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Fasteners

Screw threads - Locking devices - Aircraft rivets - Pipes and Unions - Springs -
Bearings
Screw threads
Screw Nomenclature - Thread forms - Dimensions - Tolerances - Measuring
screw threads
Screw Nomenclature
Screw Nomenclature
Thread forms
Thread forms
Dimensions
Tolerances and Allowance

Thread Identification An intentional clearance is created


between mating threads when the nut
Proper Annotation and bolt are manufactured. This
- 20 x 2.5 UNC 2B clearance is known as the Allowance.
Tolerance is the difference between
Class Fit
the maximum and minimum permitted
1 - Loose limits.
2 - Standard
3 - Close
How to read bolt specs

Thread Identification

Proper Annotation UNC - Unified Coarse thread


- 20 x 2.5 UNC 2B UNF - Unified Fine thread
- Major Diameter A - External thread
20 - threads per inch B - Internal thread
2.5 length of the bolt
Measuring screw threads
Measuring screw threads
Fasteners
Screw threads - Locking devices - Aircraft rivets - Pipes and Unions - Springs -
Bearings
Locking Devices
Tab and spring washers - Locking plates - Split pins/Cotter pins - Pal nuts - wire
locking - quick release fasteners - keys - circlips
Tab and Spring washers

Tab washers are a type of lock washer, round


in shape and often manufactured with a single
tab or multiple tabs and notches that can be
formed to shape around bolts/nuts or
designed to lay flat. Ideal for use in harsh
environments, tab washers effectively lock a
part into place in applications requiring
extreme heat conditions or heavy vibrations.
Tab and Spring washers

Spring washers, sometimes called disc springs, are a


subtype of washers. Spring washers are employed in
applications where assemblies need a part to take up
play, eliminate rattle, maintain assembly tension,
compensate for expansion or contraction in materials after
assembly, or to absorb intermittent shock loads and
provide a controlled reaction under dynamic loads.
Locking plates
Locking plates
Split pins/ cotter pins
Pal nuts
Pal nuts
Wire locking
Quick release fasteners
Quick release fasteners
Keys
Keys
Circlips
Fasteners
Screw threads - Locking devices - Aircraft rivets - Pipes and Unions - Springs -
Bearings
Aircraft rivets
Types - specification and Identification - Heat treatment
Solid rivets
Solid rivets - Types

Video - solid rivets


Blind rivets
Blind rivets - Types
Rivet Specifications
Rivet Identification
Rivet Identification
Heat Treatment of Rivets - Annealing
Fasteners
Screw threads - Locking devices - Aircraft rivets - Pipes and Unions - Springs -
Bearings
Pipes and Unions
Identification - Types - Connectors used
Standard unions for aircraft hydraulic, fuel, oil, pneumatic and air system pipes
Rigid fluid lines

Metal tubing or rigid fluid line are used in stationary applications where
long and relatively straight runs are possible.
Widely used in aircraft for fuel, oil, coolant, oxygen, instrument and
hydraulic lines.
Rigid fluid lines - Tubing Materials
Copper tubing

Earlier aircrafts uses in aviation fluid applications.


Replaced by Al alloy, steel (CRES) and titanium tubings.

Aluminum alloy tubing

1100 H14 or 3003 H14 used in general purposes such as instrument lines and
ventilating conduits.
2024-T3, 5052-O and 6061-T6 used in hydraulics and pneumatics systems, fuel and
oil lines (low and medium pressures 1000 to 1500 psi)
Rigid fluid lines - Tubing Materials
Steel tubing

Used in high pressure hydraulic systems such as landing gear operation, flaps,
brakes and in fire zones. (above 3000 psi)
High tensile strength - thinner wall - less weight

Titanium tubing

30 % stronger than steel and 50 % lighter.


Used in high performance aircraft hydraulic system for pressure above 1500 psi.
Should not use in any oxygen system assembly. (oxygen reactive)
Rigid fluid lines - Tubing Materials

Titanium
Rigid fluid lines - Tubing Materials

Steel

Copper Aluminum
Rigid fluid lines - Material Identification

Aluminum alloy, steel or titanium tubing can be identified readily by sight.


Carbon steel, stainless steel and alloys of aluminum are difficult to
determine.
Compare code markings of the replacement tubing with the original
markings on the tubing for positive identification.
Rigid fluid lines - Material Identification
Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings

Thread types 1. Pipe threads 2. Machine threads


Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings

UNIVERSAL BULKHEAD FITTINGS


Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings

Fittings attach one piece of tubing to another or to the system units

1. Bead and clamp - low/med pressure - vacuum/ coolant system


2. Flared fittings - all systems regardless of pressure.
3. Flareless fittings - all systems regardless of pressure.
4. Permanent fittings - SWAGED - CRYOFIT - all systems regardless of
pressure.
Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings
1. Bead and clamp - low/med pressure - vacuum/ coolant system
Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings
2. Flared fittings - all systems regardless of pressure

Video - How to Install a Flare Fitting


Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings
3. Flareless fittings - all systems regardless of pressure

Video - Swaging Flaring and Bending Copper Tubing


Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings
3. Flareless fittings - all systems regardless of pressure
Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings
4. Permanent fittings - SWAGED - CRYOFIT - all sys. regardless of pressure
Rigid fluid lines - End Fittings
4. Permanent fittings - SWAGED - CRYOFIT - all sys. regardless of pressure

Video - Swaging Flaring and Bending Copper Tubing


Flexible pipes

Flexible hose is generally used in moving parts or where the hose is


subject to considerable vibration.
Used in aircraft fluid systems to connect moving parts with stationary
parts in locations subject to vibration or where great flexibility is needed.
Flexible pipes
Flexible pipes - Construction

Consists of seamless synthetic rubber inner tube covered with layers of


cotton braid and wire braid and an outer layer of rubber impregnated
cotton braid.
Normally classified by the amount of pressure they are designed to
withstand under normal operating conditions.
Low pressure - below 250 psi. Fabric braid reinforcement.
Medium pressure - upto 3000 psi. One wire braid reinforcement. Small
sizes upto 3000 psi, larger sizes upto 1500 psi.
High pressure - all sizes upto 3000 psi.
Flexible pipes - Construction
Flexible pipes - Hose materials

Synthetic rubber materials are most commonly used.


Buna -N - excellent resistant to petroleum products, do not use for
phosphate ester base hydraulic fluid (Skydrol).
Neoprene - has a acetylene base. Resistance to petro product is not as
good as buna N but has better abrasive resistance, do not use for Skydrol.
Butyl - excellent material to use with Skydrol, do not use with petroleum
products.
Flexible pipes - Hose materials

Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) - outstanding heat, ozone and


weather resistance, used in seals such as doors, windows, trunk and hood
seals.
Teflon - tetrafluoroethylene resin, broad operating range (-65 to +450
), shelf life is limitless, covered with stainless steel wire braided over the
tube for strength and protection. Not affected by any known petroleum
products, synthetic base oils, alcohols and coolants, Broad usage.
Flexible pipes - Hose fittings
Flexible hose are equipped with either swaged fittings or detachable
fittings, they may be used with beads and hose clamps.
Flexible pipes - Hose fittings
Flexible hose are equipped with either swaged fittings or detachable
fittings, they may be used with beads and hose clamps.
Flexible pipes - Hose & Fluid line identification

Most hydraulic hose is marked to identify its type, the quarter and year of
manufacture and a 5-digit code to id the manufacturer.
Markings are made in contrasting colours of text and numbers.
Fluid line are marked by colour codes, words and geometric symbols.
These markings identify functions, content and primary hazard of each
line.
Fluid line are marked in tape or decals or steel tags.
Flexible pipes - Hose & Fluid line identification
Fasteners
Screw threads - Locking devices - Aircraft rivets - Pipes and Unions - Springs -
Bearings
Springs
Types of Springs & Applications - Spring Materials - Characteristics
Types of Springs & their Applications

FLAT SPRINGS

Rectangular pieces of spring steel


Contact breaker points in a/c
magneto
Types of Springs & their Applications

LEAF SPRINGS

Layers of flat springs


Old a/c landing gear - common on
automobiles and trains
Types of Springs & their Applications

SPIRAL SPRINGS

Formed by winding flat springs


Known as motor or power springs
Used in analog instruments and to
power a wind-up clock or watch
Types of Springs & their Applications

HELICAL COMPRESSION AND


TENSION SPRINGS

Common type of springs


Compression and tension loads
Tension spring has a hook
Engine valve springs are helical
compression.
Types of Springs & their Applications

HELICAL COMPRESSION AND


TENSION SPRINGS

Common type of springs


Compression and tension loads
Tension spring has a hook
Engine valve springs are helical
compression.
Types of Springs & their Applications

HELICAL TORSION SPRINGS

Similar to helical tension and


compression springs
Specially shaped end
Spring absorbs torque force when
applied.
Types of Springs & their Applications

BELLEVILLE (DISC SPRINGS)

Centered axially by a shaft


Produce non-linear load absorbing
characteristics
Types of Springs & their Applications
Types of Springs & their Applications

TORSION BAR SPRINGS

Absorbs torsional and angular


deflection
Torsion bars are stiff
Used in automobile suspensions
Types of Springs & their Applications
Spring Materials

Carbon and Alloy steel Non-ferrous metals

1. Hard-drawn spring wire 1. Spring brass


2. Oil-tempered spring wire 2. Nickel silver
3. Music wire 3. Phosphor bronze
4. Chrome vanadium steel wire 4. Silicon bronze
5. Chrome-silicon steel wire 5. Beryllium copper
6. Stainless steel spring wire 6. High nickel alloys
7. Composite materials
8. Bungee cord
Spring Dimensions
Spring Dimensions
Spring Selection Considerations

Diameter Initial tension


Length Solid height
Rate of energy absorption Hysteresis
Working envelope Buckling
Material Magnetic characteristics
Elastic modulus Heat treatment
Wire hardness Corrosion
Coiling direction Temperature
Stress
Cycles
Fasteners
Screw threads - Locking devices - Aircraft rivets - Pipes and Unions - Springs -
Bearings
Bearings
Purpose of bearings - loads - Types of bearings - materials - construction -
application
Purpose of Bearings

The purpose of the bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support


radial and axial loads.
A good bearing must be composed of material that is strong enough to
withstand the pressure imposed on it and should permit the other surface
to move with a minimum of friction and wear.
Bearings are required to take radial loads and thrust loads or a
combination of the two.
Loads in a bearing
Bearing Types

Plain Bearings Ball Bearings Roller Bearing


Plain Bearings
Made of nonferrous metals
such as silver, bronze,
aluminum and alloys of
copper, tin and lead.
Subjected to radial loads
only.
Smaller bearings are called
bushings.
Used for crankshaft, cam
ring, camshaft, connecting
rods.
Plain Bearings
Made of nonferrous metals
such as silver, bronze,
aluminum and alloys of
copper, tin and lead.
Subjected to radial loads
only.
Smaller bearings are called
bushings.
Used for crankshaft, cam
ring, camshaft, connecting
rods.
Plain Bearings
Made of nonferrous metals
such as silver, bronze,
aluminum and alloys of
copper, tin and lead.
Subjected to radial loads
only.
Smaller bearings are called
bushings.
Used for crankshaft, cam
ring, camshaft, connecting
rods.
Ball Bearings
Consists of grooved inner
and outer races, one or
more sets of balls, retainer.
Subjected to radial loads
and thrust loads.
Used for shaft bearings
and rocker arm bearings in
reciprocating engines.
Used for gas turbine engine
to support one end of a
shaft and to keep the shaft
from moving axially.
Ball Bearings
Consists of grooved inner
and outer races, one or
more sets of balls, retainer.
Subjected to radial loads
and thrust loads.
Used for shaft bearings
and rocker arm bearings in
reciprocating engines.
Used for gas turbine engine
to support one end of a
shaft and to keep the shaft
from moving axially.
Ball Bearings
Consists of grooved inner
and outer races, one or
more sets of balls, retainer.
Subjected to radial loads
and thrust loads.
Used for shaft bearings
and rocker arm bearings in
reciprocating engines.
Used for gas turbine engine
to support one end of a
shaft and to keep the shaft
from moving axially.
Roller Bearings
Two types - straight roller
and tapered roller
Straight roller for radial
loads, tapered roller for
radial and thrust loads.
Straight roller bearings are
used in crankshaft main
bearings - also in GTE.
Rotating shaft in GTE is
supported by deep groove
ball bearing on one side
and straight roller bearing
on the other end.
Roller Bearings
Two types - straight roller
and tapered roller
Straight roller for radial
loads, tapered roller for
radial and thrust loads.
Straight roller bearings are
used in crankshaft main
bearings - also in GTE.
Rotating shaft in GTE is
supported by deep groove
ball bearing on one side
and straight roller bearing
on the other end.
Roller Bearings
Two types - straight roller
and tapered roller
Straight roller for radial
loads, tapered roller for
radial and thrust loads.
Straight roller bearings are
used in crankshaft main
bearings - also in GTE.
Rotating shaft in GTE is
supported by deep groove
ball bearing on one side
and straight roller bearing
on the other end.
Roller
Bearings

Wheel Assembly of a car


Roller Bearings
Two types - straight roller
and tapered roller
Straight roller for radial
loads, tapered roller for
radial and thrust loads.
Straight roller bearings are
used in crankshaft main
bearings - also in GTE.
Rotating shaft in GTE is
supported by deep groove
ball bearing on one side
and straight roller bearing
on the other end.