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Homenaje

(An Analysis of Manuel de Fallas Le Tombeau de Claude Debussy)

By Duan Bogdanovi

Whenever I die,
bury me with my guitar
beneath the sand.

Memento, Federico Garca Lorca1

The Genesis of Homenaje

Described in 1926 as a melodically rather insignificant worklet2, barely three minutes


long, Manuel de Fallas Homenaje remains one of the masterpieces of the guitar
repertoire. Originally written for the 1920 issue of La Revue Musicale, this little piece
was a Tombeau dedicated to the memory of Claude Debussy, one of Fallas dear friends
and supporters during his stay in Paris (1907-1914), before the outbreak of the World
War I.

The two composers were connected by more than just stylistic affinity: as much as Falla
owed to the Impressionist treatment of harmony and orchestral color, Debussy did to
Iberian folk music idiom- and not only in his works that had overt Spanish influences.
The more obviously Spanish pieces (such as Puerta del vino or Iberia) reveal even more
influence of the folk idiom, particularly in their rhythmic profile and oriental modal
approach. Manuel de Falla himself pronounced one of Debussy's Spanish pieces (La
Soire dans Grenade) the best pianistic reflection of Spain, this distinction being even
more remarkable considering Debussy had never really been to Spain (except for one trip
to San Sebastian)3.

1
Cuando yo me muera,
enterradme con mi guitarra
bajo la arena.

Lorca, F. G., Memento, from Vigetas flamencas, Collected Poems (edited by C. Maurer), Farrar, Straus
and Giroux, 2002, p.145
2
Istel E., 1926, p.503
3
In his inimitable poetic language, this is how Garcia Lorca describes Debussys first encounter with the
cante jondo: At the Spanish Pavilion of the great Paris Exhibition of 1900, a group of Gypsies sang deep
song in all its purity. They caught the attention of the whole city, but especially a young musician who was
then engaged in the fight all of us young artists must carry on, the fight for what is new and unforeseen, the
treasure hunt, in the sea of thought, for inviolate emotion. Day after day that young man went to hear the
Andalusian cantaores. His soul was wide open to the four winds of the spirit, and he was soon made
pregnant by the ancient Orient of our melodies. He was Claude Debussy. (Lorca, G. In Search of Duende,
A New Directions Bibelots, 1998, New York, p.9)

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If Debussy had a cosmopolitan aesthetic outlook and interests, Manuel de Falla was very
narrowly focused on the Spanish folk tradition, notably cante jondo (the deep song), as
opposed to the later civilized and westernized versions of the Iberian folk song form.
Dating from the end of the 800-year Arab rule in Spain, cante jondo (as well as cante
flamenco) are primarily derived from East Indian, Arabic and European Gypsy music4.
Some of the characteristics of cante jondo are: the microtonal modulations of the voice;
melodic ambit rarely passing the sixth; repeated usage of the same note (with upper and
lower appoggiaturas) as sorcery formula; ornaments, especially used in the melodic
peaks, and the public cries to encourage and excite the performers5.

We shall return to some of these characteristics later in the text when dealing with the
structure of Homenaje. For the moment, it might suffice to point out that Fallas
involvement in the study and revival of this ancient folk song also resulted in organizing
of the first competition of cante jondo in Granada in1922, with the help of Garcia Lorca,
as well as many other notable Spanish musicians, artists and writers, such as J. Turina, F.
Mompou, A. Segovia, J. R. Jimnez, I. Zuloaga et al. A similarly impressive collection of
composers, but of international stature, was gathered for the 1920 issue of La Revue
Musicale to contribute to the memory of Claude Debussy6.

With the help of the great guitarist M. Llobet, Falla composed Homenaje between 27th
July and 8th August of 1920 in Granada. Alongside the guitar version of the Tombeau,
Falla subsequently arranged the piece for piano, and later made an orchestral version
entitled Elegia de la guitarra, as the second movement to the Homenajes Suite. The
guitar piece itself went through several editions, beginning with Llobets, and ending
with J. Duartes and R. Purcells versions. Here is a sketchy timeline of the piece.

1920- July 27- August 8, Falla wrote Homenaje in Granada.


1920- December 1, La Revue Musicale published the piece in Tombeau de Claude
Debussy issue.
1921- Homenaje arranged for piano, was published by Chester.
1921- January 24, the composition was premiered in Paris, performed on the harp-lute by
Marie-Louise Henri Casadesus.
1921- February 13, the piece had its guitar premiere by Llobet in Burgos.
1923- The piece was reissued by La Revue Musicale.

4
More specifically: the Punjabi singing of Northern India, the Persian Zyriab song form, the Classical
Andalusian Orchestras of the Islamic Empire, the Jewish Synagogue Chants, Mozarabic forms such as
Zarchyas and Zambra, Arabic zayal (the foundation for the Fandango), Andalusian regional folk forms, as
well as West African influences as seen in the cantes de ida y vuelta (songs that were brought back from
Latin America) which include the Rumbas, Garotin and Colombianas (from wikipedia.org).

5
Lorca, G. In Search of Duende, A New Directions Bibelots, 1998, New York, p.5
6
Besides Falla, other composers that contributed music for La Revue Musicale were B. Bartok, I.
Stravinsky, M. Ravel, P. Dukas, E. Satie, A. Rousell, among others.

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1926- M. Llobets version was published by Chester.
1938/39- Falla completed the orchestral version Elegia de la Guitarra, as the second
movement of Homenajes Suite for symphonic orchestra.
1984- J. Duartes version was published by Chester.
1989- R. Purcells version was published by Chanterelle, as part of The Complete Works
of Llobet.

I have so far focused only on the most essential information crucial for understanding of
the historical and stylistic context of the piece. For more exhaustive and detailed
information about the piece and the composer, I refer diligent reader to an excellent
article on the subject published by the Italian magazine Guitart, which includes
biographical material, an in-depth analysis of the piece as well as detailed bibliography
and discography7.

The Textual Sources

There is no doubt that Debussys extraordinary musical instincts absorbed and integrated
cante jondo into his compositional approach and his aesthetics. Although the earlier
generation of Spanish composers (Albeniz, Granados) had an unmistakable flavor of the
deep song, their music was massively filtered through classical formal and aesthetic
formulas. Debussys rendition of the Spanish folk idiom, although dressed up in
Impressionist clothing, is more raw and closer to the structure and expression of the
actual folk art than that of his Romantic predecessors. Fallas own research of and
closeness to the folk material is even more so- as evidenced in Homenaje. The very
structure, the use of rhythm and modes in the piece is perhaps as revolutionary to the
Spanish classical idiom as was Stravinskys in the compositions from his Russian
period. Manuel de Fallas Omenaje, in that sense, holds a special and unique place in
the whole output of the twentieth century guitar music written by Spanish composers,
including works of Segovia composers such as Turina, Torroba, and even Joaquin
Rodrigo.

In his homage to Debussy, Falla relies on specific compositions perhaps less than he does
on the grammar of the French composers compositional and poetic technique. Thus, the
main motif of Homenaje seems to be rather synthetic than specific to a particular piece.
La srnade interrompue provides an obvious reference to the melody of the piece, but
not to the rhythmic pattern upon which it is built. It is also not accidental that Falla uses
this Prelude as the melodic prime mover for the piece (note the quasi guitarra
indication at the very beginning of the piece) (Ex. 1.).

7
Manuel de Falla e la Chitarra, Guitart, February/April 1996, pp.18-53

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Ex. 1.

The dance of habanera, on the other hand, provides a rhythmical impetus for the piece.
Imported from Cuba, habanera became a popular dance form in Europe during the
beginning of the twentieth century8. Among Debussys examples of the form, perhaps the
most relevant are La puerta del vino (Ex. 2.) from the first volume of his Preludes for
piano and La soire dans Grenade from his piano collection Estampes.

Ex. 2.

Although it is not the purpose of this article to delve deeper into the origins of the
habanera pattern, it might be useful to point out its close kinship to the West African
rhythmic profile. The gankogui cowbell pattern from Gahu (the percussion ensemble
music of the Ewe speaking people from West Africa) for example, demonstrates the same
rhythmic profile as the habanera dance (Ex. 3.)9. Given the influence of African music
on Cuban music folk idiom, it does not take a great leap of imagination to connect this
pattern to the habanera dance formula.

Ex 3.

Homenaje then, is perhaps even deeper in its origins than cante jondo claims it to be. Be
that as it may, the first four measures of Homenaje already show a synthesis at work (Ex.
4): it is an amalgam of both repetitive melodic pattern of La srnade interrompue and
the habanera rhythm, which amplified by the arpeggio, remains one of the constant
important features of the piece.

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Havanera- from Havana.
9
Cited from Locke, D., Drum Gahu, 1998, Tempe, Arizona, White Cliffs Media, p. 19.

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Ex. 4.

Here is another example of an analogous phrase between another habanera, La soire


dans Grenade and Homenaje (meas. 3-4).

Ex. 5.

Ex. 6.

The one literal quote in Fallas piece is from La soire dans Grenade. Brought towards
the end of the work, the quote appears as an illuminated flashback onto Debussys
work in an otherwise dreamy and opaque composition (Ex. 7-8.).

Ex.7.

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Ex. 8.

The Rhythmic Structure

While looking at the following table of the variants of rhythmic motif A (Ex. 9.), two
apparent types of motivic metamorphosis are easily discernible even at first site. One is
the process of motivic transformation by addition (for example, the patterns 4 and 5), the
other, transformation by subtraction (for example, the patterns 5 and 6).

Ex. 9.

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While this type of transformation elongates or shortens the motifs, the process of
commutation varies motivic cells, while preserving their respective places in the overall
structural metric framework10. Here is a typical commutative cell exchange (Ex. 10.)
cited from work by Simha Arom in his African Polyphony and Polyrhythm11.

Ex. 10.

10
For more information concerning motivic metamorphosis, please refer to my work Ex Ovo, (A Guide for
Perplexed Composers and Improvisers), 2006, Doberman Editions, Saint-Nicolas, Canada.
11
Arom, Simha, 1991, African Polyphony and Polyrhythm, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.
258.

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In Homenaje, the patterns 1, 2, 4 and 5 (Ex.9.) preserve the motif, while
transforming the second cell, whereas the patterns 3 and 8 transmute the motif into a

rhythmic pattern, while preserving the structure of the second cell.

Ex. 11. shows similar processes at work. The seed of the arpeggio motif B (1.), which
is already contained in the first bar of the piece (see Ex. no.4.), becomes spelled-out as
a quintuplet motif in the second bar (2.), then further elongated (3.) or varied (4. and 5.)
in its subsequent incarnations. Although the patterns 6, 7 and 8 belong to the middle
section of the piece, on closer inspection, they seem to be derived from the same
arpeggio motif, but in slower rhythmic values and continuous movement.

Ex. 11.

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The final example of the rhythmic structure of Homenaje shows motifs C, D and E. The
motif C is the rhythmic pattern upon which both the ostinato bass of the theme and the
subsequent theme of the middle section are based (Ex.12.). Although motif E is derived
from the arpeggio motif B, I have designated it as a separate pattern because of its
structural difference (scale-wise passage instead of an arpeggio).

Ex.12.

Note the coherence of the motivic material Falla used in building of the piece: the motifs
A, C and D are all based on the same rhythmic skeleton. As seen in Ex.13, the motif C is
simply an augmented version (2:1) of motif A.

Ex. 13.

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The Melodic Structure

One of the most accepted contemporary theories of human evolution is known as the
mitochondrial Eve hypothesis. According to this model, the origins of humankind can be
traced (via tiny organelles called mitochondria) to a female who lived in Africa some
150,000 years ago12. Although lacking in mitochondrial analogy in music, we can see that
some of the rhythmic patterns and transformative processes of Homenaje can be traced
back to their African roots (see Ex. 3, and Ex. 10.). Besides rhythmic structure, it is also
apparent that the melodic and harmonic roots of the piece are entirely modal, which
points to ancient sources of cante jondos melodic content as well (as does most folk
music throughout the world).

We shall first approach the task of classifying motifs according to their structural kinship.
The principal skeleton of a motif is based on a synthesis of two simple (essential)
parameters: rhythm and melody, thus permitting it to stand on its own13. The following
microanalysis of the motif A shows this synthesis at work.

Ex. 14

Careful detective work shows four rhythmic cells (a, b, c, d), with the cell b
commutating with the b1 variant (see also Ex. 10). On the level II, it is possible to strip
down the structure to only one melodic cell built on interval of the second, with two
transformed figures: the inversion, a1, and the transposed original, a2. The level III
however, shows melodic structure interpreted by the rhythmic profile of the motifs. The
resultant phrasing contour outlines a slightly different pattern. On this level, motif b
(consisting of three notes) is alternating with motif c (the shadow image of motif a). On
yet another level, it is possible to reconfigure the pattern to include motif b1, which is an
12
Leakey, R. The Origin of Humankind, 1994, Basic Books, New York, p. 96
13
In my work Ex Ovo, I have developed a theory of motivic metamorphosis. In the introductory section, I
have defined motifs according to their parametric constitution. The simple (essential) motif is based on a)
rhythm and b) melody. Complex (derivative) motif is based on c) harmony, d) counterpoint, and the
descriptive, on e) articulation, f) dynamics and g) timbre. work Ex Ovo, (A Guide for Perplexed Composers
and Improvisers), 2006, Doberman Editions, Saint-Nicolas, Canada, p. 84-5.

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inversion of motif b. In the second phrase, the last three-note motif b2 turns out to be a
transposed version of the initial motif b. It is particularly interesting to see the rhythmic
reconfiguration of melodic cells in the beginning of the phrase (from four notes to five).

Although this analysis might seem too pregnant with possibilities, I think that it is
precisely this wealth of alternative interpretations that makes this composition so creative
and intricate. Following is a table of melodic motifs classified according to their
structural characteristics.

Ex. 15.

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Ex. 16.

Note that the motif B1 (Ex. 16) is built on descending arpeggios, whereas the motif B2 is
built on its ascending form (inversion). The motif B3, although not used for the same
purpose, is obviously related to the previous two. Through gradual transformation (B2-6),
the arpeggio motif becomes emancipated into an accompanying full-blown ostinato
pattern, on which the whole middle section is built.

As mentioned previously in the Rhythmic Structure segment, motif C is a rhythmic


augmentation of the motif A, but melodically built on interval of the fourth and its
inversion, the fifth (Ex. 17.). It is primarily used as a bass line of the initial section (C)
and it is also closely related to guitar tuning (open strings A and E). The motif D, on the
other hand, is based on the melodic cell A, but in continuous eight-note patterns and is
prominent in the middle section of Homenaje

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Ex. 17.

The final example (Ex.18) shows the relationship between the arpeggio motif, the
thirty-second-note scale-wise passage and the principal motif (D4/E3) of the middle
section. It is plausible that this motif is a synthesis between motif A and the scale-wise
passage (E1). In any case, we are again confirmed in our assumption that all the motifs of

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this piece are very closely related and present very unified and coherent building blocks
of the composition.

Ex. 18.

The Harmonic Structure

As can be seen from Ex. 19, the essential harmonic structure of Homenaje is mode-based.
Since there is no consensus (to my knowledge) as far as these types of modes are
concerned, I have used the North Indian Thta classification, expounded by N. A.
Jairazbhoy in his work on North Indian rga systems14. Thtas are heptatonic proto-
modes according to which the rgas are built and classified. In contrast to the latter,
thtas show only approximate tuning and use the same structure for both ascending and
descending forms15. Nevertheless, even a cursory glance will reveal that some of the
descending forms of the melodies somewhat differ from the ascending (c, e and g), which
again points to Indian (and perhaps North African) origins of the roots of cante jondo.

In contrast to North Indian music, which always remains bound to the same Tonic, Falla
transposes the modes thereby creating modulatory shifts in the harmonic structure of the
piece. The example h then, shows a transposed version of the mode 2C (example d), from
C to Db. Another notable melodic device that Falla uses in this piece is transformation of
upper and lower tetrachords of the mode with the same Tonic. The modes 1D and 3D, for
example, change lower tetrachord, while 1D/3D and 1C change the upper. Consequently,
one of the most original and interesting features of this piece is the synthetic aspect of its
genesis: while relying on Eastern modal systems, Falla introduces Western technical
devices, such as transposition, modulation and exchange of lower and upper tetrachordal

14
Jairazbhoy N. A. The Rgs of North Indian Music, 1971, Faber & Faber, London.
15
I have slightly modified Jairazbhoys list of thtas, in order to make an easier classification model.
According to my model all the modes with the same upper tetrachord are classified under the same letter (A
- D); all the modes with the same lower tetrachord are classified under the same cardinal number (1 - 9). It
is, therefore easy to obtain its designation, as can be seen from the table of Appendix no.1.

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structural characteristics. No doubt, these are also used to create Impressionist idiomatic
features (harmony used as color and texture).

Ex. 19.

In the following example (Ex. 20.) I will further refine the analysis of the processes of
melodic development in the piece. One of the characteristics of formal development in
rga (as well as other Eastern forms, such as Turkish taksim) is building of melody
through addition. Often the music starts out with melodic cells that include only part of
the mode, to be further developed through additional inclusion of the whole scale.

15
Something very similar occurs in Homenaje. As is apparent from the following example,
we have little clue as to the nature of the mode the piece starts with; it is revealed only
gradually note-by-note, until it eventually becomes clear what particular scale we are
dealing with. Although the piece starts with the low register of the instrument, the melody
is built on the upper tetrachord, instead of the lower - which is not the case in rga or
taksim16.

Ex. 20.

Ex. 21 sums up all the types of upper and lower tetrachords we have seen so far17.

As mentioned earlier, the descending and ascending forms of the modes sometimes
differ. As in Indian rga, the descending form here is not a scale (as in melodic minor, for

16
The upper tetrachord is designated as u.t., the lower, as l.t.
17
All of the modes in this example start on Tonic A, regardless of their actual pitches in the composition.

16
example), but rather a collection of melodic patterns. I have therefore designated the
descending form in the piece as note chappe, because of its similarity to this type of
ornamental resolution of this non-harmonic figure18.

The next segment from the piece shows the chordal structures that Falla built Homenaje
on. While some chords derive from guitar tuning and idiomatic use of guitar in Flamenco
and cante jondo tradition, others are structured according to modal, and occasionally,
tonal reference systems. The beginning chord, for example, is based on the sixth and fifth
bass strings which are then reiterated as an ostinato bass line (Ex. 22, a). The following
arpeggiated chord (motif B) adds two upper open strings (E and B). It is interesting to
note that the first chord of the next section (b) uses the same notes, but in inversion (the
bass note E is transposed two 8ves higher) therefore putting the mode onto a new Tonic
(A).

Besides these types of chords, other chordal structures, also typical for Debussys music
and Impressionism in general, abound. Quartal and quintal harmonies show up very
often. Examples of chords built on fourths are in following examples: c (ms. 2), e (ms. 1);
examples of chords built on fifths, in: d (ms.1), e (ms. 1), g (ms.1). Triadic chords, such
as the dominant thirteenth in f (ms.1) seem to be used for the sake of its color, rather than
function. On the other hand, the quartal harmony in d (ms.3), reinterpreted as a dominant
seventh chord with a diminished fifth, has a very mundane tonal function in C (V7b5).
More ambiguously, the augmented sixth chord in third inversion (B, Db, F, Ab) in h
(ms.1), seem to have two simultaneous roles: one, of a substitute (VII2) of a dominant of
V in F, as well as tonic of Db mode 2C (Ex. 19, h)19. Since the mode has a minor seventh
(Cb), the resultant chord on tonic winds up a dominant instead of a major seventh chord.

18 As can be seen from example 21, the note chappe (escape note) digresses from the direction of
melodic movement and then returns by a skip, as a form of compensation.
19
Since the mode has a minor seventh degree (Cb), the resultant chord on tonic winds up a dominant
instead of a major seventh chord.

17
Ex. 22

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19
The Form

In much of this text so far, I have already dwelled on principles that generate the form of
Homenaje. Nevertheless, even if we clearly understand the transformative nature of
Fallas compositional process, it will take another effort to get to the level of larger
structure of the piece.

As I have explained earlier, the process of transformation and commutative principle


account for much of the compositions structure. There is however, a larger-scale formal
accretion that makes the piece architecturally sound. The overall basic form of Homenaje
follows a tripartite ABA form, which is characteristic of much funeral march formal
outline (See Appendix no.2). The rough contours of the piece then are: section A ms.1-
30, section B ms.31-49 and the recapitulation section, A1 ms.50-71.

The section A though, contains within itself another tripartite segment, which could be
designated as: a (2+2+3) b (2+3+3) and a1 (2+1) (ms. 1-19). The section a, and a1, based
on the upper tetrachord of the mode D, are almost identical, except for their lengths. The
section b reveals the entire 1D mode. The next section (3+2) is a sort of development of
previous material, transposing the mode to C. The final fragment of the section A returns
to the tonic A, but in mode 1C (with the major third instead of minor). The ending figures
of this section (ms. 28-30) return to the original mode.

The middle section B brings in contrasting material, although the building blocks remain
derived from the same source. The arpeggio motif is used as a connective tissue
between the two major sections, and it represents a bridge that is fragmentary and
intermediary in its character (ms.31-37). The actual contrasting section (ms.38-43)
is constructed out of both the emancipated arpeggio motif and a synthesis of motif A
and the scale-wise passage (motif D). At the ending of this section there is a return to the
initial mode, with a somewhat digressing flirtation with Db (ms. 46-49).

The recapitulating section A1 is a truncated version of the section A (note the shorter
initial section of 2+2+2 instead of 2+2+3). A quote from La soire dans Grenade in this
guitar version presents a flashback motif from this piece by Claude Debussy. As it
were a sudden conscious realization in the middle of a dream, this fragment reminds us of
the reality of Debussys life and work. It is perhaps a reminder of a life gone-a life that is
nevertheless as present as the actual fact of composers death. The piece ends with a
rhythmically augmented version of the principal motif of Homenaje. Here is, then, the
form of the piece.

Ex .23

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Other Considerations

Given not only the two main editions for guitar (Llobet and Duarte), but also the two
other versions of the piece (piano and orchestra), we can reconstruct what was the
composers intention, as far as the articulations and the timbre are concerned.

Ex.24

The above example (Ex.24) shows five different versions comparatively: a) Llobets, b)
Duartes, c) the piano version, d) the orchestral version (clarinet in Bb), and e) my own
synthetic version. While Duarte takes into account most of the articulations of the piano

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version, he does not use the slur between the sixteenth-note and the eight-note (in
measure no.1), which is particularly clearly spelled-out in the clarinet part. The little extra
effort required to master the difficulty of playing the slur (E, F) simultaneously with the
bass (A), might be paid off by the elegant and dance-like quality of the articulation.

It is also interesting to see different characterization of slight slowing down of eight-notes


(x) at end of the first measure and beginning of the second. While the indications for
guitar and piano remain the same, they slightly differ in the case of the orchestra.
Obviously, the whole orchestra cannot control what an individual player can, and to make
it easier for the performance, Falla indicates the slowing down in the clarinet part as
appena pesante(the indication x is lacking on the downbeat of the next measure as well,
presumably because of the difficulty of its performance).

In the next segment shown in example 25 (which is based on the same choices as the
previous), I have included the fingering as well, because I think that it is quite revealing
of editors intentions. Duartes choice of fingering, for example, reflects more reliance on
piano in terms of both sound and articulations, while Llobet, on the other hand, uses
fingering typical for the Romantic interpretation of his generation (the Tarrega school).
He also seems more sensitive to the guitar timbre and uses almost exclusively the third
string for the melody in this segment.

Since Fallas orchestral version came after the guitar and piano versions, it is up to the
individual performer to consider whether to imply orchestral color on the guitar or not.
Thus, as can be seen from the following example, in the orchestral rendition (d), the
phrase is split between violins and oboe. While this gives a strong clue about the
performance of the melody, it could also be used to build different timbres for the
segments of the phrase. The performer could, for example, use Duartes fingering choice
for the first three notes of the melody (open string position) and Llobets for the
remainder (the third string mostly).

Similarly, the performer has several choices for the performance of the bass. Falla
himself chose slightly different lengths of the first bass note; the piano version gives a
quarter note followed by an eight-note rest, whereas the guitar and the orchestral versions
give a dotted quarter-note, without a rest. Be that as it may, I think that it is obvious that
in situations like this, other available textual sources and versions give one a wide
territory on which to build an enlightened performance20.

20
Other goods examples for this kind of detective study would be Frank Martins Quatre pieces breves,
which also exists in a piano version entitled Guitare or, say, Maurice Ohanas Tiento, which is also
available in a harpsichord version.

22
Ex. 25

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In conclusion, Manuel de Fallas Homenaje remains a unique gem of the guitar
repertoire-a masterfully executed composition, wealthy in its content and poetic
implications. As expressed by Angelo Gilardino in his Manuale di storia della chitarra:
In no other moment of the music for guitar, this peculiar universal Andalusianism the
spiritual and artistic matrix of Falla and his poet friend Federico Garcia Lorca- will find
the elevated and perfect expression as in Homenaje, in which, among other, we find
synthesized the most refined wisdom of guitar writing.21

Bibliography

Arom, Simha, 1991, African Polyphony and Polyrhythm, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge

Bogdanovic D. Ex Ovo, (A Guide for Perplexed Composers and Improvisers), 2006,


Doberman Editions, Saint-Nicolas, Canada

Gilardino, A. Manuale di storia della chitarra, 1988, Berben, Ancona

Istel, E. "Manuel de Falla: A Study", The Musical Quarterly, 12 no. 4, October 1926

Jairazbhoy N. A. The Rgs of North Indian Music, Faber & Faber, 1971, London

Leakey, R. The Origin of Humankind, 1994, Basic Books, New York

Locke, D., Drum Gahu, 1998, White Cliffs Media, Tempe, Arizona

Lorca, G. In Search of Duende, A New Directions Bibelots, 1998, New York

Lorca, F. G., Memento, from Vigetas flamencas, Collected Poems (edited by C.


Maurer), 2002, Farrar, Straus and Giroux , New York

Manuel de Falla e la Chitarra, Guitart, February/April 1996, Ancona

2008 by Dusan Bogdanovic

21
In nessun altro momento della musica per chitarra quel peculiare sentimento di andalucismo universal-
che era la matrice spirituale ed artistica di Falla e del suo amico poeta Federico Garcia Lorca- trover
espressione alta e perfetta comme nellHomenaje in cui, oltretutto, sintetizzata una rafffinatissima
sapienza di scrittura chitarristica. ( Gilardino, A. Manuale di storia della chitarra, 1988, Berben, Ancona,
p. 39).

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Appendix no. 1

From North Indian Thta classification according to N. A. Jairazbhoy (this version by D.


Bogdanovic)

25