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Chapter 1: Fluid Flow

Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, 5th Edition


by Stephen Hall

This Excel workbook includes Visual Basic for Application function subroutines.
Macros must be enabled for them to work.

The following Text Boxes contain the syntax for the functions.
Copy them to the worksheet where you want to use the functions for ready reference.

Function Subroutines in SI Units

Function NReSI(W, mu, d, Optional ro, Optional Tin, Optional Mw, Optional p)
' W = Flowrate in kg/h
' mu = Viscosity in mPa-s
' d = PipeID in mm
' ro = density in kg/m3 (required for liquid)
' Tin = temperature, deg C (required for gas) - default 20 deg C
' Mw = molecular weight (required for gas) - default 29
' p = pressure, kPa (required for gas) - default 1000 kPa

Function FrictionSI(epsilon, NRe, d)


' epsilon = Surface roughness is in units m
' d = PipeID is in units mm

Function PDSI(W, Pin, Pout, d, L, f, Optional Density, Optional Tin, Optional Mw, Optional Gamma, Optional Isothermal)
' Pressure Drop due to friction in a round pipe (adiabatic for compressible flow)
' with the following arguments
' Specify two of the following three; function will compute the third
' W = mass flow rate, kg/h
' Pin = inlet, or upstream, pressure, kPa
' Pout = outlet, or downstream pressure, kPa
' Pipe properties
' d = pipe diameter, mm
' L = pipe length, m
' f = Darcy friction factor
' Fluid properties
' Density (optional) -- specify for liquids, kg/m3
' Tin (optional) -- specify for gas, inlet temperature, deg C (default to 20)
' Mw (optional) -- specify for gas, molecular weight (default to 29 for air)
' Gamma (optional) -- specify for gas, ratio of Cp/Cv (default to 1.4)
' Isothermal (optional) -- any value results in isothermal compressible calc, if missing then adiabatic calc
ChemEng Software sells an Excel template called PIPESIZE.
www.chemengsoftware.com
PIPESIZE sizes pipes for gases and liquids. It includes a database of properties for piping materials, fluids, roughness values,
and recommended velocities. Order on-line or by telephone, 24-h/d; credit cards accepted.
Function Subroutines in US Units

Function NReUS(W, mu, d, Optional ro, Optional Tin, Optional Mw, Optional p)
' W = Flowrate in lb/h
' mu = Viscosity in cP
' d = PipeID in inches
' ro = density in lb/ft3 (required for liquid)
' Tin = temperature, deg F (required for gas) - default 60
' Mw = molecular weight (required for gas) - default 29
' p = pressure, psia (required for gas) - default 115

Function FrictionUS(epsilon, NRe, d)


' epsilon = Surface roughness is in units feet
' d = PipeID is in units inches

Function PDUS(W, Pin, Pout, d, L, f, Optional Density, Optional Tin, Optional Mw, Optional Gamma, Optional Isothermal)
' Pressure Drop due to friction in a round pipe (adiabatic or isothermal for compressible flow)
' with the following arguments
' Specify two of the following three; function will compute the third
' W = mass flow rate, lb/hr
' Pin = inlet, or upstream, pressure, psia
' Pout = outlet, or downstream pressure, psia
' Pipe properties
' d = pipe diameter, inches
' L = pipe length, feet
' f = Darcy friction factor
' Fluid properties
' Density (optional) -- specify for liquids, lb/ft3
' Tin (optional) -- specify for gas, inlet temperature, deg F (default to 60)
' Mw (optional) -- specify for gas, molecular weight (default to 29 for air)
' Gamma (optional) -- specify for gas, ratio of Cp/Cv (default to 1.4)
' Isothermal (optional) -- any value results in isothermal compressible calc, if missing then adiabatic calc
, Optional Isothermal)

calc
Problem Statement:
Calculate pressure drop per 100 m or 100 ft using the
shortcut formula
SI Units US Units
Inputs
Flow Rate kg/h 10,000.0 lb/h 22,000.0
Viscosity mPa-s 1.2 cP 1.2
Pipe Diameter mm 38.1 in 1.5
Density kg/m3 961.5 lb/ft3 60.0

Output
Delta P Bar/100 m 1.83 psi/100 ft 8.09
Problem Statement:
Calculate Reynolds Number using VBA function call.

Inputs Liquid Gas


Parameter Units Example 1 Example 2
Mass Flow Rate kg/h 10,000.0 1,200.0
Viscosity mPa-s 1.2 0.011
Pipe Diameter mm 38.1 26.6
Density kg/m3 961.0
Temperature C 40.0
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 16.04
Pressure kPa, absolute 2,200.0

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

=NReSI(D8,D9,D10,D11) =NReSI(E8,E9,E10,,E12,E13,E14)
US Customary Units Liquid Gas
Units Example 1a Example 2a
lb/h 22,000.0 2,645.0
cP 1.2 0.011
in 1.5 1.047
lb/ft3 60.0
F 104.0
lb/lbmol 16.04
psia 319.0

#VALUE! #VALUE!

13,E14)
=NReUS(I8,I9,I10,I11) =NReUS(J8,J9,J10,,J12,J13,J14)
Problem Statement:
Calculate Darcy Friction Factor using VBA function call.

Inputs Liquid
Parameter Units Example 3
Mass Flow Rate kg/h 290.0
Viscosity mPa-s 1.2
Pipe Diameter mm 38.1
Density kg/m3 961.0
Temperature C
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol
Pressure kPa, absolute

Pipe Roughness m 0.0000457

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE!

=FrictionSI(D16,D19,D10)
US Customary Units Liquid
Units Example 3a
lb/h 22,000.0
cP 1.2
in 1.5
lb/ft3 60.0
F
lb/lbmol
psia

ft 0.00015

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

=FrictionUS(I16,I19,I10)
Problem Statement:
Calculate Pressure Drop due to Friction

Inputs Liquid Gas


Parameter Units Example 4 Example 5
Mass Flow Rate kg/h 10,000.0 1,200.0
Pressure in (upsteam) kPa, absolute 700.0 2,200.0

Viscosity mPa-s 1.2 0.011


Pipe Diameter mm 38.1 26.6
Equivalent Length of Pipe m 40.0 60.0
Density kg/m3 961.0
Temperature C 40.0
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 16.04
Cp/Cv 1.35

Pipe Roughness m 0.0000457 0.0000457

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Out, given Mass Flow and Pressure in #VALUE! #VALUE!

=PDSI(D8,D9,,D12,D13,D24,D14)

=PDSI(E8,E9,,E12,E13,E24,,E15,E16,E17)
US Customary Units Liquid Gas
Units Example 4a Example 5a
lb/h 22,000.0 3,080.0
psia 101.5 319.0

cP 1.2 0.011
in 1.5 1.047
ft 131.0 197.0
lb/ft3 60.0
F 104.0
lb/lbmol 16.04
1.35

ft 0.00015 0.00015

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE!

=PDUS(I8,I9,,I12,I13,I24,I14)

=PDUS(J8,J9,,J12,J13,J24,,J15,J16,J17)
Problem Statement:
Calculate Flow Rate given upstream and downstream pressures

Inputs Gas
Parameter Units Example 5
GUESS Mass Flow Rate kg/h 1200
Pressure in (upsteam) kPa, absolute 2200
Pressure out (downstream) 1340
Viscosity mPa-s 0.011 Use Goal Seek to find a
Pipe Diameter mm 26.6 the Guessed flow rate (C
Equivalent Length of Pipe m 60 that equals the calculate
(Cell E26). Notice that R
Number is calculated us
Temperature C 40
Guess.
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 16.04
Cp/Cv 1.35

Pipe Roughness m 0.0000457

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE!

Mass Flow, given Pressure in and out #VALUE!

=PDSI( ,E9,E10,E12,E13,E24,E14,E15,E16,E17)

Difference between GUESS and calculated rate, E8-E26 #VALUE!


US Customary Units Gas
Units Example 5a
lb/h 3,080.4
psia 319.0
psia 116
Use Goal Seek to find a value for cP 0.011
the Guessed flow rate (Cell E8) in 1.047
that equals the calculated flow rate ft 197.0
(Cell E26). Notice that Reynolds
Number is calculated using the
F 104.0
Guess.
lb/lbmol 16.04
1.35

ft 0.00015

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

=PDUS( ,L9,L10,L12,L13,L24,,L15,L16,L17)

#VALUE!
Problem Statement:
Compare pressure drop calculations using equivalent length and K-value methods for fittings.

Inputs Liquid Gas


Parameter Units Example 4 Example 5
Mass Flow Rate kg/h 10,000.0 1,200.0
Pressure in (upsteam) kPa, absolute 700.0 2,200.0

Viscosity mPa-s 12.0 0.011


Pipe Diameter mm 50.0 26.6
Length of Pipe m 38.1 60.0
Density kg/m3 961.0 13.6
Temperature C 40.0
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 16.04
Cp/Cv 1.35

Pipe Roughness m 0.0000457 0.0000457

Fittings Quantity
90 deg, welded r/D = 1 6
TEE, through branch (as elbow) 2
Plug valve, straight 2
Swing check, Vmin = 35 ro^0.5 1

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, given Mass Flow and Pressure in #VALUE! #VALUE!

Equivalent length of fittings m 14.80 7.87

Pressure Drop, equiv length method #VALUE! #VALUE!

Mass flux kg/m2-s 1,414.71 599.83


Velocity m/s 1.47 44.25

Fitting pressure loss kg/m2 #VALUE! #VALUE!


kPa #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, 3-K method #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, Crane method #VALUE! #VALUE!


for fittings.

Eq L 3-K Method
total Kf
Ex 4 Ex 5
(L/D)eq Km Ki Kd Total L/D
20 800 0.091 4 120 #VALUE! #VALUE!
20 800 0.28 4 40 #VALUE! #VALUE!
18 300 0.084 3.9 36 #VALUE! #VALUE!
100 1500 0.46 4 100 #VALUE! #VALUE!
296 #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, Pa
Flow Regime Equiv L Crane K 3-K
50 Laminar 0.060 0.043 0.051
100 Laminar 0.120 0.087 0.102
500 Laminar 0.598 0.446 0.525
1000 Laminar 1.196 0.921 1.089
2000 Laminar 2.392 1.960 2.331
10000 Turbulent 41.079 35.508 38.774
30000 Turbulent 284.129 257.934 278.315
50000 Turbulent 716.261 663.917 715.526
70000 Turbulent 1,328.928 1,247.301 1,344.249
US Customary UnitLiquid
Units Example 4a
lb/h 63,000.0
psia 101.5

cP 10.0
in 3.1 3 nominal size
ft 31.5
lb/ft3 112.5
F 127.0
lb/lbmol
Crane

ft Crane K ft 0.00015

0.019213 2.31
0.019213 0.77 #VALUE!
0.019213 0.69
0.019213 1.92 #VALUE!
5.69
Delta P, pipe #VALUE!
Velocity 3.03
f, full turbulence 0.017314983

Leq Crane K 3-K


90 Ell 2 10.23 0.692599 #VALUE!
Branch tee 1 5.11 0.3463 #VALUE!
Swing check 1 25.57 1.731498 #VALUE!
Plug valve 1 4.60 0.31167 #VALUE!
3 x 1 reducer 1 822.68 57.92 57.92
868.19 61.00 #VALUE!

Delta P, comparison #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE! 1
Problem Statement:
Calculate Permanent Pressure Drop Through Orifice
60 m, 38.1 mm ID

Inputs Liquid P0
Parameter Units Example 6
Mass Flow Rate kg/h 10,000.0
P0 Pressure in (upsteam) kPa, absolute 700.0 Pipe Header at 700
Viscosity mPa-s 1.2 kPa absolute
Pipe Diameter mm 38.1
Equivalent Length of Pipe m 60.0
Density kg/m3 961.0
Temperature C
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol
Cp/Cv

Pipe Roughness m 0.0000457


Orifice Diameter mm 19.1

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE!

P1 Pressure out (downstream) kPa, absolute #VALUE!


V1 Velocity through orifice m/s 10.1
Sonic velocity m/s Stolz equation,
Orifice diameter ratio dimensionless 0.5 Radius Taps
C Orifice Coefficient of Discharge dimensionless #VALUE!
r
Y Expansion factor dimensionless 1.0
P2 Orifice discharge pressure kPa, absolute #VALUE!
P3 Permanent Loss kPa, absolute #VALUE!

DeltaP P1-P3 kPa #VALUE!

Result

K flow coefficient dimensionless #VALUE!


Equivalent Length m #VALUE!

Compare equivalent length ratio to pressure drop ratio


Pipe L / Orifice L #VALUE!
Pipe Pressure Drop / Orifice Pressure Drop #VALUE! Close enough, although not perfect
RO
P2
60 m, 38.1 mm ID

P1
P3

e enough, although not perfect


Problem Statement:
Calculate Pressure Drop due to Friction for Water-Steam Mixture

Inputs Steam-Water at Saturated Conditions Water


Total Mass Flux kg/m2-s 1,356.0
Quality Mass Fraction Vapor 0.5
Inlet Pressure Bar 1.01
Pipe Diameter mm 5.0
Equivalent Length of Pipe m 1.0
Pipe Roughness m 0.0000015 (Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m)

Calculations / Property Lookup


Parameter Units Total as Liq Vapor Props Mixture
Cross-sectional area m2 0.000019635
Total Mass Flow Rate kg/h 95.8
Inlet Pressure kPa 101.0
Temperature C 97.4
Viscosity mPa-s 0.28 0.012 0.023
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 18.0
Density kg/m3 998.7 0.6 1.2
Cp/Cv 1.31

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, given Mass Flow and Pressure in #VALUE! #VALUE!

Liquid PD Multiplier phi #VALUE!


phi^2 #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, 2-Phase Flow kPA #VALUE!

10000

1000

1.01 Bar
6.89 Bar
34.4 Bar
68.9 Bar
103 Bar
1000

1.01 Bar
6.89 Bar
34.4 Bar
68.9 Bar
103 Bar
100
138 Bar
172 Bar
207 Bar
221.2
Bar

10

1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

250

200

150

G=33
9
G=13
56

100
150

G=33
9
G=13
56

100

50

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

25

20

15

Awad

10

5
10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Property Correlations for all correlations, t = deg C


Vapor Pressure: log(mm Hg) = A - B / (t+C)
A B C
R12 6.99 918.17 253.38
R22 7.04 850.10 245.18
Water 8.31 1,986.50 268.74
Reference: IPC2004-721

Comparison Case
R12 User inputs are in RED
2,000.0
Temperature, viscosity, and density are
0.9
correlation parameters in lookup table (d
6.00 worksheet). These are affected by the in
50.0 assumed that the temperature is the sat
1.0 the pressure.
0.0000015 m) 0.0000015 (Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m)
Calculations for Re, f, and pressure drop
subroutines -- other worksheets in this w
Total as Liq Vapor Props Mixture subroutines are correct.
0.0019634954 Clicking on the "Re-Run All Inputs" butto
14,137.2 macro that runs the calculation on variou
600.0 inputs, based on the charts in IPC2004-
22.0
0.20 0.013 0.015 It seems like the only way to get a straig
120.9 for Figure 7 (Row 123) is to do the frictio
1,325.3 29.6 32.8 once, then recalculate phi for a range of
recomputing the mixture viscosity and d
1.17

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!

Phi^2
Quality 1.01
0 1
0.03 46.416452917
0.05 73.332287701
0.08 111.1844284
0.11 147.18519503
0.15 193.407243
0.2 249.36525285
0.3 357.76001856
0.6 670.81472045
0.8 875.24415635
1 1078.089605

Phi^2
Quality 339
0 1
0.1 21.653425095
0.2 38.385069488
0.3 53.697372825
0.4 68.238366662
0.5 82.285448021
0.6 95.986127907
0.7 109.4292805
0.8 122.67301809
0.9 135.75760735
1 148.71218525
Phi^2
Quality 2278
0 1
0.1 3.2250195655
0.2 5.3366251276
0.3 7.3866032834
0.4 9.3983608959
0.5 11.384366361
0.6 13.35199619
0.7 15.305947405
0.8 17.249378952
0.9 19.184507397
1 21.112941761
Liquid Viscosity: ln(cP) = A + B / (C+t) Vapor Viscosity: ln(cP) = A + B / (C+t)
A B C
(8.77) 5,134.3 693.01 (9.00) (4,611.86) (1,008.87)
20.79 46,143.5 (2,064.89) (3.47) (278.74) 286.66
4.34 6,927.32 (1,332.33) (4.92) (200.49) (502.57)
User inputs are in RED

Temperature, viscosity, and density are determined from


correlation parameters in lookup table (down at the bottom of the
worksheet). These are affected by the inlet pressure variable. It is
assumed that the temperature is the saturation temperature at
he pressure.

Calculations for Re, f, and pressure drop are performed in VBA


subroutines -- other worksheets in this workbook verify that those
subroutines are correct.

Clicking on the "Re-Run All Inputs" button at cell L35 runs a


macro that runs the calculation on various combinations of
nputs, based on the charts in IPC2004-721.

t seems like the only way to get a straight line (per the reference)
or Figure 7 (Row 123) is to do the friction factor calculations
once, then recalculate phi for a range of qualities (0 to 1) without
recomputing the mixture viscosity and density for each quality.

6.89 34.4 68.9 103 138 172 207 221.2


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8.2246286814 2.481189524 1.724209 1.471297363 1.341214662 1.26543664 1.21338118 1.196944
12.648349219 3.423306769 2.1931 1.779418297 1.565753054 1.44090455 1.354939381 1.327755
18.938059212 4.787807808 2.879825 2.233848908 1.898624121 1.70203456 1.566278589 1.52327
24.952165389 6.108328833 3.550296 2.68027314 2.22725028 1.96085338 1.776471526 1.717971
32.688893582 7.818775751 4.424186 3.265040944 2.659601824 2.302653 2.05503895 1.976355
42.057764239 9.897995236 5.491334 3.982109516 3.191936121 2.72512011 2.400697587 2.297472
60.186021611 13.92653169 7.565445 5.380827356 4.23461845 3.55633082 3.084285707 2.933941
112.37701881 25.49339436 13.52198 9.405154978 7.245188894 5.96923649 5.084696574 4.804169
146.37112572 32.99858782 17.37767 12.00665506 9.191022614 7.53131397 6.385775821 6.024389
180.06197041 40.42083912 21.18376 14.57066284 11.10631356 9.06799534 7.667059217 7.227597

Sonic Velocity

U max =
ZRT
M
489.4987227 m/s

Pipe flow area 0.000019635 m2


Velocity, m/s
1356 5424 Mass Flux Density 339 1356 5424 kg/m2-s
1 1 998.66 0.34 1.36 5.43
22.971645115 24.52214386 5.87 57.75 231.02 924.06 YELLOW = > Mach 0.3
42.057764239 46.41929046 2.94 115.17 460.67 1,842.69 RED > Mach 1
60.186021611 67.86402318 1.96 172.58 690.33 2,761.33
77.835381378 89.1071994 1.47 230.00 919.99 3,679.96
95.199862654 110.2399061 1.18 287.41 1,149.65 4,598.59
112.37701881 131.3042622 0.98 344.83 1,379.30 5,517.22
129.42255839 152.322783 0.84 402.24 1,608.96 6,435.85
146.37112572 173.308745 0.74 459.66 1,838.62 7,354.48
163.24563525 194.2705549 0.66 517.07 2,068.28 8,273.11
180.06197041 215.213833 0.59 574.48 2,297.94 9,191.74
Mass Flux
1
3
5.5
7
8
9.5
11.5
Density: kg/m3 = m t + b Density: lb/ft3 = m t + b Molecular Cp/Cv
m b m b Weight
(3.09) 1,393.40 (0.19) 86.99 120.91 1.170
(3.20) 1,279.33 (0.20) 79.87 86.48 1.250
(1.56) 1,150.42 (0.06) 64.24 18.00 1.310
YELLOW = > Mach 0.3
RED > Mach 1
Problem Statement:
Calculate Pressure Drop due to Friction for R12 at Saturation

Inputs Steam-Water at Saturated Conditions R12


Total Mass Flux kg/m2-s 100.0
Quality Mass Fraction Vapor 0.5
Inlet Pressure Bar 9.40
Pipe Diameter mm 10.0
Equivalent Length of Pipe m 1.0
Pipe Roughness m 0.0000015 (Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m)

Calculations / Property Lookup


Parameter Units Liquid Vapor
Cross-sectional area m2 7.85398E-005
Total Mass Flow Rate kg/h 14.1 14.1
Inlet Pressure kPa 940.0 940.0
Temperature C 39.2 39.16
Viscosity mPa-s 0.17 0.014
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 120.9 120.9
Density kg/m3 1,272.5 43.8
Cp/Cv 1.17
Velocity (assuming avg density) m/s 1.18
Critical Velocity m/s 158.70
Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, given Mass Flow and Pressure in #VALUE! #VALUE!

Lower Bound 0.13


Upper Bound 0.34

Average kPa 0.23


= Pa 231.83

100,000
frictional pre ss ure gradie nt (Pa/m )

10,000

1,000

100

10
10,000

frictional pre ss ure gradie nt (


1,000

100

10

1
10 100 1000
m as s flux (k g/m 2-s )
Reference: IMECE2005-81493

Comparison Case
R12
2,000.0
0.9
6.00
50.0
1.0
0.0000015 m) 0.0000015 (Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m)

Liquid Vapor
0.0019634954
1,413.7 12,723.5
600.0 600.0
22.0 22.05
0.20 0.013
120.9 120.9
1,325.3 29.6
1.31
61.05
163.26

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE!

7.67
12.94

10.30

Quality 0.5

Mass Flux Lower


20 8
80 86
200 425
400 1,431
600 2,909
1000 7,112
Sonic 158.7016

Average Upper Density Velocity, m/s


14 20 84.6277 0.236329
157 228 0.945317
780 1,134 2.363292
2,623 3,815 4.726585
5,333 7,756 7.089877
13,037 18,962 11.81646
Problem Statement:
Calculate Pressure Drop due to Friction for R12 at Saturation

Inputs Steam-Water at Saturated Conditions R12


Total Mass Flux kg/m2-s 100.0
Quality Mass Fraction Vapor 0.5
Inlet Pressure Bar 9.40
Pipe Diameter mm 10.0
Equivalent Length of Pipe m 1.0
Pipe Roughness m 0.0000015 (Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m)

Calculations / Property Lookup


Parameter Units Liquid Vapor
Cross-sectional area m2 7.85398E-005
Total Mass Flow Rate kg/h 14.1 14.1
Inlet Pressure kPa 940.0 940.0
Temperature C 39.2 39.16
Viscosity mPa-s 0.17 0.014
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 120.9 120.9
Density kg/m3 1,272.5 43.8
Cp/Cv 1.17

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, given Mass Flow and Pressure in #VALUE! #VALUE!

dp/dz Pa/m #VALUE! #VALUE!

Fitting parameter p 0.8

Total pressure drop kPa/m #VALUE!


Reference: IMECE2004-61410

water
Comparison Case Reference article, Figure 1
R12 Water-Air
2,000.0 591.0
0.9 0.035
6.00 1.30
50.0 27.0
1.0 1.0
0.0000015 m) 0.0000015 (Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m) 0.0000015 (Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m)

Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor


0.0019634954 0.00057256
1,413.7 12,723.5 1,197.6 20.6
600.0 600.0 130.0 130.0
22.0 22.05 20.0 20.00
0.20 0.013 0.39 0.020
120.9 120.9 18.0 29.0
1,325.3 29.6 1,119.3 1.55
1.31 1.40

#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

kPa/m #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

0.3 This method depends on fitting parameter, p 0.25 This method depends on fitting para

#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE!
rticle, Figure 1

(Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m)

This method depends on fitting parameter, p


Problem Statement:
Calculate Pressure Drop due to Friction for Water-Steam Mixture

Inputs Steam-Water at Saturated Conditions water


Total Mass Flux kg/m2-s 110.6
Quality Mass Fraction Vapor 0.1
Inlet Pressure Bar 14.83
Pipe Diameter mm 38.1
Equivalent Length of Pipe m 30.5
Pipe Roughness m 0.0000457

Calculations / Property Lookup


Parameter Units Liquid Vapor
Cross-sectional area m2 0.0011400918
Total Mass Flow Rate kg/h 392.7 61.3
Inlet Pressure kPa 1,482.8 1,482.8
Temperature C 197.7 197.70
Viscosity mPa-s 0.17 0.014
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 18.0 18.0
Density kg/m3 842.4 6.8
Cp/Cv 1.40

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, given Mass Flow and Pressure in #VALUE! #VALUE!

Lockhart and Martinelli Method


X dimensionless #VALUE!
Phi-liquid dimensionless #VALUE!

Total Pressure Drop, 2-phase kPa #VALUE!


psi/100 ft #VALUE! Branan: 0.49 psi/100 ft
Rukan: 0.28 psi/100 ft

Comparison of Two-Phase Models


R12, 6 Bar pressure, 100 kg/m2-s in 50 mm smooth pipe

0.10

0.09

0.08
a per m

0.07

0.06
Comparison of Two-Phase Models
R12, 6 Bar pressure, 100 kg/m2-s in 50 mm smooth pipe

0.10

0.09

0.08

Pressure Drop, kPa per m 0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

-
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Quality

Comparison of Two-Phase Models


R12, 6 Bar pressure, 5000 kg/m2-s in 50 mm smooth pipe

160

140

120
Pressure Drop, kPa per m

100

80

60

40

20

-
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Quality
20

-
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Quality
Reference: Branan, Rules of Thumb, 4th Edition

Comparison Case Wallis


R12
2,000.0
0.9
6.00
50.0
1.0
0.0000015

Liquid Vapor
0.0019634954
1,413.7 12,723.5
600.0 600.0
22.0 22.05
0.20 0.013
120.9 120.9
1,325.3 29.6
1.31

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE! Phi^2, lo 20.893051


#VALUE! Phi, lo 4.5708917

#VALUE! #VALUE!

Mass Flux Quality Velocity Homog Split


100 0 0.075 0.00 0.00
100 0.1 0.406 0.01 0.01
se Models 100 0.2 0.737 0.01 0.02
50 mm smooth pipe 100 0.3 1.068 0.02 0.03
100 0.4 1.399 0.02 0.03
100 0.5 1.729 0.03 0.04
100 0.6 2.060 0.03 0.05

Homogeneou
se Models
50 mm smooth pipe

100 0.7 2.391 0.04 0.05


100 0.8 2.722 0.04 0.05
100 0.9 3.052 0.04 0.05
100 1 3.383 0.05
10 0.5 0.159 0.003 0.005
50 0.5 0.795 0.051 0.084
Homogeneou
s 100 0.5 1.590 0.176 0.284
Split 200 0.5 3.179 0.613 0.954
Asymptotic 300 0.5 4.769 1.285 1.940
Lockhart 400 0.5 6.359 2.184 3.209
500 0.5 7.948 3.304 4.742
600 0.5 9.538 4.641 6.524
700 0.5 11.128 6.194 8.545
800 0.5 12.717 7.961 10.794
1000 0.5 15.897 12.133 15.951
1000 0 0.755 0 0
1000 0.1 4.062 1 1
1000 0.2 7.370 1 1
1000 0.3 10.678 1 2
0.8 0.9 1 1000 0.4 13.986 2 2
1000 0.5 17.294 2 2
1000 0.6 20.601 2 3
1000 0.7 23.909 3 3
1000 0.8 27.217 3 3
e Models
1000 0.9 30.525 3 3
50 mm smooth pipe 1000 1 33.833 4
2000 0 1.509 0 0
2000 0.1 8.125 2 2
2000 0.2 14.740 3 4
2000 0.3 21.356 5 5
2000 0.4 27.972 6 6
2000 0.5 34.587 7 8
2000 0.6 41.203 9 9
2000 0.7 47.818 10 10
2000 0.8 54.434 11 10
Homogeneou
s 2000 0.9 61.050 13 10
Split 2000 1 67.665 14
Asymptotic 5000 0 3.773 2 2
Lockhart 5000 0.1 20.312 11 11
5000 0.2 36.851 19 18
5000 0.3 53.390 28 25
5000 0.4 69.929 36 32
5000 0.5 86.468 44 38
5000 0.6 103.007 52 43
5000 0.7 119.546 60 48
5000 0.8 136.085 68 51
5000 0.9 152.624 76 51
5000 1 169.163
0.8 0.9 1
0.8 0.9 1
Asymp Lockhart Fluid Inlet Pres Pipe Diam EquivalentPipe Roughness
R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.01 0.02 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.02 0.03 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.03 0.04 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.03 0.05 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.04 0.06 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.05 0.07 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.05 0.08 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.06 0.09 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.06 0.08 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.007 0.011 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.076 0.124 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.272 0.443 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
0.940 1.527 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
1.945 3.157 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
3.273 5.311 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
4.913 7.969 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
6.859 11.123 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
9.105 14.762 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
11.648 18.882 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
17.613 28.542 R22 9.10 10.0 1.0 0.0000015
R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
1 1 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
1 2 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
2 3 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
2 4 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
3 4 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
3 5 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
4 6 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
4 6 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
4 6 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
2 4 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
4 7 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
6 10 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
8 13 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
10 16 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
12 19 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
14 22 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
15 24 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
16 24 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
14 25 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
24 41 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
35 58 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
46 76 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
58 93 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
69 111 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
79 126 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
88 138 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
94 141 R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
R12 6.00 50.0 1.0 0.0000015
pe Roughness
Hashizume's Data
90 0.1
120 0.23
185 0.4
250 1

Comp
R12, 6 Bar pressu

6
ssure Drop, kPa per m

4
5

Frictional Pressure Drop, kPa


4

-
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Q

Comp
R22, 9.1 Bar pre

100.000

10.000
per m
10.000

Pressure Drop, kPa per m


1.000

0.100

0.010

0.001
10
Mass F
Comparison of Two-Phase Models
Bar pressure, 1000 kg/m2-s in 50 mm smooth pipe
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Quality

Comparison of Two-Phase Models


9.1 Bar pressure, 0.5 Quality in 10 mm smooth tube
Lo
A
S
H
H

100 1000
Mass Flux, kg/m2-s
pipe

Lockhart
Asymptotic
Split
Homogeneou
s
Lockhart
Asymptotic
Split
Homogeneou
s

ube
Lockhart
Asymptotic
Split
Homogenous
Hashizume's Data

1000
Problem Statement:
Calculate Pressure Drop Through an Elbow for Different Steam Qualities

Inputs Steam-Water at Saturated Conditions Water


Total Mass Flux kg/m2-s 1,356.0
Quality Mass Fraction Vapor 0.1
Inlet Pressure Bar 6.00
Pipe Diameter mm 50.0
Equivalent Length of Pipe m 1.0
Pipe Roughness m 0.0000015 (Smooth Tube = 0.0000015 m)

Calculations / Property Lookup


Parameter Units Total as Liq Vapor Props Mixture
Cross-sectional area m2 0.0019634954
Total Mass Flow Rate kg/h 9,585.0
Inlet Pressure kPa 600.0
Temperature C 158.3
Viscosity mPa-s 0.21 0.013 0.084
Molecular Weight kg/kgmol 18.0
Density kg/m3 903.7 3.0 29.2
Cp/Cv

Output
Reynolds Number dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Darcy Friction Factor dimensionless #VALUE! #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, given Mass Flow and Pressure in #VALUE!

Liquid PD Multiplier phi #VALUE!


phi^2 #VALUE!

Pressure Drop, 2-Phase Flow kPA #VALUE!

Sonic Velocity

U max =
ZRT
M
475.6

Pipe flow area 0.001963495


Velocity, m/s
Quality Density 5424 kg/m2-s
0 903.75 6.00
0.01 226.40 23.96 YELLOW = > Mach 0.3
0.02 129.41 41.91 RED > Mach 1
0.03 90.60 59.87
0.04 69.69 77.83
0.05 56.63 95.78
0.06 47.69 113.74
0.07 41.19 131.69
0.08 36.24 149.65
0.09 32.36 167.61
0.1 29.23 185.56
0.11 26.65 203.52
0.12 24.49 221.47
0.13 22.65 239.43
0.14 21.07 257.39
0.15 19.70 275.34
0.16 18.49 293.30
0.17 17.43 311.25
0.18 16.48 329.21
0.19 15.62 347.17
0.2 14.86 365.12
0.21 14.16 383.08
0.22 13.53 401.03
0.23 12.95 418.99
0.24 12.41 436.95
0.25 11.92 454.90
0.26 11.47 472.86
0.27 11.05 490.81
0.28 10.66 508.77
0.29 10.30 526.73
0.3 9.96 544.68
0.31 9.64 562.64
0.32 9.34 580.59
0.33 9.06 598.55
Property Correlations for all correlations, t = deg C
Vapor Pressure: log(mm Hg) = A - B / (t+C)
A B C
R12 6.99 918.17 253.38
R22 7.04 850.10 245.18
Water 8.31 1,986.50 268.74
0.0000015 m)

Km Ki Kd
m/s 800 0.091 4

m2 K #VALUE! elbow

#VALUE! kPa
#VALUE!
Pressure Drop Through a DN Elbow

12.00

10.00
#VALUE! Pressure Drop Through a DN Elbow
#VALUE!
#VALUE! 12.00
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
10.00
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE! 8.00
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE! 6.00
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE! 4.00
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
2.00
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE! -
#VALUE! -0.1 -2.77555756156289E-017 0.1 0.2
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
Liquid Viscosity: ln(cP) = A + B / (C+t) Vapor Viscosity: ln(cP) = A + B / (C+t)
A B C
(8.77) 5,134.3 693.01 (9.00) (4,611.86) (1,008.87)
20.79 46,143.5 (2,064.89) (3.47) (278.74) 286.66
4.34 6,927.32 (1,332.33) (4.92) (200.49) (502.57)
Drop Through a DN Elbow
Drop Through a DN Elbow

1 0.2 0.3
Density: kg/m3 = m t + b Density: lb/ft3 = m t + b Molecular Cp/Cv
m b m b Weight
(3.09) 1,393.40 (0.19) 86.99 120.91 1.170
(3.20) 1,279.33 (0.20) 79.87 86.48 1.250
(1.56) 1,150.42 (0.06) 64.24 18.00
Problem Statement:
Compare the Panhandle and Weymouth formulas with the Isothermal gas calculation

Inputs SI Units Value US Units Value


Gas molecular weight 17.4 17.4
Temperature C 37.8 F 100
Pipe diameter mm 102 in 4.026
Pipe length km 32.2 miles 20
Inlet pressure kPa abs 13,700 psia 2,000
Outlet pressure kPa abs 10,300 psia 1,500
Elevation difference m 30.5 ft 100
Efficiency 1 1
Average compressibility factor 1 1

Constants
Base temperature C - F 60
Base pressure kPa abs 100 psia 14.7
Pipe roughness m 0.0000457 ft 0.00015

Calculations
Isothermal Gas Calculation
Reynolds Number 200,000 200,000
Friction factor #VALUE! #VALUE!
Flow Rate kg/h #VALUE! lb/h #VALUE!
Standard volumetric rate MM m3/day #VALUE! MM ft3/day #VALUE!

Intermediate Calcs
Gas specific gravity 0.60 0.60
Average temperature K 311 R 560
Average pressure kPa abs 12,080 psia 1,762
Head correction kPa 49 psi 7

Weymouth
Standard volumetric rate MM m3/day MM ft3/day 10,151

Panhandle A
Standard volumetric rate MM m3/day 402 MM ft3/day 15,110

Panhandle B
Standard volumetric rate MM m3/day 428 MM ft3/day 16,034
n