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ATTRA Alternative Controls

A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.org

By Martin Guerena This publication provides general information on the tiny worm-like organisms called nematodes. It
NCAT Agriculture contains detailed descriptions of the genera of nematodes that attack plants, as well as various methods
Specialist to diagnose, discourage, and manage plant parasitic nematodes in a least toxic, sustainable manner.
© 2006 NCAT

Contents Introduction

Introduction ..................... 1 ematodes are
Symptoms and tiny, worm-like,
Sampling .......................... 4 multicellular
Preventing Further animals adapted to liv-
Spread of
Nematodes ....................... 4
ing in water. The num-
ber of nematode species
Managing Soil
Biology ............................... 5 is estimated at half a
Crop Rotations and mil lion, many of which
Cover Crops ...................... 6 are “free-living” types
Botanical found in the oceans,
Nematicides ..................... 9 in freshwater habitats,
Biocontrols...................... 10 and in soils. Plant-par-
Plant Resistance ............ 11 asitic species form a
Red Plastic Mulch ......... 12 smaller group. Nema- www.insectimages.org
Solarization .................... 13 todes are common
Flooding .......................... 13 in soils all over the Root-knot nematode—Meloidogyne brevicauda Loos
Summary ......................... 13 world (Dropkin, 1980; ©Jonathan D. Eisenback, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
References ..................... 14
Yepsen, 1984). As a
Further Resources ........ 17
commentator in the early
twentieth century wrote: genera and species have particu lar soil and
Web Resources .............. 17
climatic requirements. For example, cer-
Suppliers.......................... 18
If all the matter in the universe except the tain species do best in sandy soils, while
nematodes were swept away, our world would others favor clay soils. Nematode popula-
still be dimly recognizable, and if, as disembod- tions are generally denser and more preva-
ied spirits, we could investigate it, we should find lent in the world’s warmer regions, where
ATTRA—National Sustainable
its mountains, hills, valleys, rivers, lakes and longer growing seasons extend feeding peri-
Agriculture Information Service oceans represented by a thin film of nematodes. ods and increase reproductive rates (Drop-
is managed by the National Cen-
ter for Appropriate Technology
(Sasser, 1990) kin, 1980). In the southern United States,
(NCAT) and is funded under a
grant from the United States as many as ten generations are produced in
Department of Agriculture’s An important part of the soil fauna, nem- one season (Yepsen, 1984).
Rural Business-Cooperative Ser-
vice. Visit the NCAT Web site
atodes live in the maze of interconnected
(www.ncat.org/agri. channels—called pores—that are formed Light, sandy soils generally harbor larger
html) for more informa-
by soil processes. They move in the fi lms popu lations of plant-parasitic nematodes
tion on our sustainable
agriculture projects. /$"5 of water that cling to soil particles. Many than clay soils. This is attributable to
more efficient aeration of sandy soil, fewer wide variety of plant-pathogenic fungi and
organisms that compete with and prey on bacteria. These microbial infections are
nematodes, and the ease with which nem- often more economically damaging than the
atodes can move through the root zone. direct effects of nematode feeding.
Also, plants grow ing in readily drained
soils are more likely to suffer from intermit-
tent drought, and are thus more vulnerable Major Plant-Parasitic Nematode
to parasitic nematodes. Desert valleys and Genera in the U.S. and Associated
tropical sandy soils are particularly chal- Damage to Plants
lenged by nematode overpopulation (Drop-
kin, 1980). • Root-knot nematodes
(Meloidogyne species) form galls
Plant-parasitic nematodes—the majority of on injured plant tissue. The galls
which complete their lifecycles in the root block water and nutrient flow
zone and feed upon the roots—are found to the plant, stunting growth,
in association with most plants. Some are impairing fruit production, and
endoparasitic—living and feeding within causing foliage to yellow and wilt.
the tissue of roots, tubers, buds, seeds, etc. Roots become rough and pimpled
Related ATTRA (Sasser, 1990) Others are ectoparasitic, and susceptible to cracking.
Publications feeding externally through plant walls. A
single endoparasitic nematode can kill a • Cyst nematodes (Heterodera
plant or reduce its productivity, while sev- species) give plants an unthrifty
Integrated Pest
eral hundred ectoparasitic nematodes might or malnourished appearance, and
feed on a plant without seriously affecting cause them to produce smaller-
Sustainable Soil than-normal tops. Foliage is lia-
production (Ingham, 1996). A few spe-
cies are highly host-specific, such as Het- ble to wilt and curl, while roots
become thick and tough and take
Sustainable erodera glycines on soybeans and Globodera
Management of Soil- on a red or brown coloring.
rostochiensis on potatoes (Sasser, 1990).
Borne Plant Diseases
But in general, nematodes have a wide • Sting nematodes (Belonolaimus
Alternative Soil host range. species) are found mainly in the
Amendments South, especially in sandy soils
Endoparasitic root feeders include such
Manures for Organic economically important pests as the root- with meager organic-matter
Crop Production knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species), content. Areas of stunted plants
the cyst nematodes (Heterodera species), are an early indicator. As these
Overview of Cover
Crops and Green and the root-lesion nema todes (Prat- areas grow larger and finally
meet, the plants that were first
Manures ylenchus species). (Sasser, 1990) Important
affected will start to die at the
ectoparasitic root feeders include: root
margins of older leaves.
(Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus), dag-
ger (Xiphinema), needle (Longidorus, • Root-lesion (Pratylenchus
Paralongidorus), ring (Criconemella, Mac- species) cause internal brown-
roposthhonia), stunt (Tylenchorhynchus and ing in potato tubers and in the
Merlinius), pin (Paratylenchus), and spiral roots of corn, lettuce,peas, carrots,
(Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchus, and Scutello- tomatoes, and brassicas.
nema) nematodes. Direct feeding nematodes (Yepsen, 1984)
can drastically decrease a plant’s uptake of
nutrients and water.
Nematodes have the greatest impact on crop
productivity when they attack the roots of Nematode control is essentially prevention,
seedlings immediately after seed germina- because once a plant is parasitized it is
tion (Ploeg, 2001). Nematode feeding also impossible to kill the nematode without also
creates open wounds that provide entry to a destroying the host. The most sustainable

Page 2 ATTRA Nematode: Alternative Controls

©Ulrich Zunke, www.mactode.com ©William Wergin, www.mactode.com
Spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus sp. Pratylenchus sp. larva and egg.

have the
impact on crop pro-
ductivity when they
attack the roots of
seedlings immedi-
ately after seed

©Jonathan Eisenback, www.mactode.com ©Michael McClure, www.mactode.com

Face view of lance nematode, Hoplolaimus sp. Sugarbeet cyst nematode juvenile.

©Ulrich Zunke, www.mactode.com ©Jonathan Eisenback, www.mactode.com

Lesion nematodes penetrating a root. Mononchoid nematode feeding on another nematode.

www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 3

approach to nematode control integrates type of nematode causing damage, and
several tools and strategies, including cover the time of the season. The procedure pre-
crops, crop rotation, soil solarization, least- sented here is a generic sampling technique
toxic pesticides, and plant varieties resistant for annual crops. Soil samples taken in
to nematode damage. These methods work the late summer are best when testing for
best in the context of a healthy soil envi- the presence of nematodes. Root-zone soil
ronment with sufficient organic matter to samples are best taken immediately after
support diverse populations of microorgan- harvest, or just prior to harvest if the crop
isms. A balanced soil ecosystem supports a shows signs of damage. First, fields should
wide variety of biological control organisms be divided into 20-acre blocks with similar
that helps keep nematode pest populations damage, soil texture, or cropping history.
in check. From each block take several sub-samples,
mixing them well to create a single one-
Symptoms and Sampling quart sample for each block. Soil samples
should be kept cool, but not frozen.
Usually, sampling is done because the
grower observes a section of field with Samples for established perennial crops are

t is important to unhealthy plants, or notices an unexplained best taken from the feeder root zone, which
yield reduction. Because nematodes dam- is usually located around the canopy drip
note that spe-
age roots, any condition that stresses the line (Dropkin, 1980). Your county or state
cies of nema- plant—such as drought (or even hot spells), Cooperative Extension Ser vice can provide
tode are present in flooding, nutrient deficiencies, or soil com- names of commercial labs that have nema-
all soils. paction—will tend to amplify the damage tode-identification services.
symptoms noted above. Failure to respond
normally to fertilizers and slower-than-nor- Preventing Further Spread
mal recovery from wilting are signs of nem-
atode infestation. In the undisturbed soil of Nematodes
of groves, turf, and pastures, visible symp- Preventing nematodes from entering unin-
toms of nematode injury normally appear as fested areas is important; under their own
round, oval, or irregular areas in the plant- steam they can spread across a field at a
ing that gradually increase in size year by rate of three feet per year. The following
year. In cultivated land, nematode-infesta- measures will help prevent human-assisted
tions are often elongated in the direction of spread of nematodes to uninfested fields:
cultivation, because nematodes are moved • Use certified planting material
by machinery. (Dunn, 1995)
• Use soilless growing media in green-
It is important to note that species of nem- houses
atode are present in all soils; their mere
• Clean soil from equipment before
presence does not necessarily mean that
mov ing between fields (washing
they are damaging plants. Harmless or
equipment—including tires—with
even beneficial species are found in proxim-
water is most effective)
ity to plants, right along with the parasitic
species. Beneficial nematodes feed on such • Keep excess irrigation water in
pests as Japanese beetle grubs and plant- a hold ing pond so that any nema-
parasitic nematodes, and release nutrients todes present can settle out; pump
into the soil by eating bacteria and fungi water from near the surface of the
(Ingham, 1996; Horst, 1990). An experi- pond; plan irrigation to minimize
enced nematologist can identify species, excess water
and determine which, if any, are responsi- • Prevent or reduce animal movement
ble for the observed damage. from infested to uninfested fields
Nematode sampling techniques vary • Compost manure to kill any nema-
depending on the crop, the root depth, the todes that might be present, before
Page 4 ATTRA Nematode: Alternative Controls
applying it to fields (Kodira and The food-web’s stability is challenged by
Westerdahl, 1995) yearly turning of the soil, which reduces
• Eliminate important weed hosts the numbers of organisms that displace or
such as crabgrass, ragweed, and prey on plant-parasitic nematodes, while
cocklebur (Yepsen, 1984) bringing more nematodes to the surface
from deeper soil. If the same host crop is
planted year after year, plant-parasitic nem-
Managing Soil Biology atodes may increase to damaging levels.
The basis of sustainable nematode con- Root-feeding nematodes are very opportu-
trol is the maintenance of a healthy soil nistic, and are among the fi rst organisms
food-web. This begins with routine appli- to invade after a disturbance. (Dropkin,
cation of organic mat ter. There is substan- 1980; Ingham, 1996)
tial evidence that the addition of organic
matter in the form of compost or manure Keeping these facts in mind, it is impor-
will decrease nematode pest populations tant to actively manage soil biology using
and associated damage to crops. (Walker, minimum-tillage practices, compost, ani-
2004; Oka and Yermiyahu, 2002; Akhtar mal manures, green manures, cover crops,
and Alam, 1993; Stirling, 1991) This and crop rotations. These practices help
could be a result of improved soil struc- promote the growth of beneficial organisms
ture and fertility, alteration of the level of while suppressing plant parasites. Certain
plant resistance, release of nemato-toxins, organisms associated with well-managed
or increased populations of fungal and bac- crop soils—e.g., Rhizobacteria and mycor-
terial parasites and other nematode-antag- rhizae—may induce systemic host resis-
onistic agents. (Akhtar and Malik, 2000) tance to nematodes and to some foliar dis-
Reduced nematode damage from increased eases. (Barker and
organic matter in soil is likely a combina- Koenn i ng, 1998 )
Soil Amendments for Nematode Control
tion of these interaction. Higher organic For further informa-
tion see the ATTRA Some sources of organic matter known to
matter content increases soil’s water-hold- be nematode-suppressive include oilcakes,
publications Sustain-
ing capacity, and supports thriving com- sawdust, sugarcane bagasse, bone meal,
able Management of
munities of the decomposers and predators horn meal, manures, compost, and certain
Soil-borne Plant Dis-
that make up the soil’s “digestive system.” green manures.
eases and Conserva-
Nematodes are important participants in tion Tillage.
this underground energy-transfer system.
Most nematode species can be signifi-
They consume living plant material, fungi,
cantly reduced by tilling in chitinous mate-
bacteria, mites, insects, and each other,
rials such as crushed shells of crusta-
and are themselves consumed in turn.
ceans (shrimp, crab, etc.). This is effective
Some fungi, for example, capture nema-
because several species of fungi that “feed”
todes with traps, sticky knobs, and other
on chitin also attack chitin-containing nem-
specialized structures. (Dropkin, 1980)
atode eggs and nematodes. Increasing the
Nematodes and protozoa regulate mineral-
amount of chitin in the soil also increases
ization processes.
the population of these fungi. A shrimp-
Evidence suggests that between 30 and shell-based fertilizer called Eco Poly 21™
50 percent of the nitrogen present in crop micro shrimp fertilizer is available from
plants was made available by the activity of Peaceful Valley Farm Supply. At 2005
bacteria-consuming nematodes. (Ingham, catalog prices, it would cost between $87
1996) Research in Denmark indicates that and $216 to treat an acre with this product
nematodes convert about as much energy as (the suggested application rate is 20 to 50
earthworms in certain forest soils. (Drop- lbs. per acre). Clandosan™, a nematicide
kin, 1980) Don’t forget, the vast majority made of crab shells and agricultural-grade
of nematodes found in the soil are not urea, can be used as a pre-plant treatment.
plant parasites. It should not be used on plants because
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 5
the amount of urea in it can “burn” or kill tion crop to control peanut root knot nem-
them. (Fiola and Lalancettle, 2000) atode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and southern
root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).
Crop Rotations and Sesame rotation is not effective, however,
for the Javanese root knot nematode (Meloido-
Cover Crops gyne javanica). (Starr and Black, 1995)
Crop rotation to a non-host crop is often ade- Commercial nematode control products
quate by itself to prevent nematode popu- derived from sesame include Dragonfi re™
lations from reaching economically damag- (oil), Ontrol™ (seed meal)—both manufac-
ing levels. However, positively identify the tured by Poulenger USA—and Nemastop™
nematode species to know which plants are (ground up sesame plant) from Natural
its host(s) and non-hosts. A general rule of Organic Products.
thumb is to rotate to crops not related to each
other. For example, pumpkin and cucum- In South Texas, soybean varieties were
bers are closely related and rotating between shown as possible alternatives to grain
them would probably not be effective to keep sorghum in cotton cropping sequences.
nematode populations down. A pumpkin/ Eighteen soybean varieties of matu-

general rule bell pepper rotation might be more effective. rity group 5, 6, 7, and 8 were tested
of thumb is Even better is a rotation from a broadleaf in Rotylenchulus reniformis-infested soil,
to rotate to to a grass. Asparagus, corn, onions, garlic, either nonfumigated or fumigated with 1,3-
small grains, Cahaba white vetch, and Nova dichloropropene. Reproductive rates of
crops not related to
vetch are good rotation crops to reduce root- R. reniformis were compared in the first year.
each other. knot nematode populations. Crotalaria, vel- Both experiments were planted with cotton
vet bean, and grasses like rye are usually in the second year to measure the rotational
resistant to root-knot nematodes. (Wang, et effects of soybean on cotton yield compared
al., 2004; Yepsen, 1984; Peet, 1996) Rota- with grain sorghum and fallow. The high-
tions like these not only help prevent nem- yielding soybean cultivars with potential to
atode populations from reaching economic suppress reniform nematode were “HY574,”
levels, they also help control plant diseases “Padre,” “DP7375RR,” and “NK83-30.”
and insect pests. (Westphal and Scott, 2005)
Allelochemicals are plant-produced com- A 2000-2002 Maryland study evaluated
pounds (other than food compounds) that crop rotations and other cultural practices to
affect the behavior of other organisms in the manage southern root-knot nematodes and
plant’s environment. For example, sudan- lesion nematodes. Researchers grew nema-
grass (and sorghum) contain a chemical, tode-susceptible potatoes and cucumbers,
dhurrin, that degrades into hydrogen cya- and compared the effect of several summer
nide, a powerful nematicide. (Luna, 1993; rotations on nematode problems. A summer
Forge, et al, 1995; Wider and Abawi, 2000) rotation of sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum
Some cover crops have exhibited nema- bicolor x Sorghum arundinaceum var. suda-
tode suppressive characteristics equivalent nense) reduced the root knot nematode pop-
to aldicarb, a synthetic chemical pesticide. ulation as effectively as the control treatment
(Grossman, 1990) (soyabean cultivar with no known root-knot
Farmers in Alabama have added sesame resistance and one nematicide application).
into rotation with cotton, peanuts, and soy- Poultry litter/tillage (Year 1) and fallow
beans. Nematode levels are reduced and (Year 2) were equally effective in managing
yields significantly increased among those the lesion nematode population. To maintain
crops in fields previously planted in ses- the effect, the rotations had to be included
ame. Sesame yields averaged 1500 lbs per annually. Either summer or early-autumn
acre, well above the world average of 500 to sampling dates were more effective than
600 lbs per acre. (Anon., 1997a) Research midspring to identify threshold levels of the
shows that sesame may be an effective rota- pests. (Kratochvil et al., 2004)
Page 6 ATTRA Nematode: Alternative Controls
of glucosinolates. Cover crop seed for mus-
Nematodes and pH tards, rapeseed, and oilseed radish are
Cyst nematodes do not hatch well in very acid available from a variety of sources. Several
soils (pH 4) or alkaline soils (pH 8). They do best Extension Service bulletins describe the use
in soil with a near-neutral pH of 6. This can be of brassica cover crops in greater detail.
used to some advantage. For example, potatoes
may be safest from nematode damage in an acid
soil, while cabbage and beets can be planted in Allelopathic Cover Crops
alkaline soil. But most plants do best at the pH
that favors nematodes. (Yepsen, 1984) Some plants produce allelochemicals that function as nematode-antagonis-
tic compounds, such as polythienyls, glucosinolates, cyanogenic glycosides,
alkaloids, lipids, terpenoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and phenolics, among
Researchers have observed that bras- others. When grown as allelopathic cover crops, bioactive compounds from
sicas (e.g., rapeseed, mustard, oilseed these plants—e.g., castor bean, chrysanthemum, partridge pea, velvetbean,
radish) have a nematode-suppressive effect sesame, jackbean, crotalaria, sorghum-sudan, indigo, tephrosia—are exuded
that benefits the following crop in a rota- during the growing season or released during green manure decomposition.
tion. This “mustard effect” is attributed Sunn hemp, a tropical legume, and sorghum-sudan, a prolific grass plant
to glucosinolate compounds contained in grown for its biomass, are popular nematode-suppressive cover crops that
brassica residues. Toxicity is attributed to produce the allelochemicals known as monocrotaline and dhurrin, respec-
enzymatically induced breakdown prod- tively. (Chitwood, 2002; Grossman, 1988; Hackney and Dickerson, 1975; Quar-
ucts of glucosinolates, a large class of les, 1993; Wang et al., 2002; Williams and Williams, 1990a, 1990b, 1993)
compounds known as isothiocyanates and
nitriles that suppress nematodes by inter-
fering with their reproductive cycle. These
Here are some examples of how bras-
glucosinolate breakdown products are sim-
sica crops are being used to manage
ilar to the chemical fumigant VAPAM®
(metam sodium), which degrades in soil to
methyl isothiocyanate. Glucosinolate com- • Oil radish as a green manure has
pounds are also responsible for the pungent dramatically reduced stubby root
flavors and odors of mustards and horse- nematode (Trichodorus) and root
radish. (Brown and Morra, 1997) Jack lesion nematode (Pratylenchus) in
Brown, PhD, a plant breeder special- Idaho potato fields. (Anon., 2001)
izing in brassicas at the University of
• Oil radish used as a “trap crop” for
Idaho, has released two biofumigant vari-
the sugarbeet cyst nematode exudes
eties, “Humus” rapeseed and “IdaGold”
from its roots chemicals that stim-
mustard, each containing elevated levels
ulate hatching of nema-
tode eggs. The larvae
that emerge are unable
to develop into reproduc-
tive females, reducing
the population densities
for the following crop.
(Hafez, 1998)
• Rape or mustard plant-
ings in rotation with
st rawber r ies have
checked the increase of
some nematodes. (Brown
and Morra, 1997)
• Rapeseed and sudan-
Mustard. Photo courtesy of USDA ARS.
grass green manures
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 7
grown prior to potatoes at Prosser, Henry or little marigold (Tagetes minuta)
Washington, provided between 72 is sold as the “Nematicidal” marigold, but it
and 86 percent control of the root- controls a relatively limited range of nema-
knot nematode in that crop. (Stark, tode species and readers should note that
1995) In the same study, on-farm it is classified as a noxious weed in Califor-
research in western Idaho showed nia. Tomatoes planted two weeks after Afri-
that rapeseed green manures can marigolds (Tagetes erecta) were disked
decreased soil populations of root- into the soil showed a 99 percent reduc-
lesion nematodes to a greater extent tion in root-lesion nematode damage com-
than did sudangrass green manures. pared to a tomato-tomato or fallow-tomato
Fall sudangrass should be plowed rotation. (Grossman, 1999) The French
down after it is stressed (i.e., the marigold cultivar “Single Gold” provided
first frost, stopping irrigation). Win- 99 percent control of nematodes in Dutch
ter rapeseed and canola should be tests. (Ogden, 1997) Burpee Seed Co. has
incorporated in very early spring. carried a French marigold variety known
(Cardwell and Ingham, 1996) as “Nema-gone.” The most effective
ma r igold cu lt iva rs a re those that
germinate quickly, grow vigorously, and
have deep root penetration.
The best rotation to control the Columbia root-knot nematode in potatoes
involves planting a summer non-host crop, followed by a winter cover crop
(rapeseed) incorporated as a green manure. Non-host crops include super- Allies from the Prairie
sweet corn (Crisp and Sweet 710/711), pepper, lima bean, turnip, cowpea,
In Ontario, certain prairie species have been
muskmelon, watermelon, squash, rapeseed, canola, mustard, and sudan-
found to provide excellent nematode control
grass (Trudan 8, Sordan 79). (Ingham, 1990)
when used as a cover crop, including black-
For root lesion nematode control on potatoes, researchers found that forage eyed susan, gaillardia, and switchgrass,
pearl millet (Canadian Hybrid 101) and marigold (Crakerjack) as rotation according to Marvin Pritts, PhD, of Cornell Uni-
crops with potatoes resulted in fewer root lesion nematodes and increased versity. (Anon., 1996) Another North American
potato yields than rotation with rye. (Ball-Coelho et al., 2003) native known as "Indian Blanket” or “Blanket
Flower” (Gaillardia pulchella) was effective
Marigold (Tagetes species) is one of the most in controlling southern root knot nematode
highly studied crops for its ability to sup- (Meloidogyne incognita) on sweet potato.
press nematodes with antagonistic phyto- Tissue extracts of Indian Blanket were lethal
chemical exudates, namely the polythienyls. to various plant-parasitic nematodes but were
Research also demonstrates innocuous to free-living nematodes. Root exu-
dates of Indian Blanket were lethal to mobile
that rhizobacteria living in
juvenals of M. incognita and were inhibitory to
association with marigold
the hatch of eggs at concentrations of 250 parts
roots are suppressive to root
per million or higher. Indian Blanket could be
lesion and other nematodes.
used to manage southern root knot nematode
These multiple effect nema-
as a rotation crop, a co-planted crop, or a soil
tode-control properties can
amendment to control root-knot nematode.
benefit other crops when
(Tsay et al., 2004)
marigolds are grown in rota-
tion. (Sturz and Kimpinski,
2004) African marigold Cover crops exhibit tremendous variabil-
(Tagetes erecta) and French ity in their susceptibility to or suppression
marigold (Tagetes patula) of the four major types of plant-parasitic
are popular ornamentals in nematodes. For example, cover crops that
the horticultural trade with suppress root-knot nematodes may be sus-
several nematode-suppres- ceptible to sting nematodes. It is impor-
Marigolds. ©2006 clipart.com
sive varieties each. (Dover tant to identify the nematode species in the
et al., 2003) Muster John field—and know what their plant hosts and
Page 8 ATTRA Nematode: Alternative Controls
antagonists are—before planning a cover- Botanical Nematicides
cropping strategy.
Certain plants are able to kill or repel
Fields left fallow but kept weed-free pests, disrupt their lifecycle, or discourage
for one to two years usually have an them from feed ing. Some of these—mari-
80 to 90 percent per-year reduction in golds, sesame, castorbean, and various
root-knot populations. (Sasser, 1990) This brassicas—have been discussed previously
host-free period can be achieved in one as nematode-suppressive cover crops. In
season, rather than two years, by disk- this section we will look at plants whose
ing every ten days all summer. While such extracts or essential oils can be applied
disking offers the added advantage to as nematicides.
reduce perennial weeds, it is expensive in
terms of fuel costs, pos sible erosion, and For hundereds of years, Indian farmers have
loss of organic matter through oxidation. used the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) for
(Ingham, 1996). its pesticidal, antifungal, and antifeedant

Botanical Nematicides Producers or Distributors

Beneficial Nematodes
Nitron Industries, Johnny’s Seed, BioLogic, Hydro-Gardens
Steinernema species
Biocontrol Bacteria
Deny, Blue Circle (Burkholderia cepacia) Stine Microbial Products
Rincon Vitova
Activate (Bacillus chitinosporus)
Biocontrol Fungi
Valent USA, Peaceful Valley
DiTera (Myrothecium verrucaria)
MeloCon, BioAct (Paecilomyces lilacinus)
ClandoSan Igene Biotech, ARBICO, Peaceful Valley
Shrimp Shell meal
Botanical Nematacide
Nemastop (Organic extracts w/Fatty acids) Soils Technology Corp
Dragonfire (sesame oil) Poulenger USA
Ontrol (sesame meal) Poulenger USA
Nemagard (ground up sesame plant) Natural Organic Products
Neem cake Monsoon, Peaceful Valley
Armorex (sesame oil, garlic, rosemary Soils Technology Corp
eugenol, white pepper)

Adapted from Quarles, William. 2005. Directory of least toxic pest control products. The IPM Practitioner, Vol. 26, No. 11/12. p. 17.

Nitron Industries Inc. PO Box 1447, Fayetteville, AR 72702; 800-835-0123; Prophyta. Inselstrasse 12, D 23999 Malchow, Poel, Germany;
www.nitron.com www.prophyta.com
Johnny’s Seed. 184 Foss Hill Rd. Albion, ME 04910; 207-437-4301 Igene (PMG) Biotechology. 9110 Red Branch Rd., Columbia, MD 21045;
BioLogic. PO Box 177, Willow Hill, PA 17271; 717-349-2789; 410-997-2599; www.igene.com
www.biologico.com ARBICO. PO Box 8910, Tucson AZ 85738; 800-827-2847; www.arbico.com
Hydro-Gardens, Inc. PO Box 25845, Colorado Springs, CO 80936; Monsoon Neem Products. PO Box 4558, Petaluma, CA 94955; 707-778-6137
800-634-6362; www.hydro-garden.com Soils Technology Corp. 2103 185th St., Fairfield, IA 52556; 800-221-7645
Stine Microbial Products. 2225 Laredo Trail, Adel, IA 50003. 515- 677-2605 Poulenger USA. 3705 Century Blvd. #3 Lakeland, FL 33811;
Rincon Vitova Inc. PO Box 1555, Ventura, CA 93002; 800-248-2847; 1-866-709-8102
www.rinconvitova.com Natural Organic Products. 7105 Rossiter St., Mt. Dora, FL 32757;
Valent USA. PO Box 8025, Walnut Creek, CA 94596; 800 624-6094; 325-383-8252
Peaceful Valley Farm Supply. PO Box 2209, Grass Valley, CA 95945;
888-784-1722; www.groworganic.com

www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 9

properties. In research trials, potting soil vitro against second-stage juveniles (J2 ) of
amended with plant parts from the neem the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incog-
tree and Chinaberry tree (Melia azadirach) nita) and pre-adults of the reniform nem-
inhibited root-knot nematode development atode (Rotylenchulus reniformis). Complete
on tomatoes. (Siddiqui and Alam, 2001) mortality (100 percent) of both nematodes
However, no neem products are currently was found in 500 and 250 parts per mil-
registered in the U.S. for use against nema- lion concentrations of the essential oil and
todes. Margosan-O™, Azatin™, Superneem gradually decreased with lower concentra-
4.5™, Neemix™, and Triact™ are neem tions. (Shakil et al., 2004)
products registered as insecticides, fun-
gicides, and miticides. Neem cake, made Biocontrols
from crushed neem seeds, provides nitrogen Several microbial pathogens have been
in a slow-release form in addition to protect- developed into commercial formulations
ing plants against parasitic nematodes. It against nematodes. These include the bac-
is sold as a fertilizer in the U.S. through teria Pasteuria penetrans (formerly known
many farm and garden supply stores. Neem as Bacillus penetrans), Bacillus thuringiensis

cake can be mixed with fertilizers such as (available in insecticidal formulations) and
ssential oils composted ma nures, seaweed, and kelp. Burkholderia cepacia. Nematicidal fungi
from various Recommended rates are 180 to 360 lbs. include Trichoderma harzianum, Hirsutella
plants have per acre or 2 lbs. per 100 to 160 sq. ft. rhossiliensis, Hirsutella minnesotensis, Verti-
shown promise as (Anon., 1998) Neem cake is toxic to plant- cillium chlamydosporum, Arthrobotrys dacty-
potential sources for
parasitic nematodes and is not as detrimen- loides, and Paceilomyces lilacinus. Another
tal to beneficial free-living soil organisms. fungus, Myrothecium verrucaria, found to
new nematicides.
(Riga and Lazarovits, 2001) In greenhouse be highly effective in the control of nema-
trials, 1 percent neem cake (mass/mass todes (Anon., 1997b), is available in a com-
soil) caused a 67 to 90 percent reduction mercial formulation, DiTera™, from Abbott
in the number of lesion (Pratylenchus pen- Laboratories. Circle One, Inc. offers a
etrans) and root-knot (Meloidogyne hapla) combination of several mycorrhizal fungal
nematodes in tomato roots grown in three spores in a nematode-control product called
different soils. In the field, 1 percent neem Prosper-Nema™. Stein Microbial products
cake (mass/mass soil) reduced the number offers the bacterium Burkholderia cepa-
of lesion nematodes by 23 percent in corn cia in a product called Deny™ and Blue
roots and 70 percent in soil around roots. Circle™. Rincon-Vitova offers a product
(Abbasi et al., 2005) called Activate™ whose active ingredient is
Essential oils from various plants have the bacterium Bacillus chitinosporus.
shown promise as potential sources for (Quarles, 2005)
new nematicides. Most of these plants are The insect-attacking nematode Steinernema
aromatic and culinary herbs that contain riobravis can provide root-knot nematode
the nematicidal compounds carvacrol and control comparable to that achieved with
thymol. At very low concentrations (1000 chemical nematicides (Grossman, 1997).
micrograms per liter, or .001 gm per liter, Although the exact mecha nisms of control
or .0038 gm per gal, or 0.38 gm per 100 are not known, researchers hy pothesize
gal) several oils immobilized juvenile root- that an allelochemical is involved (perhaps
knot nematodes and some also reduced manufactured by symbiotic bacteria that
hatching of eggs. The essential oils from live within S. riobravis) that repels plant-
the following plants ranked the highest for parasitic nematodes. Recent research mea-
nematicidal activity: caraway, fennel, apple- sured the effect of beneficial nematodes on
mint, spearmint, Syrian oregano, and oreg- root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species)
ano. (Oka et al., 2000) The toxicity of the infecting tomatoes and peanuts. In the lab-
essential oil from wormwood or Sweet Annie oratory, peanut seedlings treated with the
(Artemisia annua) leaves was evaluated in beneficial nematodes Steinernema feltiae
Page 10 ATTRA Nematode: Alternative Controls
and Steinernema riobrave showed resistance the feeding cells nec-
to pest nematodes. In the greenhouse, sci- essary for their sur-
entists tested application levels and timing vival fail to develop.
on peanut and tomato plants. On peanuts, Many crop cult i-
pre- and post-infestation applications of vars—tomatoes and
S. feltiae suppressed M. hapla penetration soybeans in particu-
but not egg production. Only pre-infesta- lar—have been spe-
tion applications of S. riobrave suppressed cif ically bred for
M. hapla. The tomatoes were infested with nematode resistance.
Meloidogyne incognita eggs and treated with The “N” designation Soybean plants. http://photogallery.nrcs.usda.gov/
Steinernema glaseri or Heterorhabditis megi- on tomato seed pack-
dis applied at the same times as the tomato ages (usually as part of “VFN”) refers to
treatments. The low rate of S. glaseri sup- nematode resistance. A few cultivars of pota-
pressed M. incognita penetration into tomato toes are resistant to the golden nematode,
roots and the high rate of S. glaseri reduced which is a pest only in a small area of the
egg production. (Pérez and Lewis, 2004) northeastern U.S. Although most cultivars
Those interested in using this biocontrol of potatoes are susceptible to infection by
will need to experiment with application nematodes, some varieties tolerate infection
rates and techniques to develop methods better than others. For example, population
best suited to their operations. Additional densities of root-lesion nematodes (Prat-
information on insect parasitic nematodes ylenchus penetrans) that would affect yield in
is found on the following web site from Ohio “Superior” are tolerated with little effect by
State University: www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ “Russet Burbank.” (MacGuidwin, 1993)
Richard L. Fery, PhD, a geneticist at the
A soil-dwelling predatory mite, Hypoaspis USDA’s Agricultural Research Service in
miles, preys primarily on fungus-gnat larvae Charleston, South Carolina, developed two
but will also attack spring tails, thrips, and nematode-resistant varieties of bell pepper,
nematodes. (Anon., No date) These mites “Charleston Belle” and “Carolina Wonder,”
are available commercially for the control available from commercial seed compa-
of fungus gnats in greenhouse production of nies. (Sanchez, 1997) Charleston Belle and
tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, flowers, and its susceptible parent, “Keystone Resistant
foliage plants. The mites are applied to the Giant,” were compared as spring crops to
planting media. manage the southern root-knot nematode
(Meloidogyne incognita) in autumn-cropped
It is clear that a wide range of organisms cucumber and squash. Cucumber grown in
feed on, kill, or repel nematodes. These plots following Charleston Belle had lower
organisms are most effective, and are found root gall severity indices than in crops fol-
most commonly, in healthy, lowing Keystone Resistant Giant. Cucumber
well-managed soils. yields were 87 percent heavier and num-
bers of fruit 85 percent higher in plots pre-
Plant Resistance viously planted to Charleston Belle than to
Generally speaking, a Keystone Resistant Giant. Squash grown in
resistant cultivar is more plots following Charleston Belle had lower
effective against sedentary endo- root gall severity indices than those follow-
parasitic species such as root-knot and cyst ing Keystone Resistant Giant. Squash yields
nematodes than against “grazing” ectopara- were 55 percent heavier and numbers of
sitic species. Root-knot and cyst nematodes fruit 50 percent higher in plots previously
spend most of their lifecycle within the root, planted to Charleston Belle than to Key-
relying on special ized cells for feeding. stone Resistant Giant.
Upon entering the roots of resistant culti- These results demonstrate that root-knot
vars, these nematodes become trapped as nematode-resistant bell pepper cultivars
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 11
such as Charleston Belle are useful tools yield reduction, but more importantly, the
to manage M. incognita in double-cropping selective pressure favoring the increase
systems with cucurbit crops. (Thies, et al, of the “counter-resistant” bio types is
2004) Nematode-tolerant or resistant culti- removed. As long as the farmer continues
vars of snap beans (“Harvester” and “Ala- to alternate susceptible and resistant culti-
bama #1”), lima beans (“Nemagreen”), vars (and, better yet, incorporate non-host
and sweet potatoes (“Carolina Bunch,” crops into the rotation), the nematodes can
“Excel,” “Jewel,” “Regal,” “Nugget,” and be kept at non-damaging levels.
“Carver”) also exist and may be used in a
similar strategy to reduce nematode levels Transgenic crop resistance to nematodes
for crops that follow. and other pests is being developed for
The choice of nematode-resistant rootstock numerous crops by various companies
for perennial fruit production is important to worldwide. The use of genetically modi-
ensure protection of trees and vines against fied organisms is not accepted in organic
these unseen pests. Consult with a local production systems. For more information
farm advisor to confi rm that the rootstock on this subject see the ATTRA publication
you choose is appropriate for the area. Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants.
Breeding for nematode resistance in most
crops is complicated by the ability of the Red Plastic Mulch
nematode species (primarily cyst nema- Springtime field tests at the Agricultural
todes and root- knot nematodes) to develop Research Service in Florence, South Caro-
races or biotypes that overcome the genetic lina, indicate that red plastic mulch sup-
resistance factors in the crop. In order to presses root-knot nematode damage in
maintain resistant crop cultivars on farms, tomatoes. According to Michael Kasper-
researchers suggest that susceptible and bauer, one of the researchers, “The red
resistant cultivars be planted in rotation. mulch reflects wavelengths of light that
When a nematode-resistant cultivar is
cause the plant to keep more growth above
planted, nematode populations generally
decrease, but over the course of the grow- ground, which results in greater yield.
ing season the few nematodes in a particu- Meanwhile, the plant is putting less energy
lar population capable of overcom ing this into its root system—the very food the nem-
resistance begin to increase. If in the fol- atodes feed on. So reflection from the red
lowing season the farmer plants a suscepti- mulch, in effect, tugs food away from the
ble cultivar, the overall nematode numbers nematodes that are trying to draw nutrients
will still be low enough to avoid significant from the roots.”

Table 1. Nematode-resistant rootstock for perennial fruit

Fruit Rootstock
Apple No commonly used rootstock is completely resistant (Ohlendorf, 1999)
Pears Bartlett, Quince (slight resistance) (Ohlendorf, 1999)
Asian Pear Calleryana (Anon., 2002)
Citrus Poncirus trifoliate, lime, rough lemon, sour orange (Inserra et al., 1994) Forner-Alcaide 5
(Forner et al., 2003)
Grapes Freedom, Harmony, Dog Ridge, Ramsey (Cousins, 1997) VR039-16 (McHenry et al., 2004)
Peach & Nectarines Nemaguard, Nemared, Citation, Hansen 536 (Anon., 2004)
Plums Myrobalan 29-C, Marianna 2624 (Anon., 2004)
Apricots & Almonds Nemaguard, Nemared, Myrobalan, Marianna 2624 (Anon., 2004)
Cherries Mazzard, Mahaleb (Anon., 2004)

Page 12 ATTRA Nematode: Alternative Controls

The research team planted tomatoes in Flooding
sterilized soil, mulched them with red or
In certain parts of the country (e.g., Tule
black plastic, and inoculated the roots
Lake in California) where water is usually
with nematodes. Plants inoculated with
available and water pumping equipment
200,000 nematode eggs and mulched with
and dikes already exist, and for certain
black plastic produced 8 pounds of toma-
toes, while those mulched with red plas- large-scale monocultures (e.g., potatoes),
tic produced 17 pounds. The red mulch flooding is sometimes used as a manage-
is available commercially from Ken-Bar, ment tool to control nematodes. But for most
Inc., of Reading, Massachusetts. farms, it is probably not an option. Flood-
ing the soil for seven to nine months kills
nematodes by reducing the amount of oxy-
Solarization gen available for respiration and increas-
Soil solarization, a method of pasteuriza- ing concentrations of naturally occurring
tion, can effectively suppress most spe- substances—such as organic acids, meth-
cies of nematode. However, it is consis- ane, and hydrogen sulfide—that are toxic to
tently effective only where summers are nematodes. (MacGuidwin, 1993) However,
predictably sunny and warm. The basic it may take two years to kill all the nema-
technique entails laying clear plastic over tode egg masses. (Yepsen, 1984) Flooding
tilled, moistened soil for approximately six works best if both soil and air temperatures
to eight weeks. Solar heat is trapped by
remain warm. An alternative to continuous
the plastic, raising the soil temperature.
flooding is several cycles of flooding (min-
The incorporation of poultry litter prior
imum two weeks) alternating with drying
to solarization, or use of a second layer of
and disking (MacGuidwin, 1993). But note
clear plastic, can reduce effective solariza-
tion time to 30 days. (Brown et al., 1989; that insufficient or poorly managed flooding
Stevens et al., 1990) Brassica residues can make matters worse, as water is also an
are also known to increase the solariza- excellent means of nematode dispersal.
tion effect, in a process known as biofu-
migation. The plastic holds in the gaseous Summary
breakdown products of the brassica crop Each combination of nematode and host is
(or food processing wastes), thereby different. As the nematode population den-
increasing the fumigation-like effect. (Gam- sity reaches a certain level, the host crop
liel and Stapleton, 1993) Large-scale field yield suffers. Some hosts support faster pop-
experiments using cabbage residues with ulation increases than others. Environmen-
solarization obtained results comparable tal conditions can also affect the relative
to solarization combined with methyl bro- dangers posed by nematode populations.
mide (Chellami et al., 1997) (Dropkin, 1980) As we begin to develop a
Solarization is well documented as an better understanding of the complex ecol-
appropriate technology for control of soil- ogies of soils and agricultural ecosystems,
borne pathogens and nematodes, but the more strategies for cultural and biological
economics of purchasing and applying control of nematodes will be developed. The
plastic restrict its use to high-value crops. trick will be fine-tuning these general strat-
Further information on solarization is egies to the unique ecology, equipment, and
available from ATTRA on request. financial situation of each farm.

Soil Steaming
Steaming the soil suppresses nematodes in a manner similar to solarization. There are prototype steam
machines capable of performing field applications, but steaming is probably economical only for green-
house operations or small plantings of high-value crops. (Grossman and Liebman, 1995) For more infor-
mation on steaming, contact ATTRA.

www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 13

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Stevens, C., V.A. Khan, and A.Y. Tang. 1990. Solar Williams, Greg and Pat Williams (eds.) 1990b.
heating of soil with double plastic layers: a potential (Some) plant nutrients repel harmful nematodes.
method of pest control. p. 163–68. In: Proceedings of HortIdeas. June. p. 63.
the 22nd National Agricultural Plastics Congress. Nat.
Ag. Plastics Assoc., Peoria, IL. Williams, Greg, and Pat Williams (eds.) 1993. Wheat
vs. nematodes causing peach tree short life. HortId-
Stirling, G.R. 1991. Biological Control of Plant Para- eas. July. p. 76.
sitic Nematodes. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
275 p. Yepsen, Roger B. Jr. (ed.) 1984. The Encyclopedia
of Natural Insect & Disease Control. Rev. ed. Rodale
Sturz, A. V. and J. Kimpinski. 2004. Endoroot bac-
Press, Emmaus, PA. p. 267–271.
teria derived from marigolds (Tagetes species) can
decrease soil population densities of root-lesion nema-
Page 16 ATTRA Nematode: Alternative Controls
Further Resources Root and Soil Analyses for Nematodes in Corn
Agbenin, N. O., A. M. Emechebe, P. S. Marley. University of Nebraska-Lincoln
2004. Evaluation of neem seed powder for Fusarium www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/plantdisease/g702.htm
wilt and Meloidogyne control on tomato. Archives of How to Take a Soil Sample for Corn Nematode Assay
Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Vol. 37, No. 4. University of Nebraska-Lincoln
pp. 319-326 http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/plantdisease/g492.htm
Budh Ram, and B. L. Baheti. 2003. Management of Cotton Disease and Nematode Management
reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis on cow- University of Missouri
pea through seed treatment with botanicals. Current http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/crops/
Nematology, Vol. 14, No1/2. pp. 27-30. g04261.htm
Hagan, A. K, W. S. Gazaway, E. J. Sikora. 1994. Detecting and Avoiding Nematode Problems
Nematode suppressive crops. Circular ANR-856, Ala- Michigan State University
bama A&M and Auburn Universities. Accessed April http://emdc.msue.msu.edu/Bulletin/PDF/E2199.pdf
2005. www.aces.edu/department/grain/ANR856.htm Nematode Management, Chapter 8
Kiewnick, S, and R. A Sikora. 2004. Optimizing the Vegetable Crop Pest Management, Bulletin E-2160
efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus (strain 251) for the Michigan State University
control of root-knot nematodes. Communications in www.pested.msu.edu/Resources/bulletins/pdf/2160/
Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 2004, ch8.pdf
Vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 373-380.
Scouting for Corn Nematodes
Koenning, S. R., Edmisten, K. L., Barker, K. R., Bow- Iowa State University
man, D. T., and Morrison, D. E. 2003. Effects of rate http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/
and time of application of poultry litter on Hoplolai- IPM53S.pdf
mus columbus on cotton. Plant Dis. 87:1244-1249.
The Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Guide
Morris, J. B. and J. T. Walker. 2002. Non-traditional North Central Soybean Research Program
legumes as potential soil amendments for nematode www.planthealth.info/scnguide/index.html
control. Journal of Nematology, 2002, Vol. 34, No. 4.
pp. 358-361. Marigolds as Cover Crops
Department of Entomology & Nematology, University
Tiyagi, S. A. and Ajaz Shamim. 2004. Biological con- of Florida
trol of plant parasitic nematodes associated with chick- http://agroecology.ifas.ufl.edu/marigoldsbackground.htm
pea using oil cakes and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Indian
Journal of Nematology, Vol. 34, No1, pp. 44-48. Nematode Suppressive Cover Crops
Alabama Cooperative Extension
Web Resources http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-0856/
Nematode Management in Commercial Vegetable
Production Nemaplex: The Nematode-Plant Expert Information
University of Florida System
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/NG/NG00400.pdf A Virtual Encyclopedia on Soil and Plant Nematodes
The Phase out of Methyl Bromide Department of Nematology, University of California
US Environmental Protection Agency http://plpnemweb.ucdavis.edu/nemaplex/
www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr/ *Biological Control of Nematodes
The Sting Nematode *Cultural Manipulations for Nematode Management
Kansas State University *Host Plant Resistance (HPR) Against Nematodes
www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/plant2/L817.pdf *Chemical Ecology of Nematodes
Nematodes: Management Guidelines Plant Nematode Problems and their Control in the
for Kansas Crops Near East Region
Kansas State University FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 144
www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/plant2/samplers/MF1063.asp www.fao.org/docrep/v9978e/v9978e00.htm
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 17
Soil Organic Matter, Green Manures and Cover Crops Oregon Cover Crops: Sudangrass and Sorghum-
for Nematode Management Sudangrass Hybrids
University of Florida Oregon State University
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/VH/VH03700.pdf http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/EM/
Management of Nematodes with Cowpea Cover Crop EM8703/EM8703.html
University of Florida Columbia Root-Knot Nematode Control in Potato
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN516 Using Crop Rotations and Cover Crops
Natural Enemies of Nematodes Oregon State University
The Biological Control of Nematodes - Nemabc http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/EM/
http://sacs.cpes.peachnet.edu/nemabc/NemaBC.htm EM8740/EM8740.html
The Ectoparsitic Nematodes of Illinois Mechanisms of a Sunn Hemp Cover Crop in
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Suppressing Nematodes
www.ag.uiuc.edu/~vista/abstracts/a1106.html University of Florida, Department of Entomology
Lesion Nematodes and Nematology
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign http://agroecology.ifas.ufl.edu/cover%20crop%20mechan
www.ag.uiuc.edu/~vista/abstracts/a1103.html isms.htm
The Soybean Cyst Nematode Problem
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Suppliers
www.ag.uiuc.edu/~vista/abstracts/a501.html Peaceful Valley Farm Supply
Insect Parasitic Nematodes P.O. Box 2209,
Ohio State University Grass Valley, CA 95945
www2.oardc.ohio-state.edu/nematodes/ (888) 784-1722
Cover Crops: Marigold
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Jack Brown, PhD
Affairs PSES Department
www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/cover_crops01/ University of Idaho,
marigold.htm Moscow, ID 83844-2339
Oilseed Radish: A New Cover Crop for Michigan (208) 885-6276
Michigan State University W. Atlee Burpee & Company
http://web4.msue.msu.edu/veginfo/abstract. Garden Rd.,
cfm?show=209 Warminster, PA 18077
Knowledge Expectations for Pest Control Advisors: (800) 888-1447
Department of Nematology, University of California Circle One International, Inc.
http://ucdnema.ucdavis.edu/imagemap/nemmap/ 18744 Titus Rd.,
Ent156html/kenem/kenem.html Hudson, FL 34667
Take Cover from The Elements: Brassica http://www.circle-one.com
Cover Crops
American Vegetable Grower, March 2004 Michael J. Kasperbauer, ARS Coastal Plains Soil,
www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3869/is_200403/ Water, and Plant Research Laboratory
ai_n9367877 2611 West Lucas St.,
Glucosinolate-Containing Seed Meal as a Soil Amend- Florence, SC 29501-1242
ment to Control Plant Pests, 2000-2002 (803) 669-5203
University of Idaho for National Renewable Energy (803) 669-6970 (fax)
Laboratory Ken-Bar, Inc.
www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/35254.pdf 25 Walkers Brook Dr.
Oregon Cover Crops: Rapeseed P.O. Box 504,
Oregon State University Reading, MA 01867-0704
http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/EM/ (617) 944-0003
EM8700/EM8700.html (800) 336-8882
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www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 19

Nematode: Alternative Controls
By Martin Guerena
NCAT Agriculture Specialist
© 2006 NCAT
Paul Driscoll, Editor
Amy Smith, Production
This publication is available on the Web at:
IP 287
Slot 113
Version 041106

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