Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 51

Short introduction to

ship dynamics
Kul-24.3200 Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 1


Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 2
Summary on the previous lecture
List and describe relevant characteristics of different
propulsors. E.g.
Ducted propellers
Rotatable thrusters
Steering thrusters
Water jet propulsion

What do you need to consider when designing the ship


stern?

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 3


Content of the course
Resistance
Propulsion
Ship dynamics
Manoeuvring
Seakeeping

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 4


What does ship dynamics mean?
All the operational conditions of a vessel where inertia
forces of a ship motion play a role.
That is all situations that differ from the ideal still water
condition with a ship at constant heading and constant
forward speed

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 5


Content of the course
Resistance
Propulsion
Ship dynamics
Manoeuvring
Seakeeping

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 6


Manoeuvring

Additional reading
LN3 Ship dynamics FIN, Chapter 1 (Noppa: Additional reading)
LN 3 Ship dynamics ENG part 1, Sections 3.1-3.8 (Noppa: Additional
reading)

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics Aalto University 7


Manoeuvring
Related exercises

Exercise 7: task 1
Select tunnel thrusters to ship bow. You need to give the power of
the thruster and the its diameter
Design criterion: Keeping the position of the ship fixed in a certain
wind condition. You need to balance the wind force (side force)*
using the force that is obtained form the tunnel thrusters and from
the stern area.

*check the last lecture slides on ship resistance

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics Aalto University 8


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 9


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 10


General
What does manoeuvring of the ship mean?
The motion of the ship is kept or changed intentionally

Factors that affect manoeuvring


Forces
Rudder forces
Other forces acting on the ship
The way that the mate or the autopilot reacts
to different information
Info from the navigation system
Other observations

Example: Even if the ship has poor straight line stability with the fixed rudder, it
can has good straight line stability thanks to the action of the mate / autopilot.

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 11


General
What happens when a ship with fixed direction encounters an
external disturbance? (Related terms)
External disturbance
Straight line stability: Ship
continues to travel with the
new direction

Directional stability: The ship


continues to the direction,
which is parallel to its original
direction.

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 12


General
Good manoeuvring properties of the ship
Keeps easily the intended direction
(straight line stability)
Turns easily to new direction
The velocity can be changed fast.

The factors that affect the ship dynamics


External forces
Inertia of the ship
Resistance when turning
Forces given by the propeller and the rudder

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 13


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 14


Equations of motion
On the motion poikittaiskiihtyily

In-plane motion is assumed when


considering the manoeuvring of
the surface ship

Kiihtyily
Still water condition is applied
typically Mutkailu

Motion components
Sway
Surge
Yaw

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 15


Equations of motion
Co-ordinate system
Fixed to the ship
Right-handed
Positive z-axis points downwards
Origin: the centre of gravity of the ship

Forces and moments


X: force in the direction of x-axis
Y: force in the direction of y-axis
N: moment around z-axis

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 16


Equations of motion
On the derivation
Derivation is based on Newtons law
mass * acceleration = force
moment of inertia * angular acceleration = moment

In the inertia co-ordinate system


(x0,y0,z0):

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 17


Equations of motion
On the derivation
Forces (X0, Y0), moments (N0) and velocities (u0, v0) in the inertia co-
ordinate system need to be expressed in the co-ordinate system that fixed
to ship (x,y,z).

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 18


Equations of motion
Inertia co-ordinate system (x0,y0,z0) Co-ordinate system fixed
to the ship (x,y,z)

Small perturbation/linear model assumption

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 19


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 20


On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)

In general, they depend on


Wind, waves, current etc.
Rudder action
Ship motions in relation to the water

Assumption of still water they depend only on


Rudder action
Ship motions

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 21


On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)
Assumptions when presenting X, Y, N in Eqs. of motions

1. Forces can be expressed as a sum of different terms


Example:

2. Each of the components depend on the velocity or acceleration


components of the ship. E.g.:
Y1 is a function of the transversal velocity: 1 =
Y2 is a function of the transversal acceleration: 2 =
Y3 is a function of the angular acceleration: 3 =
3. is approximated with a line. Then and is a
constant (slope of the line). Similarly:
Stability
derivatives
Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 22
On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)
Familiar situation

Ship advances directly with the fixed rudder.


x-direction: X = total force = resistance + thrust deduction thrust = 0
y-direction: Y=0
Yaw moment N=0

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 23


On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)
Ship moves diagonally
Velocity u in the x-direction
Velocity v in y-direction

Underwater part of the hull encounters


the flow with the drift angle .

Lateral force Y
points towards the negative y-axis.
acts in the so-called neutral point, whose
location is xN.

Yaw moment

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 24


On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)

Ship has the acceleration = in the y-direction. Example:

Shape of the motion is a sine curve in y-direction
Velocity u in the x-direction.

The forces and moment depend on


Velocity v
Acceleration

Approximations
For Y and N
For forces and moment caused by angular velocity r, angular
acceleration and rudder angle .

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 25


On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)

Ship has the acceleration = in the y-direction. Example:

Shape of the motion is a sine curve in y-direction
Velocity u in the x-direction.

Equations of motions

Stability
derivatives
u1: original velocity in x-direction
Eqs. are made linear. Valid when are small.

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 26


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 27


Defining the stability derivatives
Stability derivative
presents the linear relation between
Force and Velocity or Acceleration
when the other velocity and
acceleration components are zero.

Ways of defining
Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM)
in model tests
Other options:
computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
radio controlled free running models
full-scale experiments

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 28


Defining the stability derivatives
Defining static derivatives YV and NV
Conducting diagonal towing tests with
different drift angles . (No need for PMM)
What is measured?
The force components X and Y at the bow
and stern.
Moment N
Calculation of static coefficients
Present the changes of X, Y and N as a
function of

Derivatives Y and N
Similar as above. Rudder angle is changed while the drift angle =0.
Derivatives Y and N are the slopes of curves and

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 29


Defining the stability derivatives
Dynamic derivatives: PMM needed

Derivatives and
Can be defined when the model has only transversal motion (sway) and
not yaw.

Derivatives , , and
Can be defined when the model has only yaw motion (no sway)
X, Y and N are measured, when the derivatives can be defined.
Added mass: . Added moment of inertia: .
The order of magnitude can be estimated as

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 30


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 31


Straight line stability equations
In straight line stability we assume the rudder is not working, d=0
Equations of motions

u1 is the ship forward velocity

Before continuing, lets simplify


1. Surge equation can be dropped, it is independent from the other two
2. , are small when compared to the other terms, thus can be disregarded

Rearranging 1
0 1
= =

0
( )
Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 32
Stability index
1

=

( )

The stability index is the determinant of the matrix. For straight line stability it has
to be greater then zero
( 1 )
>0
( )( )

Inertia plus added inertia and mass plus added mass are positive for definition.
The stability criterion reduce to:

( 1 ) > 0

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 33


Stability index
Consider a situation when the ship has a straight direction and it
encounters disturbances .

Criterion for the straight line stability is that the stability index is positive
Note V=u1

It means that as the side force caused by the transversal


velocity v affects at the neutral point.
Stability index can be rewritten
It requires that the neutral point locates sternwards from the critical point
where

This location vary. Often measured from midship

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 34


Stability index <

MS

sternward the critical point


Remember that assessing straight line stability, ensure the straight line stability
the ship advances with a fixed position of the
rudder i.e. no rudder action!

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 35


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 36


Effect of the keelAlso known as skeg
reduces
increases

increases
reduces
Critical point move
forward, XN moves
sternward: improved
stability

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 37


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 38


Rudder action

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 39


Rudder action

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 40


Rudder action
The side force at a certain angle of attack

CL depends on the co-called side ratio

The point where the rudder force affects: distance


to leading edge when side ratio is large.

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 41


Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 42


Manoeuvring: standard tests

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 43


Manoeuvring: standard tests

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 44


Manoeuvring: standard tests

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 45


Manoeuvring: standard tests

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 46


Manoeuvring: standard tests

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 47


Manoeuvring: standard tests

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 48


Manoeuvring: standard tests

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 49


Summary
Explain
Straight line stability
Directional stability
What is typically included to the model of ship manouvring?
How do you define the stability derivatives?
Describe the standard manouvring test.
Action of rudder?

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 50


References

LN3 Ship dynamics FIN (Noppa: Additional reading)


2013 slides Ship dyn ENG 1 (Noppa: Additional reading)

Pictures
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ship_motions

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 51