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Hacettepe University

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department


H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

ELE 454
Power Electronics

Lecture Notes
Chapter I

Instructor: Dr. IIk


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OUTLINE
I. INTRODUCTION
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

II. POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES


III. LOSS CALCULATIONS AND COOLING
OF POWER SEMICONDUCTORS
IV. RECTIFIER CIRCUITS (AC-DC Converters)
V. CONVERTER OPERATION IN FOUR-QUADRANTS
VI. AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS
VII. CHOPPERS (DC-DC Converters)
VIII. INVERTERS (DC-AC Converters)
IX. PROTECTION OF POWER CONVERTERS
I. INTRODUCTION

Power Electronics is a branch of electrical / electronics


H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

engineering that is concerned with the conversion and


control of electrical power for various applications.

Block diagram of a power electronic system


I. INTRODUCTION

Utility systems usually generate, transmit, and distribute


H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

power at a fixed frequency (50 or 60 Hz), and a fixed


voltage is maintained at the consumer terminals.

A consumer, however, may need power at DC or AC,


at the same, higher or lower or variable frequency.
Frequently, the power is to be controlled with precision.
precision

A power electronics system interfaces between the utility


system and consumer load to satisfy this need.
Power electronics may be defined as the applications of
solid-state electronics for the control and conversion of
electrical power.
I. INTRODUCTION
POWER ELECTRONICS is concerned with static power
conversion, or interconversion of electrical energy
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

The core of a power electronics apparatus consists of a


converter built on a matrix of power semiconductor
switching devices, and electronic control circuitry:

Utility
POWER ELECTRONICS
Grid APPARATUS
LOAD
* Converter
Constant * Controller
V,f

Needs DC or AC
power usually at
variable V, and f
I. INTRODUCTION

The goals of Power Electronics:


H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

To process, and control the flow of electrical power


by supplying voltages and currents in a form that is
optimally suited for user loads,

To convert electrical energy from one form to


another with highest efficiency, high availability, and
high reliability, with the lowest cost, smallest size,
and weight.
I. INTRODUCTION

The power converters can be classified as:


H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

RECTIFIERS (AC to DC Converters)

CHOPPERS (DC to DC Converters)

INVERTERS (DC to AC Converters)

AC POWER CONTROLLERS (AC to AC Converters)


AC Voltage Controllers, and Direct
Frequency Changers
I. INTRODUCTION
Power electronics systems applications
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

AC to AC: AC Power Controllers,


Direct Frequency Changers
I. INTRODUCTION
Power electronics an interdisciplinary technology
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

The study of power electronics encompasses many


fields within electrical engineering
I. INTRODUCTION

Combining the knowledge of these diverse fields makes


H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

the study of power electronics challenging as well as


interesting.

There are many potential advances in all these fields,


that will improve the prospects for applying power
electronics to new applications.

It is difficult to draw the bondaries for the application


of power electronics; especially with the present trends in
the development of power devices and microcontrollers.
I. INTRODUCTION
Power Electronics is a branch of electrical / electronics
engineering engineering, that is concerned with the
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

conversion and control of electrical power for various


applications such as:

9 heating and lighting control


9 electrochemical processes
9 switch-mode power supplies
9 dc and ac electrical machine drives,
9 active power line filtering,
9 static VAr compensation systems,
9 AC power controllers
9 electrical welding
I. INTRODUCTION
Power electronics systems applications
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

9 Solid-state circuit breakers

9 Induction heating

9 Photovoltaic systems

9 Transportation (electric car, trains)

9 Variable-speed, constant-frequency generating systems,

9 Power generation and transmission (HVDC)

and many more...


I. INTRODUCTION
Power electronics systems applications
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes
I. INTRODUCTION
Application of power semiconductor devices
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes
I. INTRODUCTION

At present, POWER ELECTRONICS seems to have


H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

been polarized in two directions:


Low-power, high frequency electronics
- need for switch mode power supplies
- circuit miniaturization

Moderate to high power electronics


- covers motor drives, UPS, lighting, heating
control, power quality etc.
- Cost, efficiency, size, and other performance
improvements are the main criteria
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes I. INTRODUCTION
I. INTRODUCTION
Power electronics systems applications
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes
I. INTRODUCTION

Motor drives
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

Power electronics
systems applications
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes I. INTRODUCTION
I. INTRODUCTION

A 200 W SMPS:
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes

A dc-dc converter:
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes I. INTRODUCTION
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes I. INTRODUCTION

Bilsat 1
Power
Supply
H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes I. INTRODUCTION
I. INTRODUCTION

Commercial electric motor drives


H.U. ELE 454 Lecture Notes