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Static Pressure

Najah Mubashira

ME 332: Fluid Mechanics Lab

Section 2: Tuesday, 11:20-2:10

Aryan Mehboudi

14th February 2017


Abstract

This lab was about static pressure. Four separate experiments were conducted to

demonstrate various experimental realizations of fluid pressure and to understand the various

techniques for pressure measurement. Experiment 1 utilized an inverted cup to understand

hydrostatics and test the hydrostatic formulas derived from other laws. It was found that

hydrostatics could be used to find the gage pressure using only the change in height. However,

human error and non-ideal conditions will cause some error in the measured pressures.

Experiment 2 and 3 were conducted to understand the transient response of typical

pressure measuring systems. Experiment 2 utilized an air track and an air cart apparatus to

measure the sudden change in steady pressure via various lengths of tubing. The results showed

over-damped behavior for all lengths of tube. It was also noted that as the length of tubing

increases the rise time increases. Experiment 3 utilized a U-tube manometer to measure the

unsteady response to a sudden change of pressure. It was found that this results in under-damped

behavior.

Experiment 4 utilized an FLL Flow system to view the pressure distribution caused by

the impact of a plane jet. This experiment was conducted to measure the pressure distribution

and determine the resulting normal force acting on the plate as a function of plate angle. It was

found that as the plate angle increased, the normal force generally decreased, although human

error prevents confident results.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction................................................................................................................ 1
2. Experimental Design..................................................................................................... 4
2.1 Materials:.......................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Procedure:......................................................................................................... 4
2.2a Experiment 1: Inverted Cup.........................................................................4
2.2b Experiment 2: Transient Response of Pressure Measuring System...............4
2.2c Experiment 3: U-Tube Oscillation..................................................................5
2.2d Experiment 4: Pressure Distribution Caused by Jet Impact..........................5
2.3 Diagrams:.......................................................................................................... 7
2.4 Data and Observations:................................................................................... 11
3. Data Analysis and Interpretation..................................................................................... 13
4. Conclusion................................................................................................................ 28
References................................................................................................................... 30
Appendix A.................................................................................................................. 31
Appendix B.................................................................................................................. 32
Appendix C.................................................................................................................. 35
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1. Introduction

Pressure is a scalar defined as a force acting over an area. Fluids in a container

experience pressure as well. The momentum exchange between the fluid molecules and the

[containing] wall, (Static Pressure, 1) creates the force which acts over the area of the container

to produce fluid pressure. As such, the units of pressure can be expressed as pounds per square

inch (lbf/in2 or psi), pounds per square foot (lbf/ft2 or psf), or Newtons per square meter (N/m2)

which is also referred to as Pascals (Pa). Along with being described as force over unit area,

pressure is also described as a compressive normal stress since a fluid cannot be in tension.

When pressure is referenced to absolute zero, it is coined absolute pressure, and is

often designated by the symbol psia. This applies to general thermodynamics such as the ideal

gas law. Differential pressure is when a pressure is measured relative to another reference

pressure. A special case of differential pressure is when measured pressure is compared to the

local atmospheric pressure. If the measured pressure is larger than the local atmospheric

pressure, it is referred to as gage pressure, which is designated by the symbol psig. However,

when the measured pressure is smaller than the local atmospheric pressure, it is referred to as

vacuum pressure. This lab will include all such pressure types.

In many fluids labs pressure is also measured in inches of water (in H2O) which is

measured by the height of the column of fluid, which it supports. This inches can be used in the

pressure head equation in equation one below to find the actual pressure of the fluid.

P=gh (1)

Equation 1 is derived from hydrostatics, which will be explained later in the paper.
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A pressure field exists for every given flow field. This occurs because pressure can vary

as a function of space and time. However, there are specials cases where not all the space and

time variables apply. One of which occurs when the fluid is stationary and the pressure variation

is only due to the weight of the fluid. (Static Pressure, 2) In such cases, the pressure is denoted

as hydrostatic. Equation 2 below is derived from this special case, keeping in mind that y is

the vertical direction, P1 and P2 are the pressures at the respective heights, the fluid density is ,

and g is the gravitational acceleration.

y2

P2P1= g dy (2)
y1

Another special case occurs when the density is constant. This is referred to as incompressible

flow. We can alter equation 2 to get equation 3 below with the same variables.

P2P1=g( y 2 y 1) (3)

Pressure can be measured in a variety of ways. For this lab, pressure was measured in

four experiments. The first experiment utilized an inverted cup to measure hydrostatic gage

pressure. The next experiment utilized an air track, Pitot tube, and a pressure transducer to

establish the transient response of the pressure measuring system. The transient responses of

pressure measuring instruments depend on the response of the transducer and the connected tube

and the fluid inside of it. Transducers measure steady and unsteady pressures. A calibration

constant, mp, characterizes the pressure input voltage output relationship for each transducer in

units of inches of water per volt. (Static Pressure, 4) The second experiment utilized an air cart

on an air track to look at dynamic responses of pressure measuring instruments. Specifically, the

step pressure was observed. Step pressure is when the system responds to a pressure input that

changes suddenly from a high gage pressure to a pressure of zero. The program that was used
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(Time Series VI) plots the pressure against the time. That plot can be used to determine the

behavior of the pressure. It can be over-damped or underdamped. Over-damped would mean the

transducer measures outputs that slowly approaches a steady state. Under-damped would mean

the transducer records pressure that oscillates until it reaches a steady oscillation pattern.

The third experiment included a U-Tube manometer to observe unsteady pressure and to

observe the response of the program used to record the changes in pressure. This experiment is

mainly run to observe under-damped behavior. The final experiment utilized the FLL flow

system to observe static pressure. A pressure measured in a moving fluid is called static

pressure since the probe measuring the pressure must be static, or at rest. The set-up of each

of these experiments will be explained in further detail later on in the paper. These experiments

were conducted to understand the techniques for pressure measurements given steady or

unsteady fluid and under different circumstances. Another purpose for conducting such

experiments was to view the experimental realizations of fluid pressure.


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2. Experimental Design

2.1 Materials:

Inverted cup apparatus Traverse VI program


Air cart apparatus (4) Validyne pressure transducer (DP22)
U-Tube apparatus (4) Carrier demodulator (CD15)
FLL flow system (4) Digital multi-meter
Scannivalve
2.2 Procedure:

2.2a Experiment 1: Inverted Cup

1. Set up the inverted cup apparatus


2. Record the calibration constant for the pressure transducer. Note this in Table 1
3. Zero the pressure transducer with the cup outside the water
4. Lower the cup until it touches the waters surface. Note this in Table 2 as hi
5. Record the output voltage in Table 1
6. Calculate the initial gage pressure
7. Lower the cup until DMM reads just below max voltage and record the value in Table 1
8. Calculate the final gage pressure
9. Using Figure 1, record the changes in height and hf, the height of the air column in the

immersed cup in Table 2 along with the water level inside the cup

2.2b Experiment 2: Transient Response of Pressure Measuring System

1. Set up the air cart apparatus as seen in Figure 2


2. Connect the initial Pitot tube to the transducer. Orient the other end of the tube normal to

the air trach near one of the small holes


3. Turn on the pressurized air and orient the tube so that the output voltage is around 6-9

volts.
4. Push the air cart
5. Use Time Series VI to acquire data. It will plot the output voltage E(t) as the air cart

passes the open end of the pitot tube


6. Record the tube length in Table 5, calculate the rise time, tr, and decide if the result is

under-damped or over-damped
7. Perform steps 2 through 6 for the next four lengths of tubing

2.2c Experiment 3: U-Tube Oscillation

1. Set up the U-tube apparatus


2. Note the calibration constant
3. Pinch one end of the flexible tube
4. Start Time Series VI. Adjust the sampling rate to 100Hz and the sample number to 1000
5. Start data acquisition
6. Hold the tube pinched for 2 seconds, then release the tube
7. Determine oscillation frequency in Hz and the settling time of the U-tube oscillation

2.2d Experiment 4: Pressure Distribution Caused by Jet Impact

1. Enter the FLL and set up the jet impact set-up as show in Figure 4
2. Adjust the plate to the initial angle and zero the transducer
3. Make sure all the ports are open to ensure high velocity
4. Note the calibration constant and record it in Table 3
5. Record the jet nozzle width and the plate span in Table 3
6. Connect the positive port of the pressure transducer to Ppl and leave the negative port

open to the atmosphere.


7. Start the FLL and record the voltage. Calculate the change in pressure using Equation 1

in Appendix A1
8. Turn off the FLL
9. Connect the positive port of the pressure transducer to the output of the scannivalve

making sure that the scannivalve is at the home position by pressing and holding the

home button until no noises are heard from it


10. Set the sample rate to 100Hz, the sample number to 500, and the calibration constant as A
11. Enter the first y position as 1, Turn on the FLL, acquire the data by pressing run
12. Once the data point is acquired, press step on the scannivalve, enter the next y position

and acquire the next data point


13. Repeat step 11 until all 23 data points are recorded
14. Change the velocity to low by covering half the ports
15. Repeat steps 6 through 13 to complete the testing for initial angle at low velocity
16. Repeat steps 6 through 15 for all other listed angles
2.3 Diagrams:

Figure 1. Inverted Cup Experimental Set-Up


Figure 1 shows the experimental set up for the inverted cup experiment. A container full

of water is placed on a platform. The bottom of a ruler is placed level on that same platform. The

ruler is used to measure the changing height of the water levels and air columns. The cup is

attached to a mechanism that lowers it and raises it by turning a knob. A tube is connected to the

top of the cup. The other end of the tube is connected to a Validyne pressure transducer model

number DP22. The DP22 measures pressure using a diaphragm of magnetic stainless steel

which deflects in response to the pressure differential applied to the opposite sides of the

diaphragm. (Introduction to Instrumentation, 2) The transducer is connected to a carrier

demodulator model CD15. The transducer produces an electric analog signal, which the CD15

converts to certain functions. The combination of DP22 and CD15 comes equipped with a

calibration constant that is used to find pressure. The CD15 is connected to a digital multi-meter

(DMM) that outputs the voltage received from the DP22.

Figure 2. Air Cart Experimental Set-Up


Figure 2 shows the experimental set-up of the second experiment. An air cart is placed on

an air track. Pressurized air flows through the air track. Since the air track has holes in it, the

pressurized air flows through those holes consequently making the air cart float. If a force is

applied to the cart, the cart will glide across the trach without a frictional force acting against it.

Thus, the cart will move back and forth until another force stops it, or until the pressurized air is

turned off. In this set-up, a pitot tube is positioned right above one of the holes on the air track.

The other end of the tube is connected to a DP22, which is connected to a CD15, which is

connected to a DMM. It is important to note that this DP2/CD15 has a different calibration

constant than the one in experiment 2. Other than that, these three pieces of equipment operate

the same as mentioned previously. In this set-up, however, the DMM is connected to a computer.

This is so a program on the PC titled Time Series VI can collect the data and plot the pressure

against the time for analysis.

Figure 3. U-Tube Oscillation Experimental Set-Up

Figure 3 shows the set-up for the third experiment. This experiment utilizes a U-tube

manometer. One end of the tube is connected to the DP22, CD15, DMM, and the PC. The PC
runes Time Series VI to collect the data and plot pressure versus time for analyses. The other end

of the tube is left open to the atmosphere until the experiment begins. Then it is pinched for a

while and released once again. This is required to see the oscillation of the fluid levels in the

manometer.

Figure 4. Jet Plane Experimental Set-Up

Figure 4 shows the set-up of the fourth and final experiment. This experiment is

conducted in the FLL or the Foss, Larson, and Learst Flow System. This unit generates a flow,

which exits the plenum and hits the plate as seen in the figure. The plates angle can be adjusted.

23 static pressure taps are connected to the plate. The other ends of the tubes are connected to a

scannivalve, which is a motorized mechanical scanning system that allows a single pressure

transducer to be shared among multiple input pressure sources. (Introduction to

Instrumentation, 2) The scannivalve is connected to a DP22, CD15, DMM, and a PC. The PC

runs the Traverse VI program. This program is used when data is to be collected at several
locations. The program acquires data at every Pitot tube and data collected at which tube is

controlled by pressing step on the scannivalve.

Figure 5, Pressure Distribution of Jet Plane Experiment

Figure 5 shows the distribution of pressure on all the static pressure taps. The pressure

should be higher the closer the tap is to the center of the opening of the plenum. The more direct

the streamline is, the higher the pressure. The pressure distribution is an even bell curve.

2.4 Data and Observations:

Table 1
Inverted Cup Data
mp (in H2O/Volt) Ei (Volts) Ef (Volts) Pg,I (in H2O) Pg,f (in H2O)
0.5676 0.02 4.44 0.0114 2.52

Table 1 shows values collected from the first experiment of this lab. The calibration

constant of the pressure transducer (mp) is measured in H2O/Volt and is written on the transducer.

E represents the voltage collected where the subscript I indicates initial voltage when the cup

was on the surface of the water, and the subscript f denotes when the cup was submerged. The
voltage was measured by a digital multi-meter in volts. The gage pressure was calculated using

the given calibration constant and the voltage. Refer to sample calculations in Appendix A,

section 1.

Table 2
Recorded Length Measurements for Experiment 1
Length (in)
hf 5.55181
hc 0.866142
hw 2.04724
h 0.11811

Table 2 shows the various length measurements recorded for experiment 1. The height of

the air column inside the immersed cup is denoted as hf. The cup insertion depth is denoted as hc.

The elevation of the water column is noted as hw. The water level inside the cup is denoted as h.

All measurements were collected in centimeters and later converted to inches.

Table 3
Recorded Values of Experiment 4
Ppl-Prec (in H2O) W (in) L (in) mp
1.42208 1.5 24 0.5025

Table 3 shows the values recorded from experiment 4. The calibration constant was found

on the DMM connected to the apparatus. The length of the plate and the width of the jet nozzle

was found by using a ruler and was measured in inches. Equation x in Appendix A1 was used to

calculate the change in pressure between the plenum and the atmosphere.
3. Data Analysis and Interpretation

The first experiment performed was the inverted cup experiment which visualized

hydrostatic pressure. Data was collected using a DP2, CD15, and a DMM. The measured gage

pressure was 2.520144 inches of water. According to hydrostatics, a formula can be used to

calculate gage pressure. To come up with this formula certain steps must be taken. The first is

knowing that gage pressure is equal to the density times acceleration times height as shown in

Equation 4.

Pg =gh (4)

The second is knowing that absolute pressure is the addition of atmospheric pressure and gage

pressure as is shown in Equation 5 below.

||=P
atm + Pg =Patm + gh (5)
P

Equation 5 can be applied to experiment 1 where the absolute pressure in the cup is the total

atmospheric pressure in the cup plus the total gage pressure inside the cup. Since the density and

the gravity do not change, the height must change. Figure 1 shows the set-up of experiment 1 and

shows the total height of the gage pressure as written in Equation 6.

||=P
atm + Pg =Patm + gh=Patm + g(hc+ hwh) (6)
P

The change in height of the water would of course have to be how much the cup was inserted

plus how much the water column elevated, but it is important to remember that some water is

inside the cup. This amount of water must be subtracted as it is inside the cup. Another important

thing to note is the atmospheric pressure. The density of water is so much smaller than that of the
water that the atmospheric pressure ends up being significantly smaller than the hydrostatic

pressure of the water. Since it is so much smaller, it is neglected and Equation 7 reflects that.

Pg =(hc +hwh ) (7)

This equation is then used to calculate the gage pressure. It is important to note that this gage

pressure is calculated in inches of water. That is why the density and gravity are neglected, also

because they are constant. A sample calculation can be found in Appendix A2. The calculated

gage pressure is found to be 2.8 in. H2O. This is not the same as the measured gage pressure. The

percent error was found to be 9.84% as calculated in Appendix A3. The near ten percent

difference could have occurred because hydrostatics assumes ideal conditions whereas in real

life, nothing is ideal and lurking variables always affect experiments. Human error could have

caused the difference. Two group members did the measurements and the meniscus was hard to

read. The apparatus could have been improved to show better readings of the length

measurements.

For experiment 1, it is safe to assume that the initial and final temperature of the air in the

cup is the same. Thus, the perfect gas law can be used to derive the fractional change in density.

To begin, the ideal gas law gives us the following equation:

P=RT (8)

In Equation 8, is the density of the gas, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is temperature. The

initial and final pressures using this equation would be the same save for the densities at the

initial and final. This means that the gas constant and temperature stay the same, which is true in

the case of experiment 1. Using this relationship, the equation can be rewritten as follows.
Pi=i RTP f = f RT

1
= i= f (9)
RT Pi P f
P f f (10)
=
Pi i

It is also known that the change in pressure is the difference between initial and final pressures.

Similarly, the change in densities is the difference between the initial and final densities. The

preceding forms the following equations, which can be substituted in Equation 10 to form the

following Equation 11.

P=Pf Pi Pf =P + Pi (11)

(12)
=f i f = + i

P f f P+ Pi + i (13)
= =
Pi i Pi i
(14)
P
+1= +1
Pi i
(15)
P
=
Pi i

This derivation from the ideal gas law proves why Equation 15 is valid. Using equation 15, Table

4 was filled in below.

Table 4
Percentage Change in Trapped Air Density
Pressure (in H2O)
Patm 407
Pi 0.266
Pf 2.52
8.45
i

The fractional change in density is dimensionless since the units cancel out. Since the pressure

difference is so low, the air density acts as an incompressible medium in this experiment.

The same density change can be calculated with another known fact about this

experiment. The mass of the air inside the cup is constant. The air is pressurized as the cup

descends into the water, but the mass does not change. It is a known and accepted fact that mass

is equal to density times the volume. (White, 19) It is also assumed that the cup that was used in

the inverted cup experiment is cylindrical. A radius r and a height of h +h can be applied to it.

Thus, the mass of the air inside the cup at the initial and final would be as follows.

M i=i V i=i [2r 2 ( hf + h ) ] (16)


(17)
M f =f V f = f [2r 2 ( h f ) ]

The mass of the air that is inside the cup never changes. The air is pressurized, but mass is not

lost, thus mass is conserved. Therefore, the initial mass is the same as the final mass, which

allows the two equations 16 and 17 to be equated.

i [ 2r ( hf + h ) ]=M = f [2r ( hf ) ] (18)


2 2

(19)
i ( hf +h )= f ( hf )

(20)
( hf + h ) f
=
hf i

Simple algebra is used to simplify Equation 18 into Equation 20. Substituting equation 12 into

equation 20 results in the following:


h + i (21)
+1= = +1
hf i i

h (22)
=
h f i

Equation 22 proves the relationship between the ratio of density change to initial density and the

ratio of the water level in the cup to the height of the air column in the cup. Appendix A4 shows

a sample calculation of Equation 22 to solve for the density change, which is once again 8.44 in

H2O. This would indicate that the derivations are correct and that the density change was

calculated correctly.

Experiment 2 used a DP22, CD15, DMM, and the Time Series VI program to record the

step response of an air cart passing over a high gage pressure. Appendix B includes all the plots

acquired from Time Series VI and explains how the rise time was calculated.

Table 5
Experiment 2 Observed Values
Tube Length L (cm) Rise Time tr (ms) Behavior
Student #1 48 5 Over-damped
Student #2 97 7.6 Over-damped
Student #3 152 9.6 Over-damped
Student #4 193 12.8 Over-damped
Lab TA 295 26.2 Over-damped

All the graphs were over-damped. This means that the transducer output gradually reached

steady state. When the air cart passed the Pitot tube, the over-damping started and a steady state

was gradually reached. However, when the air cart passed, a spike can be seen in the pressure

since the high pressure from within the track is suddenly present to the Pitot tube once again.

This explains why the graphs would be over-damped and not oscillatory.
Rise Time vs Tube Length
30
25
20
15
Rise Time tr (ms)
10
5
0
48 97 152 193 295

Tube Length L (cm)

Figure 6. Rise Time vs Tube Length from Experiment 2

It can be seen that as the length of the tube increased, the rise time also increased. This

relationship makes sense since the longer tube would mean the pressurized air would have to

travel a longer distance to be recorded which means it would take more time for the data point to

be recorded. The trend is generally steady so this leads the thought that the relationship is

somewhat direct linear.

Experiment 3 utilized the U-tube monometer and the Time Series VI program. The

program was started to acquire data and plot the output voltage against the time. The tube was

originally pinched and once released the height of the fluid within the manometer was constantly

changing. It was oscillating so the assumption would be that the voltage plotted against time

would show an oscillatory pattern. The figure


Figure 7. Voltage vs Time Plot of Experiment 3

The figure above shows an oscillatory pattern, which is also termed as over-damped. It

is valid to say that the Validyne pressure measurement system used for this experiment has fast

enough time response to accurately measure the U-tube oscillation because all of the oscillations

were recorded. The oscillation frequency is 2.27 Hz. The frequency is just the inverse of the

period. Equation 23 below shows the calculation for it.

1 1
f= = =2.27 Hz
T 2(1.251.03) (23)

The period is how long it takes one complete cycle to occur. The graph seen is not symmetrical

so the period cannot just be the distance from one trough to the next. Instead, it is 2 times the

amount of time it takes to reach 0 volts from the beginning of the oscillations.

Using Figure 6, the settling time was also calculated. The settling time is the time it takes

for the response to settle to within +1% or -1% of the steady state value, which occurs where the
graph starts to plateau. The settling time for this experiment was 1.95 s. Equation 24 below

shows the calculation.

t s=initial timetime at steady point


(24)
t s=2.981.03=1.95 s

The settling occurs at 2.98 seconds where the oscillations stay between 0.12 and 0.14 seconds.

The u-tube manometer captures this unsteady pressure nicely, however, the oscillations for an

unsteady pressure will continue for a long time even if the pressure change is small. The U-tube

manometer cannot capture such a small changes for such a long time.

The final experiment that was conducted was the pressure distribution caused by jet

impact. The pressure was collected from 23 pressure taps for four different angles at two

different velocities. The Traverse Series VI program was used to plot the pressure versus the tap

number. All of the raw data for these values are included in Appendix C. The following graphs

are representative of the raw data points.

Pressure vs Tap Number for = 0 at High Velocity


0.600

0.500

0.400

0.300
Pressure (in H2O)
0.200

0.100

0.000
0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.100

Pressure Tap Number

Figure 8. Pressure vs Tap Number for = 0 at High Velocity


Figure 8 above shows the plot for pressure vs tap number for the plate angle at 0 degrees

and the velocity at high. The plot follows the general bell curve as expected from Figure 5;

however, there is one outlier that occurs at the 8th pressure tap from the bottom of the plate. This

specific point seems to be an outlier in multiple other graphs as well. The trial was successful

since the plot followed the expected trend when not considering the outlier.

Pressure vs Tap Number for = 0 at Low Velocity


0.500

0.400

0.300

Pressure (in H2O) 0.200

0.100

0.000
0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.100

Pressure Tap Number

Figure 9. Pressure vs Tap Number for = 0 at Low Velocity

Figure 9 above shows the plot for pressure vs tap number for the plate angle at 0 degrees

and the velocity at low. The plot follows the general bell curve as expected from Figure 5;

however, there is one outlier that occurs at the 8th pressure tap from the bottom of the plate. This

specific point was an outlier in Figure 8, which indicates that human error was not the cause of

this outlier. This outlier could have been caused by the fact that the opening of the airflow was

just above this pressure tap. This could have caused some reason for the sudden pressure drop.

The trial was successful since the plot followed the expected trend when not considering the

outlier.
Pressure vs Tap Number for = 15 at High Velocity
0.600

0.500

0.400

0.300
Pressure (in H2O)
0.200

0.100

0.000
0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.100

Pressure Tap Number

Figure 10.Pressure vs Tap Number for = 15 at High Velocity

Figure 10 above shows the plot for pressure vs tap number for the plate angle at 15

degrees and the velocity at high. The plot follows the general bell curve as expected from Figure

5 with no extreme outliers. The trial was successful since the plot followed the expected trend.

Pressure vs Tap Number for = 15 at Low Velocity


0.600

0.500

0.400

0.300
Pressure (in H2O)
0.200

0.100

0.000
0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.100

Pressure Tap Number

Figure 11. Pressure vs Tap Number for = 15 at Low Velocity


Figure 11 above shows the plot for pressure vs tap number for the plate angle at 15

degrees and the velocity at low. The plot follows the general bell curve as expected from Figure

5 with no extreme outliers. The trial was successful since the plot followed the expected trend.

Pressure vs Tap Number for = 30 at High Velocity


12.000

10.000

8.000

Pressure (in H2O) 6.000

4.000

2.000

0.000
0 5 10 15 20 25

Pressure Tap Number

Figure 12.Pressure vs Tap Number for = 30 at High Velocity

Figure 12 above shows the plot for pressure vs tap number for the plate angle at 30

degrees and the velocity at high. The plot loosely follows the expected trend from Figure 5. This

indicates that the trial was not run properly. The first problem to notice is that there are only 22

recorded data points and not 23 like the other graphs. The second is that the data points do not all

follow a set path and the bell curve looks expanded. This curve is not consistent with any other

curve, which means there were errors that caused such a plot to happen. If this plot was

consistent with other plots in this experiment, then it would be more likely for this behavior to be

normal, but it is not.


Pressure vs Tap Number for = 30 at Low Velocity
0.400
0.350
0.300
0.250
0.200
Pressure (in H2O)
0.150
0.100
0.050
0.000
0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.050

Pressure Tap Number

Figure 13. Pressure vs Tap Number for = 30 at Low Velocity

Figure 13 above shows the plot for pressure vs tap number for the plate angle at 30

degrees and the velocity at low. The plot does not follow the general bell curve as expected from

Figure 5. There seems to be some outliers, specifically at the 6th tap. The trial was not successful

since the plot did not followed the expected trend.

Pressure vs Tap Number for = 45 at High Velocity


0.450
0.400
0.350
0.300
0.250
Pressure (in H2O) 0.200
0.150
0.100
0.050
0.000
0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.050

Pressure Tap Number

Figure 14.Pressure vs Tap Number for = 45 at High Velocity


Figure 14 above shows the plot for pressure vs tap number for the plate angle at 45

degrees and the velocity at high. The plot follows the general bell curve as expected from Figure

5 with two extreme outliers occurring at the 7th and 8th tap. If this is constant in the low velocity

trial, there is a chance that these taps do not record the expected velocity due to scientific reasons

and not human error. The trial was successful since the plot followed the expected trend with the

exception of the outliers.

Pressure vs Tap Number for = 45 at Low Velocity


0.400
0.350
0.300
0.250
0.200
Pressure (in H2O)
0.150
0.100
0.050
0.000
0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.050

Pressure Tap Number

Figure 15. Pressure vs Tap Number for = 45 at Low Velocity

Figure 15 above shows the plot for the pressure vs tap number for the plate angle at 45

degrees and the velocity at low. The same taps (7th and 8th) are listed as extreme outliers. This

indicates that there is a higher chance that this experiment was not done incorrectly due to human

error.

Figures 8 through 15 show plots of pressure versus pressure tap number. The plots show

that at high velocities, the pressure recorded is generally higher. At low velocity, the pressures

are generally smaller. As the angle increases, the bell curve shifts and skews right. This occurs

because a different tap number is now level with the streamline since the plate was tilted. The
streamline is no longer level with the Pitot tube therefore that causes interference with the data

collection. Pitot tubes should be flat or horizontal to the fluid flow for optimal data collection.

When the plate is turned to an angle, the data is not collected as ideally as it would be when the

plate is in line with the fluid flow. This could be one of the reasons for the outliers seen

throughout the trials.

In this final experiment, the normal force was also calculated in pound-force. The tables

in Appendix C show the sheets used to calculate the values in Table 6 below.

Table 6
Forces of Experiment 4 per plate Angle
Normal Force (lbf) Non-Dimensional Normal Force
Plate Angle F F*
Hi V Low V Hi V Low V
0 2.508483 2.220908 1.357641 1.201999
15 2.077987 2.206183 1.124648 1.194030
30 2.841099 1.950657 1.537659 1.055734
45 1.925538 1.776553 1.042139 0.961506

Table 6 shows the normal force calculated in pound-force for each plate angle at both

velocities. The table also shows the non-dimensional normal force, F*, calculated for each plate

angle at both velocities. Appendix C shows a sample calculation for F and F*. Appendix C shows

all the calculated values in table format. It is a general trend that the normal force (dimensional

and non-dimensional) is higher when the velocity is higher. The only case this does not apply is

in the case where the plate angle is 15. This is a surprising result because the 15 degrees plate

angle had the most symmetrical bell curve/pressure distribution. This could mean that the

pressure should be lower with a higher velocity. This would make sense because a higher

velocity means a higher dynamic pressure and to keep total pressure constant, the static pressure

must go down. The other trials had outliers due to errors and geometry of the apparatus so that

might explain why they do not follow the same trend as the 15-degree plat angle.
Angle vs F*
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1 F* High Velocity
F* 0.8
F* Low Velocity
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 15 30 45

Figure 16. Plate Angle vs Non-Dimensional Normal Force

Figure 16 above shows the relationship between the plate angle and the non-dimensional

normal force. For the low velocity, there is a steady decrease in normal force as the angle

increases. There is no clear pattern for the high velocity. This may have occurred because of the

errors created in the trial for plate angle 30 at high velocity. The prediction made is that non-

dimensional normal force should have decreased as the plate angle increased for high velocity,

although at a slower pace than the low velocity.


4. Conclusion

This lab was about static pressure. Four separate experiments were conducted to

demonstrate various experimental realizations of fluid pressure and to understand the various

techniques for pressure measurement. Experiment 1 utilized an inverted cup apparatus to

understand hydrostatics and relate gage pressure to absolute pressure. It was found through

experiment 1, that hydrostatics can be used to find the gage pressure using only the change in

height. However, this ideal gage pressure did not match the gage pressure that was recorded.

There was an error of 9.84%, which was most likely caused by human error. A way to improve

this experiment would be to use an instrument to more accurately read the length measurements.

It may also be useful to use a laser marker to mark the height changes to further improve

accuracy.

Experiment 2 utilized an air cart on an air track fueled by pressurized air to observer the

trend in pressure versus time. All graphs (in Appendix B) showed an under-damped behavior.

This would make sense since the Pitot tube experiences a constant pressure until the air cart

passes over the hole underneath the Pitot tube opening. In those seconds, the pressure

exponentially decreases, but as soon as the air cart passes, the pressure skyrockets back to its

original value. Another noticeable trend was as follows: rise time increased as tube length

increased. This linear relationship makes sense because a longer tube means that the pressure at a

certain point would have to take more time to travel a longer distance to get to the transducer to

be converted and entered into the program. This experiment served to visualize pressure

measurement and understand the limitations of the instruments used to measure them.
The third experiment was conducted to test the data collection abilities of a steady fluid

in a U-tube manometer. The U-tube manometer was connected to a PC via a DP22, CD15, and a

DMM and it utilized the Time Series VI program. The program easily measured the data and

captured all the oscillations beautifully. However, this apparatus would not be ideal for an

unsteady flow since the unsteady flow can have oscillations that continue for a long time over

very small pressure changes. This experiment could have been improved if a human did not do

the pinching of the tube. This would decrease the level of human error in the results.

The final experiment was conducted to measure the pressure distribution across the plate

and to determine the resulting normal force acting on the plate as a function of plate angle. It was

found that as the velocity increases, the pressure increases. It was also discovered that the

pressure distribution across the plate will move along with the angle. The pressure distribution

does not stay constant with a changing plate angle. This would make a lot of sense because when

the plate angle is changed the pitot tubes are not in line with the streamlines coming out of the

plenum, thus they will have varying and different static pressures. This could be one of the

reasons for the outliers in the trials.

There was a lot of human error that affected all the experiments, the final experiment

especially. For future improvements, it would be better to have one group doing all the trials.

Although time may not allow for it, it will be a constant source of data collection leaving less

variation. There are always outside lurking variables that affect experiments such as fluid flow

escaping or something blocking a pathway to decrease the velocity or simply human error. All

these factors make the experiment harder to conduct. If these factors were eradicated then the

experiment would run much smoother.


References
1. Pressure Fields and Fluid Acceleration, Prod. Ascher H. Shapiro, National Committee

for Fluid Mechanics, 1963, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 28 Apr. 2011


2. Naguib, A. M., "Introduction to Instrumentation," Fluid Mechanics Laboratory ME

332, pp. 1-17, 2017


3. Naguib, A. M., "Static Pressure," Fluid Mechanics Laboratory ME 332, pp. 1-18, 2017
4. White, F. M., "Pressure Distribution in a Fluid," Fluid Mechanics, 7th ed., 65+, 2011
Appendix A
Sample Calculations for Experiment 1
1. Gage Pressure Sample Calculation
Gage pressure can easily be found in many different forms. When using a pressure transducer, a

calibration constant is given in the units of inches of water per volts. The pressure transducer will

usually be connected to a meter, in this case a digital multi-meter that gives the voltage acquired

in volts. Gage pressure is then simply calculated by multiplying the voltage by the calibration

constant. The result is in units of inches of water.

m pE=Pg (1)

The following is a sample calculation of initial and final gage pressure in the first experiment.

Pg , i=0.56760.02=0.011352 (2)

(3)
Pg , f =0.56764.44=2.520144

2. Gage Pressure Sample Calculation from Hydrostatics

Gage pressure can be calculated from hydrostatics using Equation 7.

||=P
g =(hc +hw h) (4)
P
Pg =0.866142+ 2.047240.11811=2.520144H 2 O

3. Percent Error of Calculated and Measured Gage Pressure of Experiment 1


observedcalculated (5)
100
calculated
2.5201442.79572
100=9.84
2.79572

Appendix B

Figure 17. Student #1 Trial


Figure 18. Student #2 Trial

Figure 19. Student #3 Trial


Figure 20. Student #4 Trial

Figure 21. Lab TA Trial

Figures x through y show the Time Series VI plots of pressure vs time for various lengths

of tubing. Each graph is under-damped since there are not oscillations, but a gradual decrease

into steady state. The rise time is found by the different between the time of the start of the
damping and the time the output reaches 90% of the step input. The top graph of every figure has

the two points marked in blue and red.


Appendix C

Table 1
Data for Plate Angle 0 at High Velocity
Velocit ta P (in P(Psi) P* (non y* F F*
y p H2O) dimension
al)
0 High 1 -0.005 - -0.003516 0.66666 - -
0.00018 7 0.00433 0.00234
0 1 4
0 High 2 -0.006 - -0.004219 1.33333 - -
0.00021 3 0.00519 0.00281
7 7 3
0 High 3 -0.004 - -0.002813 2.00000 - -
0.00014 0 0.00346 0.00187
4 5 5
0 High 4 -0.006 - -0.004219 2.66666 - -
0.00021 7 0.00519 0.00281
7 7 3
0 High 5 0.001 0.00003 0.000703 3.33333 0.00086 0.00046
6 3 6 9
0 High 6 0.011 0.00039 0.007735 4.00000 0.00952 0.00515
7 0 8 7
0 High 7 0.059 0.00212 0.041489 4.66666 0.05110 0.02765
9 7 5 9
0 High 8 0.023 0.00083 0.016174 5.33333 0.01992 0.01078
0 3 2 2
0 High 9 0.118 0.00425 0.082977 6.00000 0.10221 0.05531
9 0 0 8
0 High 10 0.236 0.00851 0.165955 6.66666 0.20442 0.11063
8 7 1 6
0 High 11 0.392 0.01414 0.275654 7.33333 0.33954 0.18376
8 3 6 9
0 High 12 0.482 0.01739 0.338941 8.00000 0.41750 0.22596
6 0 3 1
0 High 13 0.529 0.01909 0.371992 8.66666 0.45821 0.24799
2 7 4 4
0 High 14 0.438 0.01580 0.308001 9.33333 0.37939 0.20533
8 3 1 4
0 High 15 0.300 0.01082 0.210959 10.0000 0.25985 0.14064
7 00 7 0
0 High 16 0.170 0.00613 0.119544 10.6666 0.14725 0.07969
6 67 2 6
0 High 17 0.089 0.00321 0.062585 11.33333 0.07709 0.04172
2 3 1 3
0 High 18 0.041 0.00148 0.028831 12.0000 0.03551 0.01922
0 00 4 1
0 High 19 0.020 0.00072 0.014064 12.6666 0.01732 0.00937
2 67 4 6
0 High 20 -0.002 - -0.001406 13.3333 - -
0.00007 33 0.00173 0.00093
2 2 8
0 High 21 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 14.0000 0.00346 0.00187
4 00 5 5
0 High 22 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 14.6666 0.00346 0.00187
4 67 5 5
0 High 23 0.002 0.00007 0.001406 15.3333 0.00173 0.00093
2 33 2 8
AVERAGE: 0.10906 0.05902
4 8
SUM: 2.50848 1.35764
3 1
Table 2
Data for Plate Angle 0 at Low Velocity
Velocit ta P (in P(Psi) P* (non y* F F*
y p H2O) dimension
al)
0 Low 1 -0.007 - -0.004922 0.66666 - -
0.00025 7 0.00606 0.00328
3 3 2
0 Low 2 -0.006 - -0.004219 1.33333 - -
0.00021 3 0.00519 0.00281
7 7 3
0 Low 3 -0.006 - -0.004219 2.00000 - -
0.00021 0 0.00519 0.00281
7 7 3
0 Low 4 -0.002 - -0.001406 2.66666 - -
0.00007 7 0.00173 0.00093
2 2 8
0 Low 5 -0.002 - -0.001406 3.33333 - -
0.00007 3 0.00173 0.00093
2 2 8
0 Low 6 0.009 0.00032 0.006329 4.00000 0.00779 0.00421
5 0 6 9
0 Low 7 0.058 0.00209 0.040785 4.66666 0.05023 0.02719
3 7 9 0
0 Low 8 0.024 0.00086 0.016877 5.33333 0.02078 0.01125
6 3 9 1
0 Low 9 0.108 0.00389 0.075945 6.00000 0.09354 0.05063
8 0 8 0
0 Low 10 0.212 0.00765 0.149078 6.66666 0.18363 0.09938
1 7 2 5
0 Low 11 0.336 0.01212 0.236274 7.33333 0.29103 0.15751
7 3 9 6
0 Low 12 0.440 0.01588 0.309407 8.00000 0.38112 0.20627
0 0 3 1
0 Low 13 0.459 0.01656 0.322768 8.66666 0.39758 0.21517
6 7 1 9
0 Low 14 0.384 0.01385 0.270028 9.33333 0.33261 0.18001
9 3 6 9
0 Low 15 0.264 0.00952 0.185644 10.0000 0.22867 0.12376
8 00 4 3
0 Low 16 0.146 0.00526 0.102667 10.6666 0.12646 0.06844
9 67 4 5
0 Low 17 0.078 0.00281 0.054849 11.33333 0.06756 0.03656
5 3 3 6
0 Low 18 0.038 0.00137 0.026722 12.0000 0.03291 0.01781
1 00 5 4
0 Low 19 0.021 0.00075 0.014767 12.6666 0.01819 0.00984
8 67 0 5
0 Low 20 -0.002 - -0.001406 13.3333 - -
0.00007 33 0.00173 0.00093
2 2 8
0 Low 21 0.006 0.00021 0.004219 14.0000 0.00519 0.00281
7 00 7 3
0 Low 22 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 14.6666 0.00346 0.00187
4 67 5 5
0 Low 23 0.002 0.00007 0.001406 15.3333 0.00173 0.00093
2 33 2 8
AVERAGE: 0.09656 0.05226
1 1
SUM: 2.22090 1.20199
8 9
Table 3
Data for Plate Angle 15 at High Velocity
Velocit ta P (in P(Psi) P* (non y* F F*
y p H2O) dimension
al)
1 High 1 -0.019 - -0.013361 0.66666 - -
5 0.00068 7 0.01645 0.00890
6 8 7
1 High 2 -0.019 - -0.013361 1.33333 - -
5 0.00068 3 0.01645 0.00890
6 8 7
1 High 3 -0.014 - -0.009845 2.00000 - -
5 0.00050 0 0.01212 0.00656
5 7 3
1 High 4 -0.011 - -0.007735 2.66666 - -
5 0.00039 7 0.00952 0.00515
7 8 7
1 High 5 -0.003 - -0.002110 3.33333 - -
5 0.00010 3 0.00259 0.00140
8 9 6
1 High 6 0.013 0.00046 0.009142 4.00000 0.01126 0.00609
5 9 0 0 4
1 High 7 0.050 0.00180 0.035160 4.66666 0.04330 0.02344
5 5 7 9 0
1 High 8 0.117 0.00422 0.082274 5.33333 0.10134 0.05484
5 3 3 4 9
1 High 9 0.249 0.00898 0.175096 6.00000 0.21568 0.11673
5 7 0 1 1
1 High 10 0.387 0.01396 0.272138 6.66666 0.33521 0.18142
5 7 7 5 5
1 High 11 0.478 0.01725 0.336129 7.33333 0.41403 0.22408
5 2 3 8 6
1 High 12 0.448 0.01616 0.315033 8.00000 0.38805 0.21002
5 9 0 3 2
1 High 13 0.335 0.01209 0.235571 8.66666 0.29017 0.15704
5 1 7 3 8
1 High 14 0.200 0.00721 0.140640 9.33333 0.17323 0.09376
5 8 3 8 0
1 High 15 0.114 0.00411 0.080165 10.0000 0.09874 0.05344
5 4 00 6 3
1 High 16 0.054 0.00194 0.037973 10.6666 0.04677 0.02531
5 9 67 4 5
1 High 17 0.027 0.00097 0.018986 11.3333 0.02338 0.01265
5 4 33 7 8
1 High 18 0.013 0.00046 0.009142 12.0000 0.01126 0.00609
5 9 00 0 4
1 High 19 -0.004 - -0.002813 12.6666 - -
5 0.00014 67 0.00346 0.00187
4 5 5
1 High 20 0.002 0.00007 0.001406 13.3333 0.00173 0.00093
5 2 33 2 8
1 High 21 -0.001 - -0.000703 14.0000 - -
5 0.00003 00 0.00086 0.00046
6 6 9
1 High 22 -0.004 - -0.002813 14.6666 - -
5 0.00014 67 0.00346 0.00187
4 5 5
1 High 23 -0.013 - -0.009142 15.3333 - -
5 0.00046 33 0.01126 0.00609
9 0 4
AVERAGE: 0.09034 0.04889
7 8
SUM: 2.07798 1.12464
7 8
Table 4
Data for Plate Angle 15 at Low Velocity
Velocit ta P (in P(Psi) P* (non y* F F*
y p H2O) dimension
al)
1 Low 1 0.000 0.00000 0.000000 0.66666 0.00000 0.00000
5 0 7 0 0
1 Low 2 -0.018 - -0.012658 1.33333 - -
5 0.00065 3 0.01559 0.00843
0 1 8
1 Low 3 -0.017 - -0.011954 2.00000 - -
5 0.00061 0 0.01472 0.00797
4 5 0
1 Low 4 -0.012 - -0.008438 2.66666 - -
5 0.00043 7 0.01039 0.00562
3 4 6
1 Low 5 -0.004 - -0.002813 3.33333 - -
5 0.00014 3 0.00346 0.00187
4 5 5
1 Low 6 0.011 0.00039 0.007735 4.00000 0.00952 0.00515
5 7 0 8 7
1 Low 7 0.047 0.00169 0.033050 4.66666 0.04071 0.02203
5 6 7 1 4
1 Low 8 0.131 0.00472 0.092119 5.33333 0.11347 0.06141
5 8 3 1 3
1 Low 9 0.255 0.00920 0.179315 6.00000 0.22087 0.11954
5 3 0 8 4
1 Low 10 0.400 0.01443 0.281279 6.66666 0.34647 0.18751
5 6 7 6 9
1 Low 11 0.508 0.01833 0.357224 7.33333 0.44002 0.23815
5 4 3 4 0
1 Low 12 0.471 0.01699 0.331206 8.00000 0.40797 0.22080
5 9 0 5 4
1 Low 13 0.368 0.01328 0.258777 8.66666 0.31875 0.17251
5 2 7 7 8
1 Low 14 0.232 0.00837 0.163142 9.33333 0.20095 0.10876
5 3 3 6 1
1 Low 15 0.125 0.00451 0.087900 10.0000 0.10827 0.05860
5 1 00 4 0
1 Low 16 0.049 0.00176 0.034457 10.6666 0.04244 0.02297
5 8 67 3 1
1 Low 17 0.024 0.00086 0.016877 11.3333 0.02078 0.01125
5 6 33 9 1
1 Low 18 0.008 0.00028 0.005626 12.0000 0.00693 0.00375
5 9 00 0 0
1 Low 19 -0.006 - -0.004219 12.6666 - -
5 0.00021 67 0.00519 0.00281
7 7 3
1 Low 20 -0.001 - -0.000703 13.3333 - -
5 0.00003 33 0.00086 0.00046
6 6 9
1 Low 21 -0.003 - -0.002110 14.0000 - -
5 0.00010 00 0.00259 0.00140
8 9 6
1 Low 22 -0.005 - -0.003516 14.6666 - -
5 0.00018 67 0.00433 0.00234
0 1 4
1 Low 23 -0.016 - -0.011251 15.3333 - -
5 0.00057 33 0.01385 0.00750
7 9 1
AVERAGE: 0.09592 0.05191
1 4
SUM: 2.20618 1.19403
3 0
Table 5
Data for Plate Angle 30 at High Velocity
Velocit ta P (in P(Psi) P* (non y* F F*
y p H2O) dimension
al)
3 High 1 -0.017 - -0.011954 0.66666 - -
0 0.00061 7 0.01472 0.00797
4 5 0
3 High 2 -0.011 - -0.007735 1.33333 - -
0 0.00039 3 0.00952 0.00515
7 8 7
3 High 3 0.005 0.00018 0.003516 2.00000 0.00433 0.00234
0 0 0 1 4
3 High 4 0.040 0.00144 0.028128 2.66666 0.03464 0.01875
0 4 7 8 2
3 High 5 0.149 0.00537 0.104776 3.33333 0.12906 0.06985
0 8 3 2 1
3 High 6 0.263 0.00949 0.184941 4.00000 0.22780 0.12329
0 2 0 8 4
3 High 7 0.285 0.01028 0.200411 4.66666 0.24686 0.13360
0 6 7 4 8
3 High 8 0.421 0.01519 0.296046 5.33333 0.36466 0.19736
0 4 3 5 4
3 High 9 0.475 0.01714 0.334019 6.00000 0.41144 0.22267
0 3 0 0 9
3 High 10 0.426 0.01537 0.299562 6.66666 0.36899 0.19970
0 5 7 6 8
3 High 11 0.426 0.01537 0.299562 7.33333 0.36899 0.19970
0 5 3 6 8
3 High 12 0.326 0.01176 0.229242 8.00000 0.28237 0.15282
0 6 0 8 8
3 High 13 0.218 0.00786 0.153297 8.66666 0.18882 0.10219
0 8 7 9 8
3 High 14 0.125 0.00451 0.087900 9.33333 0.10827 0.05860
0 1 3 4 0
3 High 15 0.056 0.00202 0.039379 10.0000 0.04850 0.02625
0 1 00 7 3
3 High 16 0.038 0.00137 0.026722 10.6666 0.03291 0.01781
0 1 67 5 4
3 High 17 0.020 0.00072 0.014064 11.3333 0.01732 0.00937
0 2 33 4 6
3 High 18 0.015 0.00054 0.010548 12.0000 0.01299 0.00703
0 1 00 3 2
3 High 19 0.008 0.00028 0.005626 12.6666 0.00693 0.00375
0 9 67 0 0
3 High 20 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 13.3333 0.00346 0.00187
0 4 33 5 5
3 High 21 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 14.0000 0.00346 0.00187
0 4 00 5 5
3 High 22 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 14.6666 0.00346 0.00187
0 4 67 5 5
3 High 23 0.00000 0.000000 15.3333 0.00000 0.00000
0 0 33 0 0
AVERAGE: 0.12352 0.06685
6 5
SUM: 2.84109 1.53765
9 9
Table 6
Data for Plate Angle 30 at Low Velocity
Velocit ta P (in P(Psi) P* (non y* F F*
y p H2O) dimension
al)
3 Low 1 -0.012 - -0.008438 0.66666 - -
0 0.00043 7 0.01039 0.00562
3 4 6
3 Low 2 -0.022 - -0.015470 1.33333 - -
0 0.00079 3 0.01905 0.01031
4 6 4
3 Low 3 -0.009 - -0.006329 2.00000 - -
0 0.00032 0 0.00779 0.00421
5 6 9
3 Low 4 -0.002 - -0.001406 2.66666 - -
0 0.00007 7 0.00173 0.00093
2 2 8
3 Low 5 0.026 0.00093 0.018283 3.33333 0.02252 0.01218
0 8 3 1 9
3 Low 6 0.132 0.00476 0.092822 4.00000 0.11433 0.06188
0 4 0 7 1
3 Low 7 0.268 0.00967 0.188457 4.66666 0.23213 0.12563
0 2 7 9 8
3 Low 8 0.221 0.00797 0.155407 5.33333 0.19142 0.10360
0 6 3 8 4
3 Low 9 0.364 0.01313 0.255964 6.00000 0.31529 0.17064
0 7 0 3 3
3 Low 10 0.375 0.01353 0.263699 6.66666 0.32482 0.17579
0 4 7 1 9
3 Low 11 0.324 0.01169 0.227836 7.33333 0.28064 0.15189
0 4 3 5 1
3 Low 12 0.221 0.00797 0.155407 8.00000 0.19142 0.10360
0 6 0 8 4
3 Low 13 0.140 0.00505 0.098448 8.66666 0.12126 0.06563
0 3 7 6 2
3 Low 14 0.091 0.00328 0.063991 9.33333 0.07882 0.04266
0 4 3 3 1
3 Low 15 0.052 0.00187 0.036566 10.0000 0.04504 0.02437
0 7 00 2 8
3 Low 16 0.032 0.00115 0.022502 10.6666 0.02771 0.01500
0 5 67 8 2
3 Low 17 0.017 0.00061 0.011954 11.3333 0.01472 0.00797
0 4 33 5 0
3 Low 18 0.012 0.00043 0.008438 12.0000 0.01039 0.00562
0 3 00 4 6
3 Low 19 0.009 0.00032 0.006329 12.6666 0.00779 0.00421
0 5 67 6 9
3 Low 20 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 13.3333 0.00346 0.00187
0 4 33 5 5
3 Low 21 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 14.0000 0.00346 0.00187
0 4 00 5 5
3 Low 22 0.004 0.00014 0.002813 14.6666 0.00346 0.00187
0 4 67 5 5
3 Low 23 0.001 0.00003 0.000703 15.3333 0.00086 0.00046
0 6 33 6 9
AVERAGE: 0.08481 0.04590
1 1
SUM: 1.95065 1.05573
7 4
Table 7
Data for Plate Angle 45 at High Velocity
Velocit ta P (in P(Psi) P* (non y* F F*
y p H2O) dimension
al)
4 High 1 -0.018 - -0.012658 0.66666 - -
5 0.00065 7 0.01559 0.00843
0 1 8
4 High 2 -0.017 - -0.011954 1.33333 - -
5 0.00061 3 0.01472 0.00797
4 5 0
4 High 3 -0.014 - -0.009845 2.00000 - -
5 0.00050 0 0.01212 0.00656
5 7 3
4 High 4 0.001 0.00003 0.000703 2.66666 0.00086 0.00046
5 6 7 6 9
4 High 5 0.042 0.00151 0.029534 3.33333 0.03638 0.01969
5 6 3 0 0
4 High 6 0.122 0.00440 0.085790 4.00000 0.10567 0.05719
5 3 0 5 3
4 High 7 0.345 0.01245 0.242603 4.66666 0.29883 0.16173
5 1 7 5 5
4 High 8 0.247 0.00891 0.173690 5.33333 0.21394 0.11579
5 5 3 9 3
4 High 9 0.383 0.01382 0.269325 6.00000 0.33175 0.17955
5 3 0 0 0
4 High 10 0.344 0.01241 0.241900 6.66666 0.29796 0.16126
5 5 7 9 7
4 High 11 0.275 0.00992 0.193379 7.33333 0.23820 0.12892
5 5 3 2 0
4 High 12 0.189 0.00682 0.132904 8.00000 0.16371 0.08860
5 1 0 0 3
4 High 13 0.119 0.00429 0.083681 8.66666 0.10307 0.05578
5 5 7 6 7
4 High 14 0.082 0.00295 0.057662 9.33333 0.07102 0.03844
5 9 3 7 1
4 High 15 0.047 0.00169 0.033050 10.0000 0.04071 0.02203
5 6 00 1 4
4 High 16 0.030 0.00108 0.021096 10.6666 0.02598 0.01406
5 3 67 6 4
4 High 17 0.018 0.00065 0.012658 11.3333 0.01559 0.00843
5 0 33 1 8
4 High 18 0.014 0.00050 0.009845 12.0000 0.01212 0.00656
5 5 00 7 3
4 High 19 0.009 0.00032 0.006329 12.6666 0.00779 0.00421
5 5 67 6 9
4 High 20 0.003 0.00010 0.002110 13.3333 0.00259 0.00140
5 8 33 9 6
4 High 21 0.002 0.00007 0.001406 14.0000 0.00173 0.00093
5 2 00 2 8
4 High 22 0.001 0.00003 0.000703 14.6666 0.00086 0.00046
5 6 67 6 9
4 High 23 -0.001 - -0.000703 15.3333 - -
5 0.00003 33 0.00086 0.00046
6 6 9
AVERAGE: 0.08371 0.04531
9 0
SUM: 1.92553 1.04213
8 9
Table 8
Data for Plate Angle 45 at Low Velocity
Velocit ta P (in P(Psi) P* (non y* F F*
y p H2O) dimension
al)
4 Low 1 -0.015 - -0.010548 0.66666 - -
5 0.00054 7 0.01299 0.00703
1 3 2
4 Low 2 -0.017 - -0.011954 1.33333 - -
5 0.00061 3 0.01472 0.00797
4 5 0
4 Low 3 -0.012 - -0.008438 2.00000 - -
5 0.00043 0 0.01039 0.00562
3 4 6
4 Low 4 0.003 0.00010 0.002110 2.66666 0.00259 0.00140
5 8 7 9 6
4 Low 5 0.042 0.00151 0.029534 3.33333 0.03638 0.01969
5 6 3 0 0
4 Low 6 0.114 0.00411 0.080165 4.00000 0.09874 0.05344
5 4 0 6 3
4 Low 7 0.312 0.01126 0.219398 4.66666 0.27025 0.14626
5 0 7 1 5
4 Low 8 0.242 0.00873 0.170174 5.33333 0.20961 0.11344
5 4 3 8 9
4 Low 9 0.356 0.01284 0.250338 6.00000 0.30836 0.16689
5 8 0 3 2
4 Low 10 0.319 0.01151 0.224320 6.66666 0.27631 0.14954
5 3 7 4 7
4 Low 11 0.252 0.00909 0.177206 7.33333 0.21828 0.11813
5 5 3 0 7
4 Low 12 0.170 0.00613 0.119544 8.00000 0.14725 0.07969
5 6 0 2 6
4 Low 13 0.108 0.00389 0.075945 8.66666 0.09354 0.05063
5 8 7 8 0
4 Low 14 0.067 0.00241 0.047114 9.33333 0.05803 0.03141
5 8 3 5 0
4 Low 15 0.039 0.00140 0.027425 10.0000 0.03378 0.01828
5 8 00 1 3
4 Low 16 0.029 0.00104 0.020393 10.6666 0.02511 0.01359
5 7 67 9 5
4 Low 17 0.017 0.00061 0.011954 11.3333 0.01472 0.00797
5 4 33 5 0
4 Low 18 0.011 0.00039 0.007735 12.0000 0.00952 0.00515
5 7 00 8 7
4 Low 19 0.009 0.00032 0.006329 12.6666 0.00779 0.00421
5 5 67 6 9
4 Low 20 0.002 0.00007 0.001406 13.3333 0.00173 0.00093
5 2 33 2 8
4 Low 21 0.003 0.00010 0.002110 14.0000 0.00259 0.00140
5 8 00 9 6
4 Low 22 0.002 0.00007 0.001406 14.6666 0.00173 0.00093
5 2 67 2 8
4 Low 23 -0.002 - -0.001406 15.3333 - -
5 0.00007 33 0.00173 0.00093
2 2 8
AVERAGE: 0.07724 0.04180
1 5
SUM: 1.77655 0.96150
3 6

Tables 1 through 8 show all of the raw data collected from the experiment along with the

raw, calculated data that was used for analysis. F was calculated with Equation 1 below. F* was

calculated with Equation 2 below.

23
F= P( y )iL y
1
(1)

F
F
[ P PlPrec ]W L
(2)

In Equations 1 and 2 above, the values of pressure are in psi, the length is 24 inches, the

width was 1.5 inches and the change in y was only one because the pressure tap number always

increased by 1.