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1. Computer System Security And Network Security Standard

i. Computer
i. Firewall
It is one of the most essential type of network security in today's
world of Internet. Firewall is a filter that prevents fraud websites
from accessing your computer and damaging the data. However, a
firewall is not a great option for securing the servers on the Internet
because the main objective of a server is granting access to
unknown users to connect to various web pages.
ii. Security Software
Along with firewall, try installing a good anti-virus and security
software to enhance the security level of your computer system.
iii. Keep Backup
It is important to avoid data and information loss in case of hard
disk crashes. The only solution is to regularly keep backups of all
the data on other media such as magnetic tapes, CD-ROM, etc. It is
a good practice to store the media off-site and in case of a disk
crash, restore the information from the backup media onto the new
In case a backup media is not affordable, one should try to store the
files on at least two different media devices. These media devices
should be systematically kept at a place which is safe and secured,
as the information contained may be confidential. People usually
have backup for database files, spreadsheet files and large
documents. As the technical constraints are always there, it is better
to take regular backups, in order to avoid any loss of information.

iv. Clean-up Software

Install a software program on your computer that will clear all the
old, unused files and registry keys. It will also help to detect
malware and save your computer from a severe damage caused by

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it. Keep your system in the loop of latest updates and security alerts
or else, it will become vulnerable to security threats.
It is important to keep a record of technical support consultants and
software documentations, like manuals and guides to make them
accessible to the staff members of the company.
Rujukan : http://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-computer-security.html
(05/02/2017 1:31)

ii. Network
a) Wireless security
Wireless networks are not as secure as wired ones. Without
stringent security measures, installing a wireless LAN can be
like putting Ethernet ports everywhere, including the parking lot.
To prevent an exploit from taking hold, you need products
specifically designed to protect a wireless network.
b) Antivirus and antimalware software
"Malware," short for "malicious software," includes viruses,
worms, Trojans, ransomware, and spyware. Sometimes
malware will infect a network but lie dormant for days or even
weeks. The best antimalware programs not only scan for
malware upon entry, but also continuously track files afterward
to find anomalies, remove malware, and fix damage.
c) Application security
Any software you use to run your business needs to be
protected, whether your IT staff builds it or whether you buy it.
Unfortunately, any application may contain holes, or
vulnerabilities, that attackers can use to infiltrate your network.
Application security encompasses the hardware, software, and
processes you use to close those holes.
d) VPN
A virtual private network encrypts the connection from an
endpoint to a network, often over the Internet. Typically, a
remote-access VPN uses IPsec or Secure Sockets Layer to
authenticate the communication between device and network.

e) Firewalls

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Firewalls put up a barrier between your trusted internal network

and untrusted outside networks, such as the Internet. They use
a set of defined rules to allow or block traffic. A firewall can be
hardware, software, or both. Cisco offers unified threat
management (UTM) devices and threat-focused next-generation
Rujukan : http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/security/what-is-network-
security.html (02/02/2017 1:53)

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2. Computer Network Security Tools

i. Nmap
Map your network and ports with the number one port scanning tool.
Nmap now features powerful NSE scripts that can detect
vulnerabilities, misconfiguration and security related information around
network services. After you have nmap installed be sure to look at the
features of the included ncat - its netcat on steroids.
ii. OpenVAS
Open source vulnerability scanning suite that grew from a fork of the
Nessus engine when it went commercial. Manage all aspects of a
security vulnerability management system from web based
dashboards. For a fast and easy external scan with OpenVAS try our
online OpenVAS scanner.
iii. OSSEC
Host based intrusion detection system or HIDS, easy to setup and
configure. OSSEC has far reaching benefits for both security and
operations staff.
iv. Security Onion
A network security monitoring distribution that can replace expensive
commercial grey boxes with blinking lights. Security Onion is easy to
setup and configure. With minimal effort you will start to detect security
related events on your network. Detect everything from brute force
scanning kids to those nasty APT's.
v. Metasploit Framework
Test all aspects of your security with an offensive focus. Primarily a
penetration testing tool, Metasploit has modules that not only include
exploits but also scanning and auditing.

vi. OpenSSH
Secure all your traffic between two points by tunnelling insecure
protocols through an SSH tunnel. Includes scp providing easy access
to copy files securely. Can be used as poor mans VPN for Open
Wireless Access points (airports, coffee shops). Tunnel back through
your home computer and the traffic is then secured in transit. Access

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internal network services through SSH tunnels using only one point of
access. From Windows, you will probably want to have putty as a client
and winscp for copying files. Under Linux just use the command line
ssh and scp.
vii. Wireshark
View traffic in as much detail as you want. Use Wireshark to follow
network streams and find problems. Tcpdump and Tshark are
command line alternatives. Wireshark runs on Windows, Linux,
FreeBSD or OSX based systems.
viii. BackTrack
An Ubuntu based Linux distribution that is configured with hundreds of
security testing tools and scripts. Backtrack is well known with
penetration testers and hobbyists alike.
ix. Nikto
A web server testing tool that has been kicking around for over 10
years. Nikto is great for firing at a web server to find known vulnerable
scripts, configuration mistakes and related security problems. It won't
find your XSS and SQL web application bugs, but it does find many
things that other tools miss. To get started try the Nikto Tutorial or the
online hosted version.
x. Truecrypt
Encrypt all the things. Truecrypt is a strong encryption utility that can
encrypt entire volumes or create an encrypted container within a file
system. Use Truecrypt to protect your flash drives. If it gets lost, even
the NSA will have trouble reading the data.
Rujukan : https://hackertarget.com/10-open-source-security-tools/ (05/02/2017 2:04)

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3. Computer System Security Threats And Network Security Threats

i. Computer
i. Trojan.
Trojan is one of the most complicated threats among all. Most of the
popular banking threats come from the Trojan family such as Zeus
and SpyEye. It has the ability to hide itself from antivirus detection
and steal important banking data to compromise your bank account.
If the Trojan is really powerful, it can take over your entire security
system as well. As a result, a Trojan can cause many types of
damage starting from your own computer to your online account.
ii. Virus.
Looking at the technology 10 years back, Virus is something really
popular. It is a malicious program where it replicates itself and aim
to only destroy a computer. The ultimate goal of a virus is to ensure
that the victims computer will never be able to operate properly or
even at all. It is not so popular today because Malware today is
designed to earn money over destruction. As a result, Virus is only
available for people who want to use it for some sort of revenge
iii. Worms.
One of the most harmless threats where it is program designed only
to spread. It does not alter your system to cause you to have a
nightmare with your computer, but it can spread from one computer
to another computer within a network or even the internet. The
computer security risk here is, it will use up your computer hard disk
space due to the replication and took up most of your bandwidth
due to the spread.
iv. Spyware.
Is a Malware which is designed to spy on the victims computer. If
you are infected with it, probably your daily activity or certain activity
will be spied by the spyware and it will find itself a way to contact
the host of this malware. Mostly, the use of this spyware is to know
what your daily activity is so that the attacker can make use of your
information. Such as if you browse on sex toys for a week every
day, the attacker will try to come out with a sex toy scam to cheat on
your money.
v. Adware.

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Is a form of threat where your computer will start popping out a lot
of advertisement. It can be from non-adult materials to adult
materials because any ads will make the host some money. It is not
really harmful threat but can be pretty annoying.
vi. Backdoor.
Backdoor is not really a Malware, but it is a form of method where
once a system is vulnerable to this method, attacker will be able to
bypass all the regular authentication service. It is usually installed
before any virus or Trojan infection because having a backdoor
installed will ease the transfer effort of those threats.
vii. Exploit.
Exploit is a form of software which is programmed specifically to
attack certain vulnerability. For instance if your web browser is
vulnerable to some out-dated vulnerable flash plugin, an exploit will
work only on your web browser and plugin. The way to avoid hitting
into exploit is to always patch your stuff because software patches
are there to fix vulnerabilities.
viii. Fake AV.
Fake Antivirus threat is a very popular threat among Mac user about
10 months ago. Due to the reason that Mac user seldom faces a
virus infection, scaring them with message which tells them that
their computer is infected with virus is pretty useful where it results
them into purchasing a bogus antivirus which does nothing.
ix. Phishing.
A fake website which is designed to look almost like the actual
website is a form of phishing attack. The idea of this attack is to trick
the user into entering their username and password into the fake
login form which serves the purpose of stealing the identity of the
victim. Every form sent out from the phishing site will not go to the
actual server, but the attacker controlled server.

x. Cookies.
Cookies is not really a Malware. It is just something used by most
websites to store something into your computer. It is here because
it has the ability to store things into your computer and track your
activities within the site. If you really dont like the existence of

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cookies, you can choose to reject using cookies for some of the
sites which you do not know.
xi. DDoS.
One of the most famous thing done by Anonymous, which is to
send millions of traffic to a single server to cause the system to
down with certain security feature disable so that they can do their
data stealing. This kind of trick which is to send a lot of traffic to a
machine is known as Distributed Denial of Service, also known as
xii. Boot Sector Virus.
It is a virus that places its own codes into computer DOS boot
sector or also known as the Master Boot Record. It will only start if
there it is injected during the boot up period where the damage is
high but difficult to infect. All the victim need to do if they realize
there is a boot sector virus is to remove all the bootable drive so
that this particular virus will not be able to boot.
xiii. Browser Hijackers.
A browser hijacker uses the Trojan Malware to take control of the
victims web browsing session. It is extremely dangerous especially
when the victim is trying to send some money via online banking
because that is the best time for the hijacker to alter the destination
of the bank account and even amount.
xiv. Virus Document.
Virus today can be spread through document file as well especially
PDF documents. Last time, people will only advice you not to simply
execute an EXE file but in todays world with todays technology,
document file should also be avoided. It is best if you use an online
virus scanner to scan first before opening any single file which you
feel it is suspicious.

xv. SQL Injection.

SQL injection does not infect the end users directly. It is more
towards infecting a website which is vulnerable to this attack. What
it does is it will gain unauthorized access to the database and the
attacker can retrieve all the valuable information stored in the

9 Teknologi Sistem Komputer Dan Rangkaian

Rujukan : http://www.itscolumn.com/2012/03/28-types-of-computer-security-threats-
and-risks/ (05/02/2017 0:42)

ii. Network
a) Ransomware
This can be vicious and heartbreaking attack when certain
information and devices are locked and held for ransom. This
especially true for medical equipment thats unfortunate enough
to accidentally download this malicious code. The Internet of
Things will open up a fertile attack ground since certain devices
lack even basic security features.
b) Software vulnerabilities
Because not everyone updates software consistently with
patches, this poses a huge risk from an attack by hackers.
There is a constant stream of fixes issued in vendor security
patches and updates that must be installed for optimal security.
c) Hacktivism
While not new, hacktivism has become mainstream thanks to
the collective Anonymous system of hackers. Usually with a
political motive, these hackers launch distributed denial of
service attacks to hamper traffic or cause widespread damage
to entire systems.
d) More backdoors
Backdoors installed by sophisticated hackers can work to
decrypt data, leading to theft and black market activities. This
may give rise to nation states intercepting large amounts of VPN
traffic from a backdoors.

e) Altered data attacks

Attacks that sabotage data, changing it or manipulating or in
some manner, are difficult to detect. Even a slight alteration in
data can have enormous complications and consequences.
f) Cloud attacks
Mobile devices with apps that rely on the cloud are an excellent
opportunity for hackers to remotely attack private and public
clouds to access corporate networks. Malware will be created to
specifically crack cloud-based systems.

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Rujukan : http://www.tbconsulting.com/blog/top-8-network-security-threats-how-to-
mitigate-risks/ (05/02/2017 2:40)

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4. Risk And Business Impact Related To Computer Network Security

i. Financial loss
Cyber attacks can result in substantial financial loss. The loss usually
arises from:
a) theft of corporate information
b) theft of financial information
c) theft of money
d) disruption to trading
e) loss of business or contract
Business experiencing a cyber breach will also generally incur costs
associated with remedial actions, such as repairing affected systems,
networks and devices.
ii. Reputational damage
Trust is an essential element of customer relationship. Cyber attacks
can significantly damage your business' reputation and erode the trust
your customers have for you.
This, in turn, could potentially lead to:
a) loss of customers
b) loss of sales
c) reduction in profits
Reputational damage can even impact on your suppliers, or affect
relationships you may have with partners, investors and other third
parties vested in your business.
iii. Legal consequences
If you handle personal data, the Data Protection Act (link is external)
requires you to have appropriate security to prevent the data you hold
being accidentally or deliberately compromised.
If you fail to put appropriate security measures in place, and the
personal data you hold is lost or stolen due to a cyber attack, you may
face fines and regulatory sanctions. Read more about how to comply
with data protection legislation.

Security breaches can devastate even the most resilient of businesses.

It is extremely important to manage the risks accordingly. Find out how
to manage cyber security risks, or see how to protect your business
Rujukan : https://www.nibusinessinfo.co.uk/content/impact-cyber-attack-your-
business (05/02/2017 3:33)

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5. Computer System Security Parameters And Network Security Zone