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N .B . The diagrams heading the several pages are designed to show how the principles and letters are to be adjusted to the ruling,

also to indicate the analysis o f the letters.


m a rk s p a r a lle l t o ea ch oth er.
F ir s t p rin cip le. WML
W rite th e p r in c ip le s a n d letters, e x c ep tin g r and s,
O b liq u e S traight L in e. C o m m e n c e at th e u p p er ru led lin e a n d k e e p the
within th e w ide s p a c e s a s in th e diagram . C o u n t 1, 2, 3, 4, l, 2, 3, 4, etc.
A H th e c u r v e s in th is b o o k , con stitu tin g letters o r p a r ts o f letters a n d c o m m e n c in g on th e b a s e line, a r e sin g le a n d o f th e s a m e length.
Right Curve. Left Curve.

S e c o n d P r in c ip le R igh t C u rv e. Third P r in c ip le L e ft Cu rve.

C o m m e n c e b oth o f th e s e o n th e lo w e r r u led line O b s er v e ca refu lly th eir f o r m s an d a d ju st them c lo s e ly to th e ruling as in th e diagram . C ou n t 1, 2, / 2, etc.
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In th e dia g ra m s f o ll o w i n g stu d y th e a n a lysis o f th e letters.

The figures in th e diagrams indicate th e Principles. Make letters without shade. C o u n t I , 2 , I , dot.
Th e S e c o n d P r in c ip le ( y ) is p r e fi x e d t o th e F irst ( / ) j o in in g it a t the to p a n d then a ffix e d to the s a m e b y a
s h o r t co n n e c tin g cu r v e a t th e b a se. Th is cu r v e w e c a ll th e lo w e r tu rn ; it o c c u p ie s a b o u t o n e -s ix th o f a s p a c e . S e e s e c o n d p a g e o f o u r c o v e r f o r f u l l exp la n a tion .

A A / A,u / A,A / AcA./ A A,'/ A A, A.A, A,A. A,A./


i

A Ac A

1 _ J ________
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Study the Diagrams and learn how to adjust the letters to the ruling.
1/ 4 / fj /
W idth o f u o n e s p a c e . S eco n d P r in c ip le unites with f i r s t a t to p a s in i, w, and a. M a k e th e turns
in u i un iform , s p a c e s eq u a l , stra ight tin es p a ra llel. C a u tio n : a v o id u n eq u a l s p a cin g , th u s M X ; d ifferen t sla n t, th u s m u . C o u n t f o r u i 1, 2, 3 , 4, l , 2, I , dot.
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Analysis o f w.

W rite with a c a r e fu l m ov em en t.
7 C ount f o r iw I , 2 , 1, 2 , 3 , 4, 5, d o t 1, dot.
W id th o f w o n e s p a c e a n d a half. T u rn s in i w alik e. A / v 2 Straight lin es p a r a lle l a n d eq u a lly distant.
F in ish th e w with a s m a ll d o t a n d th e S e c o n d P r in c ip le in h o r iz o n ta l p o s itio n . A v o i d u n lik e turns, thus M U ; a lo o p in w in s te a d o f a d ot, th u s M y .

A u 1 Ayu 7 A
/ /' A At A a / A Va /
A,A 7 A, 7~A. /
yf.At A At.T /

1
1

________ i_____ ............. i n _____ !


6
Analysis o f n.

W idth o f n o n e sp a c e . T h ird P r in c ip le ( S ) unites the F irst ( / ) a t to p b y a s h o r t cu rv e c a lle d the


/
u p p er turn. I t again un ites a ngu larly with th e s a m e at E2 3 /2Z b a se. T h e u p p er turn o c c u p ie s s a m e s p a c e a s l o w e r turn.

M a k e stra ig h t lin es in n i p a r a lle l a n d eq u a lly sp a c e d , turns u n iform ly a lik e. Th e a c c u r a c y o f this c o p y m ay b e te s te d b y inverting it. C o u n t f o r n i I , 2, 3, 4 , 1, 2 , I dot.

7 ? u 7
u
772
U
/ 7? u 7
7 2 u Y /? U
' 7 72 U 7 t 7 i& Y U
7 7 2 7 /2 yi

H
7
Analysis o f m .

W idth tw o sp a c e s . U p p er turns s a m e as in n . T h ird P r in c ip le un ites with f i r s t a t b a se. C u rv e lin es s a m e in length. A v o id

u n lik e turns, s lo p e a n d sp a cin g . T h e aim , in th is c o u r s e o f p r a c tic e , s h o u ld b e to m a k e ea ch s u c c e s s iv e w o rd a n d lin e b e a r d istin ctly th e sta m p o f im p rov em en t. C o u n t l , 2 , 3, 4, 5, 6, I.
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Analysis o f x.

T h ink a n d write. C o u n t 1, 2, I , C ro ss.

M a k e th e turns e x a c tly a lik e b oth at to p a n d b a se, a n d as s h o r t a s p o s s ib le with con tin u o u s m otion .

C r o s s u p w a rd with a stra ig h t line through m id d le o f F ir s t P r in c ip le on s a m e s la n t with th e c u r v e lin es. S e e that th e u p p er a n d lo w e r turns a re s h o r t an d alike.

'/ /A 1 2 y ffty V / f t '//fty A ftA ftV Jf t f t


y A ft f t / V / f t 'AftV /A "'/A
/ft ftft

______ S__________
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Analysis o f v.

/V ^ 4^ / /
PP/'cM f r o m turn to d o t h a l f a sp a c e . . _ j ____ !______ _____ t/ftper and /owar turns alik e.

D o t a n d fin is h s a m e a s in w . B e c a r e fu l n o t t o m a k e th e o p e n in g t o o w ide a t th e to p , thus A S : th e s id e s u n eq u a l in height, thus /* - . C o u n t I , 2, 3, d o t 1.

V 7
4 b a a A '9> . t j b V /A 9 1 7 A rA F V A ,A //s A
T A A A 9/s
f
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Analysis o f o.

W idth o n e -th ir d o f th e length. O p p o s ite s id es eq u a lly W i i>yyi


V Y /. A c u r v e d a n d c lo s e d a t the top . C a u tio n : a v o id m akin g th e letter

t o o rounding, th u s & ; a n d lea v in g it o p e n a t th e to p , th u s CT . C o r r e c t r e p resen ta tio n o f f o r m s in v o lv es c o r r e c t p e r c e p tio n o f th em ; th e r efo r e , th in k w hen y o u w rite. C o u n t I, 2, 3.


II
Analysis o f a.

W idth o f a o n e sp a c e . Slant th e o v a l s a m e as S eco n d zd. P r in c ip le in w . C u rv e th e left s id e f u l l e r than th e right.


R ight cu r v e in au u nited with stra ight lin e at to p throughout. In stra ight lin es p r e s e r v e u niform ity o f sla n t an d spacin g, a n d a v o id lea vin g th e a open a t th e top . C o u n t fo r au 2 , 1 , 2 , 1, 2, 2 , 4 , 1 .
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Analysis o f e.

W idth o n e -th ir d o f sp a ce. L o o p tw o th ird s o f length.

L e ft cu r v e s a m e a s in o a n d c . Turn s h o r t a s p o s s ib le a t to p a n d b a s e w ith ou t stop p in g . A v o i d t o o f u l l a cu r v e o n th e left, w hich m a k e s t o o w id e a lo o p , th u s . . C o u n t I , 2, I.

/ / / / X 7 '<A\ AA A /A / A
J a ? 'a A A A A
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A n a ly s is o f c.
i
W idth h a l f a sp a c e . O v a l turn at to p o c c u p ie s on e -th ir d
o f s p a c e f r o m u p p er line. L o o p tw o -th ird s th e heigh t s a m e a s e . T u rn s a b o v e a n d b e lo w sh ort. C a u tio n : a v o id m a k in g th e to p t o o large, thus & . C o u n t I , 2 , 3, 4, I.
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A n a ly s is o f r.
/.3 rt
W idth h a l f a sp a c e . C a rry S e c o n d P r in c ip le o n e-fo u rth o f a s p a c e a b o v e u p p er line. M a k e a s m a ll d ot, a n d j o in

th is with a slig h tly c u r v e d s h o u ld e r to th e F irst P rin cip le. L o w e r turn a s in i. A v o i d m a k in g a l o o p at to p , thus A ; th e letter t o o n a rrow , thus / , . C ount l, 2, 2, I.
IS
Analysis o f s.

W idth h a l f a sp a ce, S e c o n d P rin cip le


o n e -fo u r th o f a s p a c e a b o v e u p p er tine. D o w n w a r d line \A z fa i/ J d iv erg es f r o m to p o f S e c o n d P r in c ip le , and, a fter th e turn,
term in a tes in a d o t o n e -fo u r th o f a s p a c e a b o v e to w e r line. C a u tio n : a v o id l o o p a t to p , thus ^ S e c o n d P r in c ip le s h o u ld n o t lean t o o f a r to th e right, t h u s ^ f . C o u n t l , 2 , 3 , d o t 1.
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W rite w o rd s w ith ou t lifting th e p e n . O b s e r v e th e in clin a tion o f th e left s id e o f a ,

th e height o f r a n d its p e c u lia r sh ou ld er. P u p ils s h o u ld f o r m th e h a b it o f criticisin g th eir o w n w riting. C o u n t f o r a ir 2, l , 2, l , 2, l , 2, 5, I , dot.


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P a s s with a sin g le cu r v e lin e d irectly u n d er


th e d o t in th e s , an d s o c o n n e c t it with th e e as in th e c o p y , n o t thus . M a k e a ll th e letters h e r e , a s else w h e r e, v ery light. C o u n t l , 2, 2, d o t 1, 2, I , 2, I.
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S tu d y ca refu lly e v e r y p a r i o f e v e r y letter e v e r y P r in c ip le en g a g ed in its p r o d u c tio n . C o u n t 1, 2, 3, 4, I , 2 , I.

y //y y U /y u y u y y m //Au y //U y


u yy y //u y
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M a k e to p o f c s m a ll a n d T h ird P r in c ip le slig h tly cu rved . Th e d o t o f i s h o u ld b e s m a ll a n d n ea tly m ade. S ec u r e c o r r e c tn e s s o f fo r m , height, sla n t a n d spacin g. C o u n t l , 2, 1, 2 , 3 , 4, l , 2 , I.


f /
u a t^ i #
/ &/ y & /
w , tf,

-----
*

- - - - - -

l_ _ _ _l ... nE zn
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M a k e th e turns u n iform in x a n d v ,
c r o s s x with an u p w a rd m ov em en t. M a k e v o n e - h a l f s p a c e . Study ca refu lly h er e , a s else w h e r e, e v e r y p a r t o f e v e r y letter. C o u n t f o r x l , 2 , 1, c r o s s ; f o r v l , 2 , 3, d o t 1.
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O b s e r v e h o w th e o a n d w a r e c o n n e c te d b y S e c o n d P r in c ip le

in h o r iz o n ta l p o s itio n . C l o s e o a t to p . S traight lin es a n d d o t in w s h o u ld alw a ys tou ch u p p er line, n o ! thus /U / -. C o u n t I , 2, 3, I , 2 , 3 , 4, 5 , d o t 1.


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S ee that th e c u r v e d lin es in u a r e p a r a lle l a n d o f th e s a m e length. O b s e r v e th e heigh t a n d w idth o f th e s , a n d the f o r m a n d p o s itio n o f th e d ot. C o u n t 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2 , 3, d o t I.


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O b s e r v e p a rticu la rly h o w a n d w h ere the c u r v e a n d stra ight lin es unite;

a ls o th e e q u a l s p a c e s b etw een stra igh t lin es w hen c o n n e c te d b y sin g le cu rv es. W rite this c o p y s o that it w ill b e a r th e te st o f in v ersion . C o u n t I, 2 , 3, 4, l , 2, l dot.
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H e r e n o te e s p e cia lly th e turns, sla n t a n d sp a cin g . M a k e th is p a g e th e b e s t in th e b o o k . Th e la st e ffo r t s h o u ld a lw a y s s h o w d e c id ed im p ro v em en t o n a ll th e f o r m e r .


T h is c o p y c o m b in in g o n ly stra ight lin es, is in ten d ed a s an e x e r c is e p r o d u c in g a f r e e m o v e m en t o f th e f o r e -a r m ,

with th e h a n d slid in g o n th e n ails o f th e 3 r d a n d 4th fin g e r s . L in e s un ite a t t o p an d b a se, f o r m i n g s h a rp angles. T h rou g h ou t

this b o o k , c o m b in a tio n s s h o u ld begin a t lo w e r left c o r n e r, b e w ritten through with c o n tin u o u s m otion , a n d e n d in u p p er rig h t co r n e r. C o u n t I , 2 , l , 2 , I.
2 The diagrams fo u n d on pages 2 and 2 are designed to show how the letters are to be adjusted to the ruling.

Th is c o p y (i, u a n d w ) c o m b in e s F ir s t ( / ) an d S e c o n d )P r in - cip les. T h e S e c o n d un ites angu larly with F irst a t the top . D o t the i o n e

s p a c e a b o v e its to p o n th e reg u la r slant. F in ish w with a s m a ll dot, an d S e c o n d P r in c ip le in h o r iz o n ta l p o s itio n . W rite th e letters e x c ep tin g

r a n d s w ithin th e n a rrow sp a c e s . C a u tio n ; a v o id u n lik e turns, t h u s A U , ; u n eq u a l sp acing, t h u s A C A ; d ifferen t sla n ts, thus A cl . C o u n t l , 2, l , 2 , /, 2, 3, 4, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, d o t l , d ot, dot.

:r

T l -----------------

i !

r4"
3

T h e n c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 3, I , 3, I , 2. T u rn s a lik e a t to p an d b a se. T h e cu r v e co n n e c tin g u with n is

f o r m e d f r o m a c o m b in a tio n o f S e c o n d an d T h ird P r in c ip le s , and is c a lle d a c o m p o u n d cu rv e. W h er ev er it c o n n e c ts letters, th e d ista n ce

b etw een th e stra ig h t lin es is o n e a n d on e -th ir d s p a c e s . W rite lightly. D iffe r e n t sla n ts m a k e th e w o rd a p p ea r, th u s s ? u i m / . C o u n t 1, 2, 3 , 4, l , 2 , 3, 4, 1.

/ 7 / 7 7 J
For fu ll explanation o f figures see second page o f cover.

T h e m c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 3, i , 3, I, 3, I , 2. S traight tin es p a r a lle l a n d eq u a lly sp a c e d . C u rv e lin es s a m e length a n d sla nt. D o t th e i a fter the c o m b in a tio n is w ritten. In i an d u a v o id
uniting th e S e c o n d a n d F irst P r in c ip le s t o o lo w d ow n , t h u s /c u ; o r rou n d in g th eir to p s , th u s / W l s . C o u n t 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, l , 2 , I , 2 , 3, 4, l dot.
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Turn in n, x a n d v, a l to p a n d b a s e th e s a m e, i .e . , a s s h o r t a s p o s s ib le with con tin u o u s m o tio n . T h e x
c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 3, I , 2 , 1. The v c o m b in e s 3, ! , 2 , 2. A f t e r th e c o m b in a tio n is written, fin i s h x b y beg in n in g a t th e b a s e lin e, c r o ss in g u pw ard th rou gh m id d le o f

F ir s t P rin cip le, with a stra ig h t line, on th e s a m e sla n t with cu rv es, a n d en d in g at u p p er line. F in ish v s a m e a s w . C o u n t I , 2, 3, 4, 1, 2 , l , 2, l , 2, 3, d o t l , c r o s s , c r o ss .
In th e ev en n u m b ered c o p i e s th rou g h ou t th e b o o k , e x c e p t c o p y 8 th e 1st, 3 r d a n d 5th d ow n s tr o k e s at to p tou ch th e u p p er an d v ertica l lines,

l.e. a p p ea r in c o r n e rs , as p e r diagram p a g e 2. S m all o f o r m e d b y a u nion o f P r in c ip le s 3, 3, I , width o n e -th ir d o f length. O p p o s ite s id es eq u a lly c u r v e d a n d c lo s e d

a t top . T he o s j o i n e d with S e c o n d P r in c ip le in h o rizo n ta l p o s itio n . A v o i d the f u l l cu r v e a t the left sid e, thus g T . C o u n t I , 2, 3, etc.
7

Th e ruling o f th e o d d n u m b e r e d c o p i e s at th e begin n in g o f th e c o m b in a tio n s, reg u la tes th e sp a cin g , height, a n d s la n t o f the letter o r its f i r s t

p a r t a s p e r diagram p a g e 3. T h e letters m u st a lw a ys tou ch u p p er a n d lo w e r lin es, c o m m e n c in g a n d en d in g in c o r n e rs . T u rn s a t to p a n d b a s e a r e o n e -six th

o f a sp a c e . C o u n t I , 2, 3, 4, l , 2, l , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, l , dot.
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The a c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 3 , 3, 2, I , 2.

T h e T h ird P r in c ip le j o i n s th e o v a l o n e -fo u r th s p a c e f r o m th e u p p er line, m e a s u r ed vertica lly. G iv e th e o v a l an in c re a s e d inclin a tion an d un ite t o S e c o n d a n d F irst P r in c ip le s at top.

M a k e th e F irst P r in c ip le s on reg u la r slant. A v o i d t o o f u l l cu rv es, thus /CL ; lea vin g a o p e n at top , th u s XO; a l o o p a t to p , thus . C o u n t l , 2 , 3 , 4, 1, etc.
S traight lin es eq u a lly s p a ced , e x c e p t b etw een i a n d m , w h ere the c o m p o u n d c u r v e o c c u r s, w hich in c re a s e s th e d ista n ce o n e -th ir d sp a c e . A v o i d u n lik e sla n ts in straight lines,

thus / l A m x , ; lifting th e p e n b etw een letters a n d p a r ts o f letters, th u s / C U / m . . C o u n t I , 2, S, 4, I , 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, l , dot.


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F o r c o m p le te a n a lysis s e e T h eo r y o f S p en ceria n P e n m a n s h ip ."

The e c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 2, 3, 2, L o o p tw o-th ird s th e length. L e ft cu r v e s a m e as in c and o. S p a c es eq u a l. A v o i d t o o f u l l c u rv es, th e r eb y p r o d u c in g t o o large lo o p s ,

th u s M ; t o o m uch sla nt, t h u s ^ . Stam p im p ro v em e n t u p on e v e r y lin e. C o u n t l , 2, l, 2, etc.

yZZZZZy syyyyyyA /y y y y

n
i
-

l
i
11

W ith c a r e fu l m o v e m en t w rite w ord s w ith ou t lifting th e p e n . M a k e th e letters high en ou g h to f i l l th e s p a c e s b etw een th e r u led lines.

E a ch p u p il s h o u ld h a v e a c o r r e c t m en ta l c o n c e p tio n o f th e f o r m o f e v e r y letter. C o u n t 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1, 2 , 1, 2 , 3, 4, 1.

S j

t-

______________ i 1

______________ i
L ______________ L _
12

T he c c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 2, 1, 2, 2, 2. O v a l turn a t to p o c c u p ie s o n e-th ird s p a c e . L o o p tw o-th ird s its heigh t s a m e as in e . S p a ces eq u a l. A v o i d to o large o v a l a t to p ,

th u s , a r o u n d b a ck , thus J 2 ; a stra ight b a ck , thus . C o u n t 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, & repeat.

<

-A / s / s

----------- 1
13

O b s e r v e ca refu lly th e o v a l to p o f c ; th e in c re a s e d sla n t o f p o in t e d o v a l in a : th e d o u b le c u r v e co n n e c tin g a a n d m . P u p ils s h o u ld f o r m th e h a b it o f con sta n tly criticizin g th eir writing.

C o u n t 1, 2 , 3, 4, l , 2 , 3, 4, I , 2 , 3, 4, 5, 6, I.

y Y
A A A 7 ,/
14

T h e r c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 2, 1, 2. R is e o n e a n d o n e -fo u r th s p a c e s with S e c o n d P r in c ip le ; d r o p d o w n w a rd with a slig h tly c u rv ed sh ou ld er, an d c o n n e c t with F ir s t P r in c ip le . A v o i d g ivin g

t o o m u ch width to th e r , thus / t ; t o o f u l l cu r v e t o the s h o u ld e r , thus / C ; m a kin g lo o p , thus / c C o u n t l , 2, 3, & repeat.


15

S traight lin es eq u a lly d ista nt e x c e p t b etw een i a n d n . B e c a refu l to m a k e th e r o f p r o p e r heigh t a n d width. A m i d g ivin g t o o m u ch sla n t to its f i r s t cu rv e, t h u s ^
o r m a kin g sh a rp sh o u ld er, thus . C o u n t I , 2 , 3, 1, 2, 3, 4, l , 2, l , 2, 3, 4, l , dot.
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T h e s c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 2, 3, 2 , 3 ; c o m m e n c e s a n d fin i s h e s with r cu rv e. O cc u p ie s o n e a n d o n e -fo u r th s p a c e s in height. Its d o t r ests on th e f i r s t cu r v e o n e-fo u rth

s p a c e a b o v e th e ru led line. N e v e r lo o p it at top , thus ^ ; o r m a k e it t o o wide, t h u s ^ d / . C o u n t l , 2, 3 d o t & repeat.


17

C o u n t f o r s o m e 1, 2 , 3 d o t 1, 2 , 3, 4, 1, 2 , 3, 4, 5, 6, I.

N o ti c e th e jo in in g o f s with o , a n d o f o with m . D o t s in p r o p e r p l a c e a n d c lo s e o a t top. T hink, th in k a n d w rite. C o u n t 1, 2, 3, d o t l , 2 , 3, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 1.

R Jc 'S ; t /
18

T h e t c o m b in e s S e c o n d a n d F irst P r in c ip le s . T h e F irst P r in c ip le o c c u p ie s tw o s p a c e s in height a n d is o n th e reg u la r slant.

T h e S e c o n d P r in c ip le j o i n s F irst o n e s p a c e f r o m b a s e line. C r o s s it o n e -th ir d its length f r o m th e to p with a stra ig h t h airlin e, in h o r iz o n ta l p o s itio n a n d in length, e q u a l to

o n e sp a c e . C a u tio n : A v o i d u n lik e turns, thus A U - ; d ifferen t sla n ts, t h u s Z i t . C o u n t I , 2 , 3, 4, l , 2, l , 2 , 3, 4, 1, 2 , I , c r o s s , dot.


19

Th e d c o m b in e s P r in c ip le s 3, 3, 2 , 1, 2. F ir s t pa rt tik e a. F in ish lik e t w ithout c r o s s . D o n o t sla n t F irst P r in c ip le in d t o o m uch, thus A * ? o r m a k e p o in t e d o v a l t o o

f l a t on th e left sid e, thus J . . A v o i d u n lik e sla n ts in F irst P r in c ip le s , t h u s / C & n r v . C o u n t l , 2 , 3, 4, I , 2 , I , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, l dot.

_y , _ __
y .
___________ ;

__

_____________
1

.......

r . .... ........ J
r
20

In m Third Principle m ite s with First angularly at base. A void grasping the pen too tightly. Count I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, I, 2, I, 2, 3, 4, 3, dot 1.
21

M ake true curves, and smooth straight lines, which will give a neat appearance. Count 1, 2, S, 4, 5, 6, 1, 2, S, 4, I, 2, l, cross.
22

Criticise your own work. Be sure you are right, then go ahead. Count I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, l, 2, I, 2, 3, 4, l, 2, 1, dot.
23

I gain every time I take pains with my line. Diligence ensures success. Count l, 2, 3 dot 1, 2, 3, 4, I, 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, /, dot.

'2 ^ Z 4 S n //t

------------- 1


---------------1

1 _________________ _____________________
24

D e c id e d e ffo r t w ilt m a k e y o u r la st p a g e th e b est. A d o p t th e m o tto I w ill s tr iv e to e x c e l, a n d im p ro v em e n t is su re. C o u n t l , 2, 2, 4, 5, 6, l , 2, l , 2, 3, l , 2 , I.


T h e fig u r e s a c co m p a n y in g th e letters in d ica te th e P r in c ip le s u s e d in th eir c o n s tru ctio n : th e fr a c t i o n s s h o w th eir p r o p o r tio n s , a n d th e s p a c e m a r k 0 is used to denote equal spaces.
S econ d P rin cip le j o in s F irst a t to p with sha rp angle. Width o f u, o n e sp a ce. S econ d P rin cip le jo in in g F irst W idth o f wo n e a n d o n e - h a l f s p a c e s . T u rn s a t b a s e a s in ua n d
F in ish ed with S e c o n d P r in c ip le jo in in g F irst a t b a s e a t to p . T u rn s a t b a s e a lik e. Straight lin es p a r a llel. ' F in ish w w ilh a s m a d d o t an d S e c o n d P r in c ip le in h o r iz o n ta l
with s m a ll turn. D o t the i o n e s p a c e a b o v e th e letter C u rv es sim ilar. C o u n t I , 2 , S, 4, l. p o s itio n . C o u n t 1, 2 , 2, 4, 5, d o t 1. In co m b in a tio n s , c o u n t

on reg u la r sla nt. C o u n t l , 2 , l , d ot. o n e f o r f i r s t a n d la st lin e o f e a c h letter.

/ / .
2

W idth n , o n e s p a c e ; T h ird P r in c ip le W idth tw o sp a c e s . U p p er tu rn s as in W idth f r o m turn to d o t o n e -h a lf sp a ce. Join P rin cip les 3 , 1 , 2, m aking turns at
un ites with F ir s t a t to p b y a s h o r t n . T h ird p r in c ip le j o i n s F ir s t a t b a se. Turn a lik e a t t o p a n d b a se. D o t a s in to p a n d b a s e a lik e. C r o s s u p w a rd with

cu rve ca^ uP P e r tu rn ; a l b a s e : b y a C r o s s sim ilar. E q u a l s p a c e s b etw een w - FuH cu rv e a s 'n m - A v o i d turns to o a stra ig h t line through m id d le o f F irst
sh a rp angle. D o n o t p a s s b e y o n d s p a c th e stra ight lin es in m . C o u n t I , 2, 3, large. C o u n t l , 2 , 3 , d o t l . N o ti c e P rin cip le on sa m e slant as cu rved lines.
ing with u p w a rd line. C o u n t 1, 2, 3, 4. 4, 3, 6, 1. h o w j o i n e d in co m b in a tio n . C o u n t I , 2 , l , c r o ss .

^ z ^ 2 ^ r z y 1
3
Th is diagram s h o w s h o w th e letters a r e to b e a d ju sted t o th e ruling.
W idth on e -th ir d its length, e q u a l to o n e - h a l f sp a c e . S id es e q u a lly c u rv ed 3
3 ~jy
//
W idth o f a , o n e sp a c e . S lant o f o v a l s a m e a s S e c o n d P r in c ip le o f u.
an d c lo s e d a t top . L in e s jo in in g s m a ll o s, s h o u ld h a v e a sligh t cu rv e. _ z2 _______ V - / / __________ j C u rv e o f left s id e f u ll e r than th e r. F in ish with u on p r o p e r slant. Study

O n e s p a c e b etw een the letters in c o m b in a tio n s o o o . C o u n t /, 2, 3, 1. > th e c o m p o u n d c u r v e s in co n n e c tin g th e a s . C o u n t l , 2, 3, 4, l .


2 / f
J v

PC/v ,
4

W idth on e-th ird spa ce. L eft o f e slightly L e ft o f c c u rv ed tik e e o r o . S m a ll turn H eig h t o n e a n d o n e -fo u r th sp aces. H eig h t o n e a n d o n e -fo u r th spaces.
curved. L o o p tw o-thirds its length. at to p eq u a ls o n e -th ir d o f heigh t o f let W idth o n e -h a lf sp a ce. F irst cu r v e rises W idth o n e - h a l f s p a c e . R ig h t s id e c o m -
Turn s h o r t a t b a se. C o u n t 1, 2 , 1. ter. W id th o n e - h a l f s p a c e . C o u n t 1, 2, t o f u l l height. S h o u ld er f o r m e d with a kJ t- L P und curve, ending with d o t one-fourth
A v o i d t o o g rea t cu r v e o n left. 3 , 4, 1. A v o i d t o o large turn a t to p o f slig h t d o u b le c u r v e a n d r ests a t height s p a c e a b o v e b a s e lin e, o n f i r s t cu rv e.
c. o f s p a c e . C o u n t 1, 2, 3, 1. C o u n t 1, 2, 3, d o t 1.


..............................................


-------------------- ----

_____________________________________1____________________________________ .............................................

_______________ i____________________________________
5

This c o p y is a rev iew o f a ll p reced in g .

T u rn s a t to p o f m a n d b a s e o f u eq u a l. W h e r e sin g le c u r v e c o n n e c ts letters th ey s h o u ld b e s p a c e d eq u a lly. N o ti c e th e j o in in g o f a , x a n d o , o f v a n d e . O b s e r v e sla nt. L e t th is c o p y

c o m b in e a ll th e e x c e lle n c e s o f th e p r e c ed in g . W h e r e a c o m p o u n d cu r v e c o n n e c ts letters , th e d ista n ce b etw een them is o n e a n d o n e -th ir d sp a c e s .

/? y z y if
F irst P r in c ip le , in t, tw o s p a c e s high, with reg u la r turn a t b a se. S e c o n d P r in c ip le j o i n s F irst F irst o f d s a m e a s a; fin is h sam e as t w ithout c r o s s . C ou n t
a t heigh t o f o n e s p a c e . C r o s s t a t o n e -th ir d its length f r o m to p , with a stra ig h t h o r iz o n ta l o n e - I , 2 , 3, 4, l .

th ird o n left tw o -th ird s o n right o f F irst P r in c ip le , in length o n e sp a c e . C o u n t l , 2 , I , c r o ss .

s it e / & y y iy y z y z /
S e c o n d P r in c ip le un ites with F irst at top . F irst P r in c ip le tw o s p a c e s F irst p a r t s a m e a s a . F irst P r in c ip le e x ten d s o n e a n d o n e - h a l f s p a c e s

a b o v e a n d o n e a n d o n e - h a l f b e lo w b a s e line. F in ish lik e m . C o u n t l, b e lo w ru led line. M a k e s h o r t turn a t b a se, a n d fin is h with c o m p o u n d

2 , 3, 4, 1. cu rv e. C o u n t l , 2, 3, 4, I.
8
T he F ou rth P r in c ip le o r lo o p , c o m b in e s right a n d left c u rv es an d O n e s p a ce in width, three in height. L o o p s a m e a s in h. A t heigh t o f o n e -h a lf
stra ig h t lin es. C a rry right cu r v e u p th r e e s p a c e s . M a k e s h o r t turn F inish lik e n . A v o id sla nting l o o p s s p a c e cu rv e u pw ard to the right three-fourths
t o th e left. D e s c e n d with a sligh t left cu r v e tw o s p a c e s , an d fin is h t o o m uch, t h u s ^ f . C o u n t l , 2, s p a c e , d e s c e n d with right c u r v e o n e-fo u rth
with stra ig h t line. L o o p o n e -h a lf s p a c e in width. 3, 4, 1. s p a c e a n d fin is h lik e i. C o u n t 1, 2 , 3, 4,

5, I.

. /> / . /? /> . 0 /z
Jn y y .Jn y y Jn y y Jn , c* 1 ~ 11 . .
f .
F ou rth P r in c ip le in l ha s s h o r t turn a t b a s e a n d term in a tes with a L o o p lik e 1 . F in ish tik e s m a ll w . B e tw ee n lo o p a n d d o t o n e - h a l f sp a c e .
right cu r v e a s in i. C o u n t /, 2, I. A v o i d t o o f u l l lo o p s , thus M . C o u n t I , 2, 3, d o t 1.
10
S e c o n d P r in c ip le c o m b in e s with th e in v erted F ou rth at top . F r o m The y is an in v erted h . S e c o n d B egin s a s a a n d d . F in ish es lik e j . P o in te d

to p t o b a s e th r e e sp a c e s . L o o p tw o-th ird s o f length, c r o s s in g on P r in c ip le angularly with F ou rth at o v a l j o i n s F ou rth P r in c ip le at top. A v o i d

ru led line. F in ish with right c u r v e to height o f i o n e s p a c e to the top . R ig h t cu r v e term in a tes o n e t o o m u ch sla n t, thus y g . . C o u n t l , 2 , 3,

right. C o u n t l , 2, I , dot. space to right o f stra ig h t line. 4, 1. r

C o u n t 1, 2 , 3, 4, 1.
B eg in z li k e f i r s t p a r t o f s m a l l n. F in is h with an in v e rte d lo o p b eginn in g F o u rth P r in c ip le, d irect, a n d F o u rth in v erted . L en g th 3 s p a c e s a b o v e a s in
with a s h o r t urn. T h e T w o p a r t s jo i n an g u larly on r u led lin e. C o u n t l , 2, 3. h a n d k. L o w e r lo o p is r e v e r s e d a n d s a m e w idth a s to p lo o p , its right cu rve
uniting with s tra ig h t lin e o n e - h a lf s p a c e a b o v e b a s e lin e a n d fi n i s h e s with
th e right cu rv e 1 s p a c e right. C ou n t I , 2 , 3, I.
12
P r in c ip le F iv e th ree s p a c e s high; its width w ith ou t sh a d e o n e - h a l f its sla n t

height. C u rv e th e in n er left a n d th e right lin es a lik e. M a k e d ista n ce b etw een


th e tw o left c u r v e s e q u a l t o o n e -fo u r th d ista n ce b etw een th e in n er left an d
right cu rv es.

O (Q
U p p er s e c tio n o n e -th ir d length o f th e letter u n ited to to w e r b y a lo o p slanting

dow n w a rd s. F in ish with o v a l tw o s p a c e s high. M a k e th e f o u r left c u rv es

p a r a lle l in slant. F irst cu r v e h a l f way b etw een S e c o n d a n d T h ird an d th ree-

f o u r th s s p a c e in length. A lin e d ividin g th e tw o s e c tio n s eq u a lly, tou ch es

right o f lo o p .
13

B egin with c o m p o u n d c u r v e : f o r m h o r iz o n ta l lo o p a t b a s e sim ila r t o e: its length eq u a ls o n e s p a c e . F in ish with P r in c ip le F iv e o n reg u la r sla n t. W idth o f letter
m ea su red on r e v e rs e sla n t e q u a ls s i x tim es th e d ista n ce b etw een th e tw o left c u rv es. B rin g b a s e o f o v a l to o n e - h a l f s p a c e o f r u led line. A lin e through c e n ter o f

letter o n reg u la r sla n t d iv id es the o v a l a n d lo o p in to th e e q u a l p a rts.


E x te n d S e c o n d P r in c ip le u p w a rd th r e e s p a c e s , turn a t to p f o r m i n g a lo o p , o f E x te n d f i r s t c u r v e u p w a rd f iv e - s ix t h o f heigh t o f letter. B rin g s e c o n d cu rv e
s a m e s iz e a s in s m a ll l. F in ish with con tra ctin g 0 at b a se. F r o m begin n in g o f d ow n to m id d le o f letter. M a k e lo w e r an d u p p er l o o p s e q u a l in length. Finish
f i r s t cu r v e to p o in t w h ere b a s e o f o v a l to u c h e s ru led lin e is o n e an d o n e - h a l f as c. M a k e s p a c e b etw een tw o p a r t s o f th e letter e q u a l t o o n e -h a lf width
s p a c e s . A lin e draw n on reg u la r sla n t, f r o m to p o f l o o p to u c h e s th e term inating of u. M a k e l o o p a t beg in n in g o f letter, s p a c e s o n ea ch s id e o f it, a n d l o o p s
cu r v e a t its m id d le p o in t. at b a s e a n d to p e q u a l in width.
Seventh P rincip le. S ee diagram f o r p r o p o r tio n s. Join the 7 ^ S ev en th P rin cip le a s in x . L a st p a r t like in verted _ C u rv e la st lin e o f S even th P r in c ip le to w a rd s th e left,

tw o s e c tio n s o f th is lette r in th e m id dle. M a k e lo o p o n / '? J ) < 7j l, c o n n e c ted t o ca p ita l l o o p b y s m a ll l o o p rising f'/ j) bringing its term ination d irectly o n th e sla n t o f th e in n er

left a n d o v a l o n right on reg u la r sla nt. F o r m l o o p with ' 'V ( y * o n e -h a lf height o f i. L a st lo o p ex ten d s 2 s p a c e s * > , ^ left c u r v e o f th e lo o p a b o v e a n d u n d er it. M a k e l o o p at

e q u a l s p a c e s o n e a c h sid e. F inish lik e c. b e lo w ru led line. L a s t cu r v e r is e s a b o v e lin e b a s e a s in D . F in ish a t heigh t o f i. L e t m id d le p o i n t o f


o n e sp a ce. b a s e lo o p a n d a p o i n t o n e - h a l f s p a c e t o e x tr e m e right

o f l o o p tou ch b a s e line.
16

M a k e S eventh P rin cip le a s in Z . E n d S econ d P rin cip le a l lo p , o n e a n d o n e-


h a lf s p a c e s to th e rig h t o f c a p ita l lo o p , a n d m ite w ith fo llo w in g cu rv e a t
to p , w hich c u rv e m u st b e slig h t, tou ch in g th e ru led lin e. R ise w ith b a se

cu rv e to h eig h t o f tw o sp a c e s . F in ish w ith d ot.

/Thy /Thy
Begin ca p ita l lo o p a s in W o r Z . C a p ita l l o o p a t b a se, s h o r t t o th e right, and

fin is h with left cu r v e a n d d ot, s a m e a s in W .

S e e D ia g ra m s f o r p r o p o r tio n s .
17

C a p ita l lo o p s a m e a s in V . A f t e r th e s h o r t turn p a s s u p w a rd with right F irst p a r t s a m e a s U , a n d m a k e turn at b a s e th ree-fo u rth s heigh t o f i f r o m

c u m tw o s p a c e s . L e t F irst P r in c ip le c o n n e c t with p r e c ed in g c u m a t a ru led line. C a p ita l s tem j o i n s S e c o n d P r in c ip le a t o n e - h a l f th e heigh t o f letter

p o in t o n e a n d o n e - h a l f s p a c e s f r o m ru led line. Turn a t b a s e a n d fin is h and is 2 s p a ces high. Term inate capital stem with a d o t o n e -h a lf height o f i f r o m

a t heigh t o f i. r u led lin e , its left s id e d irectly b en ea th th e term inating lin e o f ca p ita l lo o p

a n d o n reg u la r slant.
C a p ita l s tem b eg in s with a sligh t cu r v e ex ten d in g o n e - h a l fw a y to r u led lin e a n d f in is h e s with an o v a l o n the C a p ita l s tem and d o w n w a rd line

sla n t o f 3 5 . Its width, w ith ou t sh a d e, is o n e - h a l f its length. C a p ita l s tem in A is j o i n e d a t to p with left s a m e a s in A . F in ish a s in ca p ita l V.

cu r v e w hich to u c h e s r u led lin e o n e an d o n e -h a lf s p a c e s f r o m th e lo w e s t p o i n t o f s te m ; co m p le tin g line begin s A t its m id d le heigh t it is d iv id ed into

a t heigh t o f i, c u r v e s to th e left to m id d le o f s p a c e a n d fin i s h e s with right c u r v e o n e - h a l f s p a c e f r o m tw o e q u a l sp a c e s .

c o m m en cin g p o in t.
19

C a p ita l s tem s a m e a s in A o r N . M a k e s e c o n d p a r t s a m e heigh t a s s tem a n d o n e s p a c e to th e right. F in ish lik e X .

T h re e e q u a l s p a c e s a c r o s s its m id d le. A v o i d stra ight lin es in th is letter, thus o 4 l .

A A/ // //

$
1

$
J
(Z/M7~Us<ny C y^irU yTlytc/M ?


*
-
----------------- 1
20

B eg in w ith P r in c ip le T h ree o n e-th ird fr o m to p o f le tte r ; r is e to f u l l h eig h t


a n d d e scen d w ith F ir s t P rin cip le on reg u la r sla n t o n q u a rter h eig h t o f
letter. A tta c h co m p o u n d c u rv e in h o riz o n ta l p o s itio n , risin g to h eig h t
o f lette r , a n d co n n ectin g w ith c a p ita l stem b y a sm a ll lo o p .
A d d to T a v e r y s h o r t left cu r v e o n e -h a lf a s p a c e in length a n d o n e-

q u a rter s p a c e f r o m right s id e o f letter.


B egin with left cu rv e, o n e -th ir d from r u led lin e. R is e o n e sp a c e . Turn
s h o r t t o th e right, d ow n w a rd s o n e s p a c e , a n d u pw ard s on th e lin e to f u l l
-s- height o f letter; thus f o r m in g s m a ll o v a l, fin is h with ca p ita l stem , p a ssin g
through the c e n ter o f th e ov a l.

L
F o rm lo o p a n d beginning o f dow n w a rd line a s in l. T erm in a te with a lo o p

exten d in g tw o s p a c e s b e lo w th e r u led line. L e ft s id e o f lo o p c r o s s e s m ain

lin e o n e - h a l f s p a c e a b o v e , a n d term in a tes o n e s p a c e a b o v e r u led line.


22

E x ten d S eco n d P rin cip le to f u ll h eig h t o f le tte r ; tu rn s h o r t to th e lin e s o

a s to fo r m a lo o p , in len gth tw o sp a ces, a n d in w idth o n e -h a lf s p a ce. E nd


w ith c a p ita l stem in crea sed in b o th its rig h t an d left cu rv es.

/
from top an d e x ten d s to fall height of
S e c o n d P r in c ip le b eg in s o n e s p a c e

letter. D es c e n dwith capital stem to base line. Turn short toform loop one-
third s p a c e in height, and en d with compound curve of Fourth and Second
P rin cip les.


-7
B egin with l o o p as in C , e x te n d d ow n w a rd s iw o-ih ird s length o f letter.

F rom this p o in t m a k e a turn as in Y and p a s s up o n e an d o n e -h a lf height


o f letter. F inish with lo w e r h a l f o f c a p ita l s tem . L e t the f i r s t lin e p a s s

through th e o v a l a little t o th e left o f th e m iddle.


C a rry S econ d P rin cip le to f u ll height. A tta ch capital stem . Begin com p ou n d
cu r v e o n the right at th e height o f stem a n d o n e s p a c e to th e right. L e t it

fo rm s m a ll lo o p o n m id d le o f ca p ita l stem . T ou ch r u led lin e with

s e c o n d c o m p o u n d cu r v e o n e a n d o n e -h a lf s p a c e s f r o m b a s e o f stem .
F in ish a t height o f i.
24

B eg in with c a p it a l stem o n e-six tee n th f r o m top. S a m e a s P , a s f a r a s lo o p . L o o p a s in K . F in is h with Sam e a s B, a s f a r a s lo o p . Term inates saint
C on tin u e u p w a rd s o n th e left, li k e s id e o f c a p it a l O , to an o v a l w h ich te rm in a te s a t o n e - h a l f h eig h t o f letter. as K .
f u l l h eig h t o f letter. P a s s d o w n w a rd s o n right s id e a n d F r o m ex trem e right curve to stem on e-fifth width o f letter.
c r o s s th e stem a t th e m id d le.
i

C, -
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