Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 504

.

.
. . , . . . ,
- . , . . . ,
- . , . . .
678.06
34.42
97

97 ..
/ .
. . . . .. , .. , .. .:
, 2006. 512 ., .

ISBN 5-93913-081-
ISBN 3-446-15956-8 (Munich)
ISBN 1-56990-129-5 (New York)


,
.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
.

678.06
34.42

All right reserved. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich/FRG.


Authorized translation from the original English language edition published by
Carl Hanser Verlag, Muhich/FRG

.

.

ISBN 5-93913-081- Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, 1994


ISBN 3-446-15956-8 (Munich) .., . 1,2,5,2005
ISBN 1-56990-129-5 (New York) ., . 3,4,2005
.., . 6,2005
- , 2006

9
10
1. 11
1.1. () 11
1.2. () 13
1.3. 14
1.4. 18
1.5. 18
1.6. 23
2. ( ) . . . . 24
2.1. 24
2.2. 25
2.2.1. , 25
2.2.2. 32
2.2.3. 40
2.2.4. (, )
55
2.3. 65
2.3.1. 65
2.3.2. 70
2.3.3.
73
2.3.4.
76
2.4. , 85
2.4.1. 85
2.4.2. 86
2.4.3. : --
(PVT-) 90
2.4.4. 94
2.4.5. / 98
2.5. 109
2.6. 113
2.6.1. 113
2.6.2. 114
2.6.3. 120
6

2.6.4. , 125
2.6.5. 126
2.6.6. 133
2.7.
136
2.7.1. 136
2.7.2. 145
2.7.3. 152
2.7.4. ( ) 155
2.8. 157
3. 161
3.1. 161
3.2. 165
3.3. 174
3.4. 175
3.4.1. 175
3.4.2. 176
3.4.3. , . 185
3.4.4. , .
197
3.5. 200
3.6. 204
3.7. 205
3.7.1. 205
3.7.2.
209
3.7.3. () 210
3.7.4. 211
3.7.5. 212
3.8. 213
3.9. 215
3.10. 219
3.11. 220
3.12. 222
4. 223
4.1. 223
4.2. 223
4.2.1. 224
4.2.2. 224
4.2.3. 225
4.3. 229
4.3.1. 229
4.3.2. 230
4.3.3. 234
4.3.4. 236
4.3.5. 240
4.3.6. 247
4.4. 252
4.4.1. 252
4.4.2. ( ) 254
4.4.3. 261
4.4.4. / 268
7

4.4.5. 270
4.5. () 285
4.5.1. 285
4.5.2. , 286
4.5.3. 296
4.6. . 297
4.6.1. 297
4.6.2. , 299
4.6.3. , 302
4.7. * 302
4.7.1. 302
4.7.2. 303
4.7.3. 307
4.8. ( ) 309
4.9. 311
4.9.1. 311
4.9.2. 311
4.9.3. 317
4.10. 320
5. :
322
5.1. 322
5.1.1. 322
5.1.2. 324
5.1.3. 330
5.1.3.1. 331
5.1.3.2. 336
5.1.3.3. 338
5.1.3.4. () . . . 339
5.1.4. . . . 339
5.1.4.1. . . . . 339
5.1.4.2.
341
5.1.5. 342
5.1.6. 347
5.1.6.1. 351
5.1.6.2. - 352
5.1.6.3. ,
354
5.1.6.4.
355
5.1.7. 356
5.1.7.1. 356
5.1.7.2. 356
5.1.8. - 358
5.1.8.1. 358
5.1.8.2. 358
5.2.
359
5.2.1. 359
5.2.2. () 360
5.2.3. () 361
8

5.2.4. 366
5.2.5. 367
5.2.6. 370
5.3. 370
6. , 373
6.1. 373
6.2. 376
6.2.1. 376
6.2.2. , 378
6.2.3. 380
6.3. 384
6.3.1. 384
6.3.2. 385
6.3.3. , 394
6.3.4. 398
6.4. 404
6.4.1. 404
6.4.2. 405
6.4.2.1. 406
6.4.2.2. 410
6.4.2.3. 432
6.5. 446
6.5.1. 446
6.5.2. 447
6.5.3. 466
6.5.4. 469
6.5.5. () 472
6.5.6. 474
6.5.7. 474
6.5.8. 477
6.5.9. 479
6.6. 480
6.6.1. 480
6.6.2. 483
6.6.3. 492
6.7. 495
6.8. 496
- 499

,
(SPE) .
.

SPE .
-
, .
SPE ,
.
: .

, .
SPE,
, , ,
- .
, Plastics Engineering,
Polymer Engineering and Science, Journal of Vinyl Technology Polymer Composites. ,
.
.
, 25 000 - ,
SPE , .
: 14 Fairfield Drive,
Brookfield Center, Connecticut 06805.




, (
). ,
,
, ,
.
.
,
- ,
.
, ,
.
, : ,
.
,
. ,
,
.
,
. , ,

. ,
,
.
.

. ,
,
, .

1994 . .
1.

.

.
[1-6].

1.1. ()
, , .
,
. , .
,
.


, ,
,


.

.
-
.

,
- ,1.1. -
. ()
12



(. 1.2). (,
),
/.
,
.
, ,
( ) ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, . ,
(), () ( ).

. 1.2. (,
, ) [2]
13



.
,
.
, (
) ,
. , ,
.
,
, (. 1.2).
(
)
, ( ,
). ,
,
. (),
() ().

,
. ,
,
( )
.
, ,
.
:
, ,
, , [2].

1.2. ()
,
(. 1.2).
.
.

,
, ,
. : ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
14

1.3.

. ( )
: 1)
2) , .

, :
;
;
;
- ();
/,


. ,
, ,
. , ,
() (. 1.1). ,
, ,
.

,
() .
, (), ,
15

, .
.
,
.
,
,
.
, ,
.

( , );
Mw (
,
) [1].

(1.1) (1.2) :

(1.1)

(1.2)
- ; Ni
.

. 1.3. , -


, (1.3):

(1.3)
16


( ,
, . .).

. (
), . 1.2 [1].
, , .
,
,
, .
,

, .
,
,
.
(. 1.4).
. 1.4 ,
, . ,

.
.
.
,
, ,
.
,
, .
17

. 1.4. ,
.
,
,

. 1.3 [6].
( ,
). ,
(), 4,0 /10 (. 3.8),
, , 15 /10 .

, , 2,3 % ,
3,0 % 11 %
. (,
, . 2.2.2)
35 % . ,
, ,
, (
, ,
).

2 . 593
18

. 1.3:
( = 316 ,
);
;
s ;
Et .

1.4.
,
, (
).
,
, , .

. ,
.
(, ,
, . .),
.
( ), -
, -,
, /, ,
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
- ,
,

. , ,
,
( , ),
, , .
, ,
,
( ).

1.5.


.
, , ,

19

/.
i r . -
' , ,
.
,
[7-11J.

,
.
.
: ( ,
, . .),
,
, .


.
.
.

i ipi i6m [ 0,8 /3
1,8 /3. , , 7 /3.

. ,
,
.
,
. (, , -
:L-M) ( 15-25 %),
.
2,0 / 3 ,
.

,
. ,
. ,
, .

, ,
,
. , , , ,
, .
,
, -.
20

, , , .
,
, ,
.

.
(, )
. ,
(
)
.
, (
, ).

( )
.
()
;
(
, ).
.

. ,
.
,
.
,
. -
,

.


.
,
, .
.
(
, ). ,
,
. Q,
() , :

(1.4)
21

,
.
, ,
(
), / (
). (,
)
/ .
, ,
(
1.4) , , .


.
, .
,

.

. ,

, .
- , ,
, ,
, .
( )
(, ). ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,

.
, .

, , .

, .
,
. ,
.

(
22

). ,
,
, , (
).

,
.
, .


, ,
. , , , ,
. ,

.
, .
, (
), .

.
, .

, . ,
,
( )
( ,
). ,
, ,
, .
( )
.


. ,
.
.

: , ,
, .


.
( ),
( )
23

,
. ,
, ,
, , . (
, )
, (, ) .


. ,
, .
()
KTR , -
, , ,
, , -
.
.
,
, . i
(, ,
).
-
. (, )
.
.

1.6.
1. Deanin, R., Polymer Structure, Properties, and Applications, Cahners Publishing, Boston,
MA (1972).
2. Technical Bulletin, Designing with Plastics, Hoechst Celanese, Chatham, NJ (1989).
3. Technical Bulletin, Engineering Materials Design Guide, General Electric Plastics,
Pittsfield,MA(1989).
4. Moore, G. and Kline, D., Properties and Processing of Polymers for Engineers, Prentice-
Hall, Inc., London (1984).
5. Clements, L., Polymer Science for Engineers, Engineering Plastics I landbook, American
Society of Metals, International, Metals Park, OH (1988).
6. Technical Bulletin, Engineering Thermoplastics Basic Design Manual, The Dow Chemical
Co., Midland, MI (1988).
7. Dym, J., Product Design with Plastics, Industrial Press, Inc., NY (1983).
8. Powell, P., Plastics for Industrial Designers, The Plastics Institute, London (1973).
9. MacDermott, C, Selecting Thermoplastics for Engineering Applications, Marcel Dekker,
Inc., NY (1984).
10. Ehrcnstein, G. and Erhard, G., Designing with Plastics, Hanser Publishers, Munich (1984).
2.

( )1
2.1.

,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
( ).


. ,
: , ,
- ,
.

, ,
,
, , .
,
: ,
, ,
. . . .
( ) 25

, -
. :
, , ,
.
,
(-
)
.

, ,
.
Pac ,
,
;


.
.

,
.
,


().

.
, ,
.
,
.

2.2.
2.2.1. ,

: , -
. ,
.
,
.
,
, .
26

,
:
;
i;

;
() ;
;
;
;
;
;
;
,
. .
,
,
. ,
, .
. ;

.
,
, .
,

, .
,
.
(), . 2.1.
.

.
,

. ,
, , ,
(-
).
, ,
,
.
,
, ,

( ) 27

. 2.1.
(). ,

. ()
, .
, , , ,
,
.
,
:
. . 2.2 ,

. 2.2. ; (
)
;

28

.
() (-
) . ,
, , -
- .
,
(. . 2.2) ,
, ,
. ,
()
, ,
, , .
,
.

,
. , ,
,
.
,
. (
)
(. 2.4).
,
. , ,
, ,

. 2.3.
(. )
( ) 29

. 2.4. .
;
()

, , , .
, . 2.5,
.
,
.

( )
. ,
. ,
, , ,
, .

. 2.5. (

. )
30

,
. ,

.
, ,
, ,
.
. ,
,
. .
, ,
, (. . 2.5).

. (. . 2.6)
,
, .
,
.

. 2.6. ()
( ); ()

, ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
,
.
,
.
( ) 31




(, ) (
. .).
,
,
, . ,
32


,
.

. ,

,
.
, , ,
, .
,
.
, .
,
, ,
[1,2].

2.2.2.

,

.
,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.
,
:

,
= _


( )
.
, ,
,
.
.
: ( ) 33

,
, .
, , ()

.
/,
, ,

[3]. ,
,
(- ).

.
, -
,
- .
,
, , ,
. - ,
, .
, ,
( ).
,

, . 2.8.
, ,
, ,
,

. 2.8.

(),
()

3 . 593
34

[4-7].

,
.
, .

, [6].
,
( ),
.
, , , ,
, .

. ,
,
(. . 2.9).

. 2.9.

,
, ,

,
.
, , . 2.9.
, - ,
( ) 35

:-: ( ,
); ,
,
, .

, , ,
.
(,
),
.
, ,
[5,8-10].
.
, . 2.10,
, ( ).

. .
,

, .
' , , . 2.10 (
3,2 ),
.
. [5J.

, . 2.1,
. ,
, (-
).
. ,
. 2.10, , ,
,
, .
36

. 2.10. ( )

.
( )
, , .

, ,
(
)
( ) 37

. 2.11. N 6.6,
, ,
, ,

.
, .
.
,
, . . 2.11
, ,
6.6, [11].
, ,
, ,
38

.
,
( ,
).
,
, , ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
. 2.12,
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, , . ,
,
,
.

. 2.12. , -
,
,


.
,




( ) 39


,
. (
) .
,
. , ,
, -, (. 2.13).

. 2.13. , ,
, ,

,

.
.
. 2.14.
(. .
) , , ,
.

, ,
.
40

. 2.14. ,
.
, ,
.
, ,

2.2.3.

,
.
, ,
.
, ,
. ,

.

[12-15, 134-136].
,
, .
, :
, ,
,

.
( ) 41

. 2.15.
, .

,
(50 ).
,
()
( Moldfiow Pty. Ltd., 2 Corporate Dr., Sheldon, 6T06484)
42

( )

(
).
( ) :
1) ,
,
, ;
2) , /
, ;
3) ,
, /
.
,
, , .

,
.
, (
). ,

(. 2.16).
, . 2.17.
(. . 2.12,2.17) ,

, , , .
,
,
. ( )
. ,
, ,
,
, .

.

,
. ,
, , ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
: ( ; 43

. 2.16. (
)

. 2.17.


44

,
.


.

(. 2.18) .
,
, () (
).
: ,
, .
, . 2.18.



;
,

. 2.18. (
)
.

; ;

: ( ) 45

;
, (. . 2.17),
. ,

. ,
. 2.18, ,
.


, ,
, ,
.
(. 2.19).
.
,
.
,
.
,

, .

. 2.19. -
,
,

. -

46


, ,
,
( ).
\
.
(2.1)

,
,
, ,
.
, (
). ,
- ,
. ( )
. 2.20 .
(
),
.
,

. 2.20. , .
,


( ) 47


.
, (
, ). ,
,
( ):

();

( , );

.
, ,
. , ,
, (
) .

, -
.
, ,
.
,
,
.
, (. 2.21) ,
()
. , (
),
. ,

. 2.21. , ,
, , , -
/

48

.

. , -
( ).
, ,
. . (. . 2.21)
I, Wu .
, ,
, ,
.


1.
.
() ,
.

,

( ). ,
, ,
,
, .
.

. 2.22.
.
, ,

1
, , ,
( -
(. 2.21)
(. 2.2). . . . .
( ) 49

2.2.
(. . 2.21)

1 ] 0 0,313 2,000 (), ( )


0 0,250 2,250 ()
0,080 () 0,400, ()
0,120 ()
0,100 () 1,500 ()
6,030 ()

, ,
( ) r\v
:
(2.2)
(2.3)
( = 1, -
< 1).

. ,
, .

. 2.23-
;
;

50

,
,
.
,
.
(. 2.24).
,
, , -
,
, .
,
. 2.24, , ,
.
(. 2.24, ),
.
( ) ,
- , ,
[16].
,

( ) ,
.
,
.

,
(, ).
] I i ia
. 2.25. ,
,
.


.
.
.

(, /
). ,
,
. ,
() ,
200 ", 1,5 .
. 2.24. ,
( )
52

,
,
. ,
, :
(2.4)
(2.5)


; .
(. . 2.21)
,
, ( ,
).
Q

Q_:
(2.6)
, Qcwmi
( ) ,
tj.
(2.7)
, ,
,
, .
,

, .


.
200 ,

, . 2.25.

-
.

.
( )
.
( ):
( ) 53

. 2.25. ,
( . 2.21)

(2.8)
(2.9)

. ,
,
, -
(. 2.26).

(
). (2.8) (2.9)
() .
,

. 2.26.
; ,

, -
,
54


.

,
.

, . 2.25.
(200 "),
,
.


:
(2.10)
,
, :
(2.11)
(2.12)
. 2.3.
, (2.10),
, ! . 2.16.
, ,
( ),
,
, . ,
.
( ) 55

2.2.4. (,
)

/
,
. , ,
,
. ,
(. 2.27).
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
.

. 2.27.
,
,
( )
56

. 2.28.
-
.
(. . 2.27),

, .
,
. . 2.28 ,
, ,
, .
,
( )
.
,
.
(. 2.28)
,
,
, .
,

. 2.28. ,

( ) 57


. ,

(,

).
. ( )
( )
, (
);
,
( ).
(. . 2.29) ,
, ,
.
,
, -, .

. 2.29.

58

.
.

,
.
,
(, )
, .
,


, ,
- (,
, ). ,
,
, .

.
.
, . 2.28,

, , ,
(. . 2.28 2.30).

,
.
,
( . 2.27
),
.


:







,

. 230.

( ) 59


,
, , .
( ),
[17].
, . 2.31,
, .
, , ,
. ,

, ,
.
, ,
.
( )
. , . 2.31,
.

. , ,
.
() ,
, .

,

.
.

. 2.31. , ,
,
,

60


,
,
, .
, ,
(
), ()
. (
, ) -
(),
,
( , , ).
-
,
.
(, . 2.32)
.
, ,
( ).

, ( )
, .



():






/


():






. 2.32.
,
.


( ) 61

, ,
, , ,
, , , .


. ,
,
.
,
.
()
.
, .
,
. ,
, .

,
, .

, ,
,
, . 2.31 2.33.

,
. , ,
, , -

, .

. -
,

, . 2.33 [18].

.

[ 19]. ,
.
. ,
, . (
),
, ( )
. .
62

. 2.33. ,
, -, ,
.

() ,
,

. 2.34.

.





-
:





100 ( ) 63

. 2.35. , , ,
, .


. ,

.
, ,
,
, , .

.

, (, -
. .), .
(. 2.36, -).
, .
,
.
.

:
,
/in . ) i
, .


, ,
-
. -
,
.
64

) ) )
.

d)
( )

-
( )



( (
) )

. 236.
. - .
,
: ( ) 65



. ,
,
( ),
.
, .
,
,
, .
.

, ,
.
:
, ()
.


,
.
.

, .
,
,
.

2.3.
2.3.1.
( , )
,
,
- .
,
, ,
,
.
.
, , , ,
.

5 . 593
66

:

, ,




. 2.37. .
,
. ,
,


,
, .

, . ,
[20,21].
(-
).
.

120-42],
, .
, ,
, , :
;
;
;
.

,
, . ,

. ,
,
.
,
, .
( ) 67

. 2.38. , ,
; ,
, . ,

. ,

, ,
, ()
. ,
, . ,
,
(. 2.39).

,
,
(. 2.48).
,
.
.

, ,
( ) .
./-

, ;

. ,
,
,
. ,
, [22,23].

.
68

. 2.39. ,
: .

,
()

,
,
, ,
.
, ,
.
( )
,
. ,
,
.
[22, 24]:

;
/
;
V- ;
/
.
( ) 69

. 2.40 ,
()
. ,
, . ,
, ,
.
. ,
,
.
,
. ( )
, ,
, , .
,
.
,
.

. 2.40.
( ),

. 2.41 ,
. ,
. ( )
, , ,
, -
. ,
70

. 2.41. V- ,
. ( ) ,
(). -
, ,

[21], ,
0,2 0,3 .
. ,
, ,
. ,
/,
.

. ,
( ).
,

. ,
,
.

2.3.2.
.
,
. -
,
(. 2.42). , ,
, ;

.
( ) 71

. 2.42.
,

,
. ,
, ,
. , .

.
, , . ,
. . 2.43.

,
(. . )

. 2.43.
. , ,
.
,

,
(. 2.44). ,
, . ,
120 150 .

[29].
, paci nyai ICOHOB ,
.
, ,
72

. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
( , , )
.

. 2.44. ()

, . 2.45.
(. . 2.45, ),
.
,
(. 2.45, ), .

. 2.45. ,
. -

( ) 73

2.3.3.

()
.
, .
. 2.4 ,
( %) ,
,
.
( ).
, ,
,
. ,
,
(
, ,
).
, ,
. . 2.4
.

, ,
.
74

( ,
) 80-100 %.
,
, ,
. ,

.
, , ,
,
[31]. ,

.

, .

(
),
. , , (
) ,
,
: . . 2.4
,
.
/ , .

.
,
, , , ,
, .
- ,
-
.

. 2.46.
- ,

( ) 75

, , ,
, .
,
, [30, 34].
,
.


.
, . 2.47
, (42 %), ,
200 125
( ).
75 .
,
. ,
,
, -

. 2.47.
, .
,
, , ,
,
,
76

. 2.47.
.
,
.
( 10-25 %). ,
,
, ,
.

2.3.4.


-
. ,
,
,
,
, .
, ,
.
,
.
( ) 77

,
,
,
.
. 2.48. ()

().
, ,
( ).

. 2.48. ,
.
(), ,
,
.
,

, ,

.
.
,
;
. ,
.

. (
2,3 4 )
.

,
78

. ,
. 2.49,
.

. 2.49.




(, ),
,
.

, , .
,
. , (
) : ,
, , , /
, , ,
.
, ,
-
. ,

.
, . .
[43,44]. ,
() ,
,
. ,

, .
,
, .
( ) ,
( ) 79

.

, .

,
.
.
,
. (,
, . .) .

.

[33] ,

, , - ( -
, ).
,
-.
(
)

. V-
[ . , ,
, -
, .

(Multi-Live Feed Injection Molding, LFIM)


{Shear Controlled Orientation Injection Molding, SCORJM) [45-48].
, ,
.
(, ) ,
,
, .
, . 2.50, -
\ , . ,
,
.
, . ,
, , , .
(. 2.50) ,
. :
. 2.50.
, (
Scortec Division, British Technology Group USA)
( ) 81

() .
.
,
, .
,
. ,
, (
).
.
,
.
(,
), , , ,

. 1 (. . 2.50),
,
.
,
.
,
(
).
, ,
, ,
.

Push-PullMolding

[49-51 ].

, . -
- (. 2.51).
, .
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.

. ,

. , ,
, -
, ,

. 593
82


;


,

. 2.51. Push-PuttMolding.
-
, , ,

.

, , ,
. Push-Pull Molding ,
.
,
.
-
(In -mold Reciprocating Pins)

, , (
) , -
[52]. ,
(. 2.52), ,
. - (-)
.

, . -

, ,
,
. -
( )
( ) 83

. 2.52. ( ) ,
- ,
,
.

() .
, ,
, .

,
, ,
, .
, , , . 2.53,
,
,
. ,
, , .
,
, , ,
,
( ) .
; , ; ,
. ,
, . 2.53.
,
, .
,
, .
. 2.53. ,
. ,
.


( ) 85

2.4. ,

2.4.1.

.
. , ,
,
.
.
. ,
(
) . ,
(, ),
[53-58].
,
, ,
, .
, :
.
, . .
.
, :
.
.
.
, (
) .
.
, :
.
.
.
.
, ,
.
.
.
, :
.
.
; ; ,
; ; .
86

.
/ .

().

2.4.2.

, ,
2.1.
, .

,
,
.
- .
, -
,
,
.
, .

. 2.54. ,
,

. 2.54.
.

( ) 87

.
, 25 % [57].
, , ,
, ,
,
.

.
. , ,
,
,
.

[18].
, , . 2.55, ,
,
, .
.
( )
,
.
,
(
), .

. , -,
, , ,

. 2.55. , -,
- .
,

88

.
,
() .
.

. 2.56.
, ().
.

, - ,
. ,

,
.
,
. ,
, , ,
,
.
, . . ,
[55].
, ,
,
.

, [58].
,
, - .

.
.
40-80 % , ,
, 25-40 % .
( ).
( ) 89

, ,
- , ,

. 2.57. :
, , ,
( )

. 2.58.

90 .

. .
, ,
. . 2.59 ,
[59].

, .
, , -
.
.

. 2.59. ,
(),
,

2.4.3. : --
(PVT-)

.
, ,
.
(-)
J 60].
:
(2.13)
; V ; R
; ; ; \\
, .
: ,
,
. ,
. ,
- - ,
( ) 91

,
().
PVT- , ()
,
.
, (
),
. - (,
6.6) ,
, .
( ) -
. ,
PVT-
.
,
, .
,
(. 1.2).


(
, , , ).
(, )
(
, ) [61J.
,
- 12].
, ( -
)
,
,
.

. , .
,
, .

.
,
(
) , , .
,
(
).
92

. 2.60. -- (PVT-)
() ()

, ,
- (. 2.61).
( ) 93

. 2.61. (
).
:
1. .
1-2. .
2. ( ).
2-3. .
3. ,
.
3-4. -

.
4. .
4-5. -
;
(- ).
5. ,
.
5-6. ,
.
6. , , ,
,
( ).
6-7. .
7. .
7-8. , .
8. ;
( ,
, , ).
94

2.4.4.
, . 2.61,
.
, .
,
, , , , SL
[57]:
(2.14)
$v (,
).
, ,
. ,

. -

.
, , -
, ,
.


. , (
) ,
, (
) [62 J.
: /, / (, 100).
, ,

, :
=
/(1 - ),
/ (/). ^
,
, , ,
,
[63J.
,
( )
. 48

.
. ,
(, ), 20-30 [64].
( ) 95

. 2.62.

,

().

. 2.63. , ,
.
.
1
. 2

96

,
, [65,66].
, 6.6,
()
.
, ,
(
). ,
() , .
()
,
-
, (
) [65].

. 2.64. ()
.
-
.


(, , 6.6)
- ,
-
.
, ,
. ,
, (. 2.65). ,
( ) 97

,
, , ,
.
(
),
, .
,

. 2.65.
( ),

&LT -
ALM
ALP - ,

:
;
;
( )
;
, ;
.

. 2.66.
, ,
,

7 . 593
98

( )

.
, ,

. , ,

[67]. ,
, 50 %, .
50/50

[68].

,
, -
.
,
, . , ,
,
, , , , .

2.4.5. /


( ) .
,
, ,
, .


.
, ,
. :
- ;
;
, ,
;
, -
[69].
( )
,
,
, .
::0 ( ) 99

. 2.67. ,
,

,
.

( ) , (
),
.
,
,
[8].


,
.
-
.
, .

, (
).
, , , [69].

(; , ,
, ), ,
, ,
. ,


. ,
,
( )
, .
- ,
, ,
. ,
100

. 2.68.
, .
,

,
.
, , ,
. ,
.


. , ,
, ,
.
.

, ,
.
, ,
, . ,

- .
,
.
( ) 101

, , ,

, , .
-
.

.

.
, -

. 2.69.
,
. , .
,
,

. 2.70. ,

102

( ),
.
, ,
( ).
, ,
,
, , ASTM [62].
,
,
.
(. 2.71)
, ,
,
- .

. 2.71.
,
. (
, )
,



, .
,
.
, ,
, , ,
. ,
( ) 103

, ,
(
),
.
.
, ,
, .
, , , - ,
, .
, . 2.72, ,
, ,
,
[57J.
:
,
.

. 2.72. ,
, ,
, -:
) ,
;
) , - ;
)

:
, 2.72.
,
, ,
, ,
.
104

,
. , ,
, :
,
.
,
. ,
,
. /
.

, ,
; ,
, . 2.73.

, -
( ).
.
, ,
, , .

, ,
, .

. 2.73.

, , ,
,
( [57]).
, ,
,
. ,
, , -
( ) 105

,
, , . ,
,
(. 2.74).

. 2.74. ,

, ,
,
,
, .

, , . ,
. 2.75, ( )
- .

. 2.75. , ,

(
)
106

(
) ,
.
, ,
, (
), , .
,
, ,

, ,
,
.
.
, ,
, .
,
.
,
, .
, ,
.
, ( -
)
(. 2.76) [70].

. 2.76.
, ,
( ) 107


. ,
() . ,
,
.
, -


. .
,
,
[71,72].
, ,
. . 2.77
()
( ).
,
( 1,5 2,0 %).

.
,

. 2.77.
, .
,
108

[12].
, ,
.
,
, , .
, ,
, , ,
.
(. 2.78) [73]. ,

. 2.78.
(, )
( )

,
, () -
( ) [63].
,
, -
, .
,
, , .

,
, ,
[63,72].

.

, 30-40 %
( ,
( ) 109

. 2.79.
, (
). ,

) [74]. , , ,
, ,
, ,
.
. ,
,
,
, , , , ,
.

, ,
,
.
,
, .

2.5.

, , ,
.
110

.
.
,
. ,

.
: , ,
. ,
:
, ;
;
. -

. ( )
,
- . ,
, ,

, , .

.
.
,
, , ,
,
. ,
, , - ,
, ,
.


. ,
( )
. , ,
, ,
10-15 ,
, ,
, .
, 10-15
. (2, 75, 76].
, . 2.80, , ,
, ,
(
). , ,
( ) 111

1
. 2.80. ,
( ),

1
(2.16)(2.19) . 2.80
, -
. . . .
112

( ,
) , ()
.
, , . ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
. 2.80 , [75].
, . 2.80,
. ,

.
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.

. ,

.

( ),
[11] [78].
,
( , ,
) ( ).
,
,
.

( ).
, ()
. ,
. (
)
( ). ,
, (
) . , ,
, .
,
. (2.16) (2.18)
, ,
( ) 113

(2.17) (2.19) ,
.

,
.
. ,
, , : ,
,
( ).
, ,
.
,
.
(. . 2.80) ,
[75].
, , (2.16) (2.19)
, 2.
,
( ),
:
. ,
, , , , ,

. ,
,
, ,
. ,
.

2.6. 1
2.6.1.

. ,
. , ,
,
,
,
.

1
;
(, ); .
( , ), ,
( ), . . . .

8 . 593
114

,
.

, , .
, , ,
, :
;
;
;
;
;
;
() .

. ,
, (
),
.

2.6.2.

( )
,
.

, .
:
1)
, ;
2) -
, .
,
, ,
, , - ,
. .
,
, ()
, . ,
, , ,
() .
, (
), , ,
, .
( ) 115

. 2.81.
,

. 2.82. (
), ,
, , ,

,
,
- .
,
, ,
. : -
,
.
116



.
, , .

. ,
, -
, .

. 2.83. . ,
,
: , , . .
-;
( ) 117

, ()
, ,
. 1/4 2
, , .
, (-
) ; (
) , ,
,
.
,
, :
,
. Ei ,
,
.
, ,
,
, .

, ,
, , .
;
, .
, , ,
, . . 2.84

. 2.84.
. .


118

-. ,
, .
- , ,
, , .
.

. , , ;
. , ,
,
, .


.
, ,
. , ,
,
,
. (
) ,
.
, . 2.85 2.86,
, .

. ,
.
, ,
, ,
.

. 2.85.
, , , ,
. ,
,

( ) 119


;
, , ,
. . 2.86 0,060
2 [80].

. 2.86. ,

. 2.87. ,
,
.

.
120

2.6.3.


. ,
,
.
( )
,
. ,
,
. (. 2.88)
, ,
, .
, , (
) , ,
. (
) ,
.

. 2.88. (
), ,
, ( -
), ,

, . 2.89, ,

, ,
[79].
, (
).
( ) ,
, .

, .
( ) 121

. 2.89. ,


. , ,
, .
;
SPI - 1 (. . 5.2 5.3, . 340,341).
( 12 ) SPE/SPI,
#1 #61.
, ,

. 2.90.
: ,
( -). ,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
,

,
. 2789 73; , .: 2001. . 8.
. 1-2. . . .
122

.
(-
) .
,
. ,
,
, , .

( ).
, -
.
.

.
,
,
.
, ,
.

,
. ,
, , 1-1,5
0,001 (0,025 ). .

. 2.91. ,
,
, . ,
,

( ) 123

, , ,
.
(
).
, ,
, , ,
;

[82].


( ,
)
: 1) 2) 3)
.
,

- . [83,
84]. :
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
, .
,

.
.



, ,
[85-94].
,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, .
( )
124

( ),

.

, (TiN),

( , ) ( ) [86, 93].
,
[90] [91].
, ,
() [88].
1 3 ,
.
, ,
. 2.92.
, ,

,
,[92].

. 2.92. ()
,

(.) ,
. ( . .: , 1992.)
. . .
( ) 125

. 2.93.
()

2.6.4. ,
(
) , , . .,
.
, -
.
,
, .
, , (. 2.94),
.

. 2.94. , , ,
,

126 -

,
, (,
).
, , . 2.94.

,
. ,
. 2.5.
.
,
/ ( ,
).
, :

.
, .
,
. ,
. ,

. ,
,
.

2.6.5.
,
- . , -,
,
, , , ,
. .
,
, ,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
. -, ,
90 . . 2.95 .
, , ()
, , ,
. ,
( ) 127

. 2.95.
, . ,
,

, , (. 2.95),
.
. 2.95 , , ,
i , ) , (.
6.3.3). ,
, .
(. 2.96)
, .
,
,
- .

, ,

. 2.96. ,

/
128

, , .

, .

. ,
, ,
,
.
(
) , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
( ),

. .
,
, , , .
,
( ), . 2.97.

. 2.97. , ,
, ,
,


, ,
.
,
, .
, ,
( 6.3.3) ^.
, , .
2 ( ) 129


().
- /,
.
.
,
. -

,

.


,
.
11 ,
() .
, ,
[93-98].

, ,
, , ,
, .
.

. .
(
). , .
.
, .
,
. :
( );
(
);
( );
.
,
.

, .
,
.
, ,
,
9 . 593
130

. ,

, .
-.
.
138 ",
, , ,
290 .
, ,

. , ,

.
.
,
.
,
.
( ,
, ) ,

. ,
. 2.98 [93]. ,

. 2.98.
:
; b
;

( ) 131

. ,
, . :
( 30-60% , );
,
;
(
);
(
).

.

, / (
, ),
/ , ,
(. 6.)
/
(
) /
, [96-101].
,
( ),
.
. ,
.
,
,
(
).
[99,100]. , 25
90 , 1,20 3,75 (
); , 13 24 ,
1,32 1,50 .

[101].




. , . 2.100, ,
, .
. 2.100 (),

. ,
132

) )

. 2.99. ( )
:
;
;
; d
(-) ( Roehr Tool)

. 2.100.

( ) 133

. 2.100 (), -
[102].
,
[104].

2.6.6.
,
; ,

(. 6.2). , ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
. ,
,
() .
, , ,
.

. 2.101. ,
.
;


, . ,
, ,
[2]:
;
;
;
/.
134

/ :
-;
, ,
( ) , (,
).
- - ,
,
. , ,
, ;

. .

( ,
. .). / (
)
.
, , :

(2.20)
/;
/ ( - );
/.
(2.20) .
, . 2.101. :
(2.21)
0 ; Lc ( ).
/

.
,
. ,
,
-, , . ,
,
,
, , ,
( ) .

( , ,
).
,
, , ,
.
( ) 135

. 2.102.
,
,
-

,


. .
, ,

( ); ,
,
.
PVT-
.

. :
(2.22)
( R)
h, :
(2.23)
/
( )
:
(2.24)
L(. . (2.21);
/.
136

,
, .
,
.
, , .
,
.

. . 2.103
, ,
, ,
. ,
, [2].

. 2.103.

2.7.

2.7.1.

,

. ,
.
( ) 137

,
, ,
(
).

,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, , , . .

. ,

, .
(
),
: ,
( , ).
.

.
(
[103-109]).
:
1) , ,
, ( );
2) , , , ,
, , , . .
, :
, (
),
.
,
.
, ,
.
(
, ,
,
). (
)
,
. ( )
138

, ,
, .
,
(, ,
).

(
).
. 2.5
.
(
, , , ,
) [110].


,
,
, .
;

( , , ).

, (
). ( ),
; .
, ,
,
, ,
-
( ) 139

.
.
( ),
/, .
, ( )
.
, ,
(
)
.
. 2.104 [1151.

. 2.104. : . :

140

.
: ,

. ,
.
,

, .


: ,
( ), ( ).
. 2.105
.


. ,
,
. ,
;
,
.
, ,
,
[105].

FUC.Z.1U3.
() ()
( ) 141


, (
) ,
,
.

;


,
[112].
/

.

.
,
.
,
, , ,
,
. ,
: - /
( )
[111].


0,5 30 (70-4500 / 2 ).
, [112].

,
, . 2.106 [113].
( ),
.
,
, .
[108].
, :
,
.
,
: -
; ()
. 2.106.
: ()
()
( ) 143

-
; -
; -
; -
,
[105].
,
, , .

,
, , ,
.
,
,
.
,

.
, , , ,

.
[103].
, .
[111].


,
,
( )
, . ,
,
,
;

.
,
,

, ,
,
- [111].


, . , .
144

,
,
[111,113,114].

() , ,
.
() , ,
(, . .) .
,
().
,
.
( ) [103].
,
, (
). ,

.
,
,
, . ,
, ,
. ,
.

( ) [113].
, ,
.
, :
,
. ,
, 2-3 .
,
, , , .
.

(. 2.107, 2.108) [103, 110-113].
[111-113].

/-.
, ,
,

. ,
( ) 145

. 2.107,
; ,
()

. 2.108.


[114].

2.7.2.


:
( ),
(. 2.109) [116-127].

10 . 593
146

. :
/ ,
.
( ) ,
.
.. 2.1091116].

. 2.109. ,
:
( General Electric Plastics)
:

, ,
. ,
,
:
.

,
.
, - -
;
, , -,
,
, .
, ,
-
.
, .
.


.

. , ( ),
( ) 147

, -, , -/ [117
121]. ,
, , (
).
, ,
.
, ( ,
. .),
.
.
, ,
, ,

,
.

,

. , ,
, , ,

.
(),
/
.
, ,
.
. 10-35 %
, ,
.
,
[118].
, ,

, . ,
.
, ,
,
. ,

.
,
.

148

,
. ,
,
, ,
, , ,
. ,
() .


,
.
, .
,
, .
4,0 (
) 9,0 ,
10-35 % (
15-20 %). ,
. , ,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
.

.
, -

. 2.110.
( )
( ) 149

, [122].

( ) ,
.
, ,
, .
,
, (
),

. ,
, , .
: /
, , .
,
,
, .

,
: ,
, . .
, , ,
.
- ,
, .
,
, (. 2.111).
,
.

. 2.111. (,
, . .)
, ,

150

, ,
. , ,

. ,
,
.
.

,
.
. -
,
().
, , .
(
).
.

.
,
(, ) .

, (, ),
[121-125].
;
,
. ,
.

. 2.112. ,
, ,

( ) 151




( )
(. ),
,
. ,
,

.
,
[117,120,122,123].
, (
) .
, ,
( ) ,
, ,
, . ,
, (
). ,
, ,
, ,
. ,

.
, /
(

). , , ,

[122,123].

: ,
.
. ,

, . . (

). ,
10-20 % -
[122]. ,

, :
1) /;
2) ;
152

3) ;
4) ;

.

, ,
, , .
, ,
, . ,
,
, .

, ,
.
, ,

.
,
.
,

,
[116,120].

2.7.3. 1


.
.
, ,
, . .
( )
, . -,
,
, ,
, -
, (. 6.4.2.3).

. : co-injection (
-extrusion ),
, . .
: ; , -
, ; ,
. . . . .
( ) 153


() [128-130]. ,
.
,
- ,
.
.
,
( ) , , ,
.

, .
,
, ,
.
( ) ,
.
,
, ,
.
- ,

/ [125,127].

( ),

, .

,
(, . .).
-
, , ,
, ,
. ,

.
, ,
. ,
,
.
:
1)
,
, ;
. 2.113. :
; b
, ,
; (
) , ;
d ,
,
( ) 155

2) ,
,
, ;
3) ,

.
,
50 60% ,
.

,
.
. , ,
( ),
[ 129 ].
/
, ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
, .

2.7.4. ( )
,
,
.
,
, / ( 20-50 %
, ).

.

, , [131-133].
-, ,

, . ()
: ,
().
(
) ,
;
.
,
; ,
156

,
. ,
; ,
[131].

. 2.114.

,
,
, .

(

).
,
- ( ),
.
, , ,
[131].
: ( ) 157

2.8.
1. Catoen, ., Plastics Engineering, 49, (2), 21 (1993).
2. Menges, G. and Mohren, P., How to Make Injection Molds, Hanser, NY (1986).
3. Uou, M. and Suh, N.. Polymer Engineering & Science, 29, (7), 441 (1989).
4. Fritch, L., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 36, 302 (1990).
5. Parkas, R., Development of Molding Area Diagram Analogs, M. Thesis, Department of
Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell (1991).
6. Willey, S. and Ulmer, A., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 32. 173 (1986).
7. Thompson, M. and White, J., Polymer Engineering & Science, 24, (4), 227 (1984).
8. Cox, H. and Mentzer, C, Polymer Engineering & Science, 26, (1), 488 (1986).
9. Siegmann, A., Kenig, S., and Buchman, II., Polymer Engineering & Science, 27, (14), 1069
(1987).
10. Cricns, R., Handler, M. and Mosle, H., Kunststoffe, 75 (8), 507 (1985).
11. Cloud, P. and Alvord, R., Plastics Design Forum, 4, (5), 85 (1979).
12. Moldflow Ply. Ltd., 2 Corporate Drive, Sheldon, CT 06484.
13. Structural Dynamic Research Corporation, 2000 Eastman Drive, Milford, OH 45150.
14. AC Tcchnolgy, 31 Dutch Mill Road, Ithaca, NY 14850.
15. Plastics and Computer Inc., 14001 Dallas Parkway, Suite 1200, Dallas TX 75240.
16. Rauwcndaal, C, Polymer Extrusion , Hanser Publishers, NY (1990).
17. Mehta, K., Annual Structural Plastics Conference, Society of the Plastics Industry, 242
(1993).
18. Technical Bulletin, Engineering Materials Design Guide, General Electric Plastics,
Pittsfield, MA (1989).
19. Gastrow, H., Injection Molds, 102 Proven Designs, Hanser Publishers, NY (1983).
20. Miller, E., Plastics Product Design Engineering Handbook, Part A, Marcel Dekker, Inc.,
NY (1981).
21. Tomari, K., Tonogai, S. and Harada, T, Polymer Engineering & Science, 30, (15), 931,
(1990).
22. Jong, W., and Wang, K., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 36, 197 (1990).
23. Lautenbach, S., Wang, K., Chiang, H and Jong, W, SPE Annual Technical Conference,
37,372(1991).
24. Kim, S., and Suh, N., Polymer Engineering & Science, 26, (17), 1200, (1986).
25. Fisa, ., and Rahmani, M., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 396 (1991).
26. E. Bernhardt, ed., CAE for Injection Molding, Hanser, NY (1983).
27. Janicki, S., and Peters, R., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 391 (1991).
28. Knasnecky, D., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 363 (1991).
29. Yokoi, H., Murata, Y, Oka, K., and Watanabe, H., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37,
367(1991).
30. Lalande, F, SPE Annual Technical Conference, 3 7, 404 (1991).
31. Dharia, A., and Wolkowicz, M., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 1149 (1991).
32. Worden, E., and Kusion, S., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 2653 (1991).
33. Brewer, G SPE Annual Technical Conference, 33,252 (1987).
34. Malloy, R. and Brahmbhatt, S., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 38, (1992).
158

35. Technical Bulletin, Cloud, J. and McDowell, P., Reinforced Thermoplastics: Understanding
Weld-Line Integrity, LNP Engineering Plastics, Exton, PA.
36. Rahmani, M. and Fisa, ., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 400 (1991).
37. Liou, M, Fang, L., and Ishii, K., SAMPE Symposium, New Materials & Processes, Tokyo.
Japan, 1509(1989).
38. Ilagerman, E., Plastics Engineering, 29, (10), 67 (1973).
39. Malguarnera, S., and Manisali, A., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 27, 775 (1981).
40. Wcndt, U., Kunststoffe, 78, (2) 10 (1988).
41. Boukhili, R. and Gauvin, R., Plastics & Rubber Processing Applications, 11,(1) 17(1989).
42. Cries, R., and Moslem, H., Polymer Engineering & Science, 23, (10), 591, and (1983).
43. Wright, R., Thermosets, Flanser, NY (1991).
44. Technical Bulletin, Hulls Corporation, Hatboro, PA.
45. Bevis, M., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 38, 442 (1992).
46. Technical Bulletin, Scortec, Inc., Gulph Mills, PA.
47. Kirkland, C, Plastics World, 49, (2), 37, (1991).
48. Malloy, R., Gardner, G., and Grossman, E., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 39, 521
(1993).
49. The Berge.J., Plastics Engineering, 47, (2), 27, (1991).
50. Klockncr Ferromatik Desma, Erlanger, KY.
51. Michaeli, W, and Galuschka, S., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 39, 534(1993).
52. Gardner, G., and Malloy, R SPE Annual Technical Conference, 40 (1994).
53. Austin, C, SPE Annual Technical Conference, 34, 1560 (1988).
54. Putsch, G. and Mikhail, W., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 36, 355 (1990).
55. Lee, M., et al., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 34, 288 (1988).
56. Santhanam, N. and Wang, K., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 36, 277 (1990).
57. Austin, C, Warpage Design Principles, Moldflow Pry. Ltd., Kilsyth, Victoria, Australia
(1991).
58. Liou, M., et al., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 36, 288 (1990).
59. BrallaJ., ed., Handbook of Product Design and Manufacturing, McGravv Hill, NY (1986).
60. Spensor, R., and Gilmorc, C, Modem Plastics, 28 ( _ ) 97 (1950).
61. Whelan, A., Injection Molding Materials, Applied Science Publishers, 168 (1982).
62. ASTM D955, Standard Test Method for Measuring Shrinkage from Mold Dimensions of
Molded Plastics, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 8.01 (1991).
63. Nobler, R., Plastics Engineering, 49 (5), 23 (1991).
64. Seep, M., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 238 (1991).
65. Rohm, and Her, P., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 34, 1135 (1988).
66. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum, 4, (2), 61 (1979).
67. Bernhardt, E., Plastics Design Forum, 14, (5), 61 (1989).
68. Customs and Practices of the Mold Making Industry: Classification of Injection Molds
for Thermoplastic Materials, Society of the Plastics Industry, Washington DC (1989).
69. Chiang, H., ET. al, SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 242 (1991).
70. Sanschagrin, ., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35, 1051 (1989).
71. Gupta, M., and Wang, K., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 39, 2290 (1993).
72. Cloud, P. and Wolverton, M., Technical Bulletin, Predicting Shrinkage and Warpage of
Reinforced and Filled Thermoplastics, LNP Engineering Plastics, Exton, PA.
( ) 159

73. Technical Bulletin, Valox Injection Molding, General Electric Plastics, Pittsficid, MA
(1988).
74. Gallucci, R., et al., Plastics Engineering ,49 (5), 23 (1993).
75. Sors, L. and Balazs, Design of Plastic Molds and Dies, Elsevier Publishers, NY (1989).
76. Ballman, R. and Shusman, ., Modem Plastics, 37, 126 (1959).
77. ASTM D648, Standard Test Method for Deflection Temperature Under Flexural Load,
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 8.01 (1991).
78. ASTM D1525, Standard Test Method for Vicat Softening Temperature of Plastics, Annual
Book of ASTM Standards, 8.01 (1991).
79. Burke, C. and Malloy, R., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 1781 (1991).
80. Tobin, W., Plastics Design Forum, 14, (5), 25 (1989).
81. Society of the Plastics Industry, Washington, D.C.
82. Technical Bulletin, Mold-Tech Division of Roehlem Industries, Chicopee, MA 01013.
83. Gachter, R., and Muller, II., cds., Plastics Additives Handbook, Ilanser, NY 300 (1985).
84. Daoust, II., and.Stcpck, J., Additives for Plastics, Springer-Verlag, NY, 39 (1983).
85. Siegman, ., Kunstostoffe, 73 (_), 25 (1983).
86. Hoffmann, II., Kunststoffe, SI (10), 59 (1991).
87. Daniels, V., Hamer, ., and Hannebaum, A., Kunststoffe, 79 (_), 15 (1989).
88. Technical Bulletin, Poly-Plating, Inc., Chicopee, MA 01022.
89. Technical Bulletin, General Manipulate Corporation, Linden, NJ 07036.
90. Technical Bulletin, E / M Corporation, West Lafayette, IN 47906.
91. Technical Bulletin, Carolina Coating technologies, Inc., Conovcr, NC 28613.
92. Balsam, R., Hayward, D. and Malloy, R., Society of Plastics Engineering Annual Technical
Conference, 39, 2515 (1993).
93. Fallen, M., Plastics Technology, 36 (6), 41 (1990).
94. Dower, ., Injection Molding, / (2), 42 (1993).
95. Albrecht, E, Hirsch elder, K., Jasper, K., and Jeschonnek, P., Automobil Industrie, 5,449
(1990).
96. Hauck, C. and Schneiders, A., Kunststoffe, 77 (12), 1237 (1987).
97. Saltier, E., Modern Plastics, 71 (0(1993).
98. Galli, E., Plastics Design Forum, 17, (4) 24 (1992).99. Technical Bulletin, Roehr Tool
Corporation, Hudson, MA.
99. Technical Bulletin, Roehr Tool Corporation, Hudson, MA.
100. DME Corporation, Madison Heights, MI.
101. Tarahomi, S., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 1761 (1991).
102. Glanvill, A. and Denton, E., Injection Mold Design Fundamentals, Machinery Publishing
Company, Ltd. (1963).
103. Shah, S., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 1494 (1991).
104. Shah, S. and Hlavaty, D., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 1479 (1991).
105. Turing, L., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 38, 452 (1992).
106. Wilder, R., Modem Plastics, 67 (2), 67 (1990).
107. Toensmeier, P., Modern Plastics, 69 (10), 69 (1992).
108. Moore, S., Modern Plastics, 70 (1), 26 (1993).
109. Simon, T, Annual Structural Plastics Conference, Society of Plastics Industry, 221 (1992).
160

. Tateyama, ., Annual Structural Plastics Conference, Society of Plastics Industry,


223(1992).
111. Medina, P., Annual Structural Plastics Conference, Society of Plastics Industry, 124
(1993).
112. Zubcr, P. and Gennari, A., Annual Structural Plastics Conference, Society of the Plastics
Industry, 124(1993).
113. Turing, L., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 39, 74 (1993).
114. Koncke, E. and Cosmo, L., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 39, 79 (1993).
115. Rush, K., Plastics Engineering, 45, (7), 35, (1989).
116. Technical Bulletin SFR-28B, Engineering Structural Foam, General Electric Plastics,
Pittsfield, MA 01201.
117. Peach, N.. Plastics Design Forum, 19, (8), 19, (1976).
118. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum, 1, (5), 36, (1976).
119. Farrar, M. and Baronet, D., Plastics Design Forum, 7, (4), 59, (1982).
120. Turner, N. and Koki, G., Plastics Design Forum, 5, (4), 60, (1980).
121. Malloy, R., Kadoka, P. and Horn Berger, L., SPI Structural Plastics Conference, 191
(1992).
122. Johnson, R., Plastics Design Forum, 10, (4), 94, (1985).
123. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum, 7, (4), 73, (1982).
124. Technical Bulletin ESF-30, Conterpressure Processing, General Electric Pasties, Pittsfield,
MA 01201 (1987).
125. Ysscldyke, D., Nimmer, R., and Stokes, V., Annual SPI Structural Foam Conference, 133
(1986).
126. Smoluk, G. and Daruas, R Modem Plastics, 41, (W), 125, (1964).
127. Semerdjicv, S., Introduction to Structural Foam, Society of Plastics Engineers, Brookficld,
CT(1982).
128. Theberge, J., Plastics Engineering, 47, (2), 27, (1991).
129. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum, 6, (4), 61, (1981).
130. McRoskey, J., Annual SPI Structural Plastics Conference, 120, (1992).
131. Rasch, S., Annual SPI Structural Plastics Conference, 107, (1992).
132. Klepek, G., Kunststoffc, 77, (11), 13 (1987).
133. Masui, S., , , Matsumoto, M., Annual SPI Structural Plastics Conference, 112.,
(1992).
134. Himasckhar, K., et al., Advances in Polymer Technology, 12. (3), 233 (1993).
135. Himasckhar, K., et a l , ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, 114, 213 (1992).
136. Santhanam, N.. et al., Advances in Polymer Technology, 11, (2), 77 (1992).
3.

3.1.


.
, ,
, .

, .
,
. ,
,
. 3.1.

. 3.1.

11 . 593
162

.
, (1).
.
(2).
)' ,
, , .
, (3).
, ,
, .
, .
(4),
, .
,
.
(
, , . .).
,
. ,
(5).
,
.

,
.

,
, , , .

. 3.2. ,

163


[13].
I.
. 3.1 90 (. 3.4). ,
,

, .
. , ,
,
( ).

. 3.3.

164


,
.

.
,
. , , ,
,
.
, . . 3.3 ,

[1]. ,
.

. 3.4. ,


,
.
.
165

3.2.


,
.
:
1: .
2: .
3: .
4: .
5: .
6: .
7: .
8: .
9: .
,
,
.
1

, .
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
, . ,
, .
,
-20 ,
88 % 5 , ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
,

, , ,
. .
166

. ,
, , .

.

. ,
,
,
. ,
,
, , ; ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
,
: , ,
. ,
.
,
,
. (
. .)
(,
). ,
.

,
.
, ,
.
,
.
/
,
. ,
- ,
.
: (, . .) (,
. .) (,
).
.
167

, ()
, ,
.
. ,
, ( )
. ,
,
/. , ,
: , . ,
.
( )
,
.
2
,
,
.
(3D), CAD-ciic-
. , , ,
.
, ,
. ,
(, ,
, . .), ,
.
(. 3.5).
.

. 3.5.

-
.



,
,

()




168

, , ,
10 .
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, . 3.5,
().
. ,
, . 3.5, ,
.
.

, .

,
.
. ,
,
.
3
,
, ,
.
.
,
.
( 3 6 /
).
- , ,
.
, .
: , ,
. ,
, ,
-
.

,
. ,
.
, ,

. .
169

.
.

().

.

. ,
,
( ,
).
.
, .
,
( ).
4

,
.
.
, , 6.6 ,
.
.
(
) , -
,
: . 6.6 (
),

.
, . 3.6, ,
,
.
,
.

. 3.6. ,
.
,
170

5 -

,
,
(,
).
. .
, . ,
,
,
. ,
.
, ,
.
: , 6.6,
.
, -
, - ,
. -
(. 3.7).

* 10 (), 0
().
** (
), , .
. 3.7.

171

6
,
.

. ,

.
, : , ,
,
(. 2).
, . 3.8.
, .

,

. 3.8. - ,
(, , ,
. .).

,
( ). ,
.
, ,
- .
,
. ,
.

, ,
- .
, , . 3.9,

, ,
.
174 .

npi i
, , (
, , . .).
7

. ,
(
, ) .
,
, .
,
.

, ,

.
(, ,
. .).
,
.
,

(. 5).
8 9

,
. ,
.
.

3.3.

, -
,
(ASTM) (ISO).

(, ASTM D638)
.
(,
ASTM D2990). ,
ASTM ISO, (,
-).
175

, ,
, ()
.

3.4.

3.4.1.

, .

, .

(, , ), :
1)
( ,
), ;
2) .

,
. , , ,
, , ,
( ),
, . -

. 3. . ,
. , (,
), , ,

176

.
. ,
,

.

3.4.2.

-
.
,
( ) .
, ,
, .
,
,
(
).

, . . 50 %.
- ,

. ,

. ,
, , ,
.

. (,
) ,
,

.

. 3.11.

,
,
, ,
,
177

, ,
1.

, . ,
2 . ,
, ,
(
). , ,
ASTM
ISO, . ,
,
,
, .
, ,

.

( -

. 3.12.
. , , ,
,

1
-
. . . .
2

. . .

12 . 593
178

). , 85 ,
28 , [5]. ,
,

, .

. ( ,
), ( )
/ (
).
,
.
FK
:

o-F/A. (3.1)

s ,
.
AI LQ.

= AL/L0. (3.2)

: 10 - 6 /
/.

. 3.13-
.
, ,
.
,

179

,
( % ) .
:

1000 = 1000 10~6 / = 0,001 / = 0,1 % .


,
. , . 3.14 [5-7J.
. ,
,
.
. -
, ,

. ,
.
( 7 ) .
,
( ,
).
.

. 3.14.
,
180

(). ,
. ( 100).
() ( ).
.
() ( /; ).
. , (
).
(). ,

. ,
(
) , s '

.
.
.

. , ,
, .

. ,
, ,
.
().
( ,
).
,
, -
,
. ,
,
.
() . ()
.

.
,

.

,
( , 1 %) ,
.
,
181

. 3.15. ,
, , ,
(
)

, ,

.
.
.
.

(,
).
182

(
).
.

, ,
, , ,
, ,
. -
(. 3.15).

. ,
, ,

. 3.17.

183



, ,
.
,
., .
.
, ,
.


.
,
. ,

.
, .
( , ),
( , ) ( , ).

.
,
. ,
, .

, .
, , ,
.
,
, .

.

(
5 % )-

G
.

G = /. (3.3)

, ,
,
184


.
-"
. ,
,
, , , v.

G = E/[ ( 2 ( l + a ) ] . (3.4)

,
, ,
(3.4),
.

( )
(
), (
).
.
,
, . ,
, (
) .

. 3.18.
.
,
()

0,0 0,5. ,
.
, 0,0,
185

(
). , 0,5
(- ),
.
0,0 0,5 .

(
) ,

v-[/2G]-l. (3.5)

,
, ,
, .


, | >-
.

3.4.3. , .

,
, ,
, (
).
, . 3.11, ,
.

, ,
. ,

( ). ,
(
186

/ - ), .
-
, , -
( ). ,
,
. , . 3.19, -
,
.
,
,
.
(
, ,
, ) .
, , }'
,
.
, , (t, T),

Ec(t,T) = <5Q/z{t,T), (3.6)

0 , (t, T) ,
.

. 3.19. ,

( , )
187

, ,
.
,
, ,

. - ,
, .

.
, ( ) (
). , . 3.20,
, . -
, ,
-.
1 ,

( ).

. 3.20. ( ) ( )

188

2 ,
.
1, 2 2.
, .
2 ( , 2)
, 1
. 1
,
, 2. ,
2. 1
.

,
. ,
, , ,
[8].

, .
,
. ,
, ,
. , ( )

, .

,
(
)
.

. , , .
,
, , -

. ,

.
,

[9].

,
(
189

. 3.21.
,

. 3.22.
,
190

. 3.23.

.

).

.
.

, ,
. . 3.24 ,
6.6, , ,
6.6 ,
.
(. 3.25) [10]. ,
.
, ,
, .
( )
,

(. 3.26).
,
, ( ).

, , . .,
191

. 3.24.

. 3.25.

192

. 3.26. , ,
. ,
,

.
,
[11].
( )
.
,
.
,
(. 3.27) [11].

.
,
(), .

, ,
, ,
.

,
[12].
193


,
,
.
, ,
,
[10].

, . 3.23-3.25,
,
.
.

. 327.

. 3.28.
13 . 593
194

, . 3.29,
( 1,10,100,1000 . .),
.

, . 3.30 [12].
,
,
.

, ,
()
.

, . ,
,
. (. 3.30-3.32)

.
,
. ,
60 50 % (. 3.31),
, 10
4000 /2 (74 ). 10 000

. 3.29. (1,
10,100,1000 . .),
.

195

2
, 2000 /
(36 ). ,
, ,

.

. 330.
50 %

. 3.31. 60
50 %
196

. 3.32. 100
50 %

,

(. 3.33,3.34).
[12].

. 3.33.
50 %
197

. 334.
.


.
, :
)
;
) .
,
,
.

3.4.4. , .


,
. ,

. , ,

, , ,
- . ,
ER (t, T ) :

(3.7)
198

,
, .
,
, , . 3.35 .
,
. , ,
,
. ,
.
.
, .

. 335. ,
.
( , )
199


,
.
,
, ,
.

,
. , ,
.
, ,
[12].


(. 3.37) [12].
, ,
, - .
,
,
[6,7]. ,
-

. 336. ,
.

50 %
200

. 337.
50 %

,
[12].

3.5.

[6].
, ,
. ,
.
,
.
(, ,
. .), .

, , , ,
.
, , ,
, . (,
,
.)
,
, , .
,
201

. 338.

,
, .
, ,
[57,12].


. ,
, .
,
.

. 339.

202


,
( ).
,
.
.

. . , ,


.
,
. ,
[5,12].

. 3.41.

203


,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
, [13].
, , ,
.
;
. ,
, . .
.

[5,12].

,
,
,
[5-7].
()

,
,
.
,
, ,

, (. 3.14).
,
( ,
), (
) .

, .



, (. 3.10).

.
,
(
).
204

. 3.42.


.
, ,
(. 3.42 [6]).

3.6.

, .
,
, .
,
,
,
[5-7, 12].

, ,
. ,
,
. , ,
205

. , ,

[6, 7] (. 3 43 [10]).

. 3.43. u-N(cy - , N-
, : cr-JV)
(
) ,
, , .

. ,
,
, (.
4.9.2), .
( )
(, . .),
[6,7].

3.7.

3.7.1.
,
.
, ,
206

,
.
.
( )
, .

.
, , . 3.44.

. 3.44.


(- ,
).
. ,
, ,
.
,
. -
,
( ).

. ,
, ,
.
, = 150 ,
, (100-105 ) [ 14]. ,
( )
, .

, , .
,
207

. 3.45.

, ( ),
.
,
.

, .

, . ,
-60 , 137 .
,
,
' ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ( 1).

.
( )
, ( )
[6,14].
. 3.46, ,
, ,
. 3.11, .


,
.
208

-
(
),
, (. 3.47 [15,14]).
-

.
. 3.47 , 25

. 3.46.
.

. 3.47.
,
-
209

. , (
) ,
25 ".
,
.

3.7.2.

,

.
( ).
.
,
(
1,82 ).

.
.

. 3.48.

14 . 593
210

,
(971
1,82 ).
(
).

[5,7].

.
, ( . 3.48)
,
.

[6, 7].

,
. , ,
.


.

3.7.3. ()
,
, .
,
, . ,
( )
PVT-, , . 2.60 , .
.
( PVT-),
.

.
1/, / . ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
(, ,
). -
.
.
211

() ,
( ).
, , .

. 3.2 [6, 7]. ,
, ,
.
,
, , ,
, , . ,
, ,
.

3.7.4.

.
- , ,
, .

(
) .
212 '.'

.
, ,
, , . .
,
.
, .

3.7.5.
,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
,
[6].
,
,
.

[5].
UL 94
.

V-0, V-l, V-2,5V .

. ,
, .
(1,6 3,2 ),
[6]. ,
, .
V-0 , // .
, , , :
. V-0 5 V
UL 94, [5].
UL ,
[5].
:
1. ,
,
,
.
2. , ,
[5].
213

3.8.
, ,
, - ,
.
,
( ). ,

().
(
), .
, [5].
.

( /10 )
.
, ,
,
, .

. 3.49.
214 ?.'

, .
, , ,
- , ,
.
.
,
.
,
. , ,
, , ,
.
, 6,0 /10 .
6,0 ,
, (,
).
(
). ,
(
). ,
, ,
.
,
, .

(. 2.2.2).

. 3.50.
,

215

3.9.

, ,
, . 15 000
[16].
,
. , ,
/.
, ,
. :
1)
;
2) ;
3) /
.
,
,
, .
,
( -
).

. ,
[16-22].
(, -).
,
. :
( );
( );
( ,
, ,
, ).

,
.
, /
, , ,
. ,
[5].

. .

.
, [17].
216
< 217

,
, , ,
, , .
, , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
.
, 30-40
(
ASTM ISO) ( ,
, . .).
. ,
30
[18]. ,
, .
.
,
,
(
50 % ). ,
,
, , ,
. .
,
,
, . ,

.
1988

{CAMPUS) [16,18, 20]. CAMPUS
.
218

, ISO.
, ,
CAMPUS, .
CAMPUS {version 1)
30
,
.
,
.
, CAMPUS {version 2),
:
1) ;
2) , /;
3) ;
4) ,
,
.
CAMP US
.
,
.
, CAMPUS {version 2).
:


( ).
,
.
,
, 6- ( 23,60 100 )
.
,
.

.


( ).

, .
, CAMPUS
,
, , PVT-
[16,20].
219

. 3.51. , CAMPUS {version 2)

3.10.


. ,

. .
[23] {Evaiuator),
,
.
Evaiuator
. ,
.
.
Evaiuator ,
, / .
.
220

. 3.52. Evaluator ,
,

Evaluator ,
,
.

3.11.
:
: .
: , , -
.
: (
).

, (
).
,
.
ASTM D4000 (Standart Classification System for Specifying
Plastic Materials),
, [24].
( )

, , ,
(, 1030 ,
).
,
.
221

0 - , ,
.
1 - ,
D 1600.
2 , ,
. ,
.
3 - , .
4 - , .
5 ,
.
6 , ,
.
7 ,
.

. 353. ASTM ZM000


.
.
, ,
/ .
,
:
: ZM000 120 53380
:
1 20 66 D 4066
G33 33 %,
(D4066)
5 , 175
3 , 7500
3 , 75 /
8 , 235
0
,
.
, ,
,
.
222

3.12.

1. Nagarsheth, P., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35, 220 (1989).


2. Woodruff, D., Business Week, April 30,110 (1990).
3. Kelley, D., Plastic Design Forum, 12, (1), 80, (1987).
4. Technical Bulletin, Material Properties Needed for Engineering Design, The Dow-
Chemical, Midland, MI.
5. Technical Bulletin, Basic DesignManual, Polycarbonate, The Dow Chemical, Midland, MI.
6. Technical Bulletin, Engineering Materials Design Guide, General Electric Plastics,
Pittsfield, MA.
7. Technical Bulletin, Designing with Plastics, Hoechst Celanese, Chatham, NJ (1989).
8. Rietveld, J., Viscoelasticity, Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 2, Engineering Plastics,
ASM, 412, (1988).
9. Throne, J., and Progelhof, R., Creep and Stress Relaxation, Engineered Materials
Handbook, Vol. 2, Engineering Plastics, ASM, 658, (1988).
10. Newby, G. and theberge, J., Machine Design, March 8 (1984).
11. So, Pa, Fractography, Engineered Materials Handbook, Volume 2, Engineering Plastics,
American Society of Metals, 805, (1988).
12. Technical Bulletin, Polycarbonate Design Manual, Miles Corporation, Pittsburg, PA.
13. Rucinski, P., An Evaluation of Molded-in and Machined-in Notches for Izod Impact
Testing, MS Thesis, Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts
Lowell (1993).
14. Deanin, R., Polymer Structure, Properties and Applications, Cahners, Boston, MA
(1972).
15. Aklonis, J., MacKnight, W. and Shen, M., Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity,
Wiley Interscience, NY (1972).
16. LeVerae, L., Plastic Design Forum, 18, (1) , 36, (1993).
17. Dieckmann, D., Plastics Engineering, 45, ( 1 1 ) , 29, (1989).
18. Mehta, K. and Oberbach, Society of Plastics Engineers RETEC, Rochester, 51, (1991).
19. Klein, A., Plastics Design Forum, 14, (2), 39, (1989).
20. Kennedy, J., Bornschlegl, E. and Tullman, R., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 36,1736,
(1990).
21. Friedman, M., Plastics Design Forum, 11, (4), 61, (1986).
22. MacDermott, C, Selecting Thermoplastics for Engineering Applications, Marcel
Dekker,Inc.,NY(1984).
23. Technical Bulletin, The Evaluator, The Corr Company, Windsor, VT 05089.
24. ASTM D4000, Standard Classification System for Specifying Plastic Materials, Annual
Book of ASTM Standards, 8.0, (1990).
4.
4.1.
,
,
.

. , ,
.
,
, .
,
. ,
, , ,
: .
,
.
.
[1].
,
.
, ,
.

4.2.

:
(
);
224


;
, ,
.
,

.

4.2.1.

,
. ,

. , ,
,
.

. ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, .

.
,
:
;
;
,
;
.

4.2.2.


.
.
, ,
, , :
225

1) ;
2) .
,
,
.
, ,
( )
(. 5). ,
, ,
. ,
, (
), ,

.
()
,

.
, ,

( ).
,
,
(. . 3.4).

4.2.3.


,
. ,
.
, .
,
.
, ,
[2].


,
.
,
,
. [3] ,

15 . 593
226


.
.

, .


.

. ,

.
,
.
,
.
, -
, .

,
, .
-
,
.
.

. 4.1.
(),

227


.
()
(. 4.2) .
, ,
, , . -

. 4.2.

,
, , .
,
l/h . ,
l/h , , , .
,
(. 4.3) [4]. ,
, ,
l/h, , 4.3 [4].


.

{),
,
[4-6]. ,
, ,
.
, , .
228

. 4.3.
, ,

,
, ,
.

[5].

.
,
, ,
.
, ,
(
)
.
. ,

, ( )
.
.
229

4.3.



, .
:
;
;
;
;
/ ;
.
,
,
, ,
, .

4.3.1.
,
, ,
.
, , ,
.


[2]. : ,
, , , ,
.
.
, . 4.4.
. ,
( )
.
.
,
,
, .

, .
(, ),
,
.
230

. 4.4.

, . ,
, ( )
.
. , - ,
, .
,
,
.
.
,
. ,

,
.
. ,
.
.

4.3.2.

.
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
231

, .
, . 4.4,
, ,
, ,
.
,
( ) .
( )
(
) ,
( , ).
,
( )
[2, 7,8].
. 4.5 ,
,
.
, .
, , 0,500 (12,7 )
0,125 (3,2 ), 2,44.
, 2,44 , ()
, .
,
[2].

,
.

= 3,00 - 3,13(2R/W) + 3,66(2R/W)2 - ^.53(2R/W)3

. 4.5.

232

. 4.6.


.
, [8].

.
, . 4.7
[9]. ,
.
,
, -
[10].

- [5].
,

20-40 %, .


.
,
. ,
,
. ,
233

. 4.7.
7?/

.
.
,
[11]. (. 4.8, ) ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
.
(. 4.8, ), ,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
,
(. 4.8, ).
,
,
.
,
,
. ,
.
234

. 4.8.
.
.

,
,
. /
. ,
,
[2].

4.3.3.

.
(LF= 0), , , ,
.
, .
.

,
. ,
,
, ,
.
(
, ) [2,12]:

,
,
.
235

1
. 4.9.


,
, , . 4.10,
.

. 4.10. (
), ,
( )

: : --
; -; (
). . . .
236


, ,

,
.

,
,
. , . 4.10,
, .
()
,
, .
, . 4.10,
,
, (
).
4.3.4.

, -
, . ,
/
, . 3.2.
,
.
,
.
.

,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
- . ,
, .

, [10].

,
, ,
[10]. CAD
,
,
237

.
(, ,
. .) .
.

,
, .
,
. ,
- ( ,
). .
, . 4.11,

. 4.11. ,

1

. () . . . .
238

. ,
. ,
.
, ,
. , ,
. ,
,
.
.
,
() .

. 4.12. ,
() ()
239


, ,
, .
,
, ,
, .
,
.
(
). ,
[2].
, PI

(),
,
.

,

(
, );
( )
.

. 4.13.
Wj, 0, W^. L


, tQ, :
(4.1)
E{t) , .
240

- ,
ty :

(4.2)

, s7(t),
0 a j :

(4.3)


, , ,
, [13].

4.3.5.


.
, ,
. ,

. , , ,
.
, - [14].

,
, ,
.
.
,
.
, . 4.1.

, ,
.
.
,
, , .
, ,
,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
.
241


, . 4.2
,
. ,
(). ,
, .
, ,
,

. 4.14. ,
,

16 . 593
242

( ).
,
( ,
). , ,
, ,
. ,
(//, // %/)
, ,

(. 4.15).

. 4.15. , -
, ,

,
. (. . 4.1)
, /.
,
(
, , ).
, .

.
, .
, ,
,
. ,
. 4.1.

1
, ,
. . . .
243

, .

(. 4.10),
.

,
, .
.

,
.
. 3.22,

.
, ,
.
, ,

. , ,
, .
,
, . ,
,
, .

,
, . 4.16.
, ,
(
). :
.

.
.
, ,
.
.
,
,
. ,
[14].
( ), . 4.16 [ 15]
,
(,
), . 4.17.
244

. 4.16. (
).
-

. 4.17. ,


1
( ).

' . . . .
245

.
.
( )
. 4.18.
.
, ,
, .
,
(), ,
(
)
/ , ,
.

. 4.18.

, .
//
,
, ,
.
//
, : 1)
( ) 2) /
/
. ,
/ ,
( ) .
, ,
/ (
).
246

, .

,
. . 4.17
, .
,
,
, .
.
, ,
. . 4.17 ,
23
50 %. ,
1000 ,
4000 /2 (27,6 ),
2800 / 2 (19,3 )
100 000 .
.

. ,
,

.
, .

.
.
.
, . 4.17,
,
.
.
, ,
,
.
,
, .
,
.
(. 4.19).
,
.
, ,
. -
247

. 4.19. ,

, . ,
, ,
[15].
. :
,
(
).
, . 1)

, (
) 2)
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,

.
.

, --
.

4.3.6.
,
[12].

. .

,
248

, ,
1
[2] .
,
. - ,
- , ,
, . .
(),
, , ,
[12,15,16].
,
, [1].
,
/, , ,
, . .
,

.
, ,
, [1].
, ,
, ,
.
.
. ,
, . ,

( - )
, .

,
, .
.
,
,
. ,

. ,
,
, .

1
( ) = G /\<\,
, |] .
, .
. . .
249



( ,
). -
, ,
,
.
.
,
,
. ,
,
, (
). , (
)
,
, , ,
, , [ 14].
,
( ), .
,
.
( ),
.
( )
. , ,
,
8 (
4).
,
,
.

. , ,
, , .
- ,

. .

,
,
.

.
250


[12]. ,
,
,
.

4.2. [12]

,
.

STn
/ [8],

(4.4)


, ,
. ,
.

. 2,0 4,0
, / 6,0 .
.
[8]:

(4.5)

5^
1,0
0,7
0,5
52 , ()
1,0
,
0,8
, ,
0,5
0,7
' 251

0,5 (
)
53
1,0
0,75
0,5
54
, < 1,0


.
, ,
. 4.3 .
,
, 9000 / 2 (62 )
[16].


( ,
).
,
.
, ,
2 20 -
.
. ,
,

.
252

4.4.
4.4.1.
, ,
, , [ 171.
,

, .
,
, [2]:

;

, 10 ;
;
;
( ) ,
, ;
;
, ,
(Flexural Properties of Plastics and
Electrical Insulating Materials, ASTMD790), : ...
16:1
, () 8:1.
;
.
( ),
(. 4.10.

. 4.20.



,


253

-
(. 4.2) (. 4.20).
,
,
.
( )
( ),
(
).
.
,
( ,
0), 1 .

. 4.21. ,


:
(4.6)
, ; I
;
.
. (
)
,
, , = .
(4.7)

( ).

1
. . . .
2
. . . .
254

, ,
.
, ,
. PI
,
,
. , , (
)
,
[1, 2] [18].

4.4.2. ( )
( )
. -
, ,
, ,
, [17].
:
() 1
( )
. , . 4.22
.

. 4.22. ( )
(; /) , (; )

- ,
. . . .
255

(
) , ,
, , ,
dA ,
[2,17]:

(4.8)

(4.9)

, ,
. 4.22 [17].
:

(4.10)

(4.11)
/ , ,
G, ( ) .
/ [2].
:

(4.12),
/ (
)
, 1
f/
.
,
,
.

,
0.
, [2]. / . 4.22
, .


.
[2].
, , . 4.21,
, ,
,
,
256

.
,
.
0 [15].
Z


[2].
( 3 , 3 . .).


,
.
(4.13)
, ,
. 4.23.
[2].

,
. , :
1.
,
. :

. 4.23. , ,
257

(4.14)
2. (, )

.
3. (
) ,
. (
,
dA
.)
(4.15)

, :
(4.16)
:

(4.17)
, (4.16) (4.17),

- .
(
) :

(4.18)
(4.18)
,
.
,
,
,
,
(4.12) (4.14):

(4.19)
/
; ; d
()
. ,
Z

. .

17 . 593
258

4.1.
, . 4.24,
.

. 4.24.

, ,
, , .
.
1,00 h 0,25 .
,
- . /
:

/
, . ,
,
:

(4.11)

,
; ,
. (4.10) ,
.

(
/ ). ,
(, ())
.

4.2. ()

(). ,
.
259

, .
,
.

. 4.25.

4.1,
. ,
,
,
. ,
.,
1 (
). -.
, .

. 4.26.

4.2
, . 4.25,
,
.
260

( )
:
(4.19)

(
) .
, :


.
. 4,27.
, ,
(
).

. 4.27.

4.2.

(. 4.28).
2. 1 3 .
( 1 3)
.

.
261

. 4.28.
.

(4.19)

, ,
4.2,
. ,
. ,
.

4.4.3.

,
. ,
. .

. 4.29. ,
, .
, , ,
,
262

, .

.
,
(. 4.29).
.
,
, ,
. , , ,
(. 4.29, d) .
,
, .
, ,
. 4.30. ,

. , (
, ) ,

.
, /.
,
,
,
/ .

. 4.30.
263

. 431. , ,
-

, ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
[9,12,16, 20-29].
,
.

(,
, ).
, ,
.
.
,
, .
264

. 4.32. ,
, ( Allied Signal Inc..
Engineered Plastics)

. 4.33. .


(. 2.6).
( ) .
, ,
(. (4.7)).
,
[10].
, , ,
[25-29].
265

:
, .
, .
( ) ,
,
.
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
, ,

.

( )
, , .
,
( ),
.
(4.18)
. ,
. ,
.
, ,
, .
43. ,

(
) , .
.
,
,
,
(4.18). ,
, (
).
266 '.'

. 4.34. ,

,
.
.

. 4.35.
.

1
. 2-6 :
( )
;

;
267

( ) ;
.
,
( ), . 4.36 [2].

. 4.36. ,

(
) ( 2-6) :

( 1) ,
( ),
:

( ) (
) .
(4.16)
(4.18)

(4.18)
( . 4.34) ( ),

( ,
. 4.34) 0,592 .
268 '/

. 4.37.

,
( ), ,
.

(4.19)

,

6 0,42 . ,
, ::
,
.

4.4.4.
/
, ,
, .
, ,

, .
:
, , ,
;
, , ;
;
.
,
( ), , (
) .
,
.
269

( ),
,
1
[2].
. ,
,

.

4.4.
- W= 6,000
h = 0,125 0,003 .
.
, -
, ,
( ).

. 4.38. -,

- , '(),
, w'(P)
( )
:

(4.20)

.
( ) ,
- (. 4.39).
-
(,
270 '/

- ).
, .

. 4.39. , ,


:
(4. if
(4.18)

/
(
) / ;:
:

(4.19.

, ,
/, !
.
12 %. ,
, .
:

. - ,
. , 5
- ,
,
.

4.4.5.
(. 4.40)
,
, . ::
271

. 4.40. .

( , )
.
,
, (
).
,
.
,
,
. ,
( 10 ).
,
.

, ,
, , , ,
.
:
;
;
( );
.
,
. 4.41. 6,0
1,50 .
,
,
. ,
.
272 '.'

. 4.41. :
, ,
, ,
,
.
,
-
,
.
, ,
.
, : /
, , .
.
. ,
,
.
, . 4.41,
, ()
. 6,0
1,5 , 56 .
, 48 .
, ,
().

:
;
;
273

, ;
.

,
, ( 48 ), .

.
, .
, 1,
2, .
(
, , 0 ),
.
.
,
.
, , .
. 4.42 [9] ,
,
.

. 4.42.
() ().

1
-. . . .
- (). . . .

18 . 593
274


,
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
, -
(, ).
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
( ),
.
,
220 (90 ) ( ) 8 . I
( ),
.
, 8 .
,
( ).
, ,
, ( ). , - I
-
- ;
. ,
,
, .
( )
, (
)
[2].
. 4.43.
. 4.43:
; 0 0 ;
() () ( 0); L
; w
b ; R ;
/ ,
(
); , . , I

275

. 4.43. , ,
,

, , .
wa = w wL = w = 0.
( = L/2) [2]:

(4.21)

(
= L/2) :

(4.22)

(4.7)
.

,
.
,
.
.
276

,
.
. .


, 10 .
37.

( (4.7), (4.21)
(4.22)) ,
, .

. ,
.
1 ( / //
) (4.21).
8 ,
- ,
.
,
.

,
.
, ,

.
,
.
,
, .
.
-
, - . -
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
, -
, - .

(
), . 4.44. . 4.44, .

1
. . . .
277

, 8 ( 37 )
3,0 5 /2. 10
2,5 105 /2. 8
( ),

. 4.44. -
, :
; b
278

10 ,
. ,
. 4.44, , .

, . 4.44, .
4.5.
-
,
( , ), ,
,
( ), . 4.45.
.
. ,
(. 4.41 4.45).
.
.
, . 4.45, ,
(4.18).
,
.

. 4.45. : ,
,
279

(. 4.45) ,
.
.
,
,
.
.
, ,
4.4.4, .

0,080 , ()

2
(200 000 /
2
300 000 / ).
.

. 4.47.

. 4.46. ,
. : . : .
: (^ > )
280

. 4.47.
: , ,

NA . . . .
281


1 we
, L, :

(4.23)

.
, w, -
W /,
.
(4.24) . 4.48
. SG
1,40,
20 %.

. 4.48. ,

, -
, 1/
:


8- ,
, ,
. ,
, ,

1
. . .
282

,
(4.21). ,

. 4.49:
(4.25)

(4.21)
(4.21)
(4.25)

. 4.49
.
( )
, ,

{ = )
( = 1/2) (. 4.42) :

(4.22)
(4.7)
. -

.
, .

(4.26)

-
1230 / 2 ,
-1230 / 2 (
).
,
. . 4.49.

, , (
)
.
.
283

. 4.49. :
, , ,


,
50 %,
26 %.
28% , .
,
.
(
). ,
, .
284


, ,
.
.

( )
38 %,
41 %.
.
,
,
59 %.

, .
, ,
.
.
,
.

,
.
, ,
.

, .
. -
, , ,
, .

. , , ,
, , -
, .
, ,
,
. I/A ( ,
)
0,188 ( 2 / 2 ), I/A
0,304. ,
26 % , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
285

4.5. ()
4.5.1.
( )
,
. ,

[1]. , , . 4.50,
, .

. ,
, - .
,
.
:
;
;
;
;
;
.

, ,
. , ,
.

. 4.50. ,
,
286

[1].
, ,
,
., .

[1,21].
, ,
, , . 4.50.
, ( )
. ,
, ,
[2]:
;
;
;
1/4
;
1/2 ;
, ,
;
.

4.5.2. ,
4.6.
, (. 4.51),
, . . (
).
,
.

. 4.51.

,


(
)
287

. , ()
(
).
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
10,0 , , d, 0,125 .
,
4 .
, h, 11,0 .

,
, ,
. ,
,
, .
,
.
, .

(, )
( ).
,
.
, ,
, W, , L,
. , ,
1 , q, , ,

. 4.52. , ,
( )

1
. . . .
288

, , .
, - ]
(Z{ = , Z2 = h).
, w. (
) :
(4.27)

0,396 / 2 ,
.
-
, ,
, .

(). ,
, - I
.
- , - |
4.3.5 4.4.5. ,
() /
. - I
250 000 / 4 ,
( ) 0,35.


, , -
[2] (. 4.53).

. 4.53.
,

289

.
( ) :

(4.28)

!) ; , ( )
. (4.28)

(4.29)

, ,
:

(4.30)

-/
, -
/ .
:

(4.31)

(4.30) (4.31)
(

):

(4.32)


, .
-
/
.
, , ,
. , ,
. 4.54,
.
,
.

19 . 593
290

. 4.54. ,

4.7.
, , ,
(. 4.55).
.
,
.

, ( )
. -, ( , )

, . -,
,
.
.
291

. 4.55.

, ,
, ,
.

,
, ()
. ,
8,5 11,0 . ()
9,0 11,5
. ,
0,090 .

,
.
, ,
,
, (
).
,

.
292

. 4.56 ,
. 500
, 100 (
500 ), .
,
, , ,
. ,
1 , q
. ,
, .

. 4.56. , (
: , 500 ,
100 , 5 , )

(4.33)

, - ,
.

(. 4.55) (,
), . -
.
,
.
,
,
(. 4.58).
,
. ( , ) -
293

. 4.57.
,

. 4.58. ()
, (). ,
() , -

.
,
. ,
( . 4.58, ).
,
,
.
.
,
(. 4.58).
294


.
(),
-
. ,
,
.

,
.
, , ,
.

, ,
,
.
, .
.

. 4.59. ,

295

, , ,
.

(
) ( = 0,2 = )

[2]:
(4.34)

t ; b , q
; (32 , /.

/ 1,278 2 = 0,384 (
).
:

(4.34)


.
.

/ /
( )
(. . = 0, z = b)
:

(4.34)

2 , /;
2 = 0,657 / = 1,278:

(4.34)
296

, ,
( ), ,
.

.

4.5.3.
, .

. , ,
, , , ,
(
). , ,

(. . 4.4),
.
, . 4.60,

. ,
, ,
.

.
,
(. 4.60) [30].
, . 1
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
,
.
1 ,
,
. 2
,
. 2
.

,
2.
(1 2).
, :
(4.35)
297

. 4.60. [30]


.
CAD-
,
.
[1].

4.6. .
4.6.1.
,
, .
- ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
298 .

. , , -
,
, , . 4.61
,
.

. 4.61. , -

, ,
,
. ,
.

. 4.62. , -

299

, , . 4.62,
( ) ,
. ,
, .
,
. ,
, [2J.

4.6.2. ,
t,
,
(r/t > 10),
. ,
.
, , ,
( ) .
.
4.8.
(. 4.62)
. 6,2 ,
0,188 .
40 / 20 . ,
. ,
(
) .
, .

. 4.63.


300 ' '.

,
.
( )
.
,
,
(
):

(4.36)

, , ,
.

(4.37J
(4.38)
(4.39)
,
(4.36) (4.39) , ]
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
:

(4.40)
"() - ,
. , AL,
:
(4.41)

(4.36)-
(4.41) ,
, .
, , , , ;:
, ,
.
, . 4.64,
. ,
,
301

. 4.64.
,

3-6 ,
, (4.36) [ 16,31].

, .
, .

, .
, ,
:

(4.42)


. ,
.

. ,
, ,
[31].

, ,
.
,
[24].
,
. ,
, ,
.
302

4.6.3. ,
, , r/t < 10,
. ,
,
,
, , [2,32].
, .
() .
,
:

(4.42)
=..
:

(4.43)
:
(4.44)
= ;-.. rQ -
:

(4.45)
, (, [2]),
, ,
.

4.7.
4.7.1.
, ,
, .
, . 4.65, ,
.

.
, . : ,
,
.
,
, .
303

. 4.65. ,
,

, ,
,
.

4.7.2.

,
[2,12,24].
:
;
;
;
( ) ,
;
.
(-
, . .),

.

. ,
304 '.'

, (. 4.66).

.

. 4.66. , , ?
.

. 4.67. ,
305

,
, .
() ,
( ) [2,24].


. ,

(. 4.67).
, F,K , :
(4.46)

, ,
.
. ,
,
[33]:

(4.47)
,
1/2 [12].
G ,
, .
,
:
(4.48)
v ; .

. 4.68.
,

20 . 593
306

,
(
).
.

,
, ,
.
,/, [17].
:
(4.49)
dA.

(
) , ,
:
(5.50)
,
. ,
.
:
(4.51)
; Jc
; d .
R
:
(4.50)
, ,
, 0 ( )
/ R, ,
(4.52) (4.53) :
(4.52)
(4.53)

r = R :
(4.54)
( ) /= L:
(4.55)
307

4.7.3.
,
, [2,24]:
(4.56)
, .
=J, , /.

( / )
. 4.70.
[2].
, ,
.
, . 4.71, ,
. ,
- Z- , ,
[34]. ( )
PI ,
(. 4.71, ).
. ,
,
;
.
308 '.'

. 4.70. ;::

. 4.71. a ( )

. :
- ,
,
,
309

4.9.
, . 4.72, /
# 6 -25.
() 0,315
0,115 . ,
, 14 /.
:

. 4.72.
, ,


7800 / 2 ( ,
. .),
, 3900 / 2 .

.
.

4.8. ( )

( ), . ,
,
310

, F, }' ,
:
(4.58)

1
.

. , ,
.
,
( ) [1].

, , , (
), L, .
. 4.73.

. 4.73.

, . 4.79, ,
.
-
[2].
, , ,

. ( )
,
.

1
. . . .
31_1_

, F':

(4.59)

,
; if ; ;
,
(4.13), I .

[ 1 ].
, .
[1].

4.9.
4.9.1.
, ,
,
, .

, .
, , -
, ( )
.
, .
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
[1, 39].
,
, .

4.9.2.


. (. 4.40)
. (
) ,
. ,
, : 1)
( 3 - 4 ) 2)
( ).
312

, ( -
-) ,
, .
, , ,
- ( ),
. , (. 4.75)

. 4.74. ,

. 4.75. ()


, .

. ,
313

. , , 24
60 /, ,
0,4 , 2,5 . ,
0,017 , .
- . ,
,
.
,
.
, [6,
37, 38]. ,
1/10 [38].
, , .
,
.
.
, , ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, , ,
,
. , ,
.
. -
, ,

.

. 4.76.
314

( , )
, , , ,
[38]. ,

, .

.

. ,
, (. 4.77). ,
,

. , , ,
, ,
, .
,
,
. , , ,
,
. (
),
,
,
[40].

. 4.77. , ,
,

315


, ,
,
.

, , .
- , .

( )
[41].

,
.
,
( ) ,
.
, , ,
.

.
S/N(S , N ).
, , ,
, , .
, ,
.
. (,
),
, , , .

. 4.78. S/N(5 , N )

316

,
. -
[37].
,
, .

.
, . ,
. ,

, 1 30 [ 1,36].
, ( ) 30 (1800 /) ,
, .
1 ,
,
.

. 4.79.
. ,
( )


, .
. ,
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
30 % [ 15].
317

. 4.80.

,
:
;
;
:
;
/ ;
;
;
;
;
, [36,37].

, ,
, [12,15,36].
, ,
(
).
, ,
[38].

4.9.3.
,
, , ,
.
318

(
) .
- , , , (.
. 4.55), ,
,
.
, , .
, ,
,
.
, .
(,
, ).
, ,
, .

.

, [2, 12, 24].

(. . 4.15).
, , ,
.
- ,
. , ,
, ,
. , ,
, (,
, , ).
, . ,
, , . .,
. , ,
,
,
.
,
, [12,24].
:

(4.60)
V ; g .
i , (
) ; s (
) .
319

4.10.
: 10
, . 4.81, , Z, 12 .

. 4.81. ,
,

.
, W,
, ( = 0)
:

(4.61)

v ; D ,
:
(4.62)

, , =
= 300 000 / 2 0,35; t= 0,125
:
(4.(52)

(4.61)
320

, V, , Z, 12
(, 0) :
(4.63)

:
(4.60)


,
,
,
.
, , , ,
.

[36].
,
,
. , ,
, , : ,
. ., .
,
, ,
12 , 96 /.
,
, . ,

,
[35].

4.10.
1. Structural Plastics Design Manual, American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Manual
and Report on Engineering Practice No. 63, April (1982).
2. Roark, R. and Young, W., Formulas for Stress & Strain, 5th ed., McGraw Hill, NY (1975).
3. Crate, J., Plastics Design Forum, 9 (4), 77 (1984).
4. Lee, C, Dubin, A., Elmer, D., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 912 (1987).
5. Trantina, G., Minnichelli, M, SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 438 (1987).
6. Levy, S. and DuBois, J., Plastics Product Design Engineering Handbook , 2nd ed.,
Chapman and Hall, NY (1984).
7. Rolfe, S., and Barsom, J., Fracture & Fatigue Control in Structures, Applications in
Fracture Mechanics, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1977).
8. Technical Bulletin, Lelij, J., Engineering Design, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.,
Wilmington,DEU991).
321

9. Technics! Bulletin, Cabibre Polycarbonate Design Manual, Dow Chemical Company,


Midland, MI (1988).
10. Mehta, K., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 38, 2058 (1992).
11. Technical Bulletin, Marks, F Engineering Design, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.,
Wilmington, DE( 1989).
12. Technical Bulletin, Designing with Plastics, Hocchst Celanese, Chatham, NJ (1989).
13. Aklonis. J., MacKnight, W., and Shen, M., Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity, Wiley
Interscience,NY(1972).
14. Throne, J., and Progelhof, R., Creep and Stress Relaxation in Engineered Materials
Handbook Vol 2 , ASM, Metals Park, OH (1988),
15. Technical Bulletin, Polycarbonate Design Manual, Mobay Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA.
16. Technical Bulletin, Lexan Design Guide , General Electric Company Pittsfield, .
17. Beer, F. and Johnson, E., Mechanics for Engineers, McGraw Hill, NY (1976).
18. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum, 15 (6), 42 (1990).
19. Allied Signal Corporation, Morristown, NJ.
20. Technical Bulletin, Ultem Design Guide, General Electric Company Pittsfield, MA.
21. Technical Bulletin, Delrin Acetal, Module III, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE.
22. Technical Bulletin, Noryl Design Guide, General Electric Company Pittsfield, MA.
23. Technical Bulletin, Valox Design Guide, General Electric Company Pittsfield, MA.
24. Technical Bulletin, Engineering Materials Design Guide, General Electric Company,
Pittsfield, MA.
25. Throne, J., and Progelhof, R., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35,1637 (1989).
26. Nakayama, K., Mikio, K., and Motoichi, Y., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 32,690 (1982).
27. Lifshey, A., Plastics Design Forum, 5 (2), 59 (1980).
28. Carnpo, E. A., Plastics Design Forum ,7 (6), 55 (1982).
29. Stuttgart, U., Kisnststoffe, 72 (12), 24 (1982).
30. Menges, G. and Mohren, P., How to Make Injection Molds, Hanser, NY (1986).
31. Technical Bulletin, Tuschak, P., Engineering Design, E.I, DuPont de Nemours & Co.,
Wilmington, DE.
32. Gebler, H. and Racke, H., Kunststoffe , 72 (1), 17 (1982).
33. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum , 1 (5), 25 (1976).
34. Technical Bulletin, Weckman, R., Engineering Design, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.,
Wilmington, DE (1988).
35. Nimmer, R., Impact Loading in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol 2, ASM, Metals
Park,OH(1988).
36. Technical Bulletin, Hawley, J., Design Success Through Solution Engineering, Eastman
Chemical Performance Plastics.
37. Levy, S., Plastics Design Forum , 2 (5) 42 (1977).
38. Yelle, H., and Estabrook, E, Fatigue Loading in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol 2,
ASM, Metals Park, OH (1988).
39. Technical Bulletin, Tuschak, P., Engineering Design , E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co
Wilmington, DE( 1989).
40. Hornberger, L. and DeVries, K, SPE Annual Technical Conference, 32, 672 (1986)
41. Powell, P., Engineering with Polymers, Chapman and Hall, NY (1983).

21 . 593
5. :




5.1. 1

.
, ,
CAD- ,
.

5.1.1.
,
, .
,

' . (.
prololypori) ; ;
() ; - ,
- (
) () .
. . .
323

,
,
,
. .
: (
) (
[1,2]).
CAD//-
, ,
. ., ,
[3].
,
,
(. 2).

. ,
,
.
, ,
,
.
.
, ,
, ,
.
:
;
;
;
;
;
() ;
;
;
;
;
.

, , .
,

. ,
,
. , ,
324 :.'

,
.
,
( )
, , ,
, .

5.1.2.
: ,
, , , , ,
.
, , . ,
,
, [1,4-6].

( 0,025 ) [1].
. 5.1 [7J.

, : ,
;
- ():

, .

. 5.1. ,

'.>./.
*

* . . ..
5.1.
328

. 5.2.


,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
^ ,
. , (
), ,
.
.
,
, .
.
-.

;
.
. .
, ,
; (), (), ().
(), -,
, , ,
. , .
329

,
,
[4, 5].
, ,
, ,
.
,
, .
, , ,
, ,
, [5].
, , ,
,
.
, , -
, ,
.

( ),

.
/-
,
, , (. 5.3).
, ,
.

. ,
.

. 53. ,
: ;
330

5.1.3.

, CAD-.

. (. 5.4):
CAD- (
);
(2D) ;
(3D) .

(. 5.5, 5.6).

. 5.4.

. 5.5 :

331

. 5.6. ,

5.1.3.1.

[8-19]. , (JSLA,
Stereo Lithography Apparatus) [20],
.
- [21J.

. 5.7.
332

3)- () 0,005-
0,020 (0,013-0,51 ) .
,
.
(. 5.8, 5.9) [8].

. 5.8. SLA

. 5.9- , SL\
333

(
) . 5.10.
- , ,
, ,
, z
, ( , ).
- - ,
- [19].
,
. , , ,

, .
,
.
, , .
, [8,9].

. 5.10.


. ,
, [21, 22].
,
.
, ,
334

.
, .
, ,
.

, -
|22J.
,
,
.
- [11,18].
, ,
, .
[11].
, /-, ,
().
.

. 5.11. /- () ,
SLA ()
^5

, ,
.
.
,
() [9].
, , ,
40-60% .
.

. , ,
96-98 %- [19].

. , SLA,
51 51 61 .
[8, 13J.
,
.
.
.
,
, .
,
. .
, ,

(. 5.12) [ 11,19].
, (. 5.13) [8-10].

. 5.12. (); ()
336 '.'

. 5.13. , ::

]
[19,23-26].

5.1.3.2.

(SLS, Selective Laser Sintering) [27].
SLA, , ,
( ).
.
,
[28-29]. , ,
, SLS,
(. 5.14).
. 5.15.
CAD-,

. 5.14. CAD- () ,
()
,' 337

0,005-0,020 (0,13 0,51 ).


, .
,
, - , z.
, 51-, ,
. ,
. ,
,
z, .
, .
, ,
, ,
[19].
.
.
515- , [15,19,28,29J.

,
.
.
, .
( )

. 5.15.

22 . 593
338 '.

[11, 12J.
,
[19].

-20.

5.1.3.3.

(FDM, Fused Deposition Manufacturing*)
, CAD-;
0,001-0,050 (0,025-0,13 ). -

0,050 (0,13 ) [30].
- (. 5.16).
.
, .

.
, .

. 5.16.
(); , ()
339

FZW- ,
(
).
:
[ 11,15,19,30,31].
5.1.3.4. ()
(, Laminated
Object Manufacturing) ,
[32]. ,
, ,
, ,
, . ,
, 0,002-0,010 (0,051-
0,25 ). ( ).
[ 17,19].

5.1.4.

, ,
, ,
, .
,
. ,
.
, ,
. ,
, [33].

5.1.4.1.

SPI1 [34] .

(
).
( )
.

PI
(
), .

Society of Plastic Industry, USA (


), .
340

,
- ()
. ., ,

(,
).
,
.
.
,
. ,
.

1
Society of Plastics Engineers ,
.
341

5.1.4.2.



, , ,
.
. ,
.
,
[33].
,
[34,35].
, .
( ),
. - ,
.


.
.
, - .
342

[34, 35]
(. . 5.2) [31J.
12 SPI, 6
SPI/SPE, .
SPI,
. 5.3 [34J.


.
,
.
,
, [33].

5.1.5.

[ 1,36,37],

.

. 5.17. , ,
- ();
, ()

-.
, (, -
), ,
, .
(), -
343


.
, ,
, .
.
,
2-4 (51-102 ) 72 [38].
.
.
,
( 25 ),
, ( ),
, .
,
.
, [37].
.
:

, - ,
, ,
. .

.
(. 5.18),
.
24 .
,
2 , .
.
, ,
:
(. 5.19).
,
, ,
.
.
.
-
() .
, .
.
,
[1].
344

. 5.18.
,
.
(. 5.20 5.21).
, ,
.
,
.

.
.
. 5.19. ();
()
346 '

. 5.20. .

. 5.21. , () (),


,
[36]. ,
,
. ,
[1].
, 24 ,
.

.
- ( ).
347

- 94 V-0
1/4 (5,4 );
[1, 36, 39J. ,
. ,
.

.

. 5.22. (),
().

5.1.6.
.
(rapid)
, ,
.
,
: . SPI

.
[40].

3/)- , , .
, .
,
.
, ,

.
348 ".

. 5.23. ()
() , "
.
, '.

: \
, . |
, , , ,
(. 5.24).

.
, ;
[3,5]. , ;.
.
,
, :
(. . 5.27) [3,5].
,
, ,
' 349

. 5.24. ,
( , )

. 5.25-
,

. 5.26.
,
350

. 5.27. .


, ,
-, [38].

(. . 5.4). :
,
,
. , ,
, , .

1
, . . . .
351

5.1.6.1.
, -
,
[4,8,38].
, ().
, ,
().
.
,
352 ".'

,
( ) [38].
,
-, .
, :
- .
.
, ,
. :
,
. ( ,
. .) .

5.1.6.2. -
- ,
(
), .
,
,
( 1000 ,
) [42,43].
- -,

. -
.
, -
(
) . , , -
[4,38,42-44].
-
, .
,
. -
[43,44], -
-
, -.
-, ,
- ( 99,9 % ) . -

175 ".
0,010-0,050 (0,25-1,25 /).
0,001 (0,025 )
1000 (25 ).
.
353

.
- (
,
), .
:- , .
( )
- .
,
-. -

[8,28,31]. -
. 5.28 [42]:

. 5.28. -
1. , , , ,
-.
,

,
. , -
.
.
2. -
( ), .
3. ;
1,6 .
4. ,
,
. ,
,
.
23 . 593
354

5. ;
,
, ;
.
6. ,
,
, .
,
.
7. ,
( ) -
.
8. 1 7
.
9. , ,
, .

.

, - .
, ,
; , -
( )
, ,
0,050 0,15 ( 1,27 3,18 ).
, [33].
,
, , , .

5.1.6.3. ,

,
,
. , ,
. -20
,
.
,
, , ,
, .
,
, .
7075-7 (
). Alcoa QC-1,
355

, 7075.
,
150 .
, ,
, ,
.
.
( ) ,
: , , ,
.

, ,
;
[45].

, ,
() (. . 5.25 5.26).
, ,
, ,
(. 5.27).
. . [46].

5.1.6.4.
1

,
[48,49].

;

. . . .
356

,
,
. ,
, , ,
.
.

, ,
,
.
,
, ,
:
, , ,
6.6 2,5%,
, .

.

5.1.7.

, , ,
.
[2].

5.1.7.1.

- .
.
.
[2]. , ,
,
,
.
, , ,
. ( )

.

5.1.7.2.

.
, !
357

. , ,
. ,
. ,
.

, ,
.

( ) .
,

.

, ,
(. 5.1.6.4).

, ;
.
.

(
)
25 100 , .
,
, .
,
.
, .

.
-

(.
5.1.6.2). , -
, . -

, , .
,

, - (
) 1000
.
358

5.7. -

*
( ) 100
( ) 50-70
() 40-50
/- 30-40
20-30

* , 100.

5.1.8. -

- .

, [50],
.

5.1.8.1.
-
,
.
~
2. .
,
; , ,
( ).
, #-Z/-ZTO4KH .
. .
, .
-
.

5.1.8.2.
-
0,0001 (0,0025 ),
, .
,
.
.

,
359

[50J.
.
250 000
.
[8].
,
,
. ,
- ,
.

5.2.

5.2.1.
,
,
, ,
( ) .

, ;
. I la

.

, .

,

.
, .
,
.
,
, .

.
. ,

. : ,
360

, ,
.
,
. , (51,52].

5.2.2. ()
() ,
,
, . ,
() .
,
.
.
[6, 51, 52, 54, 56].

,
().
,

.
,
:
(5.1)
, [51,52],
, ,
. -
.

. 5.29. , ,
,
361

() . ,
,
, . ,
, .

, .

. ,
,
.
,
,
. , , ,
,
.
, , ,
[54].

5.2.3. ()
.
,
.
,
[51,53-55].
R, !,
:
(5.2)
.
,

,
. ,
, ,
, (
) [45,57].
,
. ,
, ,
.
, 0,0010 (0,005 );
.
, .
362 '.

(. 5.30) ,

. ,
.
[57].

. 5.30. ()
- -
, [51,55].

[51,53,57].
, 0,0010
(0,025 ), 0,0012 (0,037 )
, .

. 531.
( : )
363


;
.
,
.

.

. 5.32.
, ,

0,010 4,0
(0,25 102 ). ,
.
,

. , ,
, .
.
,
, , [57].
-

AR/R AL/L
:
(5.3)
v .
364


, , ,
. ( )

:

(5.4)

,
, .

. 533. ,


.

.
(. 5.34)
,
[51,52,54-57].
.
,
[57]. ,
,
, .
,
90 [51 ].
-
[53].
, , -
, .
365



120

. 534.

.
,
.
, .


.
,
, .
,
,
, [57].
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
[58], [54].
,
.
(3- -
120),
.
,
, .
366

. 5.35.


.
1 /,
. ,
.
,
, [51].

5.2.4.
( )
.
, , ::
.

.
, .
,
(
). ,
(, ),
,
1,7 2,0.
367

() 9,10
, 9,15,
14,5 [59].
,
. () , --
, [54].


. ,
.
,
. ,
,

,
. ,
.

.

, .

[52, 60].
(),
. ,
,
.
, , ,
.
(. 5.36) [58].

,
, .
:

.

5.2.5.
.

, (
)
. , ,
368

. 5.36.
,
.
, ,

( )

.
(. 5.37),
.
, .
, ,
, .
369

. 537. (Lexan)
.
;
,

,
.
, .

, , , .
, ,
[51,62].

, , .

(), () .
( )
0,250 (5,35 ).
( ).
, , .
(. 5.37).

, -
[6, 54,58, 61, 62].
24 . 593
370

,
.
,
[51,62,63]. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, .
,
, ( , ).

.

5.2.6.

; .

.

, ,
()
, .
,

. ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
[6, 51]. -
( ),
.

.
,
[39].

5.3.
1. Metelnick, J., Plastics Design Fonim, 14 (3) 31 (1989).
2. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum,3(3)72(1978).
3. Anonymous, British Plastics, July / August, 17 (1984).
4. Shimel, J, Plastics Design Forum,9(l)75 (1984).

5. Kelly, W., British Plastics and Rubber, July/August, 12 (1984).


6. Ehrenstein, G. and Erhard, G., Designing With Plastics, Manser, NY (1984).
7. Technical Bulletin, CadCo Engineering Plastics, Cadillac Plastic and Chemical Co., Troy, Ml.
8. Deitz, D., Mechanical Engineering, 112 (2) 34 (1990).
9. Dowler, C, Plastics Engineering, 45 (4) 43 (1989).
10. Anonymous, Modem Plastics, 66 (3) 84 (1989).
11. Ogando, J., Plastics Technology, 40 (1) 40 (1994).
12. Kirkland, C, Injection Molding, 1 (3) 41 (1994).
13. Lindsey, K., Modem Plastics, 67 (8) 40 (1990).
14. Technical Bulletin, 3D Systems Incoporated, Valencia, CA.
15. Leonard, L., Plastics Design Forum, 16 (1) 15 (1991).
16. Lindsay, K., Modem Plastics, 68 (6) 216 (1991).
17. Gabrieie, M., Plastics Technology, 37 (6) 45 (1991).
18. Charnas, D., Plastics News, 3 (21) 7 (1991).
19. Ashley, S., Mechanical Engineering, 113 (4) 34 (1991).
20. 3D Systems, 26081 Avenue Hall, Valencia, CA 91355.
21. Technical Bulletin, Cibatool SL XB 5081, Ciba-Geigy, East Lansing, MI.
22. Jacobs, P., Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing, Society of Manufacturing Engineers,
Dearborn, MI (1992).
23. Quadrax, 300 High Point Avenue, Portsmouth, RI 02871.
24. Light Sculpting, 4815 N. Marlborough Drive, Milwaukee, Wl 53217.
25. Cubital, P. O. Box 330, Herzlia 46103, Israel / Cubital America Inc., Troy, MI.
26. DuPont Somos Venture, New Castle Corporate Commons, Two Penns Way, New Castle,
DE 19720.
27. DTM Corporation, 1611 Headway Circle, Building 2, Austin, TX 78754.
28. Anonymous, Plastics Technology, 36 (13) 23 (1990).
29. Meyer, A., Micro CAD News, January / February, 25 (1990).
30. Stratasys Inc., Eden Prairie, MN.
31. Fallon, M., Plastics Technology, 36 (8) 50 (1990).
32. Hclisys, Inc., Torrance, CA.
33. Michaud, G., Plastics Design Forum, 6 (3) 56 (1981).
34. Mold Finish Standards, Moldmakers Division, The Society of the Plastics Industry,
Washington, DC 20005.
35. Ilaaxma, H., Mold Finishing and Polishing Manual, I. T. Quamstrom Foundation /
Society of Plastics Engineers, Brookficld, CT (1985).
36. Sheehan, J., Technical Paper, Society of Plastics Engineers RETEC, Rochester, NY, L-l (1990).
37. MCP Systems, Inc., 511 Commerce Drive, Fairfield, CT 06430-5541.
38. Schwartz, S., Plastics Design Forum, 10 (2) 57 (1985).
39. Geresy, W, Plastics Design Forum, 10 (2) 70 (1985).
40. Standard Classification of Injection Molds, Moldmakers Division, The Society of the
Plastics Industry, Washington, DC 20005.
41. Brewer, D., Plastics Design Forum,7 (3)95(1982).
42. Technical Bulletin, # 300-D10622, TAFA Incorporated, Concord, NH.
43. Hanna, S.,Obtaining Durable Molds from Rapid Prototype Patterns, MS Project,
Department of Manufacturing Engineering, University of Mass Lowell (1992).
372

44. Microtech, Incorporated, Toronto, Canada.


45. Dryce, D. M., Structural Plastics Conference, Society of the Plastics Industry, 146 (1992).
46. Technical Bulletin, Master Unit Die Products, Inc. P. O. Box 520, Greenville, MI 48838.
47. Galli, E., Injection Molding, 1 (1) 53 (1994).
48. Mannis, E, Plastics Design Forum, 2 (3) 52 (1977).
49. MacDermott, C, Selecting Thermoplastics for Engineering Applications, Marcel Dekker.
Inc. NY (1984).
50. Anonymous, Plastics Technology, 36 (5) 67 (1990).
51. Corby, T. and Redner, S., Plastics Design Forum, 6 (1) 43 (1981).
52. Crites, N., Product Engineering, October 16, 90, (1961).
53. Rowand, R., Plastics News, I (33) 6 (1989).
54. Mchta, K., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 32, 155 (1986).
55. Crites, N., Product Engineering, February 19, 69, (1962).
56. Roark, R.( and Young, W., Formulas for Stress and Strain, McGraw Hill, NY (1975).
57. Doebelin, E., Measurement Systems, McGraw Hill, NY (19S4).
58. Levy, S., Plastics Design Forum, 9 (4) 83 (1984).
59. Billmeyer, F-, Textbook of Polymer Science, Wiley Inlerscience, NY (1971).
60. Standard Test Method D1693, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
PA, 8.02,53(1989).
61. Sullivan, T. and Matsuoka, S., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35, 790 (1989).
62. Crites, N., Grover, H., and Hunter, A., Product Engineering, September 3, 57, (1962).
63. Miller, H., Plastics Design Forum, 6 (4) 33 (1981).
6. ,

6.1.
, ,
.
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
, [1,2].


. ,
, ,
. .
,
. ,
( ,
). ,
, , . , .
374

,
. .

.
, . ,
. 6.1.

( ).
( )
, (),
. -,
,
. - ,
.

. 6.1. ,
,

, 375

,
, ,
.
,
.
:
,
( ).
,
, .

.
,
.
, . ,

. ,
, .
,
, , .
. :
;
;
;
;
;
.
, ,
, .
, .
, 1
, '
.
, .
, ,
,
.
.

,
. ,
, .
.
,
, .
376

, .
, , ,
[3].

-
. - ,
, , ,
. ,
, - ,
,
.
,
, [4,5].
:
1) ,
;
2) , :
3) , .
, , ,
, .
. ,
, , ,
, ,
.
,

( ).

6.2.

6.2.1.

,
.
. , ,
. 6.2.
.
. ,
,
[6,15].

, , .
, 377

. 6.2. ,

. ,
, .
, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
.

. 63.
.
.


378 :.'

, , ,
.
,

.
. ,
,
, (. 6.3). ,
, ,
. ,
,
.

6.2.2. ,

,
.
, ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
1,0 %.
,
. 10-40 %
.

.
, .
,
, ,
.
(. 6.4).
, .
,
, .
.
,
. , ::
, .
-
, , -
.
, 379

. 6.4. -
. ,
.

, ,
.
F, ,
:
(6.1)
; (
); /1 .
- (
).
,
, (. 6.2).
- .
, ,
, .
,
[16J. ,
, ,
, , .
380

6.2.3.

, -
.
.

.
,
,
, ,
. 6.5.

. 6.5-
, ,

, ,

. (. . 6.5),
.
.
05 = 0,400
0 = 1,000 ;
0</0 = 0,400 / 1,000 = 0,40.
i 0,0036 /.
0,400 :
i = 0,400 0,0036 / = 0,0014 .
, 381

0- :
0 f = 0S - i = 0,400 - 0,0015 = 0,3985 .

0,3985 ,
, .
. 6.5 ,
.
, ,
, . ,

. /
/
.
, . 6.5, ,
.
(6.2),
/ :

(6.2)
/ (); aD
(/ 2 ); 0 (), 0S (
); Eh (/ 2 ); Es
(/ 2 ); v^ ; vs
; W= [1 + ( 0 s / 0 ) 2 ] / [ l - ( 0 S . / 0 O ) 2 ] .
,
.
, (6.2) :
(6.3)
(,
).
(6.2) ,
. Es '
:
(6.4)
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
(. 6.6). ,
, .
382

. 6.6.

, ,
.
,
.
(
). ,
,
. 20-25 % ,
.
,
,
- .
,
40-60 %.
,
, . F
, .
:
(6.5)
L .
, 383

:
(6.6)
. ,
, :
(6.7)
F ,
.

. ,
, .
. 0
:
(6.8)
; AT .

, - .
,
(. 6.7).

. 6.7. , ,
, , -
.
- .


384

,
,
,
.
,

, .

-,
.

6.3.
6.3.1.

.
.
,
.
.
. -
.
, .
[6-14].

. 6.8. , .
,

, 385

,
. ,
, , ,
' .
, ,
( ) [6].

.
-
. ,
.
, .
.
, .

.
.
,
.

6.3.2.
: 1)
; 2) ; 3)
; 4) . ,
[6, 12, 14].
(. 6.9-6.11).
, . 6.9, ,
,
. ,

. 6.9.

.

25 . 593
386

, .
,
.
, . 6.10,
: , , , .

. 6.10.
,

. 6.11.

,
.
, 90 .

.
, . 6.12,
.
.
, 387

. 6.12.

,
, .
, . 6.13.
(. . 6.13)
, .
,
, .

. 6.13.
.

,
.
, .

( ) (
). . 6.14-6.24.
,
. ,
388

. 6.14, , , . 6.14,
, .
.
,
, ,
, .
90 .
90
(, ),
. 6.14, .

. 6.14. , .
,

, . 6.15,
, , . 6.16.
. ,
(. 6.17), ,
, .
,
.
, , ,
(. . 6.14, ). , ,
90 , .
, 389

. 6.15. 90

. 6.16.
, .

390

. 6.17. , ,

, . 6.18,
, . U- (. 6.14, ,
6.19 6.20) ,

. 6.18. ( 90 )
. ,
,
-
, 391

. ,
, . U-
.

. 6.19. U- ,
,
. ,

. 6.20. U-


(. 6.21). 90
,
. .
(< 90 ), . 6.21,
. ,
392

. 6.21.
. 90 (
),
,

. ,
,
.
, (. 6.22, ),
- .
(. 6.22, ).
[6].

.
. ,
, ,
(. 6.23).
,

. , . 6.21.
- .

.
, 393

. 6.22. ,

. 6.23.
,
,
394

. 6.24.
,

. (. 6.24)
.
. ,
.

... ,

,
. , .
,
.
(. 6.25).
, .

. 6.25.
.
,


. ( 90 )
( 180 ),
(. 6.26).
90 , .
, 395

90
(. 6.27).
,
. ,

. , ,
,
.

. 6.26. 90, ,
- ,
.

. 6.27.
. ,

396

, ,
.
(. 6.28).
, .
,
. ,
-
. ,
,
(. 6.29).

. 6.28.

. 6.29. , ,

, 397

,
(. 6.30).
.
-,
.

. 6.30. , ,

. 6.31-6.32.
, . 6.31, ,
. ,
(. 6.32).
.

. 6.31.
.

398

,
, , . ,
, (. . 6.32).
,

. 632. ,
, .
,

. (.
. 6.32) ,
.
, ,
, , .

6.3.4.

.
, .
, 1) *
, 2)
.

(. 4).

. /
, 399

.
, ,
5:1 [8].
, .
,
() [8-10].
,

.
, .

/.
, . 6.33,

.
- .

. 6.33. . ,
,

400



.
.
50 %
(. 6.34).

. 6.34.

. 6.35. ,
/.

, 401


(
)
(. 6.34, ) [11]:

(6.9)

s ; d ;
; L .
(. . 6.34, ):

(6.10)

,
60 % ,
.
/ .
.

, (. 6.36)
, .
,
.
. ,
.
.

. 6.36.

26 . 593
402



.
(. 6.37).

.
. 0,38 [11].

. 6.37.


(. . 6.34) :
(6.11)
b ; $ (
).

, ,

(. 6.38).
WB ( . .
6.34) :

(6.12)
, 403

. 6.38.
,

;
( ) ( ).
, (. 6.39).

. 6.39. , ,

404

. 6.40.
,

. ,
, .
.

6.4.
6.4.1.

().

, .

.
, , , ,
, , , , ,
.
,
.

.
,
.
,
,
. ,
, 405

,
- . ()
,
, , ,
.
, ,
.
.
,
.

, , ,
. ,
, .
,
.
( )
.

6.4.2.

.
. ,
.
:
() ( );
,
;
.
.

. ,
[17,18].
, ,
, ,
.
[18].
,
. .

.
,
.
406

6.4.2.1.
,
. ,
,
[15,19-21].
( ),
.

, .

, , .
.
, ,
( )
. , ,
.
()
, .
,
,
, (. 6.41).

(, ),

, ,
(. 6.42).
0,25 ,
[15].

.
(
, ).
,
.
,
. ,
.
, .
,
[21].
,
,
, [16,19,21].
, 407

. 6.41. ,

. 6.42.

408

. 6.43-

,

/

,
, .
,
[15]. ,
, ,

.
,
.
,
, .
, .
,
.
. ,

. 6.44. ,
.
,
, 409

(. 6.44).
1/4-28 1( 1/4
, 28 ). 1,0
2,0 .
,
1/4 ,
.
:

0,35 106
/ 2 , :

-
.
( ,
),
[22]:

31,3- 10 _ 6
/ / , 1,0
( ,
_6
) 31,3 10 1,0 F
.
.
74 F,
.
.

.
.
, , ,
, ,
. [24].
,
(
) [19, 23].
410


. ,
, .
, , ,
.! 22].

6.4.2.2.

,

(. 6.45).








(,
, )
,

. 6.45.
. /
, /
, 411

,
, , (
), ,
, .
( 6,35 )
, .
, , ,
.

. ,

.
,
.

. 6.46. ,
, ,

. 6.47. . #6
:
; , HiLo;

412 '

.
, .
2 8,0 . 4, , 8 10
. ,
,
.
.
, ,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
,
.

.
. ,
, . ,
, [25-28].

.
,
. ,
, :
;
;
;
;
;

.
[16.
25, 29, 30]:

,
. ()
, , () .

.
,


, .
, 413


, , (
) .
.
( )
, /.
,
,
.
( )
-
.
.

.


.

.
,

.
( )
, ,
.

( ),
.
.
, . [19].

.
, ,
100 %- , ,
,
, 0%.
U :
(6.13)
D ; d ; db
( ).
414

. 6.48. .
( ) ,


, .


. 6.49. ,
( 0,25 ).
, . 6.48,
,
.
.
,
,
, 415

. 6.49. ( )
,

[16, 30].
,
, , 3 4:1.

. 2:1
. ,
,
50 %.
.
, .
, ,
,

[26,27,31,32].


. 6.50.
(. 6.50, , ), .
,
. ,
,
.
.
416


[32].
)

(25)



60

)
BF



60

)
7(23)



60

. 6.50. , ANSI1,

,
. 2?( 25) -
.
,
[19].
,
1380 [27,32].
( 23)
6900 [27].
.

, ,
. ,
[30].
, .
,
[16].

American National Standart Institute .


, 417

. 6.51. #6. :
.
, HiLo. :


.

, 2760 [27, 32]. ,

, [33, 34].
. ,
60 ,
.
, [19, 25, 32].

[19].

( , ,
, ).

[25].

.

,
.
.

.
27 . 593
418

, .
.
-
.




60




60




60

. 6.52. , ANSI,
,






30

60






30

60

. 6.53. HiLo
, 419



[16, 25, 26, 30, 32].
HiLo [35] .

30 , 60 .
,
[26, 29, 32]. 30
.
Plastite
Plastite [36] :
, .
45 .
[25].
, ,
.
, .

. 6.54. Plastite. -

( )


[37] (. 6.55),
30 .
,
[30,37].

. 6.55.
420

Polyfast
Poly fast
.
35 , 10 [38].

. 6.56. Poll/fast


.
.
.
,
- .

-



( )



(
)

. 6.57. /,
, 421



, .

,
[16].
,
. ,
, (. 6.58).

. 6.58. ,
.

. 6.59.

422

,
.
,
[16]. ,
- .
[26,33,34].

(. 6.60).
,
.

,
( ) ,
, ,
,
(

)

. 6.60. ,
,
,

, ()
(. 6.61).
.

. ,
.
(,
, 423

. 6.61.
.
, ,
,

) ,
.
, .
,
( . 2).
.
, 2,5-3
[27,32, 33J.
,
.
:
1. -
.
( ).
- ,
424

.
, ,
.
.
2. , ,
.
,
.
, .
3. .
,
.
.

,
.
,
. 6.62.

. 6.62.



, :

;

, , . . .
, 425


| ,
.

- .
,
.
,
, . [39]
,
,
[19, 29, 30, 33]. () (. 6.63),
/
( ).

. 6.63. ,
:
/ ( )

!

.
,
(. 6.64,
6.65). ,
, , ,
.
, .
. 6.66.

.

(),
()
, 427

. 6.65.

.

. 6.66.

428 '

, ,
(),
, .
:
;
;
.
-
.
(
Plastite).
.


.
. 6.67. ?:
, .
, ,
. ,
[32].

. 6.67.



.
,
. ,
, ,
[19,28,40].
, 429

Pwc. 6.6#. , ,

/

, ,
.
,
(, ) [32].
, ,
.
.
,
.
.

, .
, , ,
, [19, 28,36,41].

. 6.69. , ,


430 ".

,
. 6.70.
,
.
,
, .

. 6.70. .
,

/
/
( ), .

, (. 6.71-6.73).
, Tinnerman [42],
, ,
. , !
(. . 6.72).
,
.
,
.
.
0,38 ,

, 431

. 6.71.

D-

( )


. 6.72. Tinnerman

. 6.73. ,
,

432

. --
,
[15,28].

, ,
.
0,25 , - [ 16].

, ,
.

.
(. 6.74),
.
. ,
(, ), ,
[16,28,43].

. 6.74. , ,
.

6.4.2.3.

, .

.
,
.
. .


.
, .
, 433

.
, [44,45].


.
, , .
,
[46].
,
.
.
[47]. ,
,
.
,
.
[16,19,44,48].

, ,
.
,
.
, ,
. .

, , .
, .
,
. .

, (
), .
.
,
, -
.
, ,
.

, .
.
.
[44].

28 . 593
434

,
, , ,
.
[19,44,48].
, -
( , )
.
,
.
, - ,
: .

, . -
, , ,
-, ,
.
,

.

[44].

, .
.
,
. ,

[44]. ,
.
.
, , 0,25 [48]. (
)
(. 6.75). ,
, 1,6 , .
, ,
.
0,025-0,051
, . ,
, .
.


,
. ,
, 435

. 6.75.
, -

, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
. , . 6.76,
, .

.
,
.

. 6.76.
- .

436 '.


, ,
(. 6.77).

. 6.77.

(
1,0-2,0 )
. , ,
, [46].

,
(. 6.78).

. 6.78.

, 437

( )
, ,
. 6.79-6.80.
0,25 . 0,76

. 6.79.
.

. 6.80.

438

.
, .
, , . 6.81,
, .
,
(. 6.81) [48].

. 6.81.

,
( ).
, ,
[49,50].
.
(. 6.82 6.83).

(. . 6.82).
, ,
,
. , . 6.83,
,
,
.
,
, .

,
.
, 439

. 6.82. ( )

. 6.83. .
(
), ,
,


. ,
,
,
. ,
(
(. 6.84)) [51].

. , , ,
-, .
( ).
,
440

. 6.84. ,

. .

. , , -
,
, ,
.


,
. ,
,
.
, .

[19, 24, 51, 52]:
, ;
;
;
;
, .
,


.
, . 6.85.
,
.
,
,
.
, 441

. 6.85.

.


, ,

, ,
, .

. (
) .
.
,
. ,
,
[46].
,
.
,
.
, , ,
,
(. 6.86). , , -

[16].

. 6.86. ,
. , ,
,
442


, , ,
, .
. ,
,
.
. ,
. ,
,
( 0,8 ) .
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
[16].
,
, , ,
, .
,
,
. 9,5 ,
.
6,35 .
, .
.
,

[24,52].

.
,
[24].


.

. (. 6.87 6.88)
.
, ,
(
1 ) [16, 24, 51].
, 443

. 6.87.

. 6.88.
,



,
.
. /
, .
, (
) ,
.
.
.
[51].
, ,
, :
.
.
.
,
(. 6.89).
.
, , (. 6.91).
444

. 6.89. ,

. 6.90.
,

,

,

. 6.91.
, ,
, 445



,
.
, (. 6.92).

. 6.92. .
,
( Heli-coil Division, Emhart Fastening Group)

.
.
,
, .
(
), ,
(. 6.93).
,
, .
,

.
,
[19, 24, 52].
446 *,

. 6.93. .
,
.
. , , ^

6.5.
6.5.1.
,
.
, , ,
.
.

. 6.94. .


, 447

,
[53].
.
.
,

.
, ,
, , ,
.
.
.
,
.
:
;
;
;
;
() ;
;
;

.

.
,
, , .
,
, ,
. ,
.

6.5.2.
,
,
, .
()
, ,
.
,
,
(. 6.95).
448

. 6.95. * .

20 50
15-60 [54].
15 [43].

, . ,
, . |
, ,
. 0,5 1,5 [55,56].
[54].

(. 6.95)
[51, 54, 55].
/
50/60 20
40 .
, 449



. ,
.

, ,
.

,
,
. ,
.

,
.
, .
,
.
,
.

.

.
.

,
, .
.
20 40 . ,
20 , ,
[57]. ,
.
. ,
- .
, ,
.
,

. ,
(
). ,
,
( ) [58].

29 . 593
450







()

. 6.96. ,
.

,
.

cryi 1 . 6.96.
,

.
, .

.
.

,
.
, 451

. 6.97.

. 6.98.

. ,
[60].
,
, .

. . 6.99

. 6.99.

452

[60].
, -
,
, .
.
, . 6.100,
(. 6.96).
10 %- [58J.

. 6.100.
.

. 6.101.
,

(. 6.102)
[61].
, .
,
.

,
[61].

, .
,
, .
,
(. 6.103) [59].
, 453

. 6.102.

. 6.103.
; ,


, ,
, .

(. 6.104). ,
,
454 '.

. 6.104.

, , ,
6 , , .

. .

.


.
, . ,
,
() [59] (. 6.105).

. 6.105.
();

()
, 455


, (. 6.106) (. 6.107).

. 6.106.

. 6.107. -



. (. 6.108 6.109)
.
, . 6.108, ,
.
-, (. 6.107),

.
456

. 6.108. ,

. 6.109.

,
.



, . 6.110,
, .

, .

, 457

. 6.110.

.
, . -,
. 6.107, .

,
,
.
. 6.111. ,
, .

,
, , .
, ,
,
. .
(. 6.111,
). ,
.
,
[56]. 0,13-0,51
1,0-2,0 .
.
.
(. 6.111) [57].
458

. 6.111. ,
().
()


,

.
.
, .
. (. 6.112 6.113),
[56,58].
30 60,
. 0,10-0,25 .
,
[58] (. 6,113).

?
[59]. ,
. 6.114,
, 459

. 6.112. ,

. 6.113.

[58]

. 6.114. ,
.

[591
460 '.'

, ,
.


/ (. 6.115).
,

. 6.115.
/ [43]

.
. ,
.
(. 6.115).

[51, 56,59].


.
, ,
(. 6.116). ()
, (),
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
. .
;
.
, 461

. 6.116.
[51]
, ,
.

, .
, ,
. 6.116 [51, 56J.


,
, 1,6 4 .

1,6 .
, .
, .

,
, ,
.
462


, 4 ,
.
.
.


,
(. 6.117).
.
,
, , [62J.

. 6.117. , [62]



. , ,
, , , -
, .

,
, [51, 56, 63].
-
.
.
,
,
. ,
.

.
.
, 463

, [64,65J.
.
, ,
[51].
- [54].
,
, . 7^
, 14-22 [54, 55,61].

.
** .

,
.
.
- -
[56].
464



, .
,

[58].
, .
: 1)
, (
) 2)
[63].
.
,
/
, [66]. , ,
.

- . ,
, , ,
[63].

0,05-0,15 . ,
.


. ,
.
,
,
.
,
[58,66]. ,
( )
.
,
[59].
.
.

(-
), .
,
. , 66
,
, 465

. ,
, ,
, .
[56,58,59,63]:
(
);
;
.

.
,
[58]. ,
.
24 ,
[59].

.
,
.
, .

, , ,
, ,
.
, .
35 %
[63]. 40%
. , 40 %-

[56]. 10 %
( )
. ,
,
.
-
[57].

,
.
.
. ,
, ,
[59,63].

30 . 593
466

-

. , , .
,
. ,
[63].

,
.
.
/
, ,

[63].
[56].
.

.
, ,
, [63].

,
[63].

6.5.3.
.
,
.
, [62].
.
[67].

,
.
, , [68,69].


. , (), (-
), ()
, ,
[43, 70].
,
, 467

[54,69,71]. , .
- .
, .

,
,
[70].
, . ,
[62].

( )
,
.
1,5,
.


, . -

. -
,
.
.
, ( )
[69].
120 300 .
0,8 5,0 .

, ,
, ,
[43].

[70]. 1 10 (
2-4 ), 6 15 [54,62,64].
,
.
, .
,
, .


,
[54].
,
468

.
(. 6.118) [62].
, ,
.
( )
, ,
,
[69].
. ,
(. 6.118).

,
. ,
, ,
-
. , ,
, [43].

. 6.118. .


[54,62,71,72].
.
, .
(
, ).
,
,
. , ,
, [54].
, 469

6.5.4.
.
, . ,
,
. , ,
, ,
(. 6.119).

. ,
[54, 62,
73-75].
.
0,6 58 2 [54,76].
,
.
, ,
[54].
[73]:

. 6.119. ,

470


. ,
.
.

.
,
, .
.
, ,
.

.
.
, , ,


.
, (. 6.120) [54].
, ,
. ,
[74].
, ,

(. 6.121).

. 6.120. ,

, 471

. 6.121.


, .
,
(. 6.122) [73].
,
. , .
,
. , ,
, .

.


. . ,

. 6.122.
472

,

.

.
, ,
, .
.

, , ,
[43]. , 1,0 ,
, .
1000 / 18 000 /
[75].
3 15 /. 20 50 .
,
( ) [54].

6.5.5. ()
( )
,
.

.

[43,54,62,77-83]. ,
, ,
.
( 2 8 ),
,
.
,
, ,
[54].

(. 6.123).
-
[82, 83].
,
, ,
.
15 % [77].
, .
, ,
, 473

. 6.123- ,
()
(. . )
, , [77J.
, .
, -
, , [79].
, ,
,
.
, .
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
[43,54].
, ,
, (. . 6.123).
,
.
.
,
474

[77]. ,
,
. ,
.

, , ,
.

, -
.

, .
, ,
- , .
,
.
3-10 [62]. ,
6 [43,78].
,
, ,
, , .

6.5.6.

.
.
.
. ,

. [54].

.
(, ),
,
.

6.5.7.
,
( ),
,
.
,
.
, 475

,
.
, .
,

[54].
,
,
[54, 70, 84,85].
,
, .
,
.
() .
270 " [54, 85, 86].

(, ,
). ,
: 1) ( )[54]; 2)
( 400 ,
,
.
[86].
[54,84]
. 6.124.
.
.
,
[54,
84,86].
.
,
.
.
,
. ,
,
,
, .
,
. ,
.
.
.
. 6.124. ,
, 477

, ,
.

. . 6.125 [62J.
, ,
, .
15
[54,85].

. 6.125. ,

,

.

6.5.8.

.
, ,
.
,
[54, 87-89].
. ,
.
(
, ),

(. 6.126). ,
. .
, .
.

478

. 6.126.
,

.
, .
, ,
, .
, U-
. -
,
[87].
(. 6.127)
.
, .

.
. 6.2 [87J.
.
. ,
.
,
. , ,
, -
, 479

[89]. - ,

, , -
.
, , ,
.

. 6.127.

6.5.9.
. -
/ V--
.
(
), .
V- ,
.
[54,87,90].
480 '.'

6.6.

6.6.1.

, ,
, .

.
,
. :
;
;
;
, -
;
, ,

, ,
;
;
;
.
.
,
,
6.6 .
, ,
, ,
,
- . ,
.
; .


. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,

. , -
.
, , ,
, 481

.
,
.
.
. ,
,
.
, , .
,
() .
,
,
.

,
. ,
,
.

.

, ,
. ,
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
, -
, .

. ,
, . 6.128.

, .
, , ,
, -,
.


,
. ,
, , .

31 . 593
482

. 6.128.


.
.


.
.
.

, , .
,
;
, ,
.
,
.

,
.
; .
.
.
,
, .
,
.

, 483

,
- .
, ,
,
.

. .

6.6.2.
, (
) .
.
(, , .)
,
. ,
, .
, .
, , .
,
, ,
.

. ,
.
, .
, ,
. , :

;
;
( ) (
).

. 6.129.
484

.
, ,
, . [91-93].
,
, .
, ,

.
.
, .

.
.
,
. 6.3, 6.3, [91, 92, 94].
. 6.3 ,
.
, .
,

, ,
.

. 6.130. /

, 485

.

. -
.
, . 6.3, , ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
(. 6.131).
,
() .
486

. .131.

,
.
,
, .
,
,
(. 6.132).

. 6.132.


, ,
.
, .
,
, 487

, ,
( ) .

:



. -
. ,
, .
.

.
,
.
,
, .

. ,
, .

,
, . ,
.
, (
). -
.
488

1


, ,
.
. .
. -
. -

/,
(
,
).
-
.
, ,
.
,
. -
,
. ,
. ,
. ,
, -
.
,
.

.
(
) , (
) [91] (. 6.133, ).

(6.133, ).
, , ,
- ( ).
,
,
.
(. 6.133, ).

() , - ,
. . . .
, 489

. 6.133.

.



( ).
:
, b

, ,

(
)


, .
, J91]. ,
.

. .

. ,
(. 6.134).

. 6.134.

,

490 '/

.
,
, .
,

.
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, .
, , .
,
.
,
.
.

, .

, ,
.
[92,95]:
;
;
.

, ,
.
, !
, , , , .
,
. ,

. , ; -
.
.
, , . 1-
, , ,
. ,

. : ,
, , [92J.
, 491

ASTMD-2093 ,
.

, ,
. ,
, .


/ [96]. (
)
. , ,
. ,
,
. ,
.
. ,
, .
,
.
, ,
.

. 6.135. ,

492 .1.'

, .
, , [92,96].
,
,
. ,
, , .

.
, .

[92].

6.6.3.
,
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.


, .
,
.
, ,
, , ,

.
. --
.
, , [92].

, ,
. ,
.
.


. ,
.
, 493

, . .
, (, -
).

.
,
.
,
(. 6.136). ,
[92].

. 6.136.

,
.

. ,

. ,
, .



,
,
.
494

,
[92].


.
, .
,
. -
,
. ,
( )
.

[91, 92.
97, 98].
. ,

. ,
, .
, .
,
. ,
. 6.137, .

. 6.137. ,

, 495

-.
.
. V-
. V-
,
.

. .

.
,
. ,
, .
,

, -
, .

6.7.
1
.
,
.
. , ,
,
[16,99,100].
,
.
.
,
. ,
.
,
, ,
, .

. ,
, ,
.
, .

. . . .
496

.

.
,
, .

, .

. :
; () ;
; ;
. ,
.
.
. ,
.
.


. .
, ,
.

.
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
.
, .

6.8.
1. Bassler, R, Kunststoffe, 76 (9) 777 (1986).
2. Boothroyd, G. and Dewhust, P., Product Design for Assembly, Boothroyd Dewhurst.
Incorporated Wakefield, RI( 1989).
3. Stokes, V., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35 442 (1989).
4. Nussbaum, ., Business Week, 102, September 17 (1990).
5. Kaeufer, H., Kunststoffe, 79 (4) 339 (1989).
6. Miller, E., Plastics Product Design Handbook, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY (1981).
7. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum , 2 (2) 34 (1977).
8,9. Lee, C, and Dubin, A., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 34 1564 (1988). Lee, C, Dubin.
A., and Jone, E., Plastics Design Forum, 1 2 (5) 65 (1987).
10. Trantina, G., and Minnichelli, M., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 33, 438 (1987).
11. Technical Bulletin, Snap Fit Joints in Plastics, Miles Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (1990)
, 497

12. Wuebken, G., Plastics Design Forum , 9 (3) 37 (1984).


13. Mclntyre, R., Plastics Design Forum, 9 (4) 35 (1984).
14. Schonewald, H. ( Kunststoffe, 79 (8) 46 (1989).
15. Technical Bulletin, Mechanical Fastening , Miles Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA. 451.
16. Technical Bulletin, General Electric Data Base Design Guide, General Electric Co.,
Pittsfield, MA.
17. La Verne, L., Plastics Design Forum, 16 (4) 25 (1991).
18. La Verne, L., Plastics Design Forum, 15 (4) 17 (1990).
19. Lincoln, ., Gomes, K., and Braden, J., Mechanical Fasteners for Plastics, Marcel Dekker,
NY (1984).
20. Shigley, J., and Mischke, C, Fastening, Joining and Connecting, McGraw Hill, NY (1986).
21. Bauhof, M., Maintaining Bolt Preload in Plastic Assemblies , DuPont, Wilmington, DE.
22. Moore, G. and Kline, D., Properties and Processing of Polymers for Engineers, Prentice-
Hall, Englewood.NJ (1984).
23. Technical Bulletin, Fastening Systems, Catamount Manufacturing, Inc., Orange, MA.
24. Technical Bulletin, Emhart Fastening System Group, Heli-coil Division, Danbury, CT.
25. Braden, J., Plastics Design Forum, 9 (5) 64 (1984).
26. Englehart, W, and Richter, C, Modern Plastics, 54 (7) 72 (1977).
27. Keller, C, Plastics Design Forum, 8 (6) 56 (1983).
28. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum, 1 (6) 76 (1976).
29. Malloy, R., Orroth, S., and Arnold, E., Plastics Engineering, 41 (4) 43 (1985).
30. Burton, J., Plastics Design Forum, 1 5 (6) 45 (1990).
31. Technical Bulletin, Dupont Design Guide, Assembly Techniques, DuPont, Wilmington, DE.
32. Wagner, D., Modem Plastics Encyclopedia, 54 (10) 425 (1977).
33. Massey, F.L., Modem Plastics, 54 (9) 90 (1977).
34. Massey, F.L., SPE Annual Technical Conference, Reinforced Plastics, 32 2-F 1 (1977).
35. Technical Bulletin, ITW Shakeproof, Illinois Products, Elgin, IL.
36. Technical Bulletin, Plastite, Continental/Midland, Park Forest, IL.
37. Technical Bulletin, PT Fasteners, ATF, Inc., Lincolnwood, IL.
38. Technical Bulletin, Poly fast Fastener Data, N L Industries, Statesville, NC.
39. Reib, M., Kunststoffe, 67 (3) 17 (1977).
40. TRW, Painut Division, Mountainside, NJ.
41. Camcar Textron, Rockford, IL.
42. Tinnerman, Eaton Corporation, Engineered Fastener Div.
43. Klein, A., Plastics Design Forum, 13 (5) 39 (1988).
44. Crate, J. H., Plastics Design Forum, 6 (6) 61 (1981).
45. Galli, E., Plastics Design Forum, 1 1 (3) 29 (1986).
46. Beck, R., Plastics Product Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., NY (1980).
47. Tews, H., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35, 1689 (1989).
48. Strasser, E, Plastics Engineering, 36 (10) 17 (1980).
49. Wilder, R., Modern Plastics, 67 (9) 65 (1990).
50. Technical Bulletin, Vestoran, Bunawerke Huls GmbH, K&K Technologies, Akron, OH (1988).
51. Ultrasonic Plastics Assembly, Bronson sonic Power Company, Danbury, CT(1979).
52. Tobias, ., Plastics Design Forum, 7 (1) 80 (1982),
53. Wool, R., Yuan, ., and McGaiel, Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (19) 1340 (1989).
54. Stokes, V, Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (19) 1310(1989).
55. Plender, A., World Plastics & Rubber Technology, 17 (1991).

32 . 593
498

56. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum, 5 (6) 81 (1980).


57. Wolcott, J., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 36, 1829 (1990).
58. Jaarsma, F, SPE Annual Technical Conference, 28, 316 (1982).
59. Herrmann, ., Kunststoffe, 77 (7) 15 (1987).
60. Sager, T, United States Patent, No.4,618,5 16, October 1, 1986.
61. Baudendistel, S.and Herrmann, Th., Kunststoffe, 79 (10) (1989).
62. Engineering Data Base Design Guide, General Electric Company, Pittsfield, MA.
63. Gallagan, S., Plastics Engineering, 41 (7) 35 (1985).
64. Benatar, A., and Eswaran, R., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35, 514 (1989).
65. Benatar A., Eswaran, R., and Najar, S., Polymer Engineering &, Science, 29 (23) 1689 (1989).
66. Benatar, A., & Cheng, Z Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (23) 1699 (1989).
67. Pontente, H., Kunststoffe, 70 (4) 6 (1980).
68. Land, W., Kunststoffe, 76 (9) 3 (1986).
69. Mock, J., Plastics Engineering, 39 (6) 27 (1983).
70. Mengason, J., Plastics Engineering, 36 (8) 20 (1980).
71. Pontente, H. and Kaiser, H., Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (23) 1661 (1989).
72. Schalarb, A., and Ehrenstein, G., Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (23) 1677 (1989).
73. Tappe, P. and Potente, H., Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (23) 1655 (1989).
74. La Bounty, T, SPE Annual Technical Conference, 3 1, 855 (1985).
75. Thews, II., Kunststoffe, 71 (10) 81 (1981).
76. Kcnney, W., Dupont Design Guide, Joint Design a Critical Factor in Strong Bonds,
DuPont, Wilmington, DE.
77. Anonymous, British Plastics & Rubber, January, 28 (1986).
78. Chookazian, M., Modem Plastics Encyclopedia, 68 (11) 345 (1992).
79. Leatherman, A., Modem Plastics Encyclopedia, 68 (11)347(1992).
80. Chookazian, S., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 36, 1834 (1990).
81. Leatherman, A., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 29, 214 (1983).
82. Emabond Systems, Inc., Ashland Chemical Company, Norwood, NJ.
83. Hellerbond Division, Alfred F Leatherman Co., Columbus, OH.
84. Ryan, C, Modern Plastics Encyclopedia, 68 (11) 347 (1992).
85. Watson, M., and Murch, M., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35 446 (1989).
86. Land, W., Kunststoffe, 76 (9) 3 (1986).
87. Miller, R and Winklemart, D., Plastics Engineering, 36 (4) 38 (1980).
88. Atkinson, J., and Turner, ., Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (19) 1368 (1989).
89. Technical Bulletin 53, Leister Hot Air Tools, Switzerland.
90. Michel, P., Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (19) 1376 (1989).
91. Cagle, C.V., Handbook of Adhesive Bonding, McGraw Hill, NY (1973).
92. Petrie, E., Adhesives Age, 6, May 15 (1989).
93. Petrie, E.M., Handbook of Plastics and Elastomers, McGraw Hill, NY (1975).
94. Rauhut, H., Plastics Design & Processing, 22, April (1971).
95. Snagren, R.C., Handbook ofSurface Preparations, Palmerton Publishing Co., Inc., NY (1973).
96. Kaplan, S. and Rose, P., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 34, 1542 (1988).
97. Mohan, R., Plastics Engineering, 46 (2) 47 (1989).
98. Durn, L., Moniatis, G. and Rasche, M., Kunststoffe, 79 (7) 3 (1989).
99. Klein, A., Plastics Design Forum, 14 (3) 59 (19S9).
100. Licata, M. & Haag, E., Plastics Engineering, 42 (6) 53 (1986).
-

79 467
138 467
405
174 Plastite 419
Poly fast 420
41, 67, 110, 144, 227, '419
323 406
226, 405,415
240 410,417
224,249,359 50
177,
35, 38 245
98
18,23 106
18,74,466 18,23,150
437 22
83
252, 271, 278,399
25
260
141
265
65,77,101
215
25,61, 63,85
88,118,407,421

424
85
50
50,85
78 110,134
466 85
500


440 176,194, 240
432 59
432
129 39,88,171,262
128 385
445 387
405 385
131 386
442 25,26,40, 58, 59,
25,34 140
385 110
25,113 423
78
50, 53,54 -
16 82
48-50 183

406
431 212
15
461

14
212 94 212
33,52 212
201
203
100, 203
103 315
87
139 367
148 367
134,379,383
361 343
11 138,141,144
378,401 48
180 44
180 48
307, 378 171-173
98 149,339
180 480,483
28
21 487
413 488
18, 22, 465 488
98,128,395 487
- 501

460
430 336
432
309 131
428 26,42, 65, 70, 323, 433
71
14 71
114
450,451 65
230,402 25,61,63,85
- 26,27,42,48,
358 56, 85, 343
201 31
26, 35, 85,98,103,108 24
262,309,421 153
155
152,438
413 136,138
247
231,250 79

210,375,406 79
20 145
184 342
91 146,357
73 151
23,168,210 343,433
124,379 438
20 28
404
429 347
430 350,357
203 - 352,

357
60
176 60
190,193 30
48 352,357
13
155
96 26
303
303 - 343
307 120
227, 385, 387, 394 82
502

67
174 66
136,192,251
479 46
370 310
26
24,162 26,138
161 123
360
324 29
297
244
180,242 324
186 340
183 491
183 20
242 55, 61
244,276 11
181,402 276
242 343
180 234, 287, 293
14,16 234
15 236,273
15 235
- 236
14,15 236,273
32
253 439
412,413
253
255,268
305
255,268
304, 307
126
256
412,422
129 25, 99,103,109,134
236, 245, 274, 281, 287 50
311
237,312 40,45,48,54,101
237 11,13
317 59
18,23, 74,106,465 20,466
55 12
253, 358,399,434 285,296
34,85,98,329 18,466
180 214
- 503

285 16
343 38
78 38,205,315
19 477
126 114,120,128,134
193 131
19 184
186,239,243 385
17,213
28
256
33
46
123
79, 366,495
15,19
96
88
13
114
88, 99, 104, 109,
19,29
147,151 118,171,261,309
474
39,99
338
197,198,239,247

50
45, 52
469
102
446
179 466
179 477
179 474
180 474
180 469
376 447
460 (
118,264 ) 472
239 276, 288,294,
19 305
241
26, 232, 356, 359 21,175,186,240
219 213
174, 249,322,356 22
206
336 22
240
338 204
339 29
331
12
504

61,65
30 96
358 13
358
122,171

245
42
52 86
20, 32, 85
46,53,214 20,50
48,52 206
112,209
28,30,32 20,42, 47,50,85,110
30 112,207
123 20
484 113
361
450, 494 21
384 11
480 12, 89, 206,462
404 137,145,153
458,494 13
376 13,
446 89,104,207,464
457
495 209
455 125,397
456,494 396
57, 85, 86, 87, 108,
83 148,314
60 16
32,42,79 21
14,19 192, 246,377
297
302
299 71
18 386
329 114,171
211 386

13 35,182
32 200
32 143
331 55,85,104
98
21 94
, 505

91 472
98 167

120,133
414 53
86,155 21,22,96,177
86,148,155 28
-
22 20
88,118
ASTM174,220
19 CAD- 167, 227, 323, 329,
18,23 369
CAMPUS 218
86
Evaiuator219
25
Fused Deposition Manufacturing
331
338
367
In-Mold Reciprocating Pins 82
55
ISO 174
32,46 Laminated Object Manufacturing
123 339
Multi-Live Feed Injection Molding
255
79
406,420 Push-PullMolding 8\
120, PVT- 90,136,210
490 Selective Laser Sintering 336
120,466 Shear Controlled Orientation-
452 Injection Molding 79
SPE 340
428 SPI339
429 Stereo Lithography Apparatus 331

1 = 25,4 ()
1 = 0,3048 ()
1 () = 140- 6
1 = 0, 9144

1 3 ( 3 ) = 1-10"63
1 () = 0-3
1 3 = 1,639-10"5 3
1 3 = 2,832-"2 3
1 = 3,785- 10" 3 3

1 = 2,83-10-'2
1 = 4,536--1

1 /3 (/ 3 ) = 1,0-10-3/3
1 /3 = 3,61--2 /3
1 / 3 = 2,77--2 /3

()
1 / 2 (/ 2 ) = 1,0 ()
5
1 () = 1,013-
1 / 2 = 6,8947-103
2
1 = 145 /
1 = 14,6885 / 2
2
1 / = 0,0681


1 () = 0,1 -
1 -/2 = 6,8947-103 -
1 -/2 = 6,8947-10"


1 = 1,0-107 ()
1 - = 9,81
1- = 1