e s s that it
d i f f e r e n c e s . A n g e r is not s o m e t h i n g t h a t can be put on or taken o f f at can n o l o n g e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n the l e t t e r w r i t t e r and the l e t t e r
will. It a s s a u l t s us, falls upon us, a f f e c t s us, its a t t a c k t r a n s p o r t i n g us in carrier.
such a way t h a t we are no l o n g e r m a s t e r s of o u r s e l v e s . An agitated N o w , e v e n i n its c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t u n e m e n t t o love o r h a t e , a n e x i s t e n c e
person " t a k e s leave of h i m s e l f " and is t h e n "beside h i m s e l f . " We say, for is o p e n to t h e p e r c e p t i o n of p h e n o m e n a only in limited w a y s . T h u s t h e r e
i n s t a n c e , that s o m e o n e is beside h i m s e l f w i t h j o y . is blind h a t r e d . People w h o h a t e p a s s i o n a t e l y are no l o n g e r r e s p o n s i v e to
Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings
112 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

the face of an a t t a c k by a rabid dog w o u l d qualify as realistic. T h e lear ol


t h e good side o f w h a t e v e r t h e y h a t e . C o n v e r s e l y , s o m e o n e w h o i s
mice t h a t impels n u m b e r s of w o m e n i n t o panicked flight or o n t o chairs is
p a s s i o n a t e l y in love t e n d s to o v e r l o o k ugly a s p e c t s of the beloved p e r s o n
an e x a m p l e of a so-called i n n e r , n e u r o t i c , u n r e a l i s t i c i n s t i n c t i v e a n x i e t y .
o r t h i n g . T h e m a s k i n g p r o c e s s c o m m o n t o p a s s i o n a t e h a t e and p a s s i o n a t e
T h i s i n s t i n c t i v e a n x i e t y was first t h o u g h t to be a d i r e c t product ol the
love p r e s u m a b l y d e r i v e s f r o m t h e fact t h a t , i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e s t a t e s ,
t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a c c u m u l a t e d libido. L a t e r , t h e e g o w a s m a d e the seal
e x i s t e n c e is c o n c e r n e d w i t h its o w n p o w e r . In h a t r e d , an e x i s t e n c e
of a n x i e t y and e v e r y a n x i e t y t h e n b e c a m e a kind of w a r n i n g to t h e e g o ol
e x p e r i e n c e s a n y t h i n g t h a t s t a n d s in t h e w a y of its p o w e r as an
s o m e d a n g e r facing it.
o b s t r u c t i o n to be o v e r r i d e n and d e s t r o y e d . A p a s s i o n a t e l y loving
e x i s t e n c e s e e s in t h e loved o n e t h e p o t e n t i a l for a t o g e t h e r n e s s t h a t But the existence of unrealistic, inner anxieties as transformation
would o f f e r a m u c h g r e a t e r s t o r e of h u m a n possibilities t h a n its o w n p r o d u c t s of a c c u m u l a t e d i n s t i n c t s is precluded by t h e v e r y fact that
single e x i s t e n c e could e v e r c o m p o s e by itself. i n s t i n c t s are b y definition c o m p o s e d o f psychic e n e r g y , and n o m e r e
e n e r g y can c o m p r e h e n d a n y t h i n g in its significance as s o m e t h i n g
A n o t h e r m a j o r e m o t i o n a l m o d e is a c o m p o s e d , j o y o u s s e r e n i t y . It can
d a n g e r o u s . E n e r g y i s e n t i r e l y w i t h o u t vision. Y e t a n x i e t y p r e s u p p o s e s
give h u m a n e x i s t e n c e t h e kind of r e c e p t i v i t y t h a t allows it to see in the
and is based upon a p e r c e p t i o n of s o m e t h i n g like d a n g e r , or d e a t h .
b r i g h t e s t light t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s and c o n n e c t i o n s o f e v e r y p h e n o m e n
M o r e o v e r , a n e u r o t i c fear of mice is n o t a w a r n i n g signal d e s i g n e d to
on t h a t r e v e a l s itself. S u c h a s e r e n i t y is a c l e a r n e s s and o p e n n e s s in w h i c h
m a k e t h e e g o a w a r e of s o m e d a n g e r o u s unrealistic inner thing. It is a fear of
a h u m a n being is emotionally connected to everything he meets, wanting
a n e x t e r n a l and real m o u s e . W h a t h a p p e n s h e r e i s t h a t t h e " o u t e r r e a l i t y "
n o t to h a v e t h i n g s in his o w n p o w e r b u t c o n t e n t to let t h e m be and
is m i s t a k e n u n d e r the i n f l u e n c e of a s t a t e of a n x i e t y t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h
develop on t h e i r o w n . B e c a u s e this c o m p o s e d , j o y o u s s e r e n i t y o p e n s a
the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f a n e x i s t e n c e . I n this a t t u n e m e n t , a n e x i s t e n c e
h u m a n being t o t h e b r o a d e s t possible r e s p o n s i v e n e s s , i t c o n s t i t u t e s
m a y i n t e r p r e t s o m e t h i n g h a r m l e s s as a dire t h r e a t , y e t e v e n m i s u n d e r
h a p p i n e s s as well. F o r e v e r y h u m a n e x i s t e n c e is by i t s e l f a t t u n e d to
stood t o this e x t e n t t h e t h i n g r e m a i n s a n actual p h e n o m e n o n o u t s i d e i n
happiness w h e n e v e r all its i n n a t e p o t e n t i a l w a y s of being stand o p e n to it.
the w o r l d . An e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m is c o n t a i n e d in t h e s e a r c h for
A n e x i s t e n c e free t o e n g a g e i t s e l f i n s u c h a n a t t u n e m e n t can a c c e p t
biographical f a c t o r s t h a t m i g h t e l u c i d a t e w h y a n e x i s t e n c e h a s b e e n
s e r e n e l y e v e n t h e possibility o f its o w n d e a t h . D e a t h , t h e s u r e s t o f all
r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e single basic s t a t e o f fearing a n i m a l i t y i n t h e f o r m o f
realities, r e v e a l s i t s e l f to an e x i s t e n c e so a t t u n e d as a p r o c e s s of being
m i c e , b u t i m p o r t a n t as it is, this q u e s t i o n does n o t t o u c h at all on the
b r o u g h t b e f o r e a void. To this e x i s t e n c e , t h e void appears no l o n g e r an
p h e n o m e n o n o f fearing mice a s s u c h . H o w e v e r t h e y m a y a r i s e , all
e m p t y n o t h i n g n e s s but a void so a b u n d a n t l y rich t h a t all being could
a n x i e t i e s a r e realistic a n x i e t i e s . It is a l w a y s s o m e t h i n g a c t u a l t h a t is
issue f r o m it. In this u n d e r s t a n d i n g s e r e n i t y differs m o s t p r o f o u n d l y
feared, and t h e o b j e c t o f c o n c e r n i s t h e capability o f c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e
from a n x i e t y , a n o t h e r basic s t a t e o f h u m a n being. 4
in a h u m a n w o r l d w h i c h is t h r e a t e n e d by t h e feared t h i n g .
A n x i e t y is t h e a t t u n e m e n t in w h i c h e x i s t e n c e is b o t h o p e n e d up and
O u r final e x a m p l e o f basic h u m a n s t a t e s i s t h e m o o d o f s o r r o w . S o r r o w
r e s t r i c t e d to perceiving t h e possibility of losing its hold on all o t h e r being,
as a p o t e n t i a l w a y of being in h e a l t h y people is n o t to be c o n f u s e d w i t h
of being t h r o w n back e n t i r e l y upon itself, and c e a s i n g to be, in total
pathological f o r m s o f d e p r e s s i o n d i s c o n t e n t , a n n o y a n c e , h o p e l e s s n e s s
isolation. For i n s t a n c e , e v e n w h e n a m o t h e r fears n o t for h e r o w n life b u t
and t h e petrified v a r i e t i e s w h i c h will be discussed later on; n e i t h e r is it
for h e r child's, s h e i s a n x i o u s a b o u t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f h e r s e l f . H e r
e g o c e n t r i c self-pity. E x i s t e n c e is a t t u n e d to t r u e s o r r o w w h e n it
e x i s t e n c e is so w r a p p e d up in h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to h e r child, h e r e x i s t e n c e
e x p e r i e n c e s a b r e a k or r u p t u r e in its r e l a t i o n s h i p to a c l o s e h u m a n
m e r g e s s o m u c h i n t o t h e i r being t o g e t h e r , t h a t b r e a k i n g this r e l a t i o n s h i p
a c q u a i n t a n c e o r s o m e c h e r i s h e d o b j e c t , b u t t h e o b j e c t o f s o r r o w i s not
would b e t a n t a m o u n t t o d e s t r o y i n g h e r e x i s t e n c e . R e m e m b e r t h a t
lost w i t h this r u p t u r e . I f t h e c a p a c i t y t o b e w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f s o r r o w w e r e
e x i s t e n c e c o n s i s t s solely in its possibilities for r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
really b r o k e n o r r u p t u r e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was
In c o n t r a s t to s e r e n i t y , a n x i e t y e x p o s e s t h e n e c e s s i t y of d e a t h o n l y as
d e s t r o y e d a l t o g e t h e r this s o r r o w a t loss could n o t arise; t h a t t h i n g would
the possibility o f n o l o n g e r being h e r e , o f perishing i n t o e m p t i n e s s . B u t i n
simply h a v e fallen o u t o f t h e w o r l d and b e e n f o r g o t t e n , w o u l d n o l o n g e r
the very act of e n t e r i n g into its possibilities, e x i s t e n c e e n t e r s d a n g e r , for
be t h e r e . " In s o r r o w , h o w e v e r , w h a t is s o r r o w e d for c o m e s close to the
e x i s t e n c e e x h a u s t s itself in t h e c o u r s e of e x i s t i n g . T h u s people w h o arc"
s o r r o w i n g p e r s o n in a p a r t i c u l a r w a y . T h e r u p t u r e perceived in s o r r o w
m o s t afraid of death a r e t h o s e w h o h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t a n x i e t y about life.
c o n c e r n s s o m e actual p a r t i c u l a r m o d e o f being w i t h t h e o b j e c t which the
T r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y o f t e n m a k e s a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n realistic,
e x t e i nal a n x i e t y and an u n r e a l i s t i c , i n n e r i n s t i n c t i v e a n x i e t y . A n x i e t y in
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings
114

r u p t u r e n o l o n g e r a l l o w s . G o n e i s t h e possibility o f e v e r again being w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y n a t u r a l scientific t h e o r i e s o f m e m o r y . M o r e t h a n fifteen


and at t h a t o b j e c t , in m i n d and body. While t h e bonds of the r e l a t i o n s h i p h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o i n t h e W e s t e r n tradition A u g u s t i n e w r o t e i n the t e n t h
m a y b e c o m e m o r e i n t i m a t e t h a n e v e r i n t h e m o d e o f visualization, the b o o k of his Confessions: " a n d I k n o w t h a t t h e y [the s o u n d s t h a t c o m p r i s e
h u m a n e x i s t e n c e is in fact r u p t u r e d and b r o k e n in a c e r t a i n s e n s e . H e a v y words] a r e b l o w n a w a y w i t h t h e i r r e s o n a n c e s i n t h e w i n d and are n o
d a m a g e is done to t h e e x i s t e n c e of a lover w h o s e p a r t n e r has died, or w h o m o r e . B u t t h e actual t h i n g s signified b y t h e s e s o u n d s I h a v e n e v e r
has b e e n a b a n d o n e d for a n o t h e r . S u c h an e x i s t e n c e s u f f e r s a g r e a t g r a s p e d w i t h a n y o f m y physical s e n s e s n o r s e e n t h e m a n y w h e r e out
r e d u c t i o n i n t h e n u m b e r o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s o n c e possible w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e in f r o n t of my mind, and so it is t h e y t h e m s e l v e s , and n o t t h e i r
5

t h e o b j e c t o f s o r r o w . A medical s t u d e n t failing t h e s t a t e e x a m t h r e e t i m e s i m a g e s , t h a t I h a v e p r e s e r v e d in my m e m o r y . "


will m o u r n a lost o p p o r t u n i t y for a n e w m o d e of being, for b e c o m i n g a Admittedly, the word " m e m o r y " carries associations that seem to
d o c t o r . M a n y p a t i e n t s g o i n t o deep s o r r o w w h e n , i n t h e c o u r s e o f c o n t r a d i c t t h e facts o f t h e m a t t e r . I t s e e m s t o b e c o n n e c t e d w i t h recalling
a n a l y s i s , t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e m u l t i t u d e o f possibilities lost f o r e v e r and t o m i n d and r e t a i n i n g m e r e t h o u g h t . B u t the a p p e a r a n c e o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n
t o r n a w a y from t h e i r e x i s t e n c e b e c a u s e t h e i r a c t u a l i z a t i o n had b e e n p e r s i s t s only if we p i c t u r e t h o u g h t as simply a c e r e b r a l p r o c e s s and
blocked in t h e past. t h o u g h t s t h e m s e l v e s a s c a r b o n copies o f e n t i t i e s w i t h i n t h e p s y c h e and
r e m e m b e r i n g s o m e t h i n g as a r e a w a k e n i n g of e n d o p s y c h i c i m a g e s from
B u t h u m a n b e i n g s k n o w s o r r o w not o n l y i n t h e f o r m o f isolated pain
t h e e n g r a m m a t i c , m a t e r i a l - e n e r g e t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e brain.
ful e x p e r i e n c e s o f s e p a r a t i o n . S o r r o w p e r v a d e s h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , n o
A s a n y o n e can learn from his o w n e x p e r i e n c e , w h a t really h a p p e n s
m a t t e r h o w o f t e n it is d r o w n e d o u t , at t h e painful insight i n t o t h e finite
w h e n w e t h i n k and h a v e t h o u g h t s i s simply t h a t w e b e c o m e a w a r e o f
limits o f e x i s t e n c e and its e s s e n t i a l s e p a r a t i o n from the a b s o l u t e and
c e r t a i n o f t h e p h e n o m e n a o f o u r world. T h e s e p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s ,
unconditional.
t o g e t h e r w i t h all o f t h e i r m e a n i n g s and c o n n e c t i o n s , reveal t h e m s e l v e s
T h e b r e a k i n g , r e n d i n g , and d a m a g i n g o f e x i s t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o
directly to us f r o m t h e l o c a t i o n at w h i c h t h e y are p r e s e n t in t h e open
o t h e r people, t o o b j e c t s o f the s u r r o u n d i n g w o r l d , and t o the a b s o l u t e can
r e a l m o f o u r w o r l d . T h i n k i n g , t h e n , i s allowing w h a t a d d r e s s e s u s
also e m p h a t i c a l l y affect t h e b o d y h o o d o f a n e x i s t e n c e . Injuries t o the
t h r o u g h t h e o p e n n e s s o f t h e t i m e - s p a c e o f o u r w o r l d t o arise again
body are e x p e r i e n c e d as bodily pain. T h e close k i n s h i p b e t w e e n bodily
t h e m a t i c a l l y . Even t h e n a t u r a l scientific w a y of t h i n k i n g is only a
pain and s o r r o w is e x p r e s s e d in calling s o r r o w " h e a r t b r e a k , " in t h e "pain
p a r t i c u l a r m o d e of l e t t i n g b e i n g s appear, t h a t reduced w a y in w h i c h
and s o r r o w " o f a n g u i s h . Will s o r r o w i n n e r pain b e u n d e r s t o o d o n t h e
b e i n g s t e n d to reveal t h e m s e l v e s solely as c h a i n s of p r e s u m e d and
basis of bodily pain, or does bodily pain depend, r a t h e r , on s o r r o w , t h e
calculable causal e f f e c t s .
r e c o g n i t i o n o f a flaw r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e a b u n d a n c e o f r e l a t i o n a l
M o s t o f w h a t w e r e t a i n quickly r e c e d e s i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f
possibilities? W e m u s t p o s t p o n e discussing this q u e s t i o n , a s w e
n o n t h e m a t i c p r e s e n c e . B u t e v e n a n u n t h e m a t i c p r e s e n c e i s p r e s e n c e and
p o s t p o n e d t h e topic o f bodily pain, until w e c o m e t o talk a b o u t t h e
can address t h e p e r s o n w h o r e t a i n s it as s o m e t h i n g of a particular
pathological p h e n o m e n a o f e x i s t e n c e .
meaning. Unless the notion of retention is understood existentially,
m e m o r y is r e n d e r e d i n a c c e s s i b l e to scientific i n v e s t i g a t i o n as t h e
Human memory and the historicity of human existence
p h e n o m e n o n it truly is.
W e first e n c o u n t e r e d t h e issue o f r e t e n t i o n o f e a r l i e r p e r c e p t i o n i n
O r d i n a r i l y , t w o v e r y d i f f e r e n t h u m a n m o d e s o f b e i n g are indiscrimi
o u r discussion o f t h e v a r i o u s m o d e s o f p r e s e n c e , t h e r e t h a t w h a t i s
n a t e l y a t t r i b u t e d to m e m o r y . T h e first is t h e ability to visualize
r e t a i n e d in m e m o r y is n e i t h e r a series of e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of
something that was once perceived but afterwards receded to become an
e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s , n o r e n g r a m t r a c e s o f s e n s e i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e kind
uncontemplated, background presence. From the phenomenological
w h i c h can b e a s c e r t a i n e d physiologically i n t h e b r a i n ' s s u b s t a n c e . T h e y
p e r s p e c t i v e s t h e r e is a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n this and actually
a r e the perceived e n t i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s w h i c h are r e t a i n e d a s t h e singularly
r e m e m b e r i n g e a r l i e r e v e n t s . If I am visualizing my c o t t a g e in the
m e a n i n g f u l p h e n o m e n a t h e y r e v e a l t h e m s e l v e s t o b e t e m p o r a r i l y and
m o u n t a i n s , I am n o t r e m e m b e r i n g it b u t am e x i s t i n g in s o m e r e l a t i o n s h i p
spatially w i t h i n t h e w o r l d l y r e a l m held o p e n by a h u m a n e x i s t e n c e .
to it in this visualizing w a y of b e i n g t h e r e w h e r e it is. T h e o n l y sort ol
As novel as this p r e l i m i n a r y p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l description of m e m o r y
thing I could r e m e m b e r , s t r i c t l y speaking, is s o m e t h i n g like buying it in
may s e e m to us today, it actually relies on i n s i g h t s predating all
1 9 4 5 . T h e p h e n o m e n o n of m e m o r y plays no part in a n y visualization ol
the h o m e as it n o w is; it e n t e r s in only il I visualize the p u r c h a s e ol the
116 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings

h o m e as an act t h a t o c c u r r e d at s o m e definite time in t h e past. To B y c o n t r a s t , p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y e m p h a t i c a l l y m a i n t a i n s t h a t such


r e m e m b e r is to visualize a thing of t h e past as s o m e t h i n g e x p e r i e n c e d at an o c c u r r e n c e is a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r g e t t i n g of t h e u m b r e l l a and of the
that time. possibility of t a k i n g it a l o n g . S u c h p h e n o m e n a are s t a m p e d as i n s t a n c e s
B u t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g m e m o r y w e m u s t also c o n s i d e r its deficient of faulty action (parapraxis) and t h e r e b y m a d e l i k e all f o r g e t t i n g
m a n i f e s t a t i o n w h i c h w e call " f o r g e t t i n g . " T h e v a r i o u s labels this effects of the repression of an unconscious desire. According to
p h e n o m e n o n has w o r n in the course of history attest to the uncertainty psychoanalytic theory, my forgetting of the umbrella would have been
of its n a t u r e . In classical G r e e k , it is a s s o c i a t e d with lethe; t h a t w h i c h c a u s e d by an u n c o n s c i o u s i n t e n t to r e t u r n to see my friend again as s o o n
r e m a i n s hidden. In Latin it is described by oblivo, oblivisci: f o r g e t t i n g as a as possible. By leaving my u m b r e l l a b e h i n d , I w o u l d u n c o n s c i o u s l y h a v e
wiping o u t . T h e G e r m a n v e r b ergessen ( " f o r g e t " ) is c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e c r e a t e d an e x c u s e for g o i n g b a c k for a visit right a w a y .
English " g e t . " T h e ver- prefix gives a n e g a t i v e twist to " g e t " so t h a t B u t this p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is u n c o n v i n c i n g . F o r o n e t h i n g , I
vergessenlike " f o r g e t " m e a n s " n o t to k e e p . " " W i p e o u t " and " n o t k e e p " am close e n o u g h to my friend to visit w h e n e v e r I w i s h w i t h o u t a p r e t e x t .
both set out from the standpoint of an ego, a notion unknown to the But more important is that from the very beginning the psychoanalytic
t h o u g h t o f classical G r e e c e . a c c o u n t m a k e s n o e f f o r t t o explain t h e f o r g e t t i n g o f m y u m b r e l l a a s
N i e t z s c h e w r i t e s in Morgenr'dthe: "It has n o t been p r o v e n t h a t s u c h a f o r g e t t i n g . I n s t e a d it r e s t s on a h y p o t h e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t h a s n o t h i n g
thing as f o r g e t t i n g e x i s t s ; all that is k n o w n is t h a t r e c o l l e c t i o n is n o t in t o d o w i t h t h e p h e n o m e n o n u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , w h i c h i s t h e leaving
o u r p o w e r . For t h e t i m e being, we h a v e filled this gap w i t h t h e w o r d b e h i n d o f m y u m b r e l l a . T h e supposed u n c o n s c i o u s i n t e n t i s p r e s e n t e d
f o r g e t , ' as if f o r g e t t i n g m e m o r y w e r e j u s t a n o t h e r ability in o u r r e g i s t e r , r i g h t from t h e s t a r t as t h e cause w h i c h b r i n g s a b o u t t h e so-called faulty
ut w h a t is t h e r e , w h e n all is said and d o n e , t h a t stands in o u r p o w e r ? " In a c t i o n ; b u t w h a t c a u s e s a p h e n o m e n o n to o c c u r is a n y t h i n g but t h e
Zarathustra we m a y read: " T h a t t h e r e is such a thing as f o r g e t t i n g h a s p h e n o m e n o n itself, and w h a t d e m a n d s e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h e p h e n o m e n o n
n e v e r b e e n p r o v e n , but o n l y t h a t t h e r e a r e m a n y t h i n g s w h i c h d o n o t itself.
occur to us when we want them to." My forgetting cannot be caused by the repression into an unconscious
T h e q u i c k e s t w a y t o u n d e r s t a n d this p r o b l e m a t i c p h e n o m e n o n i s t o of my c o n c e p t i o n of t h e u m b r e l l a . In o r d e r to f o r c e s o m e t h i n g inward, 1
d i s t i n g u i s h a m o n g t h e diverse m o d e s o f b e i n g t h a t pass for f o r g e t t i n g . w o u l d need to h a v e it w i t h i n my grasp. Y e t it is c l e a r t h a t w h i l e I am
N o w , if at t h e close of a s t i m u l a t i n g e v e n i n g I leave my u m b r e l l a at a taking leave of my friend, I am w i t h h i m , n o t w i t h my u m b r e l l a . T h u s I
friend's h o u s e , m o s t people would t h i n k m e guilty o f f o r g e t t i n g it. B u t i f c a n n o t possibly be o c c u p i e d w i t h a desire to f o r g e t it so I m a y visit him
f o r g e t t i n g is defined as h a v i n g t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e u m b r e l l a lost to t h e again. S u c h desire c a n n o t b e o p e r a t i n g a t t h a t m o m e n t , c o n s c i o u s l y o r
c o l l e c t i o n of o b j e c t s p r e s e n t in my w o r l d , I h a v e n o t f o r g o t t e n it at all. I u n c o n s c i o u s l y , b e c a u s e my w h o l e being is occupied w i t h my friend and
can t h i n k of it and p i c t u r e it to m y s e l f at a n y t i m e I c h o o s e . T h i s w o u l d w i t h t h e topic o f t h e e v e n i n g ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n . H e r e , f o r g e t t i n g i s n o t h i n g
n o t be possible u n l e s s t h e u m b r e l l a had r e m a i n e d in my world, t h o u g h its more than the changing of a phenomenon's immediate, thematically
presence be unthematic. c o n s i d e r e d p r e s e n c e in a h u m a n r e a l m of o p e n n e s s to its n o n i m m e d i a t e
T h e u m b r e l l a is simply an especially distant b a c k g r o u n d p r e s e n c e as I and u n t h e m a t i c p r e s e n c e s o m e w h e r e i n t h e w o r l d .
am leaving my friend, for I r e m a i n a b s o r b e d , body and soul, w i t h my It is a n o t h e r kind of f o r g e t t i n g w h e n I lose t r a c k of t h e n a m e ol
friend and i n t h e topic o f o u r c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h e u m b r e l l a ' s p r e s e n c e h a s s o m e o n e I k n o w and c a n n o t c o m e up w i t h it, no m a t t e r h o w hard I try.
thus become so distant to me that it would not occur to me actually to H e r e t h e t h i n g i t s e l f (in this c a s e , t h e n a m e ) e s c a p e s m e . B u t w h a t has the
pick it up and take it a l o n g . A n y t h i n g n o t in t a n g i b l e p r o x i m i t y c a n n o t n a m e e s c a p e d f r o m ? E v i d e n t l y f r o m my capacity for a s s o c i a t i n g it with
add r e s s me as a t h i n g to be t a k e n along; n o t e v e n t h e possibility of t a k i n g t h e p e r s o n , w h o m I still r e t a i n . T h i s type of f o r g e t t i n g m a n i f e s t s a
it along o c c u r s to m e . As long as this t h i n g is n o t p r e s e n t as s o m e t h i n g to deficiency in my p e r c e p t i v e r e t e n t i v e capacity and, as s u c h , c o n s t i t u t e s a
be t a k e n along, I c a n n o t really f o r g e t to t a k e it along. In a c t u a l fact, I h a v e special f o r m of my o t h e r w i s e i n t a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to a t h i n g . In this c a s e it
f o r g o t t e n n e i t h e r t h e u m b r e l l a i t s e l f n o r t h e possibility o f t a k i n g i t a l o n g . is a deficiency in my ability to r e l a t e m y s e l f to a p e r s o n w i t h such and
F o r g e t t i n g , as it is used h e r e , simply r e f e r s to t h e fact t h a t s o m e t h i n g is such a n a m e .
no longei c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a t i c a l l y in its p r e s e n c e , t h o u g h it r e m a i n s T h e n a m e , t h o u g h f o r g o t t e n , is n e v e r t h e l e s s still k n o w n to me in a
m i l h c m . i t I I .illy p r e s e n t . T h e m o d e o f its being present to me h a s c e r t a i n s e n s e as s o m e t h i n g t h a t has escaped me, as something, h i d d e n
ihanged
118 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings

from m e . It is p r e c i s e l y this a w a r e n e s s w h i c h lets me realize I h a v e constitutes that fundamental human characteristic of histoiuii.
f o r g o t t e n it, but even this a w a r e n e s s o f h a v i n g s o m e t h i n g can w i t h d r a w , R e t a i n i n g or n o t r e t a i n i n g s o m e single p h e n o m e n o n as h a v i n g o n c e bei 11
and t h e n I would no l o n g e r e v e n realize t h a t I e v e r k n e w t h e n a m e . n o w a p p e a r s as a definite, isolated, o n t i c possibility of t h e ontologli II
U n d e r s t o o d as t h e falling out of an e n t i t y ' s p r e s e n c e from my h u m a n ability to e x i s t h i s t o r i c a l l y , i.e., his ability to dwell by the beings l 'I
e x i s t e n t i a l r e a l m o f o p e n n e s s , f o r g e t t i n g c a r r i e s w i t h i t t h e possibility his w o r l d in t h e t e m p o r a l e k - s t a s e of t h e past. T h i s ability is |
t h a t u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h a t h a s fallen out can r e t u r n into t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of h u m a n being and d i s t i n g u i s h e s it from all o t h e r
openness of my being-in-the-world. present beings.
E v e r y t i m e w e f o r g e t s o m e t h i n g , w e also f o r g e t s o m e t h i n g o f H u m a n e x i s t e n c e is also h i s t o r i c a l in t h a t it is its e n t i r e life h i s t o r y . T h e
ourselves. When something escapes me, my relationship to that thing is e x i s t e n c e of a p e r s o n a l w a y s e x t e n d s f r o m his b i r t h to his d e a t h . If death
also lost, and t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s to w h a t is p r e s e n t in my e x i s t e n t i a l is t h e u t m o s t limit of h i s t o r i c a l h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , t h e n it m u s t truly
o p e n n e s s a r e j u s t w h a t m a k e u p m y e x i s t e n c e and m a k e m e w h a t l a m . T o b e l o n g to this e x i s t e n c e , as e v e r y b o r d e r b e l o n g s to w h a t it delimits.
the e x t e n t to w h i c h p r e s e n c e s escape me and I f o r g e t t h e m , I am W h a t r e m a i n s puzzling is t h e w a y in w h i c h h u m a n life and death a r e part
d i m i n i s h e d as a h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . of e a c h o t h e r . D e a t h is g i v e n such an i m p o r t a n t place in medicine t h a t
It should n o w be clear t h a t f o r g e t t i n g is n o t a s e p a r a t e m e n t a l ability o n e could say this s c i e n c e is p e r m a n e n t l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d death:
a n y m o r e t h a n r e m e m b e r i n g or r e t a i n i n g . It is an o c c u r r e n c e of o u r o p e n m e d i c i n e w a n t s e i t h e r to w a r d o f f death or to p o s t p o n e it as long as
r e a l m o f p e r c e p t i v e b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , o n e t o w h i c h w e are given o v e r possible. B e c a u s e o f this fact, n o foundation o f m e d i c i n e can dispense
at all t i m e s . Like r e m e m b e r i n g , it c o n c e r n s t h e t h i n g s of my w o r l d . It is w i t h discussing t h e m e a n i n g and n a t u r e o f h u m a n m o r t a l i t y .
without exception the names themselves, the persons or objects, which,
h a v i n g revealed t h e m s e l v e s from t h e i r places in the w o r l d - o p e n n e s s as D e a t h and h u m a n m o r t a l i t y
w h i c h I am e x i s t i n g , can e i t h e r be r e t a i n e d or slip a w a y f r o m m e . It does D e a t h is t h e u n s u r p a s s a b l e limit of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . In death,
not involve t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f s o m e a s s u m e d e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a e x i s t e n c e as bodily b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d has its final end. I n a n i m a t e
tions o f e x t e r n a l - w o r l d o b j e c t s . o b j e c t s a r e also described a s finite, a s n o t lasting e t e r n a l l y . T h e s a m e
If this is w h a t we call f o r g e t t i n g in h u m a n b e i n g s , h o w e v e r , t h e n applies also to n o n h u m a n life, but plants and animals do notdie, as h u m a n
m e m o r y and visualization o f past t h i n g s m u s t also b e m o r e than simple b e i n g s do. T h e y simply perish. O n l y h u m a n b e i n g s die having k n o w n
r e t e n t i o n like a passive s t o r a g e of t h i n g s in a h o l l o w space t h a t is o p e n b u t f r o m a n early age o f t h e i r m o r t a l i t y . S o for ages m o r t a l i t y h a s been
e m p t y and u n i n v o l v e d . T h i s is a far t o o limited n o t i o n of o u r r e t e n t i v e t h o u g h t of as a p r i m a r y trait of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , so m u c h so th.it
m e m o r y , t o o a b s t r a c t , t o o wrapped up in a s i n g l e , isolated facet. M e m o r y Parmenides named men mortals.
and r e t e n t i o n m u s t be seen in a m u c h b r o a d e r c o n t e x t . T h e k n o w l e d g e o f d e a t h l e a v e s m a n n o c h o i c e . H e i s compelled t o exist
in s o m e sort of p e r m a n e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to d e a t h , for it is impossible n o t to
T h e o p e n n e s s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e c o n s i s t s o f t h e capacity for
r e l a t e t o s o m e t h i n g w h i c h h a s o n c e b e e n perceived. N e c e s s a r i l y related
perceiving t h e p r e s e n c e and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f w h a t e v e r appears, the
to d e a t h , h u m a n e x i s t e n c e could well be called a " b e i n g - u n t o - d e a t h . " T h i s
capacity for r e s p o n d i n g m e a n i n g f u l l y to t h e perceived significance of
" b e i n g - u n t o - d e a t h " m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n manifold w a y s . T h e m o s t c o m m o n
t h e s e p h e n o m e n a in a w a y t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . H u m a n
is flight from death and f r o m t h e a w a r e n e s s of h u m a n m o r t a l i t y . Every
e x i s t e n c e is equally r e c e p t i v e to w h a t h a s b e e n perceived at s o m e f o r m e r
day o f t h e i r lives, people m a k e c o u n t l e s s a t t e m p t s t o d e c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s
time and has been r e t a i n e d . W h a t h a s o n c e b e e n p r e s e n t to a h u m a n
a b o u t this m o s t c e r t a i n aspect o f h u m a n life. T h e m a c a b r e c o m e d i e s
e x i s t e n c e is n e v e r simply past, finished, lost. W h a t h a s b e e n is r e t a i n e d in
played o u t in c e r t a i n A m e r i c a n funeral h o m e s r e p r e s e n t an e x t r e m e ol
the o p e n n e s s of the h u m a n Da-sein s o , t h a t it r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t l y p r e s e n t
this.
m the pi e s e n t , speaking into this p r e s e n t and c o d e t e r m i n i n g all p r e s e n t
conduct o l t h e h u m a n . T h a t w h i c h has b e e n " l i v e s " o n t h e n , i n the R e c o g n i t i o n of h u m a n m o r t a l i t y is always learned first from t h e de.it lis
present ["hereby, this " p a s t , " p r e s e n t as h a v i n g b e e n , t o g e t h e r w i t h the of others. We usually r e l e g a t e t h e s e d e a t h s to t h e i n c o n s p i c u o u s n e s s ol an
present, necessarily c o d e t e r m i n e s all f u t u r e b e h a v i o r . e v e r y d a y e v e n t . T h e d e a t h s o f o t h e r s b e c o m e m e r e c a s e s o f death whii h
can be passed o v e r , t h e k n o w l e d g e of personal m o r t a l i t y is allowed lo
\ VI HI I in he Is a w a r e of it or n o t , e v e r y h u m a n being dwells in tradition
dissipate in t h e t h o u g h t t h a t we t o o shall c e r t a i n l y die s o m e d a y , only not
and history H u m a n m e m o r y is this c o n s t a n t dwelling in t r a d i t i o n . It
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings
120

j u s t y e t . D e a t h is m a d e an e v e n t u a l i t y that does n o t m a t t e r for the b e c a u s e of this feeling t h a t t h e y let death e x t i n g u i s h t h e i r individual


p r e s e n t . Not o n l y for o u r s e l v e s do we try to c u s h i o n the fact of o u r e x i s t e n c e s w i t h o u t r e s i s t a n c e . B u t a f t e r p u b e r t y , a fear of death usually
m o r t a l i t y . W e also m a k e e v e r y e f f o r t t o s t e e r t h e s u r v i v o r s o f t h o s e w h o s e t s in, i n c r e a s i n g in i n t e n s i t y t h e m o r e an a d o l e s c e n t p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l l ,
die, and e v e n t h e dying t h e m s e l v e s , a w a y from t h o u g h t s o f d e a t h . D e a t h in t h e m o d e r n spirit, as an i n d e p e n d e n t l y f o r m e d , i n s u l a r s u b j e c t . As an
is m a d e to appear as simply a c h a n g e from o n e m o d e of being to a n o t h e r , i r r e v o c a b l e annihilation o f e v e r y t h i n g , death m u s t s e n d him into panic.
as a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m being alive to no l o n g e r e x i s t i n g , to a condition in N o w , m a r t y r s dying for a h o l y c a u s e can e n t e r death happily, no m a t t e r
w h i c h only t h e c o r p s e , a lifeless o b j e c t , r e m a i n s . w h a t t h e i r age, b e c a u s e for t h e m , death i s r e s u r r e c t i o n i n t o t h e beloved
T o t h e family o f s o m e o n e w h o has r e c e n t l y died, o f c o u r s e , t h e dead c a u s e t o w h i c h t h e y a r e s u b o r d i n a t e . B u t t h e r e are also u t t e r l y u n h e r o i c
person is m u c h m o r e t h a n an i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to old people w h o are able to die as peacefully and willingly as c h i l d r e n , for
him m u c h m o r e t h a n a t t e n d a n c e t o his physical r e m a i n s . T h e t h e y h a v e used up t h e i r e x i s t e n c e by actualizing all of its e s s e n t i a l
r e l a t i o n s h i p is o n e of actual care in t h e f o r m of o b s e q u i e s , m a i n t e n a n c e of r e l a t i o n a l possibilities. In s h o r t , t h e y h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h e t a s k given
t h e g r a v e and e v e n a n c e s t o r w o r s h i p . In t h e i r caring, m o u r n i n g and t h e m . T h e n again, t h e r e are o t h e r old people w h o r e s i s t e d e n t e r i n g full
r e m e m b e r i n g , t h e s u r v i v o r s a r e in a c e r t a i n s e n s e still with t h e o n e w h o and c a r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o w h a t t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d during t h e i r lives and
is dead, related to h i m as to a fellow being. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e dead is h e n c e b e c a m e guiltily i n d e b t e d t o t h e i r o w n e x i s t e n c e . T h e s e people a r e
t h e basis for all feelings o f r e v e r e n c e , f e a r , a w e , w o n d e r , s o r r o w , and terrified o f death a s o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t c o m e s far t o o s o o n .
d e f e r e n c e i n t h e face o f s o m e t h i n g g r e a t e r and m o r e p o w e r f u l . A s n u m e r o u s a s t h e p a r t i c u l a r w a y s o f b e h a v i n g t o w a r d death are, all,
Y e t o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p to death can also be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by naked fear, including t h e m o s t s t u b b o r n flight from d e a t h , t e s t i f y t o t h e insight t h a t
w h i c h lets death appear as the e x t i n c t i o n of e x i s t e n c e in an e m p t y void, h u m a n m o r t a l i t y is n o t j u s t an e v e n t destined for s o m e t i m e in t h e f u t u r e
t h e end of all t h i n g s . M e a n w h i l e , all that is c e r t a i n is t h a t e x i s t e n c e a f t e r but i r r e l e v a n t for t h e t i m e b e i n g . T h e y all m a k e clear t h a t m o r t a l i t y is an
death is no l o n g e r in t h e world in the s a m e w a y as b e f o r e . T h i s does n o t at i n n a t e p o t e n t i a l o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , the m o s t t h o r o u g h l y p e r v a s i v e and
all preclude t h e possibility t h a t death is n o t t h e radical annihilation o u r peculiarly h u m a n trait of all.
fear and a n x i e t y m a k e it out to b e . It could also m e a n h a v i n g o n e ' s T h e m o s t dignified h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o death c o n s i s t s i n keeping t h e
previous e x i s t e n t i a l m a n n e r o f bodily b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d t r a n s f o r m e d k n o w l e d g e of p e r s o n a l m o r t a l i t y c o n s t a n t l y in a w a r e n e s s , n e i t h e r fleeing
into an u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t s o r t of being, o n e t h a t is inaccessible to a from it n o r hiding it. O n l y such a b e i n g - u n t o - d e a t h can g u a r a n t e e t h e
m o r t a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n while he is still alive. It is e v e n possible t h a t in death precondition t h a t t h e Da-sein be able to free i t s e l f from its a b s o r p t i o n in,
e x i s t e n c e e n t e r s i n t o s o m e t h i n g t h a t is prior to all being; the dead m a y its s u b m i s s i o n and s u r r e n d e r o f i t s e l f t o t h e t h i n g s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f
attain a r e l a t i o n s h i p to B e i n g - n e s s as such t h a t is hidden from t h e living. e v e r y d a y living, and to r e t u r n to itself. A b e i n g - u n t o - d e a t h r e v e a l s death
It may be this possibility t h a t e n a b l e s c e r t a i n rare h u m a n b e i n g s to as t h e last possibility of t h e Da-sein in t h a t it r e v e a l s dying as t h e loss of all
accept death w i t h a c o m p o s e d s e r e n i t y , to e x p e r i e n c e it as t h e s u p p o r t f r o m o t h e r b e i n g s , h u m a n and n o n h u m a n . Each Da-sein dies its
m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a n e x i s t e n t i a l possibility e n c o m p a s s i n g and c o n s u m o w n death i n total l o n e l i n e s s . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f this i n s i g h t i s b y n o
m a t i n g all e x i s t e n c e but based in a d i m e n s i o n n o t at m a n ' s disposal. To m e a n s a r e s i g n e d , passive fixation on w h a t m u s t h a p p e n s o o n e r or l a t e r .
t h e e x i s t e n c e liberated and e x p a n s i v e e n o u g h t o reach this s e r e n i t y , O n t h e c o n t r a r y , i n a c c e p t i n g m o r t a l i t y a s his m o s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , final,
h u m a n m o r t a l i t y s h o w s t h a t m a n ' s being is o p e n at all t i m e s to t h a t isolated, a n d e x c e p t for t h e actual m o m e n t o f d e a t h c e r t a i n e x i s t e n t i a l
w h i c h is w h o l l y o t h e r t h a n any finite o n t i c being and w h i c h e n g a g e s man possibility, m a n first realizes his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for e v e r y i n s t a n t of his
as the r e a l m w h e r e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s is perceived, w h i c h can use him as e x i s t e n c e . I f m a n w e r e n o t finite and m o r t a l , h e w o u l d n e v e r miss
t h a t r e a l m of o p e n n e s s w h i c h is the n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n for the a n y t h i n g . T h e r e would a l w a y s b e t i m e t o c a t c h u p and m a k e s o m e t h i n g
a p p e a r a n c e and p r e s e n c e of all being. g o o d . B u t for s o m e o n e w h o is m o r t a l , no situation h a p p e n s t w i c e in quite
It is well k n o w n t h a t b e f o r e t h e y reach p u b e r t y , children usually have the s a m e w a y . If w h a t he does is n o t in t u n e w i t h t h e m o m e n t , th.it
no fear of dying. C h i l d r e n do n o t see t h e m s e l v e s as s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and m o m e n t is i r r e v o c a b l y lost to h i m ; his c o n s c i e n c e will r e m i n d him t h a t he
i n d e p e n d e n t s u b j e c t s . T h e y s e n s e , t h o u g h in a v e r y u n d e l i b e r a t e d w a y , has fallen b e h i n d in fulfilling his e x i s t e n c e .
t h a t t h e y are b o r n e along by s o m e t h i n g , an e n c o m p a s s i n g d i m e n s i o n , T h e h o n o r a b l e , o p e n , and t r u l y h u m a n s t a n c e b e f o r e death s e t s all
w h i c h t h e y perceive in and t h r o u g h t h e i r " o m n i p o t e n t " p a r e n t s . It is o t h e r e x i s t e n t i a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s in t h e i r p r o p e r places, and t h e y appear in
122 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS
Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 123

p r e s e n t , and b e s t o r e d t h e r e . A s t h e open realm o f p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h i t is,


p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e as e x i s t e n t i a l m o d e s f u n c t i o n i n g as p r e l i m i n a r i e s for
h u m a n e x i s t e n c e is " m e r e l y " a r e a l m of f u n d a m e n t a l p e r c e p t i v e
t h e e x t r e m e m o d e of d e a t h . F r o m this p e r s p e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e is not in
r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h e p h e n o m e n a o f t h e w o r l d . T h a t i s w h y o u r w o r l d can
danger of having one or the other of the more prominent potentialities
n e v e r b e divided i n t o o p e n n e s s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e o n t h e o n e hand and
made absolute. At the same time, con-dscious acceptance of mortality as
t h e t o t a l i t y o f c o n c r e t e n o n h u m a n b e i n g s o n t h e o t h e r . T h a n k s t o his
a n e s s e n t i a l trait o f e x i s t e n c e c o u n t e r b a l a n c e s t h e f e a r s o m e k n o w l e d g e
e x i s t e n t i a l o p e n n e s s to a n y p r e s e n c e t h a t r e v e a l s i t s e l f to h i m , a h u m a n
t h a t each p e r s o n m u s t die a l o n e . T h e p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g free for t h e
being is able to allow w h a t e v e r a p p e a r s in t h e r e a l m of his p e r c e p t i o n
e x t r e m e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f o n e ' s o w n death also frees a person w i t h r e s p e c t
simply t o b e . T h i s allowing d o e s n o t m e a n b e n i g n n e g l e c t o r i n d i f f e r e n c e .
t o o t h e r s , letting h i m u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r e x i s t e n t i a l possibilities o n the
It m e a n s e n t e r i n g i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h a t t h i n g in a w a y t h a t p e r m i t s it
basis of a solid f o u n d a t i o n .
to fully e v o l v e its p a r t i c u l a r m e a n i n g f u l n e s s .
O b v i o u s l y , a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f death a d e q u a t e t o the p h e n o m e n o n o f
T h i s is t h e condition of m a n ' s f r e e d o m . Only w h e r e t h e r e is a
m o r t a l i t y is decisively i m p o r t a n t for t h e p h y s i c i a n - p a t i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . 6
multiplicity o f p h e n o m e n a d o c h o o s i n g and deciding b e c o m e p o s s i b l e .
D e p e n d i n g on h o w p r o f o u n d this u n d e r s t a n d i n g is in him, a physician
M o r e o v e r , e x p e r i e n c e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t m a n i s capable o f m a k i n g f r e e
will be c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t of a t e r m i n a l case of illness or
choices at any time.
w i t h helping o n e in his c a r e die a good d e a t h .
In t h e light of t h e i r o w n e x p e r i e n c e , physicians s c h o o l e d in n a t u r a l
The fundamental characteristics of the Da-sein as being equally s c i e n c e t e n d to m i s i n t e r p r e t a t h o u g h t s e q u e n c e like t h e o n e a b o v e as an
attempt to prove one thing with another. T h e y mistakenly accuse it of
primordial, and their development into the freedom of the authentic
p r e s u m i n g to h a v e p r o v e n h u m a n freedom of will b e c a u s e it h a s
human being
d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e o p e n n e s s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . W e d o n o t m a k e this
T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e m o s t i m p o r t a n t for m e d i c i n e ,
p r e s u m p t i o n , h o w e v e r , B o t h o p e n n e s s and f r e e d o m o f will a r e equally
t h e n , are its primordial spatiality and t e m p o r a l i t y , b o d y h o o d , c o e x i s t e n c e
e l e m e n t a r y p h e n o m e n a t h a t reveal t h e m s e l v e s directly. A s s u c h , t h e y d o
in a shared world, e x i s t e n c e ' s e s s e n t i a l a t t u n e m e n t , m e m o r y as it is based
n o t r e q u i r e a n y proof, i n t h e n a t u r a l scientific s e n s e o f t h e w o r d . T h o u g h
in h i s t o r i c i t y , and m o r t a l i t y . T h i s s e q u e n t i a l listing is not a h i e r a r c h i c a l
t h e y are equally primordial, it is possible for o n e of t h e m to be t h e
a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e e x i s t e n t i a l possibilities; t h e y are equally primordial.
condition of the manifestation of the other.
E v e r y single h u m a n p h e n o m e n o n , n o m a t t e r h o w trifling, i s i n h e r e n t l y
c o n s t i t u t e d o f e v e r y o n e o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . N a t u r a l l y , this does n o t T h e u n q u e s t i o n a b l e e x i s t e n c e o f a f r e e d o m o f will, o f c h o i c e , f o r m s t h e
preclude t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e of o n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c at a n y given t i m e in a basis of a h u m a n being's obligation to fulfill his e x i s t e n c e . If h u m a n
particular h u m a n b e h a v i o r . b e i n g s w e r e n o t free t o decide w h e t h e r o r not t o take o n and c a r r y out t h e
7

N o w , the f u n d a m e n t a l e x i s t e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be equally b e h a v i o r a l possibilities i n h e r e n t in t h e i r e x i s t e n c e s , t h e r e could be no


primordial only w h e n t h e y belong t o g e t h e r i n o n e and the s a m e u n i t y . guilt, h e a l t h y o r p a t h o l o g i c a l , and n o t h e r a p e u t i c r e l e a s e . O f c o u r s e ,
We h a v e s e e n this u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y all along in t h e o p e n n e s s and c l a r i t y f r e e d o m o f willlike a n y t h i n g h u m a n i s n o t a b s o l u t e . C o n s o n a n t with
peculiar t o h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , w h i c h s h o w s i t s e l f t o a n i n v e s t i g a t o r a s t h e overall f i n i t e n e s s of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , its actual r a n g e is b o u n d e d by
s o m e t h i n g o p e n , as an " e x - i s t i n g , " a s u s t a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g of t h e the n u m b e r and v a r i e t y of t h e i n n a t e ways by w h i c h an individual can
w o r l d w i d e clear and o p e n r e a l m o f p e r c e p t i o n . T h i s o p e n n e s s i s t h e r e l a t e h i m s e l f t o w h a t h e e n c o u n t e r s , appropriate t h e s e w a y s a s his o w n ,
unified and unifying f u n d a m e n t a l origin m a k i n g possible and c o n s t i t u t and u s e t h e m in f o r m i n g his a u t o n o m o u s e x i s t e n c e . In addition to t h e s e
ing the basic c h a r a c t e r n o t o n l y of m a n ' s spatiality and t e m p o r a l i t y , b u t limits t h e r e a r e a n y n u m b e r o f pathological deficiencies o f f r e e d o m . B u t
also his h i s t o r i c i t y , b o d y h c o d , c o e x i s t e n c e , a t t u n e m e n t , and m o r t a l i t y . it is i m p o r t a n t to r e m e m b e r t h a t e v e n a r e s t r i c t e d f r e e d o m is n o n e t h e l e s s
All t h e s e possibilities of e x i s t e n c e are of t h e n a t u r e of an ability t h a t a f o r m of f r e e d o m . Y e t e v i d e n c e p o i n t i n g to even a v e r y limited sort of
allows t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of w h a t m a n e n c o u n t e r s to disclose itself as h u m a n f r e e d o m is highly r e p u g n a n t to n a t u r a l scientific r e s e a r c h e r s
w h a t it is. w h o s e d e t e r m i n i s m denies a n y kind o f freedom for m a n . I t s e e m s o n l y
fitting, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e decisive i m p o r t a n c e o f h u m a n f r e e d o m t o
It is to be r e i t e r a t e d t h a t this o p e n n e s s m a y n o t be reified and so
m e d i c i n e , t o e x a m i n e critically t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f such denials.
m i s u n d e r s t o o d as a kind of h o l l o w space i n t o w h i c h b e i n g s m a y fall, be
124 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Fundamental Characteristics of Human Beings 125

It is a s s u m e d t h a t h u m a n freedom can be d i s m i s s e d as a m e r e illusion discussion of the f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h u m a n b e i n g . In place of


simply by r e i n t e r p r e t i n g the s e r i e s of free m o t i v a t i o n s leading up to a t h e t e r m s "basic t r a i t " and " f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , " w e can use the
particular decision as a p r e d e t e r m i n e d and c o m p l e t e causal chain. T h e w o r d " E x i s t e n t i a l , " using t h e initial capital to distinguish t h e n o u n from
e x p e r i e n c e o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e i t s e l f d e m o n s t r a t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t n o such t h e adjective. T h e s e t h r e e d e s i g n a t i o n s h a v e t h e s a m e r e l a t i o n t o m a n ' s
psychic causal chain can be posited w i t h c e r t a i n t y for any h u m a n being a s t h e n o t i o n o f c a t e g o r y h a s t o i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s .
decision. In fact, it is n o t y e t possible to m a k e an a c c u r a t e prediction of O u r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e basic t r a i t s o f h u m a n being does n o t claim t o
a n y f u n d a m e n t a l m o d e o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r . E v e n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s and be a c o m p l e t e e x i s t e n t i a l a n t h r o p o l o g y . It has m e r e l y t r a c e d t h o s e
b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t s , w h o are i m m e n s e l y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l 9
E x i s t e n t i a l s w h i c h are m o s t i m p o r t a n t for m e d i c i n e . Still this f r a m e
c o n s t r u c t i o n o f causal c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e m i n d , admit t h a t t h e y can w o r k will s e r v e to s u g g e s t an a d e q u a t e e x i s t e n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r
give reliable i n d i c a t i o n s o f causal s e q u e n c e s o n l y a f t e r t h e fact, n e v e r m e d i c i n e . It is s o u n d e r , on t w o c o u n t s , t h a n t h e c u r r e n t l y d o m i n a n t
b e f o r e t h e fact. T r u e , t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y t r y t o m o d e r a t e this admission b y f r a m e w o r k based o n biological, physiological, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i
pointing t o t h e h u g e v a r i e t y and n u m b e r o f subsidiary c a u s e s a t w o r k i n nations of human nature.
t h e life h i s t o r y of a h u m a n being, m e a n i n g t h a t it is purely quantitative First o f all, the findings o f t h e s e t h r e e s c i e n c e s d o n o t really c o m e into
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h s t a n d in t h e i r way. their ownas manifestations of human existenceuntil they are seen
All such a t t e m p t s t o d e n y h u m a n freedom p r o c e e d u n a w a r e t h a t t h e y from t h e e x i s t e n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n w e h a v e p r e s e n t e d . For t h e E x i s t e n t i a l s
fail e v e n to r e a c h the basic d i m e n s i o n of all acts of free will, m u c h less to pervade t h e empirical findings as an essence w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e y could n o t
pin d o w n and nullify t h e s e a c t s . T h i s is b e c a u s e t h e i r line of a r g u m e n t , be w h a t t h e y are. If this is t h e s o r t of r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t o b t a i n s b e t w e e n
like all n a t u r a l scientific e x p l a n a t i o n s , is ruled by t h e a x i o m t h a t a n y t h i n g the basic traits of h u m a n being and empirical (i.e., physiological-
t h a t is really real m u s t e x i s t in a faultless causal c o n n e c t i o n . To a p e r s o n psychological) fact, t h e n it is far f r o m t h e purpose of o u r e x i s t e n t i a l
s c h o o l e d in t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , f r e e d o m m e a n s at best f r e e d o m f r o m f o u n d a t i o n for m e d i c i n e t o d e t r a c t from t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e
causal l a w s , a n o n c a u s a l e v e n t , an i n s t a n c e of a-causality. " c o n c r e t e " medical findings. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , this n e w e r foundation
I t h a p p e n s , h o w e v e r , t h a t h u m a n f r e e d o m i n h e r e s i n a n open r e a l m o f m a k e s possible an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t is m o r e j u s t to empirical fact and
perception to the presence of what human beings encounter. T h e more adequate to human beings.
e n g a g e m e n t of a h u m a n being by a p a r t i c u l a r p h e n o m e n o n m o v e s , or In the s e c o n d place, an e x i s t e n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n for m e d i c i n e e n a b l e s us
m o t i v a t e s , h i m t o r e s p o n d t o w h a t reveals i t s e l f t o him, and t o r e s p o n d i n t o assail successfully t h e u n s c i e n t i f i e n c v a g u e n e s s and m y s t i f i c a t i o n
a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the perceived m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f t h a t t h i n g . T h i s surrounding many of the standard concepts of the modern science of
understanding openness to potential e n g a g e m e n t by meaningful healing. A b o v e all, o u r f r a m e w o r k can supply r i g o r o u s , concrete
p r e s e n c e s t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n for h u m a n f r e e d o m l i e s e n t i r e l y outside d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f h u m a n being w i t h w h i c h t o fill t h e v a c u u m a r o u n d the
o f t h e a r e n a o f c a u s a l i t y and t h a t i s w h y c r i t i c i s m from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f i n c r e a s i n g l y popular n o t i o n s of a total medicine and a u n i t y of body,
natural scientific d e t e r m i n i s m i s u n a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e t o t h e r e a l m o f mind, and spirit. T h e t o t a l i t y and w h o l e n e s s of m a n , w h i c h a total
h u m a n f r e e d o m . R e g a r d l e s s o f its ability t o p r o d u c e all, o r s o m e , o r n o n e m e d i c i n e t r i e s t o g r a s p , and t h e u n i t y o f his e x i s t i n g are first capable o f
of the c a u s e s of a p a r t i c u l a r piece of h u m a n b e h a v i o r , it has n o t h i n g to decisive c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e a b o v e described E x i s t e n t i a l s .
say a b o u t the actual basis o f f r e e d o m . It m a y s t r i k e t h e r e a d e r as odd t h a t a description of t h e e x i s t e n t i a l traits
O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s a m e insight i n t o t h e basis o f h u m a n f r e e d o m m o s t i m p o r t a n t for m e d i c i n e a b a n d o n s e v e r y o n e o f t h e n o t i o n s n a t i v e t o
reveals t h a t i t i s not h u m a n pleasure t h a t disposes o v e r f r e e d o m . T h e traditional physiology and p s y c h o l o g y . T h e r e is no m e n t i o n of a h u m a n
h u m a n does n o t p o s s e s s freedom as o n e of his p r o p e r t i e s . At m o s t , it is s o m a n o r is a n y a t t e n t i o n paid to n o t i o n s of a p s y c h e , a c o n s c i o u s , an
the r e v e r s e . F r e e d o m , n a m e l y the e k - s i s t i n g , r e v e a l i n g o u t o f h i d d e n n e s s affect, or an u n c o n s c i o u s . A n e w vision and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s o m e t h i n g
{entbergende), world opening {erffnende) Dasein p o s s e s s e s the h u m a n d e m a n d s a n e w w a y of talking a b o u t it, for the old t e r m i n o l o g y g e t s in the
being." w a y of this e f f o r t . S t u b b o r n l y e n t r e n c h e d behind t h e w o r d s coined by a
T h e s e indications o f t h e free and o p e n n a t u r e o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , w i t h particular c o n c e p t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n a r e its s e c r e t prejudices. A n y a t t e m p t
its c h a r a c t e r i s t i c spatiality and t e m p o r a l i t y , h i s t o r i c i t y , b o d y h o o d , to o p e n o u t an a d e q u a t e l y h u m a n vista o n t o t h e p h e n o m e n a ol
c o e x i s t e n c e with o t h e r s , a t t u n e m e n t , and m o r t a l i t y , c o n c l u d e o u r u n d i s t u r b e d e x i s t e n c e m u s t include a critique of the m o s t important
ideas o f traditional biology, p h y s i o l o g y , a n d p s y c h o l o g y .
126 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

1 . For t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e a s o n i n g n e e d e d t o i l l u m i n a t e w h a t still r e m a i n s o b s c u r e a b o u t
t i m e , s e e : M. H e i d e g g e r , Zur Sache des Denkens ( T u b i n g e n : N i e m e y e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 1 4 .
2 . T h e w o r d " b o d y h o o d " w a s f i r s t d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e i n 1 6 7 4 and h a s
t h e m e a n i n g , " t h e q u a l i t y o f h a v i n g a b o d y o r o f being body" ( O . E . D . ) . T h i s w o r d i s c o n g r u e n t
w i t h t h e G e r m a n Leib, w h i c h h a s t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f b o d y a s lived b o d y l i n e s s .
3 . Cf. M . H e i d e g g e r , Nietzsche, v o l . 1 ( P f u l l i n g e n : V e r l a g N e s k e , 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 5 3 - 6 3 .
4. Cf. M. Boss, Lebensangst, Schuldgefhle und psychotherapeutische Befrciunt ( B e r n and
S t u t t g a r t : H a n s H u b e r V e r l a g , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 2 8 f f a n d 3 9 ff.
5 . A u r e l i u s A u g u s t i n u s , Confessiones, 2 d ed. ( M u n i c h : K o s e l - V e r l a g , 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 5 1 0 - 1 1 .
6. C o m p a r e a l s o : la) W. K e l l e r , Das Problem der Willensfreiheit ( B e r n and M u n i c h : F r a n c k e , Chapter 8
S c h u l t h e s s & Co., 1 9 6 3 ) and Menschliche Existenz, Willensfreiheit und Schuld ( Z u r i c h : S c h u l t h e s s
& Co., 1 9 6 4 ) . B o t h w o r k s c o n t a i n i m p r e s s i v e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p o s i t i o n s first
e l a b o r a t e d in H e i d e g g e r ' s Sein und Zeit; lb) M. H e i d e g g e r , Vom Wesen der menschlichen Freiheit.
Unpublished introductory lecture to philosophy, 1 9 3 0 . AN EXISTENTIAL STUDY OF THE BASIC CONCEPTS
7 . All t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a n e x i s t e n t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f h u m a n g u i l t
and t h e h u m a n conscience c a n b e f o u n d in: M . H e i d e g g e r , " D i e e x i s t e n t i a l - o n t o l o g i s c h e n OF BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PSYCHOLOGY
F u n d a m e n t e d e r G e w i s s e n s als R u f d e r S o r g e , A n r u f v e r s t e h e n u n d S c h u l d , die e x i s t e n t i a l e
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e s G e w i s s e n s u n d die v u l g r e G e w i s s e n s a u s l e g u n g , d e e x i s t e n t i a l e
S t r u k t u r des im G e w i s s e n b e z e u g t e n e i g e n t l i c h e n S e i n k n n e n s , " in Zein und Zeit ( H a l l e :
Niemeyer, 1927), p. 267ff.
8. Cf. M. H e i d e g g e r , Vom Wesen der Wahrheit, 3d e d . ( F r a n k f u r t - a m - M a i n : K l o s t e r m a n ,
1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 1 4 and 1 6 .
9 . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d r e a m i n g a s a n o t h e r E x i s t e n t i a l i s d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h in: M . B o s s ,
"Es t r u m t e m i r v e r g a n g e n e N a c h t . . . . " ( B e r n , S t u t t g a r t , W e i n : H a n s H u b e r , 1 9 7 5 ) .

From human body as a physical organism to bodyhood


I n t h e preceding c h a p t e r s w e have e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e c e s s i t y for
c o n s i d e r i n g the p h e n o m e n o n o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e w h i c h traditional
m e d i c i n e calls t h e h u m a n body. W e h a v e u n d e r s c o r e d t h e conditional
j u s t i f i c a t i o n for c o n c e i v i n g o f bodyhood's s o m a and for t h e g e n e r a l
p r e e m i n e n c e g r a n t e d the s o m a i n m e d i c i n e . W e h a v e also indicated h o w
this c o n c e p t i o n can be left b e h i n d for o n e t h a t r e c o g n i z e s all bodily
p h e n o m e n a o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e a s t h e bodying f o r t h o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p
to t h e world in w h i c h and as w h i c h a particular Da-sdn is e x i s t i n g at a
given m o m e n t . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l a d v a n c e is so f u n d a m e n t a l l y i m p o r t a n t
for m e d i c i n e t h a t w e felt c o m p e l l e d t o p u r s u e t h e m a t t e r f u r t h e r .
It m a y be e a s i e r to m a k e t h e t r a n s i t i o n if we a d v a n c e o n l y a half step at
first. T h e findings of m o d e r n F r e n c h phenomenologues existentiels m a y fairly
be described as a h a l f step a d v a n c e f r o m the n a t u r a l scientific c o n c e p t of
t h e body. N o o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s o f t h e last decades h a v e w o r k e d s o
i n t e n t l y t o w a r d a m o r e appropriately h u m a n f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e
1
p h e n o m e n o n of b o d y h o o d t h a n t h e y . It still r e m a i n s difficult for t h e m to
e s c a p e t h e d o m i n a t i n g i n f l u e n c e o f D e s c a r t e s , and this i s w h y t h e y h a v e
m a n a g e d t o g e t only h a l f w a y t o w a r d a n e x i s t e n t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the
b o d y h o o d of h u m a n Da-sein. A n d y e t t h e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s do d e s e r v e
lasting credit for pointing i n s i s t e n t l y to the n e c e s s i t y for r e c o n s i d e r i n g
Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 129
128 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

2 us to r e c o g n i z e all p h e n o m e n a , including t h e p u r e l y c a r n a l h u m a n body,


the h u m a n b o d y . W e shall limit o u r e x a m i n a t i o n h e r e t o a f e w
i n t h e i r t r u e n a t u r e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h e b e l i e v e s t h a t t h r o u g h his
particularly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and r e v e a l i n g s t a t e m e n t s f r o m t h e w o r k s o f
discovery of nausea as the fundamental a t t u n e m e n t of h u m a n beings, he
S a r t r e and M e r l e a u - P o n t y .
has f o r g e d far a h e a d o f H e i d e g g e r i n i n t e r p r e t i n g h u m a n n a t u r e : a t t h e
S a r t r e tell us t h a t a h u m a n being and his w o r l d a r e m u t u a l l y r e l a t e d
3 c o r e of all t h i n g s is pure and m e a n i n g l e s s p r e s e n c e . H e i d e g g e r ' s
p h e n o m e n a and t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of each is relation.
designation of anxiety as the all-important human a t t u n e m e n t repre
B u t h e a t o n c e g o e s o n t o a s s e r t that, g i v e n this reciprocal r e l a t e d n e s s , i t
s e n t s , in S a r t r e ' s o p i n i o n , o n l y a first step t o w a r d valid u n d e r s t a n d i n g .
follows t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s e l f m u s t arise from t h e h u m a n reality and
g o o u t from i t t o t h e t h i n g s o f t h e w o r l d . A c c o r d i n g l y , c o m i n g - i n t o - t h e - S a r t r e ' s claim g r o s s l y falsifies H e i d e g g e r ' s Dasiensanalytik, w h i c h
w o r l d m e a n s n o t h i n g m o r e for h u m a n b e i n g s t h a n e s t a b l i s h i n g d i s t a n c e s does n o t in a n y w a y a s s e r t t h a t a n x i e t y is the basic a t t u n e m e n t of
from t h i n g s and t h e r e b y m a k i n g it possible, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , for t h i n g s to e x i s t e n c e a s S a r t r e does w i t h n a u s e a . H e i d e g g e r n a m e s a n x i e t y solely
be in t h e first place. R e f i n i n g this v i e w , he says t h a t to be h u m a n m e a n s a s o n e o f a n u m b e r o f possible basic a t t u n e m e n t s a n d s i n g l e s i t o u t o n l y
6

to be imprisoned perpetually in some particular perspective determined, w h e r e the ontological determination of human existence is concerned.
in fact, by l o c a t i o n , at t h e p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t , of t h e human body. A 4 A n x i e t y is, in fact, especially significant in this o n e r e s p e c t , t h a t in
p e r s o n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s to t h i n g s would e m a n a t e from this specific point in a n x i e t y h u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d i s t h r o w n b a c k e n t i r e l y o n itself.
space. C o n s e q u e n t l y , e x i s t e n c e i s m o s t a w a r e o f i t s e l f i n a n x i e t y . T h i s does n o t
mean that the phenomena of the human world might not reveal
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , S a r t r e also sees corps humain as t h e v e s t i g e of
t h e m s e l v e s far m o r e m e a n i n g f u l l y and richly i n s o m e o t h e r , m o r e o p e n ,
pure p r e s e n c e f r o m w h i c h h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s m a y b r e a k f o r t h i n t o a n
a t t u n e m e n t , like loving s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g .
o n t o l o g i c a l act. T h e b o d y is draped o v e r a h u m a n being, o n c e he h a s
b e c o m e c o n s c i o u s , as a tool, a v e r y peculiar sort of t o o l , of c o u r s e . People In looking at the h u m a n body from the perspective of nausea, S a r t r e
do n o t simply p o s s e s s t h e i r bodies as t h e y do t h e tools t h e y m a k e not only distorts Heidegger' D a s e i n s a n a l y t i k b u t also c o n t r a d i c t s
t h e m s e l v e s ; t h e y actually e x i s t t h e i r bodies, w h i c h m e a n s t h a t h i m s e l f . O n t h e o n e h a n d , h e calls n a u s e a , disgust, o r l o a t h i n g , t h a t
p r o c e e d i n g from t h e pivot o f his body t h r o u g h s i g n i f i c a n c e - c r e a t i n g disposition i n w h i c h w h a t e v e r t h e h u m a n s u b j e c t e n c o u n t e r s r e v e a l s
r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a h u m a n being t r a n s c e n d s t h e body to a r r i v e at t h e t h i n g s i t s e l f i n its a b s o l u t e , t - u e , n a m e l e s s , v o i c e l e s s , m e a n i n g l e s s , p a s t - a n d
o f his world. S a r t r e n e g l e c t s t o specify e x a c t l y h o w this m o v e m e n t f u t u r e l e s s , i n a c c e s s i b l e , o n t o l o g i c a l n a t u r e a s pure p r e s e n c e . M e a n w h i l e ,
o u t w a r d to t h i n g s is supposed to happen or h o w such a s i g n i f i c a n c e - l o a t h i n g , s i l e n c e , d u m b p r e s e n c e , a b s o l u t e n e s s , c a r n a l i t y , and i n a c c e s s i
7

c r e a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p m i g h t arise in and t r a n s c e n d a b o d y t h a t is m e r e l y in bility a r e explicitly m e a n i n g f u l qualities f o r h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . T h e y a r e ,


space. T h i s is m o r e o b s c u r e in light of his v i e w t h a t all being is, in e s s e n c e , t h o u g h , e x a c t l y t h o s e m e a n i n g f u l qualities w h i c h appear i n t h a t
n o t h i n g but totally m e a n i n g l e s s p r e s e n c e . e x t r e m e l y deficient m o d e o f a t t u n e m e n t , n a u s e a . F a r f r o m l e t t i n g u s s e e
the most fundamental nature of human bodyhood, nausea is the very
A p p a r e n t l y , we will h a v e to travel q u i t e a w a y past S a r t r e ' s
condition that most stubbornly prevents us from experiencing the
d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e corps humain b e f o r e we a r r i v e at a truly e x i s t e n t i a l
bodyhood of our being.
view. S u c h a v i e w m u s t m a k e clear in opposition to S a r t r e ' s opinion t h a t
the spatiality of h u m a n being does n o t o r i g i n a t e in, and is n o t shaped b y , N e x t t o S a r t r e , M e r l e a u - P o n t y d e s e r v e s r e c o g n i t i o n for his e f f o r t s t o
the h u m a n body. W e h a v e already s h o w n h o w h u m a n e x i s t e n c e can b e e s t a b l i s h a basis for h u m a n b o d y h o o d . First, he i m p r o v e d on S a r t r e ' s
bodily only b e c a u s e e x i s t e n c e itself is i n h e r e n t l y spatial. t r a n s l a t i o n o f H e i d e g g e r ' s definition for h u m a n b e i n g . B e c a u s e S a r t r e ' s
F o r S a r t r e , a d e q u a t e insight into t h e n a t u r e of t h e corps humain d e p e n d s etre-dans-le-monde implicitly reified h u m a n n a t u r e and r e n d e r e d it m e r e
o n w h a t h e views a s t h e m o s t basic e x i s t e n t i a l m o o d : n a u s e a , disgust, o r o b j e c t in s p a c e , M e r l e a u - P o n t y p r e f e r r e d t h e w o r d i n g , ttre-au-monde. He
5
l o a t h i n g . O n l y in n a u s e a , he a r g u e s , does a h u m a n being e n t e r an also set h i m s e l f t h e special t a s k o f t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e C a r t e s i a n dualism
o n t o l o g i c a l frame in w h i c h t h e pure b e i n g of all t h i n g s can disclose i t s e l f t h a t s e p a r a t e s body and soul. H e h o p e d , b y i n t r o d u c i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f
and p h e n o m e n a appear, for t h e first t i m e , w i t h o u t t h e l a c q u e r . N o w t h e dwelling, t o solve t h e puzzles o f t h e link b e t w e e n t w o s u c h radically
h u m a n body reveals i t s e l f as pure flesh. It is no s u r p r i s e t h a t m a n r e g a r d s d i f f e r e n t p h e n o m e n a and " t h e p r o c e s s o f e x c h a n g e c o n s t a n t l y o c c u r r i n g
8

il with a lifelong s e n s e of s h a m e . a m o n g t h e s e t w o and t h e w o r l d a r o u n d t h e m . "


N o w h e r e d o e s S a r t r e explain w h y it is n a u s e a , of all t h i n g s , t hat allows A l t h o u g h h e calls t h e soul's dwelling in the b o d y a f u n d a m e n t a l mode
130 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 131

o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r , M e r l e a u - P o n t y allows t h e c o n c e p t o f dwelling t o It is I, w h o s e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r is t h e w o r l d - s p a n n i n g o p e n n e s s ol
r e m a i n a m b i g u o u s and c o m p l i c a t e d . S o m e t i m e s it is t h e soul's " i n h e r a n ability t o p e r c e i v e s o m e t h i n g a s s o m e t h i n g , w h o a m able t o b e a w a r e
e n c e " i n t h e body; a t o t h e r t i m e s t h e " a r t i c u l a t i o n " o f t h e soul t h r o u g h of m y s e l f as being p r e s e n t , and to be in t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p to w h a t I have
t h e body, o r vice v e r s a . T h e n again, h e speaks s o m e t i m e s o f a c o n s t a n t p e r c e i v e d . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e p h e n o m e n a o f this h u m a n e x i s t e n c e that
e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n s o m e t h i n g s e e i n g and s o m e t h i n g visible, s o m e t h i n g can be i n t e r p r e t e d , t h o u g h i n a d e q u a t e l y , as t h e p h e n o m e n a of a m a t e r i a l
9
t o u c h i n g and s o m e t h i n g t a n g i b l e . B u t h e does n o t explain h o w w e a r e t o body situated s o m e w h e r e i n space. N e v e r t h e l e s s , o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
i m a g i n e this i n h e r e n c e o r this e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t w o s u c h h e t e r o g e t h e b o d y h o o d o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e b e c o m e s a d e q u a t e o n l y w h e n this
n e o u s t h i n g s . H e o n l y a s s e r t s t h a t , t h a n k s t o this i n h e r e n c e and b o d y h o o d in its e n t i r e l y is s e e n as bodying f o r t h w a y s of b e i n g in relation
e x c h a n g e , t h e body i s " t h e abode o f t h e soul, and t h e physical eye t h e to w h a t a h u m a n being e n c o u n t e r s p e r c e p t i v e l y and r e s p o n s i v e l y at any
10
w i n d o w i n t h e b o d y t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e soul m a y p e e r o u t . " I n his v i e w , given m o m e n t .
11
t h e body is an o b j e c t , b u t an o b j e c t in w h i c h we d w e l l . C o n s e q u e n t l y ,
t h e spirit n o t o n l y m a k e s u s e o f t h e b o d y b u t actually unfolds i t s e l f From psyche to human being-in-the-world
t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m o f t h e b o d y and m a k e s i t t r a n s c e n d t h e p u r e l y T h e v e r y w o r d p s y c h e h a s b e e n a p l a y t h i n g o f h i s t o r y . A r i s t o t l e still
physical. 12
called psyche t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mode of being of an e n t i t y w i t h t h e
D e s p i t e t h e i r v a r i e t y , e a c h o f M e r l e a u - P o n t y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f dwelling p o t e n t i a l for b e i n g alive. By m e d i e v a l t i m e s , p s y c h e w a s a m a t e r i a l l y
s h o w s t h a t h e h a s n o t t r a n s c e n d e d C a r t e s i a n dualism. His t h i n k i n g i s o n p r e s e n t t h o u g h still i m m o r t a l s p i r i t u a l s u b s t a n c e b y itself. T h e
t h e o n e h a n d a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , s u b s t a n t i v e h u m a n soul, and on t h e o t h e r a m o d e r n a g e , a n a l o g i z i n g f r o m its c o n c e p t o f t h e b o d y , i m a g i n e s the
physical body. In M e r l e a u - P o n t y ' s s c h e m e , t h e b o d y is m e r e l y physically p s y c h e a s a n o r g a n i s m l i k e , m o r e o r less a u t o n o m o u s , o b j e c t . I n q u i r y i n t o
t h e r e until it is t r a n s f o r m e d , by t h e soul's dwelling in it, i n t o a living its e x a c t n a t u r e is c o n s i d e r e d u n n e c e s s a r y . All t h a t is s o u g h t , or
h u m a n body. B u t t h e r e i s n o t o n e o b s e r v a t i o n t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e b o d y p r o p o s e d , are p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e p s y c h e and, o n e would h o p e ,
e x i s t s initially u n i n h a b i t e d by soul or spirit, m u c h less for a s e c o n d a r y a m e n a b l e t o c a l c u l a t i o n . T h e p s y c h e i n w h i c h all o f t h e s e m e c h a n i s m s
m e t a m o r p h o s i s of t h e physical o b j e c t - b o d y i n t o a h u m a n s u b j e c t - b o d y , a and p s y c h i s m s a r e alleged to t a k e place eludes strict scientific definition.
t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n w h i c h s o m e simple physical o b j e c t w o u l d s u d d e n l y P a s s i n g definitions t h a t label i t t h e seat o f t h e m e n t a l f a c u l t i e s , o f
13
s t a r t t o p e r c e i v e i t s e l f . E v e n M e r l e a u - P o n t y a d m i t s t h a t this alleged i n s t i n c t s , drives, and e m o t i o n s can hardly b e r e c o g n i z e d a s scientific
m e t a m o r p h o s i s is i n e x p l i c a b l e . c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . A n d t h e c o l l e c t i o n s o f p s y c h i c faculties bandied a b o u t
s o f r e e l y b y c o n t e m p o r a r y b r a n c h e s o f faculty p s y c h o l o g y says v e r y little
M e r l e a u - P o n t y ' s r e f l e c t i o n s on the soul's dwelling in the body w e r e
14 a b o u t e i t h e r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e p o w e r s t h e p s y c h e allegedly holds, t h e
p r e c e d e d b y H e i d e g g e r ' s v e r y d i f f e r e n t n o t i o n o f h u m a n d w e l l i n g , and
m o d e of b e i n g of t h e p s y c h e itself, or j u s t h o w this p s y c h e is in a position
we may assume that Merleau-Ponty's introduction to the concept into
to h a v e s u c h t h i n g s as d r i v e s , e m o t i o n s , and i n s t i n c t s as its faculties or
French p h e n o m e n o l o g y was not entirely independent of Heidegger's
f u n c t i o n s . M e d i c a l t h i n k i n g will g e t past this b o t t l e n e c k o n l y by
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . B u t , a n u n b r i d g e a b l e gap s e p a r a t e s t h e t w o c o n c e p t s .
c o m p l e t e l y r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e n o t i o n of a s u b s t a n t i a l o b j e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t
M e r l e a u - P o n t y ' s c o n c e p t of dwelling e n t a i l s at least a bipolar
p s y c h e and c o n s i d e r i n g h u m a n being as Da-sein. To e x i s t as Da-sein
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o e n t i t i e s , and t h e possibility o f v i e w i n g t h e
m e a n s t o s u s t a i n and m a i n t a i n t h e c l e a r n e s s o f a w o r l d - s p a n n i n g r e a l m
e x t e r n a l w o r l d . IN H e i d e g g e r ' s Daseinsanalytik, by c o n t r a s t , dwelling
o f p e r c e p t i o n , t o hold o p e n this r e a l m i n t o w h i c h w h a t e v e r can b e m a y
r e f e r s t o h u m a n e x i s t e n c e ' s d w e l l i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d . T h i s dwelling i s
s h i n e f o r t h and be p e r c e i v e d in its m e a n i n g and its place. So it is t h a t a
totally o t h e r t h a n a m a t e r i a l p r e s e n c e . It is r a t h e r m a n ' s e k - s t a t i c abiding
p h e n o m e n o n can e n g a g e t h e h u m a n being in s u c h a w a y t h a t he can
by, his e x i s t i n g in th o p e n n e s s of a c l e a r e d w o r l d l y r e a l m . T h i s dwelling,
r e s p o n d to it a c c o r d i n g to its m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . In this w a y , t h e h u m a n
abiding by, e x i s t i n g , is c a r r i e d o u t in t h e c o n c r e t e p e r c e i v i n g and
being is c o n t i n u o u s l y r e l a t e d to w h a t he e n c o u n t e r s , and he develops as a
a n s w e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e b e i n g s o f his w o r l d .
h u m a n being in this r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s r e l a t e d n e s s is not biploar. R a t h e r ,
M e r l e a u - P o n t y g o e s a g a i n s t all e x p e r i e n c e s i n c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e h u m a n
m a n ' s existential relatednessas w h i c h each of us e x i s t s in his p a r t i c u l a r and
b e i n g , by virtue of the fact t h a t it is his body t h a t inexplicably b e g i n s to
limited w a y i s a p r i m a r y dwelling w i t h w h a t c o m e s to be in t h e world
see, to r e f l e c t , and to adapt itself to t h e s u r r o u n d i n g space, is a n c h o r e d in
s p a n n i n g o p e n n e s s he s u s t a i n s . H u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , then, is a
the WOI Id solely t h r o u g h this b o d y . It is n e v e r o n l y my body, as a self-
1 5

c o n t a i n e d I Inn);. I ha! s e e s , thinks, and adapts to its spatial e n v i r o n m e n t .


132 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 133

m u l t i t u d e o f w a y s o f p e r c e i v i n g and r e s p o n d i n g . T h e s e m o d e s can b e of p s y c h i c life at a g i v e n m o m e n t . We i m a g i n e this c o n s c i o u s n e s s , as it


scientifically, i.e., o n t i c a l l y , o b s e r v e d and d e s c r i b e d . w e r e , figuratively a s t h e s t a g e o n w h i c h t h e p a r t i c u l a r psychic-
1 7

In an e x i s t e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , all t h e p h e n o m e n a t h a t h a v e until n o w p h e n o m e n a c o m e and g o , o r a s t h e m e d i u m i n w h i c h t h e y m o v e . "


been inexplicably m i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e p o s s e s s i o n s , faculties, o r I t i s n o t h a r d t o see w h y this s t a g e m e t a p h o r c a n n o t b e t a k e n v e r y
f u n c t i o n s of a h y p o t h e s i z e d boxlike p s y c h e b e c o m e visible as t h e h i g h l y far. A s t a g e c a n n o t p e r c e i v e w h a t is b e i n g played on it. W h i l e we speak of
various, concrete modes of existing as the world-spanning openness that c o n s c i o u s n e s s w e a l w a y s h a v e i n m i n d t h e ability t o b e c o m e c o n s c i o u s o f
is h u m a n Da-sein. things as phenomena of particular meanings.
O n c e one has managed to explode the theoretical myths of T h e G e r m a n w o r d for c o n s c i o u s n e s s , Bewusstsein, is a little u n f o r t u n a t e .
p s y c h o l o g i s m and s u b j e c t i v i s m , and h a s s u c c e e d e d in seeing the h o r i z o n It has g e n e r a t e d t h e idiom ein Bewusstsein hahen, w h i c h m e a n s " t o h a v e a
o f t h e D a s e i n s a n a l y t i k v i e w o f h u m a n being, o n e should also h a v e s e e n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a s s o m e specific
t h e a b s u r d i t y of t h e c o m m o n q u e s t i o n of where, after t h e p s y c h e c o n c e p t thing e x i s t i n g as a b o x l i k e c o n t a i n e r .
h a s d i s a p p e a r e d , t h e possibilities o f perceiving and a c t i n g w h i c h m a k e u p M o r e can be g l e a n e d f r o m t h e Latin conscientia. T h e con prefix r e f e r s to
h u m a n e x i s t e n c e are t o b e f o u n d . T h e form o f t h e q u e r y only s h o w s t h a t the h u m a n subject. W h e n e v e r I am conscious of something that is not
t h e q u e s t i o n e r is still u n a b l e to get out of t h e traditional v i e w in w h i c h m y s e l f , I c o n t i n u e in a w a r e n e s s of m y s e l f as a being t h a t is c o n s c i o u s of
people are n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n e n t i t i e s p r e s e n t a t p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s s o m e t h i n g . And a l t h o u g h this a w a r e n e s s o f m y s e l f i s n o t t h e m a t i c ,
w i t h i n a p r e s u p p o s e d w o r l d space, isolated b o d i e s , w h e t h e r m a t e r i a l or consciousness nevertheless by nature always entails consciousness of
i m m a t e r i a l , t h a t c o n t a i n m e n t a l faculties, drives, and a s p i r a t i o n s . self. I n " r e p r e s e n t , " t h e " r e " prefix indicates t h a t k n o w l e d g e r e f e r s back
O n c e human existence is seen as bearing the spatio-temporal to t h e k n o w e r . W h e n I r e - p r e s e n t , I am p r e s e n t i n g to m y s e l f w h a t is
p r e s e n t in my world.
w o r l d w i d e r e a l m of o p e n n e s s as, itself, a p e r c e p t i v e and a c t i v e l y
r e s p o n s i v e o p e n n e s s , t h e p r o b l e m of location t a k e s on a w h o l l y d i f f e r e n t B u t conscientia ( c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) and its ability to r e p r e s e n t w e r e also
aspect. It is t h e n s e l f - e v i d e n t t h a t t h e possibilities for r e l a t e d n e s s b e l o n g s u b j e c t e d t o t h e m u t i l a t i n g p r o c e s s o f reification u n d e r t h e n a t u r a l
scientific a p p r o a c h . C o n s c i o u s n e s s w a s t h o u g h t of as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d
f u n d a m e n t a l l y and i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e w h o l e r e a l m o f p e r c e p t i v e
b o x l i k e t h o u g h i m m a t e r i a l p h e n o m e n o n , and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w e r e
o p e n n e s s . T h e y a r e , i n fact, w h a t c o n s t i t u t e h u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e -
s e e n as i m a g e s of o b j e c t s in t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , f o r m i n g a part of t h e
w o r l d . T h i s o p e n n e s s is t h e primordial spatiality or prespatiality in w h i c h
e n d o p s y c h i c m a t e r i a l of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and filling its i n n e r field.
t h e possibility of a p h e n o m e n o n ' s being located at a n y p o i n t in space is
1 6 In r e s p o n s e to t h e i n s u r m o u n t a b l e difficulties i n h e r e n t in t h e s e
grounded.
notions, the suggestion has been made many times to dispense with the
From consciousness to the fundamental openness s u b s t a n t i v e s Bewusstsein and " c o n s c i o u s n e s s " and i n s t e a d u s e only t h e
of human existence adjectives bewusst and " c o n s c i o u s . " T h e s e could d e s i g n a t e c e r t a i n
c o n s c i o u s - i m m a n e n t p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s and a b o v e all could help
T h e t e r m " c o n s c i o u s n e s s " claims a u n i q u e place in c o n t e m p o r a r y
distinguish a m o n g c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s psychic p r o c e s s e s . T o t h e
philosophy and in t h e s c i e n c e s of p s y c h o l o g y , p h y s i o l o g y , and p a t h o l o g y .
c a t e g o r y o f c o n s c i o u s p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s b e l o n g , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , all
T h e idea is f u n d a m e n t a l to depth p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y in
t h e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s of w h i c h a p e r s o n is a w a r e , w h i c h a r e in t u r n
t h a t their m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t , is the " u n c o n s c i o u s , " its c o n c e p t u a l
usually s e e n a s c o n n e c t i o n s a m o n g e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Y e t
n e g a t i o n . Even p h y s i o l o g y and biology a r e p e r p e t u a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h
p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s a r e still at a loss to explain e x a c t l y w h a t
t h e idea o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y t r y t o t r a c e i t back t o
t h e s e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s , and t h o u g h t itself, a r e c o m p o s e d of. T h e y
n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s o r t o e l i m i n a t e i t e n t i r e l y .
c a n n o t g e t a r o u n d t h e fact, o n e w e h a v e e m p h a s i z e d o f t e n e n o u g h , t h a t
While t h e y can speak o f a l t e r a t i o n s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h o u g h , t h e y h a v e
h u m a n b e h a v i o r supplies n o c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e t o j u s t i f y t h e s e
v e r y little t o say a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s itself.
c o n c e p t i o n s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and its c o n t e n t o f t h o u g h t and e n d o p s y c h i c
Leading p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e also had to give up a t t e m p t s to find a
representations.
scientific e x p l a n a t i o n for t h e n o t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . K a r l J a s p e r s had t o
s e e k refuge in a m e t a p h o r : " W e give t h e n a m e c o n s c i o u s n e s s to the w h o l e We can o n c e again look to l a n g u a g e for a w a y out of this c u l - d e - s a c . We
m a y d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e t e r m Bewusstsein is a surprisingly r e c e n t c o i n a g e . It
Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 135
134 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

a m y s t e r y h o w a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d i n n e r w o r l d l y e n t i t y w h a t e v e r it is
and the adjective bewusst did n o t a p p e a r until t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .
calledwould p e r c e i v e s o m e t h i n g o u t s i d e i t s e l f a s m e a n i n g f u l , the
T h e y still largely r e t a i n t h e original m e a n i n g s i m p a r t e d t o t h e m i n a n era
t r a d i t i o n a l w a y o f s t a t i n g the p r o b l e m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s can actually best
t h a t w o r e t h e philosophical spectacles o f C a r t e s i a n i s m , t h r o u g h w h i c h
be served by being b r o u g h t " t o t h e b u r s t i n g p o i n t . " It is n e c e s s a r y to
t h e act o f p e r c e p t i o n w a s split i n t o t h e o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i n g s o u t s i d e
e x p l o d e the traditional n o t i o n s of an e n c a p s u l a t e d p s y c h e , w i t h its
and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n a h u m a n s u b j e c t .
e n c l o s e d field o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t o u n d e r s t a n d h u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e -
M u c h o l d e r t h a n Bewusstsein and bewusst is t h e a r c h a i c G e r m a n w o r d
world, and it should be clear by n o w t h a t to do so is a main goal of this
bewissen. F r o m its I n d o g e r m a n i c r o o t vid-, the v e r b wissen m e a n s " t o h a v e
existential foundation of medicine.
s e e n s o m e t h i n g , " " t o b e a w a r e o f s o m e t h i n g a s being s o m e t h i n g . "
A c c o r d i n g l y , t h a t p e r s o n is bewisst w h o h a s found his place in his
e n v i r o n m e n t and a m o n g t h e o b j e c t s a r o u n d h i m , w h o isin m o d e r n
From a psychic unconscious to a fundamental "hiddenness"
p s y c h i a t r i c j a r g o n " o r i e n t e d . " S o m e o n e can b e c o m e o r i e n t e d o n l y a f t e r T h e unconscious is one of the most frequently employed concepts of
h e has g r a s p e d t h e m e a n i n g s o f w h a t h e h a s s e e n , a p p r e h e n d i n g w h e r e m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h i a t r y . F r e u d gave t h e t e r m its p r e s e n t
t h e s e t h i n g s b e l o n g and w h a t t h e y are for. psychological m e a n i n g , and t h e c o n c e p t of a psychic u n c o n s c i o u s rapidly
b e c a m e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f his e n t i r e t h e o r y . H e e q u a t e d i t w i t h
T h i s raises t h e q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s (as being bewisst) is
psychic reality. He called it t h e s t a r t i n g point and real m o t o r of all d r e a m
t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n for h u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , or if it is the o t h e r w a y
p r o c e s s e s . T h e distinction b e t w e e n c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s psychic
a r o u n d . T h e priority of Da-sein, of b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , is evident as s o o n
p r o c e s s e s s e e m e d t o h i m " t h e o n l y light i n the d a r k n e s s o f depth-
as this h u m a n " b e i n g - i n - t h e - t h e r e " and " b e i n g - i n . . " is u n d e r s t o o d 18
psychology." T h r o u g h Freud, the notion of the unconscious became so
e x i s t e n t i a l l y . We h a v e said t h a t the f u n d a m e n t a l trait of h u m a n Da-sein is
crucial for m o s t o f t h e prevailing t h e o r i e s a b o u t h u m a n b e i n g s t h a t t h e y
its w o r l d - s p a n n i n g o p e n n e s s to perceiving w h a t is t h e r e in its p r e s e n c e . If
w e r e labeled a s depth p s y c h o l o g i e s . T h e " d e p t h " c a m e f r o m t h e fact t h a t
t h e r e is to be a capacity f o r p e r c e p t i o n , for being bewisst and finding o n e ' s
Freud posited v a r i o u s p s y c h i c levels and w i s h e d t h e u n c o n s c i o u s t o b e
place in t h e w o r l d , t h e n t h e " e c - s t a t i c " dwelling in t h e c l e a r o p e n n e s s
u n d e r s t o o d as t h e psychic locale or p s y c h i c s y s t e m t h a t lay beneath
peculiar to h u m a n Da-sein is i n d i s p e n s a b l e . By c o n t r a s t , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y
consciousness.
conceived boxlike consciousness cannot be the condition of h u m a n
being-in-the-world. At first, u n c o n s c i o u s w a s an adjective used o n l y to r e f e r to a specific
" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c e r t a i n psychic c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . " " T h e u n c o n s c i o u s , "
T h i s kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n Da-sein and c o n s c i o u s n e s s also
F r e u d w r o t e , " s e e m e d initially to be n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a puzzling
m a k e s it e a s i e r to u n d e r s t a n d w h y t h e r e can be no s u c h things as 1 9
f e a t u r e of a c e r t a i n p r o c e s s . " E v e n this e a r l y application of t h e t e r m is
c o n s c i o u s e n d o p s y c h i c ideas, o r t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s , i n t h e s e n s e o f
s u s p e c t , t h o u g h , for t h i n g s like t h e e n d o p s y c h i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w h i c h
connections, or associations, among intrapsychic representations or
a r e alleged t o b e u n c o n s c i o u s c a n n o t b e s h o w n t o e x i s t .
images. It is not man w h o forms images of the things around him,
If s o m e t h i n g does n o t e x i s t in t h e first place, it can be n e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s
r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e i m a g e s t o h i m s e l f w i t h i n s o m e supposedly e n c a p s u l a t e d
n o r u n c o n s c i o u s . If hard p r e s s e d , p e r h a p s I m i g h t call t h e clock on t h e
c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and t h e n m a k e s c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m . R a t h e r t h e
wall b e h i n d me u n c o n s c i o u s , at least while I am w r i t i n g and n o t a w a r e of
p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s , being and r e m a i n i n g o u t t h e r e in t h e w o r l d in
t h e c l o c k . D u r i n g this s a m e t i m e , m y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o m y friend H a n s m a y
the revealing c l e a r n e s s o f his b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , b e c o m e p r e s e n t t o him
also be u n c o n s c i o u s in t h a t s e n s e . In b o t h i n s t a n c e s , h o w e v e r , it is n o t a
and s t a n d revealed i n t h e i r c o n t e x t o f r e f e r e n c e s . T h e y appear b e f o r e
c e r t a i n p s y c h i c p r o c e s s or an i n t r a p s y c h i c i m a g e w i t h i n a p s y c h e t h a t is
him, e n t e r t h e r e a l m o f his p e r c e p t i v e o p e n n e s s , and a d d r e s s him w i t h
u n c o n s c i o u s , b u t m e r e l y t h a t , for t h e m o m e n t , a t h i n g on t h e wall, and
their m e a n i n g s .
m y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o H a n s , a r e n o t t h e focus o f m y a t t e n t i o n . B o t h t i m e s ,
C e r t a i n l y , w h a t w e h a v e said c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
u n c o n s c i o u s i s s y n o n y m o u s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t : s o m e p h e n o m e n o n out
c o n s c i o u s n e s s and Da-sein has n o t g o n e u n c h a l l e n g e d . T h e F r e n c h
t h e r e i n t h e open r e a l m o f m y w o r l d i s n o t for t h e t i m e being t h e m a t i c a l l y
psychiatrist 11. Ey, in p a r t i c u l a r , h a s a c c u s e d t h e e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w of
p r e s e n t for m e . T h i s i s n o t t h e s a m e a s saying t h a t t h e clock and H a n s
inflating c o n s c i o u s n e s s to t h e b u r s t i n g point until it e v a p o r a t e s i n t o
h a v e disappeared from m y e x t e r n a l w o r l d .
ml m i l e ex stasies. But just this is t h e s i n g u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n o f
In t h e s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t of his m e t a p s y c h o l o g y , Freud
I ).i-.i 1 1 1 . . 1 1 1 . 1 1 \ ' . i . to psychology and p s y c h i a t r y . As it m u s t always r e m a i n
1 1

c o n t i n u e d to use " u n c o n s c i o u s " as a descriptive adjective, bul a l i o


136 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 137

i n c r e a s i n g l y indulged in an e n t i r e l y novel u s a g e t h a t a m o u n t e d to a his h y p o t h e s i s of an u n c o n s c i o u s " l e g i t i m a t e , " b e c a u s e "in positing it, we


reification o f the original a t t r i b u t e . T h e s e n t e n c e f r o m F r e u d w e cited do n o t v e e r a single step from t h e w a y of t h i n k i n g we c o n s i d e r c u s t o m a r y
a b o v e was followed w i t h : " n o w , h o w e v e r , it [the u n c o n s c i o u s ] m e a n s and c o r r e c t , " in so far as the a s s u m p t i o n of o t h e r people being e n d o w e d
22

more We apply t h e t e r m ' t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ' to a system w h o s e distinctive with consciousness is itself only inferred by a n a l o g y . Here we must
f e a t u r e is t h a t t h e individual p r o c e s s e s c o m p r i s i n g it a r e u n c o n s c i o u s . agree with Freud. T h e legitimacy of the two assumptions is comparable;
This is the most important sense that the expression 'unconscious' has and his c o m p a r i s o n does u l t i m a t e l y raise t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t t o
acquired in p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . 20 w h i c h t h e a s s u m p t i o n of an i n d e p e n d e n t , s u b j e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s is
T h a t i s h o w , i n F r e u d ' s m e t a p s y c h o l o g y , w h a t had b e e n r e p r e s e n t e d itself justified.
initially a s m e r e l y the p r o p e r t y o f a n e n d o p s y c h i c p r o c e s s g r e w t o B u t F r e u d tells us t h a t to i n f e r t h e e x i s t e n c e of an u n c o n s c i o u s is n o t
b e c o m e a n e n t i t y o f its o w n and w a s accorded all m a n n e r o f p r o p e r t i e s o n l y l e g i t i m a t e but actually n e c e s s a r y , t h e data o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l w a y s
and laws. N o w it w a s said, for i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s e x h i b i t e d a r e m a i n i n g f r a g m e n t a r y o t h e r w i s e . T a k e , for e x a m p l e , ideas w h o s e
s o v e r e i g n disdain for t h e laws of logic. A s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c F r e u d origins elude u s and c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t s e e m t o c o m e f r o m n o w h e r e . "All o f
a s c r i b e d to this reified u n c o n s c i o u s was t h e peculiar w a y in w h i c h t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n s r e m a i n i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and d i s c o n n e c t e d , "
t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s t o o k place in it. T h e s e p r i m a r y p r o c e s s e s , in F r e u d g o e s on to say, "as long as we insist on a p p r o a c h i n g t h e m
contradistinction to the secondary processes of conscious thought, were e x c l u s i v e l y t h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s n e s s , b u t t h e y a r r a n g e t h e m s e l v e s in a
m a r k e d b y t h e unparalleled fluidity o f its mobile psychic e n e r g y . T h i s d e m o n s t r a b l e orderly c o n t e x t a s s o o n a s w e i n t e r p o l a t e t h e i n f e r r e d
fluidity p e r m i t t e d disparate ideas to c o a l e s c e to a u n i t y and e n a b l e d t h e u n c o n s c i o u s o p e r a t i o n s . T h e a c c r u a l o f m e a n i n g and c o n t e x t i s a r e s u l t
2 3

f o r c e of m a n y ideas to be shifted, in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , o n t o a single o n e . t h a t fully j u s t i f i e s o u r going b e y o n d i m m e d i a t e e x p e r i e n c e . "


Moreoever, the unconscious, primary thought process showed no We pointed out earlier that the series of observable conscious
r e s p e c t for t i m e , replacing e x t e r n a l reality w i t h a psychic reality w i t h i n o p e r a t i o n s appears f r a g m e n t a r y o n l y if o n e p r e s u p p o s e s it m u s t be
w h i c h psychic p r o c e s s e s w e r e s u b j e c t e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e p l e a s u r e reducible, t h r o u g h u n i n t e r r u p t e d c a u s a l c h a i n s , t o s o m e hidden psychic
21
principle. c a u s e . T h e n o n e would h a v e t o h y p o t h e s i z e a n u n c o n s c i o u s t o supply t h e
In c o n t r a s t to a m e r e l y descriptive u s e of t h e w o r d " u n c o n s c i o u s , " m i s s i n g links in the causal chain in t h e a b s e n c e of a c t u a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s
Freud's reified psychic s y s t e m can be called a dynamic u n c o n s c i o u s . F r e u d of their existence. So enslaved was Freud to the command of the natural
a s s u m e d t h a t t h e psychic p r o c e s s e s and ideational c o n t e n t s o f the scientific m e t h o d t h a t h e failed t o see t h e j a r r i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n h e r e n t
u n c o n s c i o u s had b e e n r e p r e s s e d t h e r e t h r o u g h t h e p o w e r o f a p s y c h i c i n t h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d his h y p o t h e s i s o f a n u n c o n s c i o u s . A n y c o n t e x t
c e n s o r and w e r e held t h e r e b y the s a m e psychic d y n a m i s m . m a d e up of i n f e r r e d and i n t e r p o l a t e d e n t i t i e s is n o t demonstrable, as F r e u d
T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the d y n a m i c u n c o n s c i o u s look a s t h o u g h t h e y a r g u e s it is. F u r t h e r m o r e , F r e u d ignored t h e fact t h a t causal
w e r e precise d e t e r m i n a t i o n s of a definable o b j e c t . P e r h a p s it was this t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s t h e o n l y kind h e tried w i t h his h y p o t h e s i z e d u n c o n s c i o u s
allowed F r e u d , as well as m o s t p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i s t s to establish among conscious actscan do no m o r e than demonstrate the
a f t e r him to f o r g e t quickly t h a t the h y p o t h e s i z e d d y n a m i c u n c o n s c i o u s is r e g u l a r i t y of a purely t e m p o r a l , b u t in i t s e l f e n t i r e l y m e a n i n g l e s s ,
e v e n f u r t h e r from a n a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h u m a n b e i n g s t h a n t h e s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n p h e n o m e n a . I n s u m , from t h e
e a r l i e r descriptive n o t i o n o f c e r t a i n psychic p r o c e s s e s a s u n c o n s c i o u s . standpoint of the phenomena of h u m a n existence, there is absolutely no
F r e u d s u b s e q u e n t l y c h a n g e d his opinion o n h o w psychic data b e c a m e n e c e s s i t y or m o t i v e for positing a psychic u n c o n s c i o u s .
u n c o n s c i o u s , p r e f e r r i n g m o r e and m o r e t h e idea o f libido w i t h d r a w a l t o A s o n e p r o o f for t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a psychic u n c o n s c i o u s F r e u d cites t h e
t h a t of d e s c e n t i n t o a topically deeper psychic s y s t e m ; but e v e n in its n e w e v e r y d a y o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t an idea of w h i c h we a r e c o n s c i o u s in a given
2 4
r o b e s , t h e h y p o t h e s i s of a psychological u n c o n s c i o u s r e m a i n s m i s l e a d i n g m o m e n t m a y n o l o n g e r b e c o n s c i o u s for u s i n t h e n e x t . H e a s k s , with
and d i s t o r t s the t r u e p i c t u r e o f h u m a n b e i n g . e v i d e n t g o o d r e a s o n , w h e r e t h e idea m i g h t have c o m e from and w h e r e it
In a s h o r t t i m e , F r e u d had so c o m p l e t e l y f o r g o t t e n the purely could h a v e g o n e to. S i n c e i t could n o t simply h a v e g o n e o u t o f e x i s t e n c e
h y p o t h e t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s t h a t h e boldly a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v e (or it could n o t h a v e r e a p p e a r e d in t h e n e x t i n s t a n t ) , it m u s t in the
I he e x i s t e n c e of t h e s y s t e m he had i n v e n t e d . As a first step, he declared m e a n t i m e h a v e b e e n l a t e n t , u n c o n s c i o u s . F r e u d a r g u e s similarly t o
138 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology

explain t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s u b j e c t s c a r r y i n g o u t p o s t h y p n o t i c s u g g e s but t h e w i s h e s and t h o u g h t s o f t h e i r f o r e b e a r s o r o f popular opinion


t i o n s . B u t h e s e e s i n e v e r y d a y slips t h e m o s t c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e for a n N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y t o o say, " I t h i n k this i s r i g h t o r w r o n g , " " ! intend t o d o
unconscious. this or t h a t . " In s h o r t , we do n o t n e e d a F r e u d i a n u n c o n s c i o u s to explain
N o t o n e o f t h e s e p r o o f s stands u p u n d e r s c r u t i n y . First o f all, t h e p o s t h y p n o t i c b e h a v i o r a n y m o r e t h a n w e n e e d i t t o u n d e r s t a n d the
e v e r y d a y o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a c o n s c i o u s idea can s u d d e n l y be n o t c o n s c i o u s b e h a v i o r o f s o m e o n e m e s m e r i z e d b y tradition o r popular s a n c t i o n .
is far from b e i n g an empirical, d e m o n s t r a b l e pure fact. F r e u d ' s F r e u d ' s third c a t e g o r y of e v i d e n c e for t h e e x i s t e n c e of a psychic
description is already an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h u m a n b e h a v i o r and u n c o n s c i o u s , slips, i s likewise u n c o n v i n c i n g . T o affirm t h e e x i s t e n c e o f
i n a d e q u a t e at t h a t . If, at this v e r y m o m e n t , I c o n s c i o u s l y visualize t h e t h e u n c o n s c i o u s h e m e n t i o n s t h e case o f the c h a i r m a n w h o s e opening
25
F r e i b u r g C a t h e d r a l , w h a t h a p p e n s , as we h a v e t a k e n pains to point o u t , is r e m a r k s ended: " I declare this m e e t i n g a d j o u r n e d . " O n t h e basis o f this,
not the activation of an intrapsychic representation but that the F r e u d deduced t h e e x i s t e n c e in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s of a c o u n t e r f o r c e lurking
c a t h e d r a l i t s e l f appears t h e m a t i c a l l y i n t h e p e r c e p t i v e r e a l m o f m y b e i n g - u n s e e n for j u s t such a c h a n c e to b r e a k t h r o u g h and disrupt c o n s c i o u s
in-the-world. T h e r e is no evidence of the endopsychic representation of n e s s . W a s n ' t it a fact, w h i c h t h e c h a i r m a n would c o n f i r m , t h a t he
t h e c a t h e d r a l , as F r e u d posited. It is only b e c a u s e , for t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e c o n s c i o u s l y w a n t e d o n l y t o o p e n t h e m e e t i n g , n o t t o adjourn it?
visualization, I e n t e r ino an open, l u m i n a t i n g r e l a t e d n e s s to t h e c a t h e d r a l N e v e r t h e l e s s , t o deal w i t h t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f his e r r o r i n speaking, w e
and am, w i t h all t h a t I a m , by t h e c a t h e d r a l , its actual place, t h a t I can in d o n o t n e e d the u n p r o v a b l e , u n s c i e n t i f i c h y p o t h e s i s o f a n u n c o n s c i o u s .
t h e n e x t i n s t a n t cut off m y specific r e s p o n s e t o t h e c a t h e d r a l , l e t t i n g its W e n e e d o n l y the i n s i g h t t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n e x i s t s , a s b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d ,
presence retreat into the nonthematic background of the world- and as s u c h c o n s i s t s in t h e t o t a l i t y of his p o t e n t i a l for r e l a t e d n e s s to w h a t
o p e n n e s s as w h i c h I am e x i s t i n g and l e t t i n g a n o t h e r thing, or p e r s o n , he e n c o u n t e r s in his w o r l d . In his e r r o r , t h e c h a i r m a n w a s acting from a
come forward into the center of my perceptive realm. v e r y specific r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h his fellow club m e m b e r s . H e w a s
J u s t as ill suited as p r o o f s for t h e e x i s t e n c e of a p s y c h i c u n c o n s c i o u s a r e d o u b t l e s s e n g a g e d in a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e a s s e m b l y , and being
t h e h y p n o s i s e x p e r i m e n t s o f B e r n h e i m , t h e first t o h a v e people p e r f o r m w i t h t h e s e people for t h e m e e t i n g w a s a n y t h i n g b u t a p u r e p l e a s u r e h e
a c t i o n s h e had s u g g e s t e d t o t h e m e a r l i e r u n d e r h y p n o s i s . T h e s t a t e o f w o u l d h a v e w i s h e d t o p r o l o n g . I t m a t t e r s little w h e t h e r o r n o t h e was
h y p n o s i s m a y b e defined a s o n e i n w h i c h t h e h y p n o t i z e d h a s c o m e a l m o s t t h e m a t i c a l l y a w a r e o f this p o o r r e l a t i o n s h i p a t t h e i n s t a n t h e m a d e his
totally u n d e r t h e spell o f the h y p n o t i s t . O w i n g t o people's f u n d a m e n t a l slip. Slips of t h e t o n g u e can h a p p e n in a n y n u m b e r of w a y s , b u t in no case
being t o g e t h e r in a s h a r e d w o r l d , it is possible for t h e h y p n o t i z e d p e r s o n a r e t h e y c a u s e d by an i n s t i n c t i v e desire p r e s e n t w i t h i n a capsulelike
to r e n o u n c e his i n d e p e n d e n t s e l f n e s s to s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t h e n c e f o r t h he p s y c h e . T h e y are c o n s i s t e n t l y a c t u a l i z a t i o n s , r a t h e r , o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p
can e x i s t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e h y p n o t i s t , dwelling a s o n e w i t h him i n t h e i r b e t w e e n people, w h i c h a r e n o t to be found w i t h i n a p s y c h e b u t are m o d e s
s h a r e d world. T h i s e n a b l e s t h e h y p n o t i s t t o a r b i t r a r i l y c o m m a n d o b j e c t s o f t h e h u m a n b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d t h a t p e r v a d e s t h e o p e n r e a l m o f the
to b e c o m e t h e focal point of his s u b j e c t ' s field of vision and to s h a p e t h e w o r l d c o m m o n t o all people. E v e n F r e u d s e e m s t o h a v e b e c o m e a w a r e o f
s u b j e c t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p y t o t h e s e o b j e c t s . T h e h y p n o t i s t can, for i n s t a n c e , this c i r c u m s t a n c e , for he did r e a c h the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t clues to
o r d e r his s u b j e c t to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p to a chair so t h a t , fifteen u n d e r s t a n d i n g slips m u s t be t a k e n f r o m t h e situation of t h e p e r s o n w h o
m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e t r a n c e h a s b e e n b r o k e n , t h e c h a i r will address him a s m a k e s t h e slips. A s i t u a t i o n is a l w a y s m a d e up of a total e n v i r o n m e n t .
s o m e t h i n g t o b e set o n t h e table. B e c a u s e t h e h y p n o t i z e d s u b j e c t h a s L a s t b u t n o t least, F r e u d w o u l d i n t r o d u c e d r e a m s a s e v i d e n c e o f the
s u r r e n d e r e d his i n d e p e n d e n t s e l f n e s s , it is e a s y for the h y p n o t i s t to psychic u n c o n s c i o u s . B u t t h e d r e a m i n g Da-sein of a p e r s o n yields to an
p r e v e n t him f r o m r e c o g n i z i n g t h e origin o f his p o s t h y p n o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v e s t i g a t o r t h e n o t i o n of an u n c o n s c i o u s only if he is d e t e r m i n e d at all
t o t h e chair. All o f this m e r e l y s h o w s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t , a f t e r e m e r g i n g c o s t s t o p r o c e e d i n t h e m a n n e r o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , e m p l o y i n g purely
from h y p n o s i s , h a s n o t y e t r e e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as an i n d e p e n d e n t self. h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s in o r d e r to t r a c e t h e d r e a m back to a universally
T h u s the p e r s o n w h o had b e e n h y p n o t i z e d will e x p r e s s i n t h e first p e r s o n valid c a u s e t h a t does n o t really e x i s t at all.
wh.it is actually t h e h y p n o t i s t ' s act of v o l i t i o n : "I will n o w place t h e c h a i r T h e p a r t i c u l a r h y p o t h e t i c a l c a u s e F r e u d s t e e r e d t o w a r d i n his d r e a m
on the table." In a similar w a y , m a n y people a r e h y p n o t i z e d by tradition t h e o r y can be found on page 4 4 2 of The Interpretation of Dreams: " F r o m the
en l>v I l i e a n o n y m o u s " t h e y " of t h e i r c u l t u r e , n o t realizing t h a t t h e i r t h e o r y o f h y s t e r i a w e b o r r o w t h e principle t h a t a n o r m a l train o f t h o u g h l
t h o u g h t s and a c t i o n s a r e fulfilling n o t t h e i r o w n e x i s t e n t i a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s is s u b j e c t e d to a b n o r m a l psychic e l a b o r a t i o n only w h e n it has b e c o m e the
140 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 141

m e d i u m for a n u n c o n s c i o u s desire t h a t h a s b e e n r e p r e s s e d b e c a u s e o f its to s u p p o s e t h a t a collective u n c o n s c i o u s or o t h e r e n d o p s y c h i c e n t i t y


infantile n a t u r e . It is in accordance with this principle t h a t we h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d e x i s t s t o give t h e s e p h e n o m e n a similar shapes a f t e r t h e fact.
o u r t h e o r y o f t h e d r e a m o n t h e assumption t h a t t h e impelling desire All n o t i o n s of a p s y c h i c u n c o n s c i o u s t h a t h a v e b e c o m e r o o t e d in
c o n s i s t e n t l y arises i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , s o m e t h i n g t h a t , admittedly, m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y t u r n o u t t o b e artificial p r o d u c t s o f t h e o r y , false
26
c a n n o t b e g e n e r a l l y p r o v e n , n o t dismissed o u t o f h a n d . " T h e r e i s n o footholds m a d e to a d v a n c e a p r e c o n c e i v e d and i n a d e q u a t e approach to
m o r e i m p r e s s i v e p r o o f t h a n this t h a t Freud's e n t i r e d r e a m t h e o r y , w i t h h u m a n being. T h e y have n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e actual p h e n o m e n a o f
its i n t e n s i v e u s e o f t h e p s y c h i c u n c o n s c i o u s , w a s c r e a t e d n o t for t h e sake h u m a n Da-sein and as a r e s u l t actually o b s t r u c t a d e q u a t e i n s i g h t into t h e
of t h e u n m a n i p u l a t e d d r e a m p h e n o m e n a t h e m s e l v e s b u t solely to suit a n a t u r e o f people.
p r e c o n c e i v e d principle. It is t h e r e f o r e high t i m e t h a t t h e p h r a s e psychic u n c o n s c i o u s w a s
Freud saw undisguised wish-fulfillment dreams as the one proof that e x p u n g e d from t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . T h i s
infantile d e s i r e s e x i s t e d in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s and w e r e t h e u n i v e r s a l l y valid c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d m e r e l y by pointing o u t the artificiality, superficiality,
c a u s e of all m a n i f e s t d r e a m i m a g e s . He illustrated his point w i t h r e p o r t s and h a r m f u l n e s s of this h y p o t h e s i z i n g . T h e idea of a psychic u n c o n s c i o u s
o f children w h o , h a v i n g g o n e t o bed h u n g r y , would t h e n d r e a m o f o r g i e s would n e v e r h a v e b e e n able to e f f e c t a global t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the
of eating. Conceding that these dreams are not very interesting in s c i e n c e s of h u m a n n a t u r e had it n o t at least v a g u e l y indicated t h e
t h e m s e l v e s , F r e u d added t h a t " t h e y are obviously of i n e s t i m a b l e value as d i m e n s i o n t h a t e n c o m p a s s e s m a n , his w o r l d , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p
proofs that dreams are, in essence, wish-fulfillments." This conclusion 27
between them.
is no m o r e c o n v i n c i n g t h a n it would be to claim t h a t b e c a u s e t h e r e are N o t e v e n t h e g r e a t p h i l o s o p h e r s i n t h e W e s t e r n m e t a p h y s i c a l tradition
s u c h t h i n g s as w h i t e r o s e s , all r o s e s of o t h e r c o l o r s m u s t be, in t h e i r t r u e h a v e b e e n able to m a p o u t a s o l u t i o n to this p r o b l e m . P h y s i c i s t s first
e s s e n c e , w h i t e r o s e s , in disguise. realized t h a t no radical s e p a r a t i o n can be m a d e b e t w e e n perceived
S u m m i n g u p w h a t w e h a v e said, n o t o n e o f t h e p h e n o m e n a o r p h e n o m e n a and the people w h o p e r c e i v e t h e m , t h a t i n fact t h e o b s e r v e r
a r g u m e n t s F r e u d i n t r o d u c e s to justify his a s s u m p t i o n of a p s y c h i c and o b s e r v e d belong t o g e t h e r in a m y s t e r i o u s , o b s c u r e r e a l m . T h e
u n c o n s c i o u s actually does w h a t it is supposed to do. positivistic, s u b j e c t i v i s t i c , o b j e c t i f y i n g a p p r o a c h e s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y
All we h a v e said to c o u n t e r Freud's h y p o t h e s i s of an individual p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i s t s limp decades b e h i n d this insight.
u n c o n s c i o u s applies in kind to t h e collective u n c o n s c i o u s posited in C a r l W h i l e believing t h e m s e l v e s t o b e p r o g r e s s i v e s c i e n t i s t s , t h e y are actually
J u n g ' s a n a l y t i c p s y c h o l o g y as an a t t e m p t to c o m p l e t e and underpin still e n g a g e d , as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l physicist W. H e i t l e r c o r r e c t l y r e m i n d s us,
Freudian t h e o r y . T h e collective u n c o n s c i o u s d e r i v e s from t h e v e r y s a m e in i m i t a t i n g a d v a n c e s m a d e in physics in t h e nineteenth c e n t u r y .
subjectivistic understanding of man, the very same psychologistic way of B u t e v e n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y physicists have b e e n w o r k i n g s o far
t h i n k i n g . T o g e t h e r w i t h all t h e a r c h e t y p a l i m a g e s , s t r u c t u r e s , and f o r c e s without the advantage of a new ontological orientation appropriate to
t h a t i n h a b i t it, t h e collective u n c o n s c i o u s is n o t h i n g m o r e than an their findings. F r o m t h e i r o w n c o n c e p t u a l s t a n d p o i n t , i t h a s t h e r e f o r e
a t t e m p t t o explain t h a t m a n y p h e n o m e n a reveal t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e s a m e been impossible t o grasp t h e e s s e n t i a l c o h e r e n c e o f p e r c e i v e r and
w a y to people w h o a r e widely s e p a r a t e d in space and t i m e . T h i s fact is perceived. O n l y by inquiring into being itself, as M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r h a s
i n c o n t e s t a b l e , b u t J u n g ' s interpretation of it r e s t s on t w o faulty been doing n o w for t h e space of a h u m a n lifetime, can we b e g i n e v e n to
a s s u m p t i o n s . T h e first i s t h a t h u m a n b e i n g s c o n s i s t , aside from t h e i r g r o p e t o w a r d t h e h e a r t of t h e m a t t e r . We m a k e a b e g i n n i n g in this
bodies, of an i n d e p e n d e n t , stratified p s y c h e . S e c o n d , t h e v e r y n o t i o n of a f o u n d a t i o n of medicine in t u r n i n g o u r regard a w a y from t h e i n a d e q u a t e
collective u n c o n s c i o u s is an i n s t a n c e of r e d u c t i o n i s m , w h e r e b y a given n o t i o n of a psychic u n c o n s c i o u s and t o w a r d w h a t physicians really o u g h t
diversity of p h e n o m e n a is s u b j e c t e d to a logical g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . H e r e , to keep in v i e w and c o n s i d e r .
p h e n o m e n a t h a t a r e m e r e l y similar in v a r i o u s t i m e s and places lead to t h e S e v e r a l t i m e s already, m e d i c i n e ' s o b j e c t o f study h a s b r o u g h t u s v e r y
c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e s t r u c t u r e e x i s t i n g identically within t h e close to t h e m a t t e r at h a n d . In discussing g e n u i n e f o r g e t t i n g , for
brains, or p s y c h e s , of all h u m a n b e i n g s . B u t it is m u c h m o r e likely t h a t e x a m p l e , w e spoke o f p h e n o m e n a t h a t had o n c e b e e n t h e m a t i c a l l y
t h e y reveal t h e m s e l v e s , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e s , in m u c h t h e s a m e w a y p r e s e n t dropping out of t h e o p e n realm of an individual h u m a n Da-sein or
w i t h i n t h e open realm o f h u m a n p e r c e p t i o n , b e c a u s e they t h e m s e l v e s b e i n g - t h e - t h e r e , e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t this is n o t j u s t a m a t t e r of
s h i n e fori h in the s a m e w a y e v e r y w h e r e and at all t i m e s . T h e r e is n o need e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e x t e r n a l - w o r l d o b j e c t s disappearing into
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 143
142

a different r e g i o n of an e n c a p s u l a t e d p s y c h e . In f o r g e t t i n g , t h e o b j e c t s of dismiss an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n like o u r s as g r o u n d l e s s m y s t i c i s m or p e r n i c i o u s


the world t h e m s e l v e s e s c a p e from t h e o p e n realm of a h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . i r r a t i o n a l i t y , n e g l e c t i n g to c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e i r e s t e e m e d ratio- i t s e l f can be
W h a t is m o r e a n d we will c o m e back to this l a t e r a t any o n e time in p r o p e r l y s e e n o n l y in r e l a t i o n to h i d d e n n e s s and t h e o p e n r e a l m released
h i s t o r y t h e r e are c e r t a i n p h e n o m e n a t h a t are invisible to all of m a n k i n d . f r o m h i d d e n n e s s . As long as r e a s o n and t h e r a t i o n a l a r e left as v a g u e as
T h e p r e s e n t age, for i n s t a n c e , is often described as t h a t age in w h i c h t h e y a r e n o w , t h e a c c u s a t i o n o f i r r a t i o n a l i t y aimed a t t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g -
divinity h a s w i t h d r a w n from t h e o p e n realm o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e and ical a p p r o a c h will r e m a i n h o l l o w . Indeed, if a n y t h i n g d e s e r v e s to be called
t h e r e f o r e can no l o n g e r be h e a r d by m a n . i r r a t i o n a l , it is t h e m i n d l e s s r a m p a g e of r a t i o n a l i t y in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of
2 8
t e c h n o l o g y t h a t i s d o m i n a t i n g t h e industrialized w o r l d .
W e also t o u c h e d o n t h e p r o p e r d i m e n s i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m i n o u r
a t t e m p t t o define t h e f u n d a m e n t a l trait o f h u m a n Da-sein. T h e h u m a n
being e x i s t s as a s p a n n i n g , b e a r i n g , and holding open of a realm of From drive to the human potential for relating specifically to the world
around
perception t h a t i s r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f w h a t e v e r p h e n o m e n a
r e v e a l t h e m s e l v e s in it. T h e condition of such e x i s t e n c e is an open, free, T h e p s y c h i c u n c o n s c i o u s is s o m e t i m e s depicted as a r e s e r v o i r of drives,
clear realm in w h i c h t h e h u m a n Da-sein can dwell, spanning and w h i c h p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y holds t o b e t h e u l t i m a t e reality o f psychic
m a i n t a i n i n g it in its o w n w a y . S u c h a realm is possible only t h e r e , w h e r e p h e n o m e n a , t h e k e r n e l from w h i c h all o t h e r psychic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s
it is released from h i d d e n n e s s and d a r k n e s s . N e i t h e r t h e clearing n o r the spring a s p r o d u c t s o f s u b l i m a t i o n o r a s r e a c t i o n f o r m a t i o n s . T h i s c o n c e p t
h i d d e n n e s s o r i g i n a t e s in c o n c r e t e t h i n g s , h u m a n b e i n g s , or in t h e p s y c h e . is prominent in most other contemporary branches of psychology, too,
R a t h e r , this h i d d e n n e s s is the m y s t e r i o u s s o u r c e from w h i c h all t h a t is t h o u g h m o s t n o n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i e s d o n o t follow F r e u d i n m a k i n g
c o m e s f o r t h to be. It is t h u s p r e t e m p o r a l , prespatial, and p r e h u m a n . A n d drives an a b s o l u t e .
as it is also p r e l i n g u i s t i c , the w o r d itself t h a t d e s i g n a t e s this primal A n y s t u d y o f t h e e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e o n drives s h o w s t h a t while i t h a s
p h e n o m e n o n r e p r e s e n t s only a m a k e s h i f t s o l u t i o n f r a u g h t w i t h the g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e for p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i s t s t h e r e is only
d a n g e r o f being misleading. T h e w o r d " h i d d e n n e s s " m i g h t lead u s t o v e r y s c a n t y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t w h a t drive i s supposed t o b e . F r e u d called
believe t h a t this primal p h e n o m e n o n m u s t b e u n d e r s t o o d o n t h e basis o f drives " m y t h i c a l c r e a t u r e s o f u n k n o w n o r i g i n " and did n o t h e s i t a t e t o
w h a t already is. In colloquial u s a g e , " h i d d e n " r e f e r s to s o m e t h i n g t h a t is d e s c r i b e his t h e o r y o f drives a s t h e m y t h o l o g y o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y .
already t h e r e w h i c h has m e r e l y b e e n c o v e r e d and s o w i t h d r a w n , B u t if it is s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a m o d e r n t h e o r y i n t e n t on p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f as
t e m p o r a r i l y , f r o m view. F o r i n s t a n c e , a m o n u m e n t m a y be hidden by e x a c t i n g l y scientific is, by its o w n a d m i s s i o n , satisfied w i t h a m y t h o l o g i
draperies until t h e m o m e n t o f its dedication, and t h o u g h w e c a n n o t see cal basis, m o r e striking i s t h e v e r y r e c e n t v i n t a g e o f t h e c o n c e p t .
t h e m o n u m e n t until t h e c l o t h is r e m o v e d , we a g r e e t h a t it w a s always Trieb ("drive") a r o s e , in fact, m e r e l y as the s u b s t a n t i v e f o r m of the v e r b
t h e r e u n d e r n e a t h in its final form and d i m e n s i o n s . B u t in t h e g r e a t triel ten, m e a n i n g "drive" or "drift," and r e f e r r i n g principally to c a t t l e ,
h i d d e n n e s s t h e r e is no already e x i s t i n g p a r t i c u l a r being. g a m e , o r o c e a n c u r r e n t s . O n l y i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y w e r e drives
T h i s d i m e n s i o n has b e e n c o n s i d e r e d for ages b y n o n w e s t e r n t h i n k e r s s p o k e n o f c o n c e r n i n g people. T h e w o r d still did n o t m e a n " i n n e r
as well. T h e y h a v e a l w a y s circled a r o u n d it in t h e w a y of " n e t - n e t , " saying c o m p u l s i o n , " but r e f e r r e d to t h e " s t i m u l u s " or "appeal" e x e r t e d on a
"it is n o t t h i s , n o t t h a t , n o t , not ." It is described t h e n as t h a t person b y s o m e t h i n g o r s o m e o n e from o u t s i d e h i m s e l f . T h e d i c t i o n a r y o f
w h i c h is totally o t h e r . the B r o t h e r s G r i m m c o n f i r m s this by including a v e r s e of Agrippina,
R e m a i n i n g mindful o f t h e ineffability o f this d i m e n s i o n , w e m a y i n t h e dating from 1 6 8 5 : " a d u l t e r y r o b s n e c k , b r e a s t s , and belly o f all t h e i r drive
f r a m e w o r k of a f u n d a m e n t a l study of m e d i c i n e call it h i d d e n n e s s . If (appeal)." N o t until t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y did p s y c h o l o g y begin to
W e s t e r n t h i n k i n g s o m e d a y i l l u m i n a t e s this h i d d e n n e s s , it will be s e e n as describe Triebe as drives and " p r i m i t i v e , n a t u r a l s t i r r i n g s . " S o o n
the origin and s o u r c e of all t h o s e p h e n o m e n a w h i c h p s y c h o l o g y and afte r w a r d s Triebe found its fullest and m o s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t in
p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y h a v e tried in vain to clarify t h r o u g h s u b j e c t i v i s t i c , m e c h a n i c s . M a n y t e c h n i c a l t e r m s a r o s e i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h it, a m o n g
objectifying, reifying t h i n k i n g w h i c h o p e r a t e s w i t h c o n s t r u c t s like them Triebrad ("drive-wheel"), Tnebfeder ("mainspring"), Triebstoff ("fuel").
psy( hie u n c o n s c i o u s . 1 low could t h e m e a n i n g of Trieb h a v e evolved in any o t h e r w a y ?
Admittedly, it is no e a s y m a t t e r to c a t c h sight of and t h i n k this I ) e s c a r t e s ' s philosophical division of the world into s u b j e c t and object
hhl.lrmi.".-. which releases all t h a t is out o f itself. M a n y would try t o and his d i s c o v e r y t h e r e b y of t h e basis for t e c h n o l o g i c a l m a s t e r y o v e r the
EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 14 5
144

e x t e r n a l w o r l d o p e n e d t h e w a y for m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y t o develop its defined t h e e g o - a g e n c y as, a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , " a c o h e s i v e , i n t e r n a l


c o n c e p t s of Trieb or drives. B u t b e f o r e p s y c h o l o g y could a r r i v e at its o r g a n i z a t i o n o f psychic p r o c e s s e s a t t a c h e d t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s , w h i c h
p r e s e n t n o t i o n o f drives, i t had t o p e r f o r m m a n y c o m p l e x a b s t r a c t i o n s c o n t r o l s t h e flow o f e x c i t a t i o n s i n t o t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d b y m e a n s o f
and f o r c e d r e i f i c a t i o n s . m o t i v i t y . " C e r t a i n w r i t e r s o u t s i d e the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c fold c h a r a c t e r i z e
N o w t h e r e is, a m o n g all t h e varied p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f relating t o w h a t i s t h e e g o a s "an i n s u b s t a n t i a l c l u s t e r o f p e r c e p t i o n s , ideas, and psychic
perceived, o n e p a r t i c u l a r m o d e t h a t c a n b e c a t e g o r i z e d a s a n i n v o l u n t a r y e x p e r i e n c e s . " Y e t o n e can also h e a r t h a t the e g o is a m e n t a l , or t h i n k i n g ,
s u b m i s s i o n to, and a b s o r p t i o n i n t o , this or t h a t t h i n g or being. Its s u b s t a n c e , a c o n n e c t i v e c e n t e r , o r c e n t e r o f i n t e n t i o n a l action. T h e n
b o d y i n g f o r t h can h a p p e n i n t h e f o r m o f so-called s e x u a l s e n s a t i o n s , and again, t h e e g o can be supposed to be t h e e s s e n t i a l aspect of a h u m a n
it m a y v e r y well h a p p e n as an e r o t i c a t t r a c t i o n of o v e r w h e l m i n g p o w e r . being, the part t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s i t s e l f as a s u b j e c t , in opposition to the
W h e n it is bodied f o r t h in t h e r e a l m of h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p it can lead to realm o f o b j e c t s , o r a s t h e s e a t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e " t h o u . " A n o t h e r
a n o r g a s m i c bodily m e r g i n g o f o n e w i t h t h e o t h e r . psychological school e l e v a t e s t h e e g o to t h e r a n k of a poniifex oppositorum;
F r o m t h e m a n i f o l d c o m p l e x i t y o f p o t e n t i a l h u m a n w a y s o f being, a h e r e t h e e g o - a g e n t would f u n c t i o n a s a bridge, o r m e d i u m , b e t w e e n G o d
psychological t h e o r y b e n t o n arriving a t t h e p r e s e n t c o n c e p t o f d r i v e s and p o w e r l e s s m a n , b e t w e e n w a k i n g and d r e a m i n g , mind and n a t u r e ,
isolated this o n e m o d e and declared it to be t h e only psychic reality. In t h e s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , t h e m u n d a n e and t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t . T h e e g o - a g e n c y
process, it was necessary to conceptualize the observed phenomenon as can do all this, it is claimed, b e c a u s e it is descended from an i n h e r e n t u r g e
the effect o f a n i n t e r n a l m o t i v e force and t o r e d u c e h u m a n b e i n g s t o t o p a r t i c i p a t e and s o i s able t o t r a n s c e n d its o w n b o r d e r s .
t h i n g s r e s e m b l i n g billiard balls. O n l y t h e n could h u m a n n a t u r e b e W e could easily give m o r e e x a m p l e s o f c u r r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s , b u t t o d o s o
r e p r e s e n t e d , in a n a l o g y to an e n g i n e , as a t h i n g driven, or m o v e d , f r o m w o u l d b e u s e l e s s and u n n e c e s s a r y . T h e y all s u f f e r from t h e s a m e flaw.
inside o r f r o m b e h i n d . I t i s n o t difficult t o s e e h o w m u c h c l o s e r t o reality N o t o n e definition says e n o u g h a b o u t the t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e e g o e v e n t o
t h e original m e a n i n g of Trieb w a s w h e n t h e w o r d still r e f e r r e d to t h e explain h o w this e g o m a k e s it possible to p e r c e i v e w h a t we e n c o u n t e r in
appeal of a w o m a n to a m a n . T h e n t h e r e w e r e no drives w i t h i n i m a g i n e d o u r w o r l d . No m a t t e r h o w this psychic ^ g o - a g e n c y is m a d e up, it still
e n d o p s y c h i c c o n t a i n e r s t o impel a m a n t o w a r d a n appealing w o m a n . O n posits people as e x i s t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y in s o m e space. T h e m y s t e r y still
t h e c o n t r a r y , i t w a s from t h e w o m a n t h a t t h e appeal c a m e t o d r a w t h e r e m a i n s t o r e i t e r a t e this a l l - i m p o r t a n t f a c t o f h o w s u c h a p s y c h i c
m a n to h e r . T h e w h o l e p r o c e s s w a s v i e w e d as w h a t it is, as an e v e n t in t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n could e v e r begin to s u s p e c t t h a t an outside w o r l d is t h e r e ,
open realm o f a n " e x t e r n a l , " h u m a n r e l a t e d n e s s . m u c h less m o v e o u t o f i t s e l f i n t o t h a t e x t e r n a l w o r l d . T h e v a g u e n e s s o f
t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e e g o - a g e n c y did n o t s t a y hidden from critical
From psychic agencies to an existential understanding psychologists. Jung, for instance, confessed that the foundation of the
of human ways of behaving e g o - a g e n c y , t h e self, w a s s t e e p e d i n m e t a p h y s i c a l o b s c u r i t y . T h e p r o b l e m
lnstanz, " a g e n c y , " o r i g i n a t e d in G e r m a n as a judicial c o n c e p t r e f e r r i n g i s t h a t for t h e last s e v e n t y y e a r s c r i t i c s h a v e b e e n c o n t e n t t o stop a t s u c h
t o a body a u t h o r i z e d t o pass j u d g m e n t , especially a c o u r t o f law. T h e t e r m n e g a t i v e o b j e c t i o n s and c o n t i n u e d t h i n k i n g i n t e r m s o f physically p r e s e n t
r e f e r s to an e n t i r e t y but w h e n it w a s adopted by p s y c h o l o g y , it w a s u s e d psychic e n t i t i e s .
t o d e s i g n a t e t h r e e different a g e n t s i n e a c h p e r s o n ' s p s y c h e e g o , T h e a n c i e n t W e s t e r n w o r l d did n o t k n o w t h e c o n c e p t " e g o . " M a n y have
s u p e r e g o , and id. T h i s i n n o v a t i o n tripled t h e i n s u r m o u n t a b l e difficulties tried to g e t a r o u n d this by claiming t h a t t h e a n c i e n t G r e e k s w e r e not as
t h a t had b e e n plaguing p s y c h o l o g y e v e n w i t h only a single s u b j e c t , or a s t u t e c o n c e r n i n g p s y c h o l o g y , n o t a s a d v a n c e d a s w e a r e today. But t o
psyche, b u t did yield o n e a d v a n t a g e , t h e o n e of w h i c h Freud had b o a s t e d t h e less a r r o g a n t , this i n d i c a t e s t h e possibility t h a t h u m a n n a t u r e might
in r e f e r e n c e to his e a r l i e r n o t i o n s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , be better understood without hypothesized endopsychic agencies.
and the u n c o n s c i o u s . W i t h such n o t i o n s , h e said, o n e could " o p e r a t e T o this day, n o o n e t h a t is, n o o n e w h o has n o t b e e n c o n t a m i n a t e d b y
comfortably." p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g w o u l d n o r m a l l y d e s c r i b e his e g o a s doing this 0 1
But the t h r e e psychic a g e n c i e s can b e h a n d y t h e o r e t i c a l p l a y t h i n g s o n l y t h a t . He w o u l d say " I , " r e f e r r i n g to h i m s e l f as t h a t c r e a t u r e w h o , at a
a s long a s their n a t u r e s are allowed t o r e m a i n u n e x a c t . T h e scientific g i v e n m o m e n t , i s e n g a g e d i n s o m e s o r t o f p e r c e p t i v e , o r active,
d i l l n ulties thai g o with t h e m b e c o m e c l e a r e r w h e n w e n o t e t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to s o m e t h i n g he e n c o u n t e r s in his w o r l d . W h e n this pet son
definitions are n u m e r o u s , diverse, and m u t u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Freud s a y s " I , " h e m e a n s t h e v a r i o u s p o t e n t i a l w a y s o f r e l a t i n g and b e h a v i n g o l
Basic Concepts of Biology, Physiology, and Psychology 147
146 EXISTENTIAL FOUNDATIONS

from G r o d d e c k . In t h e id b e l o n g t h o s e e n d o p s y c h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of
w h i c h h e i s a t t h a t m o m e n t t h e m a t i c a l l y a w a r e and h a s m a d e his o w n , s o
e x t e r n a l - w o r l d o b j e c t s , and t h e i r p e r t i n e n t a f f e c t s , w h i c h a p e r s o n ' s self-
b e c o m i n g a self. It is this s e l f t h a t e n d u r e s t h r o u g h t h e life h i s t o r y of a Da-
r e g a r d o r m o r a l feeling r e f u s e s t o r e c o g n i z e a s b e l o n g i n g t o him and
sein and w h i c h is a d d r e s s e d w h e n e v e r t h e Da-sein says " I " . Its c o n s t a n c y is
r e p r e s s e s , dynamically o r t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y , i n t o this id. W e h a v e already
s u c h t h a t t h e Da-sein can at all t i m e s r e t u r n to itself and find its i d e n t i t y in
pointed o u t t h a t e n d o p s y c h i c , u n c o n s c i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and affect
its dwellin