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# CHAPTER 13

## 13.4 Variational Problems involving derivatives of higher order and several

independent variables

13.6 Exercises

## calculus of variations have found applications in different fields of science and

engineering. The theme has a long history but a systematic study began by

the work of Euler (1707-1783) and Lagrange (1736-1813). The aim of this

## vector space say Rn or C[a,b], space of all continuous functions on [a,b])

represented by integrals.

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13.1 Variational Problems with Fixed Boundaries

## In an elementary course of calculus we study the concepts of maxima

and minima and problems of their existence. Let us recall some of those

## f(c) f(x) (13.1)

for all x in the neighbourhood of c, that is, in the open interval (c-, c+), >0

arbitrary small.

## extremum at x = c, c (a,b). Then f'(c) = 0.

The point c at which f'(c) = 0 is called a critical or stationary point and f(c) is a

## minimum, or a point of inflection (saddle point). This problem is dealt by the

following theorem.

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Theorem B Let f'(c) = 0. Then f (c) is a minimum if f"(c) > 0 and f(c) is a

maximum if f"(c) < 0. if f"(c) changes sign for points in the neighbourhood of

## functionals of the following type

b
J(u) = F( x, u( x ), u' ( x ))dx
a

(13.3)

du
where u'(x) =
dx

point

## twice continuously differentiable functions; that is, X=R n or C[a,b] or C2 [a,b] C2

[a,b] is the set of all functions f: [a,b] R such that f" is continuous. Distance

## or metric between two points x and y is defined as d(x,y) = | x i - y i |2

n 2

i1

where x = (x1, x2, .. . . ,xn) and y = (y1, y2,. .. . .,yn). The magnitude or length or

## norm of an element x R is defined as || x || = | x i |2

n 2
. The distance or
i1

217
1

b 2
2
of d (f,g) = sup
a x b
| f ( x) -
a

g(x)|

## Norm or magnitude of f C[a,b] or C2 [a,b] is defined as

||f|| = | f ( x ) |2 dx
b 2
or ||f|| = sup
a x b
| f ( x) | .
a

0

0

## for every t X, where 0 in R. DT(x) t Y is called the value of the

teaux
Gateaux derivative of T at x in the direction t, and T is said to be G a

## teaux derivative of an operator T is an

differentiable at x in the direction t. G a

## denoted by F then the mapping x DF (x) is called gradient of F and very

often denoted by F.

## It is clear that if X = Rn, Y = R and e1 = (1,0,0), e2 = (0,1,0,,0),

218
teaux derivative of F: Rn R in the direction ei is
en = (0,0 1) then the G a

F
teaux derivative of F: Rn R in the direction of arbitrary t
. The G a
x i

=(t1,t2,....tn) Rn is given by

n
F( x ) F
DF(x) t= tk where x denotes the partial derivatives of F
k 1 x k k

## derivative of a given operator T : X Y at x if

|| T( x t ) - T ( x ) - S( t ) ||
lim 0.
|| t|| 0 || t ||

## teaux and Frechet derivatives that if the Frechet

from the definition of G a

## teaux derivative. It is also evident

derivative exists then it is equal to the G a

## that existence of the classical derivatives imply existence of the Frechet

derivative. For r>0, Sr (x) = {x X :||x|| < r} is called an open sphere of X. Let

## or local minimum (local maximum) at x0 A if there is an open sphere Sr (x0)

of X such that F(x0) F(x) (F(x) F(x0)) holds for all x Sr (x0) A. If F has

## relative extremum or an extremum of a set A (This set may be taken as

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interval [a,b] or (a,b). The set A on which an extremum problem (extremal or

## Theorem 13.1 Let F: X R be a Gateaux differentiable functional at x 0 X

and F have a local extremum at x0, then D F(x0) t=0 for all tX.

Remark: 13.1 It may be observed that the conclusion of the theorem holds

## for the Frechet derivative and classical derivatives as well.

Proof of Theorem 13.1 For every t X, the function F (x 0 + t) (of the real

## follows from ordinary calculus that

d
d F ( x 0 t ) 0.
0

This means that DF (x0) t = 0 for all t X, which proves the theorem. Problem

## of Calculus of Variations (P):

Find a function u(x) on the interval [a,b] satisfying the boundary conditions

## (13.3) were u is a twice continuously differentiable function on [a,b]; that is u

C2[a,b], F continuous in x,u and u', and has continuous partial derivatives with

## the Euler-Lagrange theorem.

Theorem 13.2 A necessary condition for the functional J(u) given by (13.3),

## where F and u satisfy conditions mentioned in the Problem P, to have an

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extremum at u is that u must satisfy the following equation in a x b with

F d F
0
u dx u'

(13.4)

## Lemma (13.1) (Euler-Lagrange Lemma) If h(x) is continuous in [a,b], and if

b
< f, h > = a f ( x ) h ( x ) dx 0 (13.5)

for every continuous function f (x) such that f(a) = f(b) = 0, then h(x) = 0 for all

x in [a,b]

## Proof of Lemma 13.1 We prove the Lemma by contradiction. Let the

conditions of the Lemma be satisfied but h(x) 0, say h (x) > 0 for some x in

[a,b]. Then by continuity, h(x) > 0 in some interval [a 1,b1] containing this point

## and contained in [a,b]. If we set

( x - a1 ) 2 (b1 - x ) 2 , a1 x b1
f(x) =
0, otherwise

## then f(x) satisfies the conditions of the lemma. However,

b
b
f ( x ) h( x ) dx a1 ( x - a1 ) (b1 - x ) h( x )dx 0
1 2 2

since integrand is positive in (a 1, b1). This contradicts (13.5) which proves the

lemma

## Proof of Theorem 13.2

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We assume that J(u) has an extremum at some u C2 [a,b]. Then we

consider the set of all variations u+tv, for an arbitrary fixed v C2 [a,b], such

b

(13.6)

## Using the Taylor series expansion

F F
F( x, u tv, u' tv ' ) F( x, u, u' ) t v v'
u u'

2
t2 F F
v v' + .....,
2! u u'

## it follows from (13.6) that

t2 2
J(u+tv) = J(u) + tdJ(u,v) + d J(u,v) +....., (13.7)
2!

where the first and the second Frechet differentials are given by

b F F
dJ(u,v) = a v
u
v'
u'
dx, (13.8)

2
F F
d2J (u,v) = ab v v' dx. (13.9)
u u'

By Theorem 13.1 and Remark 13.1, the necessary condition for the functional

## (a) = v (b) =0, that is,

b F F
0 = dJ (u,v) = a v
u
v'
u'
dx

(13.10)

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Integrating the second term in the integrand in (13.10) by parts, we obtain
b
b F d F F

a
- vdx v 0. (13.11)
u dx u' u' a

Since v(a)=v(b)= 0, the boundary terms vanish and the necessary condition

becomes

b F d F
- vdx 0. (13.12)
a u dx u'

F d F
0. (13.13)
u dx u'

Remark 13.2

## derivative involved in (13.7). If terms of o(t 2) can be neglected in (13.7), or if

they vanish for the case of quadratic F, it follows that a necessary condition for

## Similarly, a necessary condition for the functional J (u) to have a maximum at

u0 is that d2J (u,v) 0 for all v. These results enable us to determine the upper

and lower bounds for the stationary value J(u 0) of the functional.

## 13.2 Applications to concrete Problems

Example 13.1 (Minimum Arc Length). Determine the form of the curve in a

plane which will make the distance between two points in the plane minimum.

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Suppose the plane curve y = y(x) passes through the points (x 1,y1) and

## (x2,y2). The length of such a curve is given by the functional

x
J( y) = x12 1 ( y' )2 dx. (13.14)

Thus, the problem is to determine the curve for which the functional J(y) is

equation becomes

d F
0.
dx y'

Hence,

y" = 0. (13.15)

## This means that the curve extremizing J(y) is a straight line:

y 2 y1
y (x x1) + y1.
x 2 x1

Example 13.2 Determine the meridian curve joining two points in a plane

which, when revolved about the x-axis, gives the surface of revolution with

minimum area.

## This is a problem of minimum surface of revolution generated by the

rotation of the curve y = y(x) about the x-axis. In this case, the area is given by

x
S = 2 x12 y ( x ) 1 ( y' ) 2 dx,

## so that the functional to be minimized is

x
J (y) = x12 y ( x ) 1 ( y' ) 2 dx.

## subject to the conditions

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y1 = y(x1) and y2 = y(x2). (13.16)

This corresponds to

F (x,y,y') = y 1 ( y' ) 2 ,

## yy" - (y')2 - 1 =0. (13.17)

Writing p for y', we have y" = dp/dx = p dp/dy, and (13.17) becomes

dp
py dy = p2 + 1.

y=a 1 p 2 ,

and hence,

dy y2
= - 1.
dx a2

## Integrating again, we find

x - b
y = a cosh , (13.18)
a

## where a and b are constants of integration, which can be determined from

conditions (13.16). The curve defined by (13.18) is called the catenary, and

## Example 13.3 Consider the functional

J (u) = a
b 1
2

p ( x ) (u' ) 2 - 21 q ( x ) u 2 f ( x ) u dx,

(13.19)

225
where p,q, and f are given functions and u belongs to an admissible set of

## J. Clearly, the Euler-Lagrange equation associated with the functional J(u) is

F d F
- 0,
u dx u'

(13.20)

where

1 1
F (x,u,u') = 2 p (x) (u')2 - 2 q (x) u2 + f(x) u.

(pu')' + qu = f.

Liouville type.

## particle moves on a path which makes the time integral

t
J = t12 L ( qi , qi ' t ) dt

(13.21)

## stationary, where the Lagrangian L = T - V is the difference between the

kinetic energy T and the potential energy V. In coordinate space, there are

numerous possible paths joining any two positions. From all these paths

which start at a point A at time t 1 and end at another point B at time t 2, nature

## equation assumes the form

L d dL
- =0, i = 1,2,..., n. (13.22)
qi dt dq' i

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In classical mechanics, these are simply called the Lagrange equations of

motion.

## generalized coordinates qi, generalized momentum pi = L/qi', and L as

n n L
H = p i qi ' - L qi ' - L ( qi , qi ' )
i 1 i 1 qi '

(13.23)

It follows that

dH d n L n d L L
qi ' - L qi ' 0 .
dt dt i1 qi ' i 1 dt q' i qi

## an optically homogeneous isotropic medium, light travels from one point

(x1,y1) to another point (x2,y2) along a path y=y(x) for which the travel time is

## minimum. Since the velocity v is constant in such a medium, the time is

minimum along the shortest path. In other words, the path y = y(x) minimizes

the integral

1 ( y ' )2
J = xx12 x
dx x 22 F( y, y' ) dx,
v

(13.24)

## with y(x1) = y1 and y(x2) = y2. The Euler-Lagrange equation is given by

d F
F - y' 0.
dx y'

Hence,

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F
F y' y' = constant

or

1 1
= constant.
v 1 ( y' )2

(13.25)

## In order to give a physical interpretation, we rewrite (13.25) in terms of the

angle between the tangent to the minimum path and the vertical y-axis, so

that

1
Sin = = constant (13.26)
1 ( y' )2

Hence,

sin
= constant (13.26)
v

for all points on the minimum path. For a ray of light, 1/v must be proportional

## to the refractive index n of the medium through which light is travelling.

Equation (13.26) is known as the Snell law of refraction of light. This law is

often stated as

## Example 13.6 (Abel's Problem of Tautochronous Motion). The problem is

to determine the plane curve y = y(x) for which the time of descent of a

particle sliding freely along the curve which passes through the origin and the

## point (x1,y1) is minimum.

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The velocity of the particle at the intermediate point (x,y) is found from

2
ds
1
2
m mg( y - 0 ),
dt

ds
= 2gy
dt

or

## 1 ( y' ) 2 dx 2gy dt,

which gives the time required for the particle to descend from the origin to the

x 1 ( y' )2
T (y) = 0 1 dx,
2gy

y(x1) = y1.

## This case corresponds to

1 ( y' )2
F(x,y,y') = F(y,y') = .
2gy

## Thus, the Euler-Lagrange equation

F d F
- 0
y dx y'

can be written as

F d F d F
0 = y' - = F - y' ,
y dx y' dx y'

so that

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F
F - y' = c,
y'

## where c is a constant. More explicitly,

c 2gy(1 ( y' ) 2 ) 1

or

a- y
y' = ,
y

## where a-1 = 2gc2. This can be integrated to obtain

y y dy
x = 0 ,
ay - y 2

where the positive sign is appropriate. We rewrite this integral in the form

1 y (a - 2y ) dy a y dy
x=- 2 0
,
ay - y 2 2 0 ay - y 2

so that the first integral can be evaluated at once, and the second one can be

evaluated by making the substitution (a/2) y =(a/2) cos . The final result is

a a - 2y
x=- ay - y 2 ar cos .
2 a

This is the equation of the curve of minimum time of descent, where the

## y1). It is convenient to write the equation in a parametric form by letting

a a
-y cos . Then
2 2

a a
x= ( - sin ), y = (1-cos ).
2 2

## They represent a cycloid.

230
Remark 13.3 (The Brachistochrone Problem)

The problem is to find the curve joining two given points A and B,

## shortest possible time.

Isoperimetric problem

## The determination of the extremum of the functional

x
J(u) = x12 F ( x, u, u' ) dx

## subject to the isoperimetric constraints (conditions)

x
x1 G ( x, u,u' ) dx (cons tan t )
2

f d f
- 0
u dx u'

## Determine the extremum of the functional

x2
J(u1,u2,...un) = F( x, u1,...u n , u1 '..., u n ' )dx
x1

## subject to the conditions, ui (x1) =ai,ui (x2) = bi (i=1,2 .....n)

and

x
x1 G j ( x , u, ......., un u'1 ........, u' n ) dx J
2

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j= 1,2,......m, j being constants. Here m may be greater than, equal to

or less than n.

## The Euler's equations are given by

m d m
F j Gj - (F J G j ) 0
u i j 1 dx u' i j 1

Example 13.7 The problem is to find the curve y = y (x) of the shortest length

between two points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) such that the area under the curve is A.

## The length of the curve is given by the functional

x2
J (y) = x 1
1 ( y' ) 2 dx (13.28)

## and the area under the curve is

x2
x1
y ( x ) dx A (13.29)

extremum of

J1 (y) = x12
x
1 ( y' )2 y dx.
(13.30)

## The associated Euler-Lagrange equation is

y
1 ( y' ) 2 y - d
dx y'

1 ( y' ) 2 y 0

or

d y'
.
dx 1 ( y ' )2

(13.31)

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This differential equation can be integrated twice to obtain the equation for y:
2
1
x- ( y ) 2 . (13.32)
2

Thus, the curve of shortest length is an arc of a circle, where the constants of

integration and together with the constant can be determined from the

condition that the curve passes through the points (x 1,y1) and (x2, y2) and the

## 13.3 Variational Problems with Moving Boundaries

Case (a) Suppose in Problem P, u(a) and u(b) are not specified. In this case

the necessary condition that the functional J(.) given by (13.3) has extremum

F
at u is that the following condition is satisfied besides(13.4) = 0 at x = a
u'

and x = b (13.33)

Example 13.8

2
2
Let J(u) = (u' ) dx
0

(13.34)

## Solution (i) Euler-Lagrange equation (13.4)

F d F
- = 0 takes the form
u dx u'

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F F
F =(u')2, = 0, = 2 u'.
u u'

## The general solution of u'' = 0 is

u = x + , , constants.

## u(0) =0= 0+ , implying =0

u(2) = 2+ = 2 or = 1

## (ii) In this case u must satisfy two conditions

F d F
- =0
u dx u'

F
= 0 at x = 0 and x = 2
u'

F
We have = 2u' = 0 implies u' = 0 at x= 0 and x=2
u'

## Case (b) End Points variable in x and y Directions

Let u(a) = ua, u(b) = ub, that is end points are variable points and u is

## u satisfying the following conditions, the Euler-Lagrange equation, namely

F d F
- = 0, a< x<b (13.35)
u dx u'

pu - Hx xx ba 0 (13.36)

234
F
where p = , H = pu'-F
u '

## 13.4 Variational Problems Involving several independent variables and

higher derivatives

## In this section we consider the extremum of the following functionals

db
u u
J(u) = F x, y, ,
x y
dx dy (13.37)
c a

where u = f(x,y)

b
J(u) =
F x,u, u' , u" , dx
a
(13.38)

du d2u
u' = , u'' =
dx dx 2

If the edges of the surface u = f(x,y) are fixed then the necessary

## condition for the extremum of the functional given in equation (13.37) is

F F F
- - 0
du x p y q

(13.39)

u u
where p = x , q y
.

## mathematician M.V. Ostrogradsky .

235
Here our variational problem is to find the surface with fixed edges u =

f(x,y) on which (13.37) has extremum. The above results can be carried out

F n F u
for n variables: 0 , where p i
u i1 x i p i x i

F F F 2 F
- -
u x p y q x 2 r

2 F 2 F
+ 0
xy s y 2 t

2u 2u 2u
where r = , s ,t
x 2
xy y 2

## The necessary condition for the functional given in (13.38) to have

extremum at u is

F
-
d F
+
d 2
F =0 (13.40)
u dx u '

dx 2 u"
This results holds in the following general form. The functional

236
J(u) =

b
(n )
F x, u, u' , u" ,......u dx has

a
extremum at u if it satisfies

F d F
- +
u dx u'

d F 2
.......... (
dx 2
u"
(13.41)

Theorem 13.2.

## The functional given by

x
J = x12 F ( x, u1 , u 2 , ......., u n , u'1 , u' 2 ,....., u' n ) dx

(13.42)

237
has extremum if it satisfies the equations

F d F
- = 0, j =1 , .......n
u j dx u j '

## Example 13.9 Find Ostrogradsky equation for the functional

d b u 2
u
2
J(u) = c a dxdy
x y

2 2
u u
Solution: Here F = + =p2 +q2
x y

u u F F
where p = and q = y . This gives us = 0, p = 2p and
x u

F
q
= 2q. Putting these values in (13.39) we have

0- x
(2p) - y (2q) = 0

p q
or + y = 0 as -2 = 0
x

2u u 2

or + = 0.
x 2 y 2

This is the two dimension Laplace equation which is solved in Section 12.4.

## Example 13.10. Find u for which

J (u) =

1 2
0
(1 u " ) dx

238
satisfying the following boundary conditions

## Is extremized (J has minimum or maximum value)

Solution: The Euler-Poisson Equation (13.40) takes the following form for

F = 1+u"2

d2
(2 u" ) 0
dx 2
Integrating 4 times we get

u = c1 x3 + c2 x2+ c3 x+c4.

## Using boundary conditions we get

c1 = 0, c2 = 0, c3 = 1, c4 = 0.

Therefore the given functional is extremized along the straight line u =x.

## Example 13.11 Find the extremal of

1
0 ( u' v' 2u ) dx
2 2

3
u (0) = 1, u(1) = , v (0) =0, v(1) =1
2

Solution:

## Euler's equation gives

u"=1, v" = 0

x2
which gives u = + c1x +c2
2

v = c3x +c4

239
3
u(0) = 1 = c2 and u(1) = implies c1 = 0
2

## v(0) = 0 gives c4 = 0 and v(1) = 1 gives c3=1

x2
Therefore extremals are u= + 1 and v=x.
2

## 13.5 Sufficient conditions for an Extremum Hamilton Jacobi Equation

Figure 13.1

b
Let J(u) = F( x, u, u' )dx (13.44)
a

and let for any two end points A(a,u a) and B(b, ub) there is only one curve C

which extremizes J. Take A fixed and consider two right hand end points.

## The corresponding curves at which J(.) given by (13.44) is extremized are C 1

and C2 as shown in Figure 13.1. The integral (13.44) evaluated along any

curve which extremizes it is just a function of the end pints A and B, and since

## A is fixed, one can consider (13.44) as a function of B alone. Thus

240
J(C1) = F( x,u,u' )dx (13.45)
C1

## is a function S of B1 which we can write as ub.

S = S (b,ub). (13.46)

Similarly

## S+S = S (b+b, ub+ub) (13.47)

Is the corresponding value for the extremum curve C 2 joining A and B2. From

these we have

S = H ub - Hb) (13.48)

Therefore

S S
= p, =-H
u b b

(13.49)

where H = pu'- F

Now B1 (b,ub) may be any end point, and so we can replace it by the

## point B(x,u) by changing b to x, ub to u. Then (13.49) becomes

S S
= p, =-H (13.50)
u x

F
where p = p(x,y) = (13.51)
u'

and

## H = H (x,u,p) = pu' F (13.52)

du
In (13.51) u' denotes the derivative calculated at the point B for the
dx

## extremizing curve C going from A to B.

241
From (13.50) we have

S S
+ H x, u, =0 (13.53)
x u

S
= constant

d S 2S 2 S du
= +
dx x x u dx

(13.54)

## By differentiating (13.53) with respect to we have

2S H 2S 2S H 2 S
+ p = 0 or = - p
x u x u

(13.55)

(We get this keeping in mind that occurs only in the third variable of

## H, which was originally denoted by p.

2S
Putting the value of from (13.55) in (13.54) we obtain
x

242
d S 2S du H
= - (13.56)
dx u dx p

Now, since

du H
= p (canonical equation)
dx

## along each extremizing curve, it follows that

d S
=0
dx

or

S
= constant (on each extremizing curve) (13.57)

## Example 13.12 Illustrate Theorem 13.3 with the help of

b
2
J(u) = u' dx
a

F
Solution F(x,u,u') = u'2, p = = 2u'.
u'

## Thus the Hamiltonian is given by

1 2 1 2 1 2
H (x,u,p) = pu' F = p - p = p
2 4 4

2
S 1 S
+ (13.58)
x 4 u

## S = S(x,u) = v(x) + w(u) (13.59)

which gives

243
2
dv 1 dw
+ =0
dx 4 du

(13.60)

dv dv
It follows from (13.60) that must be constant, because does
dx dx

2
dw
not dependent on u and does not depend on x. Hence
du

v = - 2x ( constant)

2
1 dw
Then - 2 + = 0,
4 du

which gives

dw
= 2
du

or w = 2 u + ,

## where in another constant. So, by (13.59)

S = -x2 + 2 u + (13.61)

s
By Theorem 13.3, the extemizing curves are given by = constant,

13.6 Exercises

## 1. Find functions u(x) which extremize the functional

244

2
J (u(x)) = ((u' ) 2 - u 2 )dx, subject to boundary conditions u(0) = 0,
0

u( ) = 1.
2

## 2. Find functions which extremize the functional

1
J(u(x)) = ((u' ) 12xu)dx, subject to boundary conditions u(0) =
2

0, u(1) = 1.

## 3. Find u such that

u
2
J(u) = dx, u(a) u a , u(b ) u b is extremized along u.
a

## 4. Solve the calculus of variational problem :

1
J(u(x)) = (u x u' )dx, u(0) = 0, u(1) = 1.
2 2

## 5. Solve the calculus of variational problem :

6
J(u(x)) = (u x u' )dx, u(2) = u0, u(6) = u1.
2

## 6. Find u for which the functional

X1 1
/2
(1 u' 2 )
J(u) = x
dx, is extremized.
X0

## 7. Find the extremals of the functional

2
J(u(x),v(x)) = (u' 2 v ' 2 2uv )dx
0

245
u(0) = 0, u( / ) = 1, v(0) = 0, v
2 /

2
= -1

a

J(u(x)) =

2 2
(u" -u 2 x 2
)
0

l 1 1
J (u(x) = ( u 2
u) dx
l 2

## 11. Find the Ostrogradski equation for the functional

db u 2
u
2
J (u(x,y)) = x
y
2u f ( x, y )

dx dy
c a

246
where on the boundary of the rectangle of sides b-a and d-c the

## 12. Write down the Ostrogradski equation for the functional

u 2
u
2

J (u( x, y )) - dx dy
D x y

13. Examine whether the problem of calculus of variations for the following

## functional subject to the given boundary conditions has a solution or

not?

1
J(u)= ( xu u - 2 u u' ) dx
2 2

## u(0) =1, u(1) =2.

14. Find the curve which gives extremum value of the function J(.) given by

b
J(u) = (u u' - 2 u sin x ) dx
2 2

b(u' ) 2
15. Examine whether the functional J(u) = 3
dx has an extremum or
a x

not?

## 16. Find the function which extremize the functional

/2
J (u) ( 2u sin x u' 2 ) dx,
0

## subject to the boundary conditions

u(0) =0, u( / 2) = 1.

17. Discuss the problem of finding the shortest distance between two

points in the plane. Write down the problem and solve it.

247
18. Find the extremal of the functional

b
J (u,v) = ( 2uv - 2u u' - v ' ) dx
2 2 2

a
where u and v are functions of x

2
u' v v ' dx
2 2 2

## u (1) =1, u(2) =2,

or v(1) = 0, v(2) =1

## 21. Find Ostrogradsky equation for the functional

u u
2
u
2

2u f ( x, y, z ) d x d y d z
2
(i)
x y z

2u 2
2u
2
2u
2

(ii) 2
2
2 2 u f ( x, y ) dxdy
x u xy

## length l and line density using the method of calculus of

variations.

248
24. Solve the isoperimetric problem, that is, to maximize the area under

x2
a curve u ( x ) dx
x1

## subject to the fixed point arc length

x2 1
(1 (u' ( x )) ) dx2 l
2

x1

249