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22.3721+74.262.

22
54

54
20082009. .
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, 2009. 70 .: .
ISBN 9785940574842
1-
2009 (711 ) ;
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2008 (911 ).
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22.3721+74.262.22

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. ., . ., . ., . ., . .

http://www.mccme.ru/olympiads/mfo/ (www- ).

20082009. .
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01335 24.03.2000 . . 12.03.2009.
6090 1 /16 . . 4,5 . .
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119002, , , 11.
: (499)2410500, (499)2411237, (499)2417285.
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2 30.10.2003 4072, .

http://www.educom.ru/ru/dialog/olympiads/thesis.php

3
2007/2008
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11-
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Internet
http://genphys.phys.msu.ru/ol/2008

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911 58
( 15 2008 ).

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22.10.07 . 285 286)
2009 .

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1-
2009 .
2009
.
,


(http://www.mccme.ru/olympiads/mfo).


(http://genphys.phys.msu.ru/ol).

5
2008/2009 . . 1-
1 2009 .

7
3 .

1.

(. ).
, ,
,
4
,
.

?
:
48 = 0,8 .

2. , ,
4 = 1 , 0 = 300 .
. 1 , 2
3 . .

: 1 = 2 = 3 = 24 0 = 1,7 .

3. 20 ,
: 12, 5
1 . ,

6
1000 .

,
.

: . ;
2500 = 41 40 .

4.
= 80 = 60 .

,
(. ).
,
, = 12 .
, ,
= 5 . = 1 /3 .
,

7

.
+
: = = 2,5 /3 ; = 1,17 .
+ 2

8
3 .

1. = 5 /
= 100 . .
.
1 = 1 /,
2 = 2 /.
, = 10 ?
:
1 + 2
= = 7500 .
1 2

2.
,
,
( ).
,
,
.
.
, 2
.
1) ,
.
, ?
2)
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= ( ).

8
2) , ,
g( )
= .
4

3. , ,
(. )
:
1) .
2) .
3) .
4) .

, ,
.
:
.

4.
100 2 .
, 10 C.
, , 5%
1
100 2 .
, , .
,
? 2 ,
= 2,1 /( ),
340 /, = 4,2 /( ),
= 0,9 /3 . ,
1 ,
+50 C,

9
,
20 .
: 6 ,
.
( 500 .
23 ,
20 43 .)

9
4 .

1. ,
, ,
.
, g,
() .

4 2
: > arccos 3 .
g 2
,
, > 81,4 .
,
!

2. ,
.
,
. = 21 ,

.
, ,
.
? = 1000 /3 ,
= 790 /3 , = 600 /3 .

: = = 19 .

10
3.
1 = 10 , 2 = 20 , 3 = 40
4 = 80
, , , ,
.
E = 12
= 5 ,
,
.
,
, , ?
?
.
max ,
,

= 5 .

(. .),
= (16/3) 5,33 , max = E 2 /( + )2 7,19 .

4. , ,
, = 1,2
= 0,9 .
, , .
,
.
?

: max = 2 + 2 = 1,5 .

10
5 .

1.
.
. .
? ,
? .

11
.
, ,
3 2
. + .
4 2g

2.
, ,
.
.
,
,
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cos
: = sin g, > .
2

3. ,
, :
,

/2.
< 1, g, 1 .
, ,
? ,
.
: ,

21
g .
2+1

4. = 200
= 20 2 , = 20 ,
= 100 ,
0 = 20 , .
, ,
, . ,
, ,
= 105 , = 900 /3 ,
= 1000 /3 .

12
: , ,

( , ) ,
0 ( )
= 1 32 .
( )

5.
.
, ,
0 ,
0 . ,

, .

1 2

2 2

4
. = 0 .
5
, (. 2, 2, 2):
= 0; 2 4, ||
3, = |
0 |,

0 60 ;

13

=
1 5, || 0 |,
3|

0 30 .

11
5 .

1. 1
, 2 , ,
.
,
= 21 ;

.
= 30 , ,
.
= 1000 /3 , = 790 /3 ,
= 790 /3 . ,
? , , , 1 2
,
, ,
?
. ,
11 10
= = , , 1 = .
21 21
2 2 + 2 2 2
, 2 2 1 2 > 1 2 .
2 1 1

2. U-
, ,
(. ).

,
. ,

(
)
0
: 0 1 + ,
0
0 = 760 . . ,
0

14
, = 0,5. 0
. = 13,6 /3 .
0 0
: 0 = = 380 , 0 = = 760 .
2(1 1) g

3.
+,

.
.
= ,
: ||
30

.

4.
3 , , .
.


: = (1,3 + 5,89) 3,73.

5.
.
,
,
. .

,
.
,
1,5 .
.
: = 1,5.

15
2007/2008 .
2 2008 .

11
5 .
1. .

. = 30
.

:
= 3,5 ,
= 60 . ,
= arctg 1,2 .
?
= 2,4 . ,
.

. ,
,
, .
.
g .
.
,
tg , ,

2
, = ( tg ) 2g.

: tg = .
cos

16


2 2 2g
( cos tg ) = ( tg ) 2g, = 2 2.
(tg ) (cos tg )

, , ,

= .
sin

g2 tg g2
= tg = =
2 sin 2( sin )2

tg 2 (tg2 tg2 cos2 )


= 2,54 .
sin 4 sin2

2. , ,
. 1 2 : 1 = 4 , 2 = 6 .

3 ,
? ,
. , ,
.

. 0 , 1 , 2 , 13
23 (. ). 3:

3 g = 13 + 23 ,

17
1 2:
1 g = 1 + 13 , 2 g = 2 + 23 ,
:

20 = 1 , 0 = 22 .

1 2 ,
0 :
1
13 = 1 g 20 , 23 = 2 g 0 .
2

3, :
5 2
3 g = (1 + 2 )g 0 , 0 = (1 + 2 3 )g.
2 5

1 1
13 = (1 42 + 43 )g 23 = (1 + 42 + 3 )g.
5 5
,
: 0 > 0, 13 > 0, 23 > 0.

1 + 2 > 3 , 1 + 43 > 42 , 42 + 3 > 1 .

, ,
3 ,
: 5 6 3 6 10 .

18
3. ,
, ,

: = 5/3 , = 0,54 104 3 /5/3 .
( ,
)
= 2 1030 . = 6,67 1011 2 /2 .

. ,
.

/2
=
42

(/2) (/2) /2
= 2
=
2 42
= = 5/3 . ,
2
(/2)
= 5/3 .
44


/2
: .
(4/3)3
:
( )2/3
9 3
1/3
1/3
0,9 104 10 .
(/2) 4 (/2)

, 7 105 ,

100000 !

4.
, ,
= 300 .

= 10 . E .

.

19
.
(. . ). ,
. (
).

, 3 , 5 , 6 ,
7 8 , , 7 ,
.
.

;
5 5
= . , E = = = 5 .
3 3

5.

.
(
)

(. ).
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, .
,
.
= = . , .

.
, , .
,
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20
= . ,
(. ).
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,
,
.
,

,
. ,
.
,
= , = = .
:

= . , = ; = ,


= . , = ,
+ + 2

= .
+ 2

21
2007/2008 . . 1-
10 2008 .

7
3 .
1.
.

. ,
3
= 7900 / ,
0 = 9,3 1026 . 0

.

.
. ,
.
.

0 0 0
= = = ,
/ 0
0 = / , ,
.
0 = 0 / 1,18 1029 3 .

2. , ,
3
= 600 / .
, ,
. .
.

. , 1
2 = 1 /2 . /1
2/1 , 2 3/1 .
2 21
= = .
3/1 3
: 1 = 3/2 = 900 /3 ,
2 = 3/4 = 450 /3 .

22
3. , ,
.
3 3, 0 .
.
.
, ?
, .

. ,
.
:
() 2 2 + = 0, = 3;
() 3 2 3 + = 0, = 3;
() 2 2 + 3 3 3 + = 0, = 3.

4. .
,
,
0 = 400 . > 0
?
.
( )
g = 10 / = 10 /c2 . = 1 .

. , = 0
, .
, 0 g
.
,
g. ,
= ( 0 )g = 6 .

5. = 5 3
= 2 . ,

23
, .
. = 1000 /3 ,
= 11300 /3 .

. , ,
g ( ) g
( ),
g /2 ( ) g/ ( ).
, , :
g g
( + )g = + .
2


1000 3 5 106 3 0,5 2 103
2
= = 0,55 .
1000
1 1
11300

8
3 .
1.
,
. ,
= 20 .
, = 20 ,
1 = 16 . = 1
= 12 , .
?
1 2 ? ,
, .

.
1 ; ,
1 1
= = 0,8. .
2
,

, , = .
2 1

24
:

2
= = = 100 .
1 (1 /2 ) 1

,
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
= = 1 = 1 .
1 2 1 2 1

( ) ( )
1
1 = 1 = 60 , 2 = 1 = 1 = 75 .
1 1

2. ,
, (. ).

= 4 = 1
,

= 3 2 = 6 2 .

, ?
.
/g, /g.
,
( + )/g.
, + = ( + ). ,

+
= = 2 .
+

3. ,
= 5 105 /, ,
. .
,
.
? = 1000 /3 ,
= 900 /3 .

25
. ,
, .
, g = g, / = / .
= ,


= = .

, ( )


= = = 0,9 = 4,5 105 /

.

4. ,
. = 1
1 = 20 C,
= 1 ,
. = 5 ,
, , 2 = 60 C.
, ,
.
? = 4,2 /( C),
= 1 /. ,
.

. 20 C 60 C
(2 1 )
0 = = 168 . ,

(2 1 )
= 0 = = 132 c.

9
4 .
1.
, 0 10.
,
0 (. ).

26
. ?
.

. ,
,
, .
,
= 2 ,
.
,
( ) 0.
7
, = . .
24
;
(4; /2). :
7 1
= 4 (4)2 , = .
2 24 24
, ,

27
= 12.
7 1
= 12 (12)2 = 2,5,
24 24
6.
, , ,
,
, ,
1 : 3 : 5 : . . .
,
.
,
, .
, 6-
7- .

2.
(. ).
. .

. g.

.
g
.

g, = + g.
,
, ,
.
.
,
+ g +
= = g.

3.
= 100 ,
= 22,5 , = 1,2 /c.
,

28
, , ,
? ,
= 70
( ) = 50 ,
= 0,7.

.
cos
= 2 = = g.

= sin .
, = ,


g sin 2g cos sin g sin 2
= = = = =


70 10 100 1,2 0,7
2
170 .
0,5 0,7

4. ,
, .
1 2 1 = 1 B
2 = 0,1 B,
= 1 . .
.

.
2 , :
2
= = 0,1 .

.
1 1 / ,
2 2 / , :
1 2
= + .

1 2
= = 0,9 .

29
10
5 .
1.
,
0 = 3 /
.
,
? ,

= 52 .
g = 10 /2 .
.

.
, .


,
= ,
:
2
+ = 0; 0 + = ,
2
= g cos 0

2
0
. = .
2g cos
0
0 = 0 ,
.

2 2
cos = 0 0,87, = arccos 0 30 .
2g 2g

2 sin
= 2 /2, = g sin . = 0 2 30 .
2g cos
, ,
.

30
2.
.

.
, 1 .
2
? ,
g.

.
, .
, g,
A , :

+ A = g.

2 ,
(1 2 )2 .
= 2 ,
= (1 2 )2 g. , + A = 0,

g2
2 = 1 .
g2 +
, (

g2
)

, 6 = 1+ .
1 2 1
.

3.
,
,
1 2
(. ).
0,01 ;
3 1,99 .
, 3, .

? ,
, ,
g.

31
.
g/. , 3,
1 2 200
. 1 2
.
, ,
.
;

:
( g/)2
= 2
2
g
= 0,01 g. 100 .

4.

,
= 1,7 /3 ,
.
= 400 2 ,

= 50 (. ).
= 1000 3 ,
;
= 1,2 . ,
, ,
= 3 . ,
. g = 10 /c2 .

.
+
= + ,

.

. ,
+
, ,
( )

= g = g = g .
+ + ( + )

32
,
.

= g 1,0 103 ,
( + )

,
. :
:
= ( )g = 5 103 > | |. ,
, .

5.


(. ).

. ,
.
.


,
,
, ,
( 4
1, 3 2).
.
,
1 2 ,

2 2 2 2 2 2
1 = + + 2 = + + ,
2 (3)2 (4)2 2 (2)2 (3)2
1
= . ,
40
,
:
2 1 772 772
( )
1 1 1 1
= 1 + 2 = 2 + + + = 2
= .
9 16 4 9 144 40 1442

33
11
5 .
1. 1 2
1 2


.
1 , 2

. 1 ,
2 , .
.

. 2
1 .
, ,
1,
,
2 1
1 = 1 2 = 2.
1 + 2 1 + 2
2,
1 2.
1 , 2
. ,

, = 0
2
.
1 + 2
( )
, 1 2
1 2 .
2
1 2 1 = = 1
1 + 2
1
2 = = 2 , 1 2
1 + 2
. 2
= 2 sin , = 2 cos .

34
.
2 :
= 2 sin + 1 , = 2 cos . = 2/,
2
, :
22
= = 21 = .
1 + 2

,
2:

= = (1 + 2 cos ).

(. ),
2 > 1 ,
1 > 2 .

2
1
1 = arccos
2
1
2 = + arccos . 1 2
2
. 2
,
22 21
(2 ) (1 ) = = 1 2 22 sin = sin ,
1 + 2 1 + 2
1 2
= arccos = arccos . ,
2 1
( )
2 2 2 2 2
= (1 sin 2 ) = 1 2 2 arccos .
1 + 2 1 + 2 1

2. ,
,
. .

. ,
, .

35
,
.
.
.
g.

.
, 0 = /.
, ,
(
). ,

:
2
( )
g
= 2 = (0 ) g = .

;

. , ,

= ( g)/

= 2 = 2( g)/. = g + .
2
.
.
( )
,
2 ( )2
: = + g.
2 2
g
= + ,
2

: = = g + .
2

3. ,
,
. ,
,
.

36
.

- (. ): 12 34
, 23 41 .

123 .

. 12 12 = ;
23 23 = .
34 ,
2 = 3 = max , 1 = 4 = min , 3 = 24 , 1 = 2 , 3 = 4 .
3 = (3 /4 )4 = 24 , 2 = (2 /1 )1 = 21 , 1 1 = 4 4 ;
34 = 4 (3 4 ) = 4 4 = 1 1 = 1 (2 1 ) = .
41 , 14
23 ,
14 23 : 41 = /2.
, ,

= 12 + 23 + 34 + 41 = + = .
2 2
12
23.
3
, ,
2
3 5
: 12 = 1 (2 1 ) + 1 (2 1 ) = , 23 = .
2 2
, 123,
5 7
123 = 12 + 23 = + = .
2 2
1
, = = 14%.
123 7

4. 1
2

,
.

, ,

37
.
, .
,
.
1/3 ,
. 1 /2 .
, .

. , ,
,
(. ).

,
,
= 1 sin 1 2 sin 2 ,

sin 1 = , sin 2 = , 1 2
1 2
1 2 . ,
< 0. 1 sin 1 = 2 sin 2 .
,
1 1 22
= .
2 2 12
,
1 22 sin 2 1
= = .
2 12 sin 1 2

( )3
1 1
= .
2 2
1 2
, .
( )3
1 2
= = 8.
2

38
5.
.

,
(
).
.
g.
. ,

=
2
(. ).

,
.
.
, : g sin = cos .

= g tg = g tg .
2

39
2007/2008 . . 2-
29 2008 .

8
3 .
1. , .
= 36 ,
0 = 14 /c.
= 10 ( , 2, 3, . . .,
) = 1 /.
, ?

. 11 /,
10 3 /,
10 2 /.
.
12 /,
10 2 /,
10 1 /c. 20
30 .
.
,
11 / 12 /. (12 ) /,
0 < < 1. 10
(2 + ) /, 10 (1 + ) /,
10 /.
. 30
10(2 + ) + 10(1 + ) + 10 = 30 + 30 . ,
, 36 > 30 + 30, < 0,2.
, 11,8 /.

2. ,
: :
(. ). , ,
. 1
2 , ?

40
.
(. ). :
1 g,
2 ,
, 2 g.
, ,
, : 3 = 1 g + 2 g,

1
= (1 + 2 )g.
3

, ,
:
2 + ( + ) = 2 g ( + + ).
,
:
1
(1 + 2 )g + (1 + 2 )g = 2 g( + + ).
3
1 2 + 3
= .
2 3 +

3. .
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
.
, ?
= 40 , = 5.

.
,

41
.
, , ,
.
,
, ,
(. ).


0 ,

g. , ,
0 + g,
,
: 0 + g > 0 + g,
> = 2 .
,

. 20%
0
0 = 10 , 0 ,
g
,

= 2 .

4. 1 = 100 C
, 0 = 0 C.
, 2 = 50 C.
?
.

= 4,2 ,
C

42
= 330 /.
.
.

. 1 ,
2 , , .
1 = ( + )2 ,
2
: = .
1 +
,
.
(1 2 ), + 2 ,
(1 2 )
(1 2 ) = + 2 , = .
+ 2
2 + 2
, : = = 0,72.
1 + 1
, 28
.

9
4 .
1.
= 2 ,
= 25 ,
, ,
(. ).

. ,

= 1,2 /c. ?
? ,
, ,
g = 10 /2 .

. .
, , .
g, ,
0 , g,
, 30 . , = 3.

43
,
, g.
1
:
g 3 g 3 3g g
1 = ; = = = .
3
, ; ,
, ,
.

, .

=


, 3 = 0, = .
3
3
= = 5 .

, ,
,
:

( + )2 2
= ( + )g + = 4g + 2 = 2008 .
2 9

2. ,
, ,
(. ).
,
= 18 ,
= 2 .

. ,
.

,
,
( )
= g sin sin ,
2 2

44
= g , ,
,
, = (/) . > 0
, < 0
.
:

2 g
( )
= 2 2 + sin .
2

, > 0 ,
, .

( )
1
= 1 1 ,

.

, ,
.
, cos ,
. ,

( ) ( )
1 2
= 1 1 = 1 5,3 .
2

3. (
= 100 C), 0 . ,
, ,
. ,
0 = 0 C. ,
1 . ?
?
.
, ,
.
.

45
. .
, .

, . ,
0 + 1
1 = 0 + + , = .
1


( + ) = ( + )(0 + 1 ) ,
1
.

( + )(0 + 1 ) = ,
1

= .
+ ( + )(0 + 1 )

(1 ) = 0 + 1 ,
,
.
= (0 1 + ) + + .

4.
(.
).
,

/2,
,
, /2,
,
,
/4.

. ,
, 1 , 2 , ,
.
,
,
.

46

, .
1 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 , 1 2
. ,
, ;
,
.

,
, 12 , 12 ;
, ,
.
:
13
.
20

10
5 .
1. = 30 c
= 3,14 /. ,
.
,
, = 2.
?

47
. = /
, ,

(. ).

,
, , = 2 = 2,
:

sin = = .
2 2
,
1
, , , 0 = arcsin = .
2 6
,
. ,

= 2 (sin ) = 2(sin( + ) sin ) =


( )

= 2 2 cos + sin .
2 2
,
:

2 2 cos = 2 cos .
2

2 cos ,

2 cos
= = = ,
2 cos 2 cos
.

48
, , ,
0
= = = = 5 .
6 6

2. ,
(. ),
,
.
.
;
.

.

. 1 ,
.
,
:

cos g + = 0, sin = 1 .


1
= , = g 1 ctg .
sin
1 .

, (.
). 1 - ,
, 2 - ,
, 1 2
, 1 2 .
: = 1 2

( ), = 1 2
( ), = 1 2 .
,
1 2
=
= 1 2 = .


,

49
. ,

= 0.

. +
:
( ) ( )
+
+ = 0.

,


, , = 0, :


+

= 0.

1 = , 2 = 0

= 2 ,
=
1
2 = 1 sin + cos .

2
, 2 1 sin + cos = 0, 1 = ctg +
.
sin
1
, :
ctg 2 2 ctg
= + , = g ctg2 .
sin sin2 sin

3. 0 = 1 0 = 1
0 C.
,
.
.

. 0
. 0 .
,
= /4 ; 0 = (5/4).
,
(4/5)0 .
.
, : 0 = (3/2)0 0 .
,
max = (4/5)0 = 1,20 0 = 120 .

50
4. -
,
2 , 2, . . . , 2 1 .
.

.

. 0 , 1 , . . .,
1 ; 2 .
1 :
2
, +1 ;


2 (. ):

,
1, 1 , 2 2 .

2 1 2 ,

.
1 2 ,
1+2. ,
0 , ,
(
) 1+2
2 1 . , 1+2

(2 1)

1+2 = . ,

40 2
1+2 ,
1 2
, . ,

51
:

1+2 |2 = |
| 1 |2 + |
2 |2 2| 2 | cos 2 =
1 | |

( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
= + 4 4 cos = 5 4 cos .

,
( ) ( )
2 2 1 2 1
5 4 cos = , = .
40 2

2
40 2 5 4 cos

5. ,
E , = 20 ,
(. ).
= 0 ,
1
2.
.
, ,
, E .
.

52
. , .
1
E
, , , 0 7 c.
2
,
7 10 . .


E = + + .

,
. ,
E
, , = , ,
+

: = = .

()
= 0 ,
E
, .
( + )
, , = 7
, ,
,
E , E .
2
:

0= + .

,
E
, , = , ,

,

: = = .

() = 7 ,
2,
E
.

53
() ,
.
, E 27 ,
E E
18 / 27 /.
( + )
( + ) 1,5 , 1 , 50 10 .
,
.
, -,
,
.
()
( ) ( E 0
) / ,
( + ) , .
,


, E 27 ,
1 = ( + ) 1,5 c 2 = 1 c, .
,

2,7
, 27 10 .

54
11
5 .
1.
= 100 . ,
, = ,
= 0,4 /. . ,

= 3 /, = 0,3 .

. .

.

, | | = .

, || = 2
(. ). ,
= + . , , :

| |2 = ||2 + | |2 = ( 2 )2 + ()2 .


= = 0,2 .
2
() + 2

2. ,
, .
50%?
?

. ,
, (.
): 12 , 23 , 31
. 1 , 2 , 3
1, 2 3 .

, , 2,5,
12
+ = 2,5(2 1 ).

55
1,5, 23
= 1,5(2 3 ).
(1 > 3 ),
> 1,5(2 1 ).
3 3 2
+ > , = 1 + < 1 = = 0,4 = 40%.
5 5 5
, = 40%
. 12
: 2 = 1 . + = 2,5( 1)1 , , 3 > 0,
< 1,52 = 1,51 .
3 3
=1 >1 = 0,4 .
+ 51 5( 1)
, ,
= 40% .

3. -
,
, 2, . . ., .
.
.
. 1 , 2 , . . .,
(. ); .
1 :
2
, +1 ,

2 (. ).

3,
, .

56
,
1, 1 , 2 2 .
2 1 2


. 3
.
1, 2 3 ,
1+2+3. ,
1 , , 1+2+3
1 . 1+2+3

| 1+2 | = . ,
1+2+3 | = |
40 2

1+2 , 1
2
(. ). , :

1+2 |2 = |
1 |2 + |
2 |2 2|
1 | |
2 | cos 2
| =

( )
2 2
= 2 + 2 2 2 cos = 2 2 1 cos = 4 2 sin2 .


, 2 sin = ,= .
40 2
80 2 sin

4.
,
(. ).

,
. ,
,
.
. .

. ,
(. ).
, ,
; ( ; ) ( ; ).

57
.

g
,
2
,

,
.
:
g
+ cos = 0, + sin = 0.
2

,
: ( g )
= + ctg .
2

.
,

(; ) ( + ; + ), = cos ,
= sin (. ).
,
.

= sin = sin = ;
= cos = cos = .

,
, :

= ( ) = ;

= ( ) = .
2
,
:
g +
= + ctg .
2

58
5. = 30
.
,
= 60 ,
= 30 .
?

. ,

,
,
.
(; ) (; ) ,
( ; ) ( ; ).
= 0,
, -
0 0 ;
1 1 1
+ = .
0 0
, >
0, :
1 1 1
+ = .
0 0 +
, :

= .
0 (0 ) 0 (0 + )
, -
2
: = 20 .
0
-
. , , ,
; , ,
, :

= .

, :

= .
0 0 +

59
, :
0
= .
0

,

tg |0 |
= = .
tg 0

tg
, 0 = 0 .
tg
( )
1 tg 1 tg
, : = , 0 = 1 .
0 0 tg tg
tg 1 4 2
= , 0 = = 40 0 = = 20 .
tg 3 3 3

60
2007/2008 .
15 2008 .

(1939 ). 2003

.
2004
. ,
,
911 .

,
, .

.
2 .
(9, 10 11) ,
,
(
2
, ;
1 2 ).

(
) (
, , , ).
,
,
.
,
.
,
, ,
. ,

( ,
).

61
9

9.1. .
. - ,
, 0,1 .
. ,
1,5 , 1 , 1 , 10 ,
39 , .

( !).
,

. ,
(
).
(

1%).
.
1 ( ,
).

0,2 . 1 1000 ,
1 1 .

,
.

- !

9.2. .
. .
.
, 1
3,3 , , ,
.
,
.
.

62
. ,
. ,
( ,
)
.
, ,
. ,
.
.

. ,
, , -
(, )
, .
.
.


.
.

10

10.1. .
. .
. ,
( ,
), ( 4,5 ),
, ,
152 , .

.
50 ,
20 /. 1,5%.

. :
.

63
10.2. .
.
, .
. , 15
,
,
1 ,
, ,
, ( ),
.

.

. .
1. (83 C) ,
.

(23 C) .
, (
150 ) , .

1 2 :
1
(1 + 2 ) = 1 ( + 60 ); 5.
2
2.

.
. ,
, ( )

0 = 1 + 2 .

,
,
.

.
.
.

64
,
( )
( ).
.

,
.
,

. ,
, g.
,
= const.
,
0 :
( ) ( )

1 + 2 0 = 1 + 2 (0 + g).

,
- (,
,
).

.

11

11.1. .
.
, .
. , ,
, 1 , .

, ,
.
5 50 , ,
, ,

0,6 .

65
. ,
.

, ,
,
, 10
.
,
.
,

.
,
, .
,
, .
,
. ,
,
.
, ( ,
), ,

. ,

.
, .
1 . , ,
,
.

. , ,
,
.

66

,
1 ,
(
).
.
2
.
,
.
:
0 0
2 = , 1 = .
/ /

2
(
1 )2 + (
1 )2

,
,
, :

0 0
2 = , 1 = , ,
2 +
2 2

0
2 = , 1 = 0 , .
1
+ 2
2
2

11.2. ,
.
. ,
.
. 42
, , ,
( ), 40 ,
= 0,34 ,

67
( ),
( 4 ).
.1. .
, , g.
.
1 2 . ,
, .
.2. . .
,
. ( )

,
( 25 7 ).

, , .

. ()
III .

:

(2 + 1 )
= .
2 1



: ,
.


.


, .
(
),
.
.
,

68
.
.
, (
) 2
20 ,
5%.


.

. :

, .
,
.
, , :

3 2 =
= .
3
() III
. , ,

,
.

69

3

2008/2009 . . 1- 6
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2007/2008 . 16
11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2007/2008 . . 1- 22
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

2007/2008 . . 2- 40
8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

2007/2008 . 61
9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65