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# Short introduction to

ship dynamics
Kul-24.3200 Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 1

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 2
Summary on the previous lecture
List and describe relevant characteristics of different
propulsors. E.g.
Ducted propellers
Rotatable thrusters
Steering thrusters
Water jet propulsion

stern?

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 3

Content of the course
Resistance
Propulsion
Ship dynamics
Manoeuvring
Seakeeping

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 4

What does ship dynamics mean?
All the operational conditions of a vessel where inertia
forces of a ship motion play a role.
That is all situations that differ from the ideal still water
condition with a ship at constant heading and constant
forward speed

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 5

Content of the course
Resistance
Propulsion
Ship dynamics
Manoeuvring
Seakeeping

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 6

Manoeuvring

LN 3 Ship dynamics ENG part 1, Sections 3.1-3.8 (Noppa: Additional

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics Aalto University 7

Manoeuvring
Related exercises

Select tunnel thrusters to ship bow. You need to give the power of
the thruster and the its diameter
Design criterion: Keeping the position of the ship fixed in a certain
wind condition. You need to balance the wind force (side force)*
using the force that is obtained form the tunnel thrusters and from
the stern area.

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics Aalto University 8

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 9

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 10

General
What does manoeuvring of the ship mean?
The motion of the ship is kept or changed intentionally

## Factors that affect manoeuvring

Forces
Rudder forces
Other forces acting on the ship
The way that the mate or the autopilot reacts
to different information
Other observations

Example: Even if the ship has poor straight line stability with the fixed rudder, it
can has good straight line stability thanks to the action of the mate / autopilot.

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 11

General
What happens when a ship with fixed direction encounters an
external disturbance? (Related terms)
External disturbance
Straight line stability: Ship
continues to travel with the
new direction

## Directional stability: The ship

continues to the direction,
which is parallel to its original
direction.

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 12

General
Good manoeuvring properties of the ship
Keeps easily the intended direction
(straight line stability)
Turns easily to new direction
The velocity can be changed fast.

## The factors that affect the ship dynamics

External forces
Inertia of the ship
Resistance when turning
Forces given by the propeller and the rudder

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 13

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 14

Equations of motion
On the motion poikittaiskiihtyily

## In-plane motion is assumed when

considering the manoeuvring of
the surface ship

Kiihtyily
Still water condition is applied
typically Mutkailu

Motion components
Sway
Surge
Yaw

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 15

Equations of motion
Co-ordinate system
Fixed to the ship
Right-handed
Positive z-axis points downwards
Origin: the centre of gravity of the ship

## Forces and moments

X: force in the direction of x-axis
Y: force in the direction of y-axis
N: moment around z-axis

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 16

Equations of motion
On the derivation
Derivation is based on Newtons law
mass * acceleration = force
moment of inertia * angular acceleration = moment

(x0,y0,z0):

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 17

Equations of motion
On the derivation
Forces (X0, Y0), moments (N0) and velocities (u0, v0) in the inertia co-
ordinate system need to be expressed in the co-ordinate system that fixed
to ship (x,y,z).

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 18

Equations of motion
Inertia co-ordinate system (x0,y0,z0) Co-ordinate system fixed
to the ship (x,y,z)

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 19

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 20

On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)

## In general, they depend on

Wind, waves, current etc.
Rudder action
Ship motions in relation to the water

Rudder action
Ship motions

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 21

On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)
Assumptions when presenting X, Y, N in Eqs. of motions

Example:

## 2. Each of the components depend on the velocity or acceleration

components of the ship. E.g.:
Y1 is a function of the transversal velocity: 1 =
Y2 is a function of the transversal acceleration: 2 =
Y3 is a function of the angular acceleration: 3 =
3. is approximated with a line. Then and is a
constant (slope of the line). Similarly:
Stability
derivatives
Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 22
On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)
Familiar situation

## Ship advances directly with the fixed rudder.

x-direction: X = total force = resistance + thrust deduction thrust = 0
y-direction: Y=0
Yaw moment N=0

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 23

On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)
Ship moves diagonally
Velocity u in the x-direction
Velocity v in y-direction

## Underwater part of the hull encounters

the flow with the drift angle .

Lateral force Y
points towards the negative y-axis.
acts in the so-called neutral point, whose
location is xN.

Yaw moment

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 24

On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)

Ship has the acceleration = in the y-direction. Example:

Shape of the motion is a sine curve in y-direction
Velocity u in the x-direction.

## The forces and moment depend on

Velocity v
Acceleration

Approximations
For Y and N
For forces and moment caused by angular velocity r, angular
acceleration and rudder angle .

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 25

On forces (X,Y) and moment (N)

Ship has the acceleration = in the y-direction. Example:

Shape of the motion is a sine curve in y-direction
Velocity u in the x-direction.

Equations of motions

Stability
derivatives
u1: original velocity in x-direction
Eqs. are made linear. Valid when are small.

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 26

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 27

Defining the stability derivatives
Stability derivative
presents the linear relation between
Force and Velocity or Acceleration
when the other velocity and
acceleration components are zero.

Ways of defining
Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM)
in model tests
Other options:
computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
full-scale experiments

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 28

Defining the stability derivatives
Defining static derivatives YV and NV
Conducting diagonal towing tests with
different drift angles . (No need for PMM)
What is measured?
The force components X and Y at the bow
and stern.
Moment N
Calculation of static coefficients
Present the changes of X, Y and N as a
function of

Derivatives Y and N
Similar as above. Rudder angle is changed while the drift angle =0.
Derivatives Y and N are the slopes of curves and

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 29

Defining the stability derivatives
Dynamic derivatives: PMM needed

Derivatives and
Can be defined when the model has only transversal motion (sway) and
not yaw.

Derivatives , , and
Can be defined when the model has only yaw motion (no sway)
X, Y and N are measured, when the derivatives can be defined.
The order of magnitude can be estimated as

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 30

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Stability index
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 31

Straight line stability equations
In straight line stability we assume the rudder is not working, d=0
Equations of motions

## Before continuing, lets simplify

1. Surge equation can be dropped, it is independent from the other two
2. , are small when compared to the other terms, thus can be disregarded

Rearranging 1
0 1
= =

0
( )
Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 32
Stability index
1

=

( )

The stability index is the determinant of the matrix. For straight line stability it has
to be greater then zero
( 1 )
>0
( )( )

Inertia plus added inertia and mass plus added mass are positive for definition.
The stability criterion reduce to:

( 1 ) > 0

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 33

Stability index
Consider a situation when the ship has a straight direction and it
encounters disturbances .

Criterion for the straight line stability is that the stability index is positive
Note V=u1

## It means that as the side force caused by the transversal

velocity v affects at the neutral point.
Stability index can be rewritten
It requires that the neutral point locates sternwards from the critical point
where

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 34

Stability index <

MS

## sternward the critical point

Remember that assessing straight line stability, ensure the straight line stability
the ship advances with a fixed position of the
rudder i.e. no rudder action!

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 35

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 36

Effect of the keelAlso known as skeg
reduces
increases

increases
reduces
Critical point move
forward, XN moves
sternward: improved
stability

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 37

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

Rudder action

Rudder action

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 40

Rudder action
The side force at a certain angle of attack

## The point where the rudder force affects: distance

to leading edge when side ratio is large.

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 41

Outline: Manoeuvring

General
Equations of motion
On forces and moment
Defining the stability derivatives
Effect of the keel
Rudder action
Standard tests of manoeuvring

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 42

Manoeuvring: standard tests

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 43

Manoeuvring: standard tests

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 44

Manoeuvring: standard tests

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 45

Manoeuvring: standard tests

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 46

Manoeuvring: standard tests

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 47

Manoeuvring: standard tests

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 48

Manoeuvring: standard tests

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 49

Summary
Explain
Straight line stability
Directional stability
What is typically included to the model of ship manouvring?
How do you define the stability derivatives?
Describe the standard manouvring test.
Action of rudder?

References