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(Compressible Flow & Turbomachinery)

Calvin Lui

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Stanford University

Stanford, CA 94305

March 1998

Acknowledgments

This work is specially dedicated to the graduating class of 1998 and my dear oce-mate,

Zhongmin Xiong, here at Stanford University. They encouraged me to compile all these

tutorial materials together into one single volume which serves as future references for the

ME 131B class. I would like to express my gratitude to them for all their encouragement.

Calvin Lui

Stanford, California

March, 1998

i

ii

Table of Contents

Tutorial One:

Thermodynamics Review 1

Solutions to Thermodynamics Review 4

Tutorial Two:

Isentropic Flow I 10

Solutions to Isentropic Flow I 14

Tutorial Three:

Isentropic Flow II 24

Solutions to Isentropic Flow II 28

Tutorial Four:

Normal Shock 40

Solutions to Normal Shock 44

Tutorial Five:

Fanno Flow 60

Solutions to Fanno Flow 66

Tutorial Six:

Rayleigh Flow 86

Solutions to Rayleigh Flow 90

Tutorial Seven:

Angular Momentum Principle 105

Solutions to Angular Momentum Principle 109

Tutorial Eight:

Turbomachinery 123

Solutions to Turbomachinery 127

References 135

iii

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial One: Thermodynamics Review

an extensive property? Give an example of both.

2. What is a simple compressible substance? What does the state principle for a simple

compressible substance tell us?

3. What do the following laws of thermodynamics mean to you? Describe them in your

own words.

(a) Zeroth Law

4. Apart from the above laws of thermodynamics, what other basic principle(s) do we

usually apply in analyzing thermodynamic systems?

1

5. What are the dierent transfer modes for

(a) Energy,

(b) Entropy?

6. Write down the mathematical form of the First and Second Law for

(a) a close system,

a heat transfer of 500 W at a temperature of 400 K and develops a combined electrical

and mechanical power output of 500 W. There are no other energy transfers. Is this

claim thermodynamically feasible?

8. What is the ideal gas model? How about perfect gas model? Under what conditions

will these models be appropriate in describing real-life phenomena?

9. What is the relation between the specic heats (Cp; Cv ) for an ideal gas?

2

10. What is an adiabatic process? When will it be realized physically?

11. What is an isentropic process? What is its signicance in thermodynamic analysis?

12. What are some common causes for irreversibility in thermodynamic systems?

14. Derive the P T relationships for a perfect gas undergoing an isentropic process.

(a) constant pressure,

Based on the Gibbs equation, explain the dierence in the slope of the above two

curves.

3

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Solutions to Tutorial One: Thermodynamics Review

an extensive property? Give an example of both.

A thermodynamic property is a macroscopic characteristic which describes the

state of a system.

Extensive property depends on the size or extent of a system. Its value of an

overall system is the sum of its individual parts, like entropy and internal energy.

Intensive property is independent of the size of a system and is not additive, like

temperature and pressure.

2. What is a simple compressible substance? What does the state principle for a simple

compressible substance tell us?

Simple { there is only one reversible work mode which can alter the energy of the

system

Compressible { work mode is associated with volume change R p dV

The state principle states that two independent, intensive thermodynamic prop-

erties are sucient to fully determine the thermodynamic state of a simple com-

pressible substance, like (T; v); (u; v). (Reminder: Pressure and temperature are

not independent of each other in the two-phase region.)

For a \non-simple" substance with n independent work modes, we need to know

a total of n + 1 independent, intensive thermodynamic properties to completely

specify its state.

3. What do the following laws of thermodynamics mean to you? Describe them in your

own words.

(a) Zeroth Law { Temperature

Equality in temperature is a necessary and sucient condition for thermal

equilibrium.

(b) First Law { Energy

Energy is conserved.

(c) Second Law { Entropy

4

Entropy can only be produced but not destroyed. (Be careful that it does not

mean that entropy of a system can never decrease. If we have enough heat

transfer out of a system, it is possible to have a decrease in the entropy of

the system.)

It is a powerful tool for us to determine the possible direction of a thermo-

dynamic process.

4. Apart from the above laws of thermodynamics, what other basic principle(s) do we

usually apply in analyzing thermodynamic systems?

Conservation of mass

dmcv = X

m_ in

X

m_ out

dt

Newton's law of motion

@ Z V~ ( dV ) + Z V~ V~ dA~ = X X

F~surface + F~body

@t CV CS

(a) Energy,

Mass transfer

Heat transfer

Work transfer

(b) Entropy?

Mass transfer

Heat transfer

There is no entropy transfer associated with work. This is a major dierence

between the two energy transfer modes, work and heat.

6. Write down the mathematical form of the First and Second Law for

(a) a close system, X X

U = Qin Wout

X Qin

S = T + Ps

5

(b) an open system.

enthalpy kinetic

z}|{

dE = X Q_ X X z}|{ V 2 potential

z}|{

in W_ out + m_ ( h + + gz )

dt | {z } | {z } | {z 2 }

heat trans. non-
ow work mass trans.

dS = X Q_ in + X ms _ + |{z} P_s

dt T

| {z } | {z }

heat trans. mass trans. production

Remarks:

Equation can be expressed in an overall or rate form.

Examples of non-
ow work:

{ shaftR work,

{ any PdV type of work such as compression and expansion

Enthalpy consists of internal energy and
ow work, h = u + P= (Hence, do not

double count the
ow work in W_ out again!)

Internal energy is a measure of microscopic molecular activities while kinetic and

potential energies are measures of bulk
uid motion.

a heat transfer of 500 W at a temperature of 400 K and develops a combined electrical

and mechanical power output of 500 W. There are no other energy transfers. Is this

claim thermodynamically feasible?

Since it is a closed system, there is no mass ow. Conservation of mass is trivial.

First law (conservation of energy) is satised.

Entropy production rate goes negative, hence, second law is violated.

As a conclusion, the claim is not thermodynamically feasible.

8. What is the ideal gas model? How about perfect gas model? Under what conditions

will these models be appropriate in describing real-life phenomena?

Ideal gas model:

{ It satises the thermal equation of state: p = R T where R is the gas

constant (dierent for dierent gases.)

{ u = u(T )

6

{ It is appropriate for high temperature and low pressure condition (negligible

interaction between participating gas molecules.)

Perfect gas model:

{ It is an ideal gas with constant specic heats Cp; Cv .

{ It is an appropriate model if the temperature variations between states are

not too large (together with the conditions for ideal gas behavior.)

9. What is the relation between the specic heats (Cp; Cv ) for an ideal gas?

According to denition

@h

Cp = @T and @u

Cv = @T

p v

For ideal gases, they are reduced to ordinary derivatives

Cp = dTdh and Cv = dT du

h = u + P = u + R T (P = R T for an ideal gas)

Cp = Cv + R

Recall the denition of specic heat ratio

Cp = k

Cv

Solve the above two equations for Cp and Cv , we have

Cp = k k 1 R and Cv = k 1 1 R

Adiabatic process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat transfer occurs.

It is a good model if

{ System has good insulation.

7

{ Thermodynamic process proceeds at a much faster rate than heat transfer

does. For example, ow in a nozzle, valve.

11. What is an isentropic process? What is its signicance in thermodynamic analysis?

Isentropic process is reversible and adiabatic.

It serves as a limit for real adiabatic process.

12. What are some common causes for irreversibility in thermodynamic systems?

Dissipation like friction, viscous eects

Mixing

Spontaneous chemical reaction

Unrestrained expansion

13. Write down the Gibbs equation.

Tds = du P

2 d or Tds = dh dP

14. Derive the P T relationships for a perfect gas undergoing an isentropic process.

T1 k = constant

TP = constant

1

k

k

P k = constant

15. Sketch the following curves on a T s diagram

(a) constant pressure,

T

decreasing pressure

s

8

(b) constant density.

T

decreasing density

Based on the Gibbs equation, explain the dierence in the slope of the above two

curves.

The slope of any curve on the T s plane is characterized by the derivative dT=ds.

From the Gibbs equation,

Tds = dh dP

Tds = Cp dT dP

For a constant pressure process, dP = 0, we obtain

dT = T

ds Cp

Hence, the slope of a constant pressure curve on a T s diagram is equal to T=Cp.

Similarly, we can obtain the slope of a constant density curve to be equal to T=Cv .

Since Cp = Cv + R, the constant density curve has a steeper slope than the

constant pressure curve at the same temperature.

9

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial Two: Isentropic Flow I

Choose the best answer in the following three questions:

1. Static property is dependent on/independent of the choice of reference frame.

4. Under what conditions can we say that the stagnation enthalpy remains constant in a

ow? How about stagnation pressure?

T0 = 1 + k 1 M 2

T 2

!

P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2

k

k 1

P 2

6. Given a thermodynamic state (T1 ; P1) and its speed in terms of Mach number, M1 .

Can you locate its corresponding stagnation state on the T s diagram?

T

P1

T1

10

7. Consider a
ow through a valve as follows:

1 2

Locate the static and stagnation states of both the upstream Station (1) and down-

stream Station (2) on the same T s diagram.

P0 = P + 21 V 2 :

But we obtain, from a compressible analysis, the following result:

!

P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2

k

1

:

k

P 2

These two equations give strikingly dierent expressions for the stagnation pressure.

How do you reconcile the dierence between the two? What does this dierence depend

on?

11

9. In a wind tunnel experiment, 1.0 kg/sec of air is accelerated through an adiabatic

nozzle from an upstream section (P1 = 2.0 bar, T1 = 900 K, A1 = 50 cm2) to a Mach

1.2
ow in the downstream section.

.

m = 1.0 kg/s

1 2

M2 = 1.2

P1 = 2.0 bar

P2 = ?

T1 = 900 K

T2 = ?

A1 = 50 cm2

Adiabatic A2 = ?

Nozzle

i. What is the downstream cross-sectional area (A2 ), temperature (T2) and pres-

sure (P2 )?

ii. Sketch the variation of pressure, temperature, velocity and Mach number

from Station (1) to Station (2).

iii. Trace the process path from Station (1) to Station (2) on a T s diagram.

12

10. Air
ows through a passage of unknown shape. The upstream state is characterized

as follows:

1 2

A1 = 0.50 m2 A2 = 1.0 m2

M1 = 0.70 M2 = ?

P1 = 5.0 bar P2 = ?

Passage with

T1 = 270 K T2 = ?

unknown shape

(a) Determine the possible downstream State (2) where A2 = 1:0 m2 (i.e. Find

M2 ; P2; T2 .)

(b) Sketch the shape of the associated ow passage found in Part (a).

(c) Sketch the corresponding variation of density, velocity and Mach number from

Station (1) to Station (2).

13

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Solutions to Tutorial Two: Isentropic Flow I

Choose the best answer in the following three questions:

1. Static property is independent of the choice of reference frame.

Static property can be thought of being measured by someone who travels with

the
uid particles.

Hence, it does not depend on the choice of reference frame.

2. Stagnation property is dependent on the choice of reference frame.

Consider our everyday running or biking experiences. We feel a higher pressure

on our face as we accelerate to faster speeds.

It is because the air \appears" to travel faster with respect to us (a moving

reference frame) as we accelerate.

Accordingly, its stagnation pressure is higher with respect to a moving observer.

Its value is given by the following isentropic relationship:

!

P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2

k

k 1

P 2

where P = 101 kPa and M is the Mach number of the observer.

The stagnation process is a hypothetical process which is not necessarily found in

the real physical ow.

The stagnation state should be viewed as a reference thermodynamic state with

which the ow is compared with.

Based on this reason, the stagnation state or properties can be dened for any

physical ow regardless it is isentropic or not.

In the case of isentropic ow, the stagnation state is constant in the ow. Hence,

it serves as a universal reference within the same ow.

But the usefulness of the stagnation state as a reference will be highly degraded

if the ow is non-isentropic. In this case, P0 changes in the ow. (Depend on the

importance of heat transfer in the ow, T0 may also vary in the ow.)

14

4. Under what conditions can we say that the stagnation enthalpy remains constant in a

ow? How about stagnation pressure?

Stagnation enthalpy remains constant in a
ow when

{ the
ow is adiabatic,

{ the
ow is not subject to any non-
ow work.

This can be inferred from the rst law of thermodynamics (conservation of en-

ergy).

Stagnation pressure remains constant in a
ow when

{ the
ow is adiabatic,

{ the
ow is not subject to any non-
ow work,

{ the
ow is reversible.

This can be inferred from the rst and second law of thermodynamics.

T0 = 1 + k 1 M 2

T 2

!

P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2

k

k 1

P 2

The only limitation is that the
uid should behave as a perfect gas.

6. Given a thermodynamic state (T1 ; P1) and its speed in terms of Mach number, M1 .

Can you locate its corresponding stagnation state on the T s diagram?

By denition, the stagnation state should have the same specic entropy as the

static state. Hence, they should both be on the same vertical line on the T s

diagram.

By denition, the stagnation temperature can never be lower than the static

temperature. Hence, the stagnation state must be located somewhere above the

static state.

The dierence in temperature between the static and the stagnation states is a

measure of the specic kinetic energy carried by the
uid:

h0 = h + 21 V 2

T0 = T + 21 VC

2

p

T = 12 VC

2

T0

p

15

The higher the
uid velocity, the lower the static temperature compared with

its stagnation temperature. This observation points to one important behavior of

compressible
ow: interchange between thermal and kinetic energy in an adiabatic

ow.

Based on the above conclusions, we can locate the stagnation state relative to its

static state on the same T s diagram in the following gure:

T

P0,1

T0,1 P1

V2

T=

2 Cp

T1

s

s1 = s0,1

From the T s diagram, we can conrm the fact that the stagnation pressure is

always higher than the static pressure.

1 2

Locate the static and stagnation states of both the upstream Station (1) and down-

stream Station (2) on the same T s diagram.

Based on the procedure outline in the previous problem, we can locate the static

and stagnation state of upstream Station (1) as our reference.

Across the valve,

{ The
ow is adiabatic (no heat transfer). Stagnation temperature remains

constant (T0;2 = T0;1).

{ There are losses due to friction at the valve. Entropy is produced (s2 > s1).

Both static and stagnation pressure drop across the valve (P2 < P1; P0;2 <

P0;1).

16

{ However, the non-trivial part is on the change in density. Does density in-

crease or decrease across the valve? To reason it out, we need to invoke both

conservation of mass and energy.

{ Assume the same cross-sectional area in both pipes, conservation of mass

(COM) gives

1 V1 = 2 V2

{ Conservation of energy (COE) gives

T1 + 2VC1 = T2 + 2VC2

2 2

p p

{ Let us examine exhaustively two dierent alternatives:

(a) 2 > 1

By COM, a density rise will result in a drop of
ow velocity (V2 < V1).

By COE, a drop of
ow velocity will result in a rise in static temperature

(T2 > T1 ).

But a simultaneous rise in density and temperature cannot possibly

produce a pressure drop across the valve. Hence, this case is not feasible.

(b) 2 < 1

By COM, a density drop will result in a rise in
ow velocity (V2 > V1).

By COE, a rise in
ow velocity will result in a drop of static temperature

(T2 < T1 ).

A simultaneous drop in density and temperature can produce a pressure

drop across the valve. We can conclude that this is indeed the case.

Based on the above conclusions, we can locate the static and stagnation state of

downstream Station (2) with respect to those of upstream Station (1) on the same

T s diagram as follows:

T P0,1 P0,2

T0,1 = T0,2 P1

P2

T1

T2

s

s1 s2

17

8. Recall that the incompressible Bernoulli's model gives us

P0 = P + 12 V 2 :

But we obtain, from a compressible analysis, the following result:

!

P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2

k

1

:

k

P 2

These two equations give strikingly dierent expressions for the stagnation pressure.

How do you reconcile the dierence between the two? What does this dierence depend

on?

Assume a perfect gas model, we can write the incompressible model as:

P0 = 1 + 1 V 2

P 2 RT

= 1 + 2 k k VR T

1 2

= 1 + 1 k M2

2

Results of the incompressible model are compared with those of the compressible

model in the following gure (for the k = 1:4 case):

2.0

Incompressible

Compressible

1.8

1.6

P0 / P

1.4

1.2

1.0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

M

We can observe that the two models give nearly identical results in the low Mach

number range (M < 0:3).

Dierence between the two models becomes apparent for M > 0:4 (compressibil-

ity is no longer negligible).

The value of P0=P predicted by the two dierent models and the percentage

dierence between them are tabulated in the following table for further reference:

18

Incompressible Compressible % Dierence

M1 = 0:10 1.0070 1.0070 0.0017283

M1 = 0:30 1.0630 1.0644 0.13438

M1 = 0:70 1.3430 1.3871 3.1794

M1 = 1:0 1.7000 1.8929 10.192

M1 = 2:0 3.8000 7.8244 51.434

M1 = 3:0 7.3000 36.733 80.127

To nd out the dierence between the two models, we can invoke the binomial

expansion technique as follows:

!

P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2

k

k 1

P 2

= 1 + k2 M 2 + k8 M 4 + k (248 k) M 6 + : : :

| {z }

correction terms

The leading correction term of the compressible model to its incompressible coun-

terpart scales with the fourth power of the
ow Mach number. This explains why

the dierence between the incompressible and compressible models increases so

dramatically with compressibility (Mach number).

nozzle from an upstream section (P1 = 2.0 bar, T1 = 900 K, A1 = 50 cm2) to a Mach

1.2 ow in the downstream section.

.

m = 1.0 kg/s

1 2

M2 = 1.2

P1 = 2.0 bar

P2 = ?

T1 = 900 K

T2 = ?

A1 = 50 cm2

Adiabatic A2 = ?

Nozzle

For air, R = 286:9 J / kg K.

19

Given P1 and T1 , the thermodynamic state at Station (1) is fully specied.

We can use the thermal equation of state

P = RT

to compute the
ow density, which gives

1 = 0:775 kg/m3

Assume one-dimensional
ow,

m_ = 1 A1 V1

We obtain

V1 = 258 m/sec

The speed of sound at Station (1) is given by

q

c1 = k R T1 = 601 m/sec

This gives a Mach number of M1 = 0:429 at Station (1).

Going from subsonic
ow (M1 = 0:429) to supersonic
ow (M2 = 1:2), we

need to pass through a converging-diverging nozzle.

(b) If the
ow is further treated as isentropic,

i. What is the downstream cross-sectional area (A2 ), temperature (T2) and pres-

sure (P2 )?

For an isentropic
ow, the following quantities are constant in the entire

ow:

A; P0; T0 ; 0

They are invariant in the
ow.

Cross-sectional area (A2), static temperature (T2) and pressure (P2) can

all be computed in a similar manner as follows:

A2 = A2 =A2 = 1:03044 = 0:6866 ) A = 34:3 cm2

2

A1 A1 =A1 1:50072

T2 = T2=T0;2 = 0:77640 = 0:8051 ) T = 725 K

2

T1 T1=T0;1 0:96434

P2 = P2 =P0;2 = 0:41238 = 0:4683 ) P = 93:7 kPa

2

P1 P1 =P0;1 0:88065

ii. Sketch the variation of pressure, temperature, velocity and Mach number

from Station (1) to Station (2).

As the
ow passes through the converging-diverging nozzle,

velocity rises (nozzle is a
ow accelerator),

pressure drops (as a result of velocity rise, from momentum equation),

temperature drops (as a result of velocity rise, from COE),

Mach number rises (as a result of velocity rise and temperature drop).

20

iii. Trace the process path from Station (1) to Station (2) on a T s diagram.

T

P0,1 = P0,2

T0,1 = T0,2 P1

T1

P2

T2

s

s1 = s2

10. Air
ows through a passage of unknown shape. The upstream state is characterized

as follows:

1 2

A1 = 0.50 m2 A2 = 1.0 m2

M1 = 0.70 M2 = ?

P1 = 5.0 bar P2 = ?

Passage with

T1 = 270 K T2 = ?

unknown shape

(a) Determine the possible downstream State (2) where A2 = 1:0 m2 (i.e. Find

M2 ; P2; T2 .)

This problem is very similar to the last one except that the Mach number

at the downstream Station (2) is unknown. The only information we have

about Station (2) is its cross-sectional area.

Before we tackle this problem, let us examine the variation of A=A with

Mach number (refer to Section 13-3 in Fox & McDonald).

!2(

1 + k 2 1 M2

k+1

A = 1 k 1 )

A M 1 + k21

21

The above equation can be described graphically in the following gure:

3.0

2.5

2.0

A / A*

1.5

1.0

0.5

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

From the above gure, we observe that there are two possible solutions to

this question, namely a subsonic solution and a supersonic solution. Both

solutions have the same A=A ratio:

A2 = A2 A1 A1 = 1:0 (1:09437) (1) = 2:18874

A2 A1 A1 A2 0:50

From the isentropic
ow table,

{ subsonic solution is M2 = 0:277,

{ supersonic solution is M2 = 2:298.

To nd the pressure at Station (2), we can use the following procedure:

P2 = P2 P0;2 P0;1 = P2 (1) 1 = 1:3871 P2

P1 P0;2 P0;1 P1 P0;2 0:72093 P0;2

Similarly, the temperature at Station (2) can be found in a similar manner:

T2 = T2 T0;2 T0;1 = T2 (1) 1 = 1:0980 T2

T1 T0;2 T0;1 T1 T0;2 0:91075 T0;2

For the subsonic solution (M2 = 0:277),

P2 = 0:9481 ) P = 6:58 bar

2

P0;2

T2 = 0:9849 ) T = 292 K

2

T 0;2

For the supersonic solution (M2 = 2:298),

P2 = 0:08025 ) P = 55:7 kPa

2

P 0;2

T2 = 0:4864 ) T2 = 144 K

T0;2

22

(b) Sketch the shape of the associated
ow passage found in Part (a).

For the subsonic solution, the
ow passage will be a diverging one. It serves

as a diuser.

For the supersonic solution, the
ow needs to go from subsonic to supersonic.

Hence, a converging-diverging passage will be necessary. It serves as a nozzle.

(c) Sketch the corresponding variation of density, velocity and Mach number from

Station (1) to Station (2).

For the subsonic solution,

{ velocity drops (
ow through a diuser),

{ pressure rises (as a result of velocity drop, from momentum equation),

{ temperature rises (as a result of velocity drop, from COE),

{ density rises (as a result of pressure rise and isentropic
ow),

{ Mach number drops (as a result of velocity drop and temperature rise).

For the supersonic solution,

{ velocity rises (
ow through a nozzle),

{ pressure drops (as a result of velocity rise, from momentum equation),

{ temperature drops (as a result of velocity rise, from COE),

{ density drops (as a result of pressure drop and isentropic
ow),

{ Mach number rises (as a result of velocity rise and temperature drop).

23

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial Three: Isentropic Flow II

(a) a nozzle is a device that converts into .

(b) a diuser is a device that converts into .

following principles simplify to:

(a) Conservation of Mass:

3. We have discussed how to locate the stagnation state of a given
ow state (T1; P1; M1 )

last week. How about its sonic () state? Can you locate it on the T s diagram?

T

P1

T1

24

4. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for an

isentropic
ow:

Subsonic Flow:

Converging Channel Diverging Channel

P

T

V

c

M

P0

0

T0

A

P

T

Supersonic Flow:

Converging Channel Diverging Channel

P

T

V

c

M

P0

0

T0

A

P

T

Trace each process path on a T s and a P diagram.

25

5. Choose the best answer in the following questions which concern the sonic state in an

adiabatic, non-isentropic
ow:

(a) T decreases/increases/remains constant in the
ow.

(b) P decreases/increases/remains constant in the
ow.

(c) A decreases/increases/remains constant in the
ow.

6. A large supply chamber containing air at 6.0 atm and 300 K is connected to a converg-

ing nozzle on the left side and a converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle on the right side.

Both nozzles share the same minimum passage area of 100 cm2. The C-D nozzle has

an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1.2.

P = 6.0 atm

T = 300 K

Pamb

B

D C A

i. Compare the pressure level at Point A, B, C and D.

ii. If the ambient pressure is reduced to 5.0 atm, what is the mass
ow rate in

the nozzle?

iii. How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure (relative to the chamber

pressure) to reach the choking point of this converging nozzle?

i. If the ambient pressure is set at 5.0 atm, do you expect the mass ow rate

in the C-D nozzle to be the same as that in the converging nozzle computed

before?

26

ii. How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure for the nozzle to operate

at its rst critical point?

iii. What is the corresponding mass ow rate at the rst critical point?

A. what is the ambient pressure?

i. How do you compare the ambient pressure which is required to choke the

converging and C-D nozzle? Which one is higher? Can you explain it?

ii. How do you compare the mass
ow rate between the two nozzles:

A. before choking?

B. after choking?

7. You are asked to build a supersonic wind tunnel with operating Mach number of 2.0

in the test section. The plenum conditions are constantly kept at 300 K and 10.0 bars.

Due to cost factor, air
ow is delivered at a rate of 1 kg/sec.

(a) If the
ow is treated as isentropic, what is the downstream cross-sectional area?

(b) If the entropy change between the plenum and the test section is 40 J/kg-K, what

will be the cross-sectional area in the test section? Compare the result with Part

(a) and label the two states on the same T s diagram.

27

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Solutions to Tutorial Three: Isentropic Flow II

(a) a nozzle is a device that converts static enthalpy into kinetic energy.

(b) a diuser is a device that converts kinetic energy into static enthalpy.

In the absence of heat transfer and non- ow work, the stagnation enthalpy of

the ow is constant .

following principles simplify to:

(a) Conservation of Mass:

V A = constant

Remarks:

The mass ow rate (product of density, velocity and area) is required to be a

constant to conserve mass. In subsonic ow, the change in density is not so drastic.

Velocity varies in a way which is consistent with our everyday experience. But the

situation is so much dierent in the supersonic regime. Density change becomes

very appreciable. Take the case of a supersonic ow in a converging passage: the

density increase outweighs the area decrease and forces velocity to go down in

order to conserve mass ow. Similar behavior is found in a supersonic ow in a

diverging passage but opposite eects are observed. In summary, the \strange"

behavior of supersonic ow is caused by the appreciable density change. It seems

counter-intuitive because the world we encounter with on a daily basis operates

mostly in the incompressible regime.

(b) Momentum Equation:

dP = V dV

Remarks:

Pressure and velocity change in opposite direction to each other in both

subsonic and supersonic regimes.

(c) Conservation of Energy:

h0 = h + V2 = constant

2

28

Remarks:

When the
ow speeds up, the
uid cools down and vice versa. This interchange

between static enthalpy and kinetic energy is fundamental in understanding an

adiabatic
ow.

(d) Second Law of Thermodynamics:

s = constant

3. We have discussed how to locate the stagnation state of a given
ow state (T1; P1; M1 )

last week. How about its sonic () state? Can you locate it on the T s diagram?

By denition, the sonic () state should have the same specic entropy as its static

state. Hence, they should both be on the same vertical line on the T s diagram.

By denition, the Mach number of the sonic state is unity. Hence, its location

relative to that of its static state depends on the
ow Mach number.

If the
ow is subsonic (M < 1), the sonic state will be below its static state. If

the
ow is supersonic (M > 1), the sonic state will be above its static state.

Based on the above conclusions, we can locate the sonic state relative to its static

state on a T s diagram in the following gures:

Subsonic Case Supersonic Case

T P1 P1* T P*1

T1 P1

T1* T1*

T1

s s

s1 s1

29

4. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for an

isentropic
ow:

Subsonic Flow:

Converging Channel Diverging Channel

P decreases increases

decreases increases

T decreases increases

V increases decreases

c decreases increases

M increases decreases

P0 remains constant remains constant

0 remains constant remains constant

T0 remains constant remains constant

A remains constant remains constant

P remains constant remains constant

remains constant remains constant

T remains constant remains constant

Supersonic Flow:

Converging Channel Diverging Channel

P increases decreases

increases decreases

T increases decreases

V decreases increases

c increases decreases

M decreases increases

P0 remains constant remains constant

0 remains constant remains constant

T0 remains constant remains constant

A remains constant remains constant

P remains constant remains constant

remains constant remains constant

T remains constant remains constant

Remarks:

Both the stagnation state and the sonic state are constant in an isentropic
ow.

They serve as convenient reference states for the
ow.

30

Trace each process path on a T s and a P diagram.

Subsonic Case Supersonic Case

T T

T1*

Diverging

T1

Converging

Converging

T1

Diverging

T1*

s s

s1 s1

P

P k = constant P

P k = constant

P*1

P1

Diverging

P1

P*1

Converging Converging

Diverging

*1 1 1 *1

5. Choose the best answer in the following questions which concern the sonic state in an

adiabatic, non-isentropic
ow:

(a) T remains constant in the
ow.

For any specic gas, the ratio of stagnation temperature to sonic temperature

is a constant:

T0 = 1 + k 1

T 2

Since the stagnation temperature of an adiabatic
ow is constant, so is the

sonic temperature.

(b) P decreases in the
ow.

For any specic gas, the ratio of stagnation pressure to sonic pressure is a

constant: !

P0 = 1 + k 1

k

k 1

P 2

31

Since the stagnation pressure of an adiabatic, non-isentropic
ow decreases

in the
ow direction, so does the sonic pressure.

(c) A increases in the
ow.

To see this point clearly, we can evaluate the mass
ow rate at the sonic point:

m_ = A c

p

where c = k R T :

We know from previous results that T ; c remain constant but P decreases

in the
ow. This leads us to conclude that decreases in the
ow also, from

the ideal gas equation.

Hence, A has to increase to conserve the same mass
ow rate.

6. A large supply chamber containing air at 6.0 atm and 300 K is connected to a converg-

ing nozzle on the left side and a converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle on the right side.

Both nozzles share the same minimum passage area of 100 cm2. The C-D nozzle has

an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1.2.

P = 6.0 atm

T = 300 K

Pamb

B

D C A

i. Compare the pressure level at Point A, B, C and D.

The main point of this part is to visualize the pressure variation and uid

acceleration within the supply chamber.

When the uid \senses" the pressure dierential between the inner cham-

ber, P0, and the surrounding ambient, Pamb , it accelerates from negligible

velocity at chamber pressure to some nite velocity closed to the noz-

zle inlet. Associate with this ow acceleration, there is a corresponding

pressure drop.

We can treat the ow going through an \imaginary" converging passage

from the inner chamber to the nozzle inlet.

32

Between the inlet and exit, the
ow continues to accelerate and pressure

continues to drop. We can conclude that

PA > PC > PD

The cause of pressure dierence between Point B and C is apparent after

we draw the streamlines around the inlet of the converging nozzle. Since

the streamlines curve around the corner, there is a positive pressure gra-

dient developed in the normal (to the streamline) direction. Hence,

PC > PB

The comparison between pressure level at Point B and D depends on the

exact nozzle geometry and requires further quantitative analysis.

ii. If the ambient pressure is reduced to 5.0 atm, what is the mass
ow rate in

the nozzle?

In this type of problem, we always need to check if the converging nozzle

is choked at Pamb = 5:0 atm.

For a converging nozzle, we learned that the ambient pressure has to be

lower than 52.8 % of the chamber pressure before choking occurs.

In this case,

Pamb = 5:0 = 0:833 > 0:528

P0 6:0

Hence, the nozzle is not choked. Furthermore, we can conclude that the

pressure at the exit plane is the same as the ambient value.

For the given pressure ratio

Pexit = 0:833

P0

We can nd out from the isentropic
ow table that

Mexit = 0:517

And the temperature ratio is

Texit = 0:94924

T0

which gives an exit temperature of Texit = 284:8 K.

Using the thermal equation of state for an ideal gas

P = RT

we obtain an exit density of exit = 6:201 kg / m3.

33

The mass
ow rate can then be computed by

m_ = exit Vexit Aqexit

= exit Mexit k R Texit Aexit

) m_ = 10:8 kg/sec

iii. How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure (relative to the chamber

pressure) to reach the choking point of this converging nozzle?

For a converging nozzle, the ambient pressure has to be lower than 52.8%

of the chamber pressure to choke the converging nozzle. This corresponds

to an ambient pressure of

Pamb 3:17 atm

If Pamb is lower than 3.17 atm, the exit plane pressure will not be the

same as the ambient value (pressure mismatch). Pamb will keep staying

at 3.17 atm. This is because no downstream pressure information can

propagate upstream past the sonic point (exit plane). The
ow within

the nozzle becomes invariant once the sonic condition is attained at the

exit.

iv. What is the corresponding mass
ow rate at the choking condition?

When Pamb = 3:17 atm, the Mach number at the exit plane just reaches

unity.

Pressure at the exit plane equals to the ambient pressure

Pamb = 3:17 atm

From the isentropic
ow table, we obtain

Texit = 0:8333 ) Texit = 250 K

T0

Using the ideal gas equation, we obtain

exit = 4:478 kg/m3

The mass
ow rate is

m_ = 14:2 kg/m3

(b) Let us consider the C-D nozzle on the right.

i. If the ambient pressure is set at 5.0 atm, do you expect the mass
ow rate

in the C-D nozzle to be the same as that in the converging nozzle computed

before?

34

For this C-D nozzle case, we also need to check if the nozzle is choked at

Pamb = 5:0 atm.

The main dierence between the C-D nozzle and the converging nozzle is

that the choking pressure ratio is dependent on the exit-to-throat area

ratio (not a universal constant anymore).

With an area ratio of 1.20, we nd from the isentropic
ow table that the

subsonic solution gives a pressure ratio

P = 0:78997 < 5:0

P0 6:0

Hence, we conclude that

{ the ambient pressure is high enough that the
ow is not choked

{ the
ow remains subsonic within the C-D nozzle

{ exit ; Mexit; Texit are the same as those in the converging nozzle case

Since the exit area is 1.20 times as large as that of the converging nozzle,

we expect a 20 % increase in the mass
ow rate. Hence,

m_ = 13:0 kg/m3

ii. How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure for the nozzle to operate

at its rst critical point?

The rst critical point corresponds to an isentropic, subsonic solution

with Mach 1.0
ow at the throat.

We obtain from the isentropic
ow table that

Pamb = 0:78997 ) Pamb = 4:74 atm

P0

iii. What is the corresponding mass
ow rate at the rst critical point?

Once this converging-diverging nozzle is choked at its rst critical point,

we know that Mach 1.0 is achieved at its minimum
ow area, i.e. at the

throat.

Furthermore, Pthroat ; Tthroat ; Mthroat are the same as those of the converg-

ing nozzle choked case.

Hence, we expect the same mass
ow rate as that of the converging nozzle

choked case

m_ = 14:2 kg/m3

iv. At the design point (third critical),

A. what is the ambient pressure?

The third critical point corresponds to an isentropic, supersonic so-

lution in the C-D nozzle.

35

For an area ratio of 1.20, we obtain a supersonic solution from the

isentropic
ow table

Mexit = 1:534

This solution gives a pressure ratio of

Pamb = 0:25922 ) Pamb = 1:55 atm

P0

B. determine the density and velocity at the exit plane.

For the Mexit = 1:534 solution, we obtain a temperature ratio of

Texit = 0:67995 ) Texit = 204 K

T0

Using the ideal gas model, we obtain

exit = 2:693 kg/m3 and Vexit = 439 m/sec

(c) Look back to your calculations,

i. How do you compare the ambient pressure which is required to choke the

converging and C-D nozzle? Which one is higher? Can you explain it?

For the converging nozzle, Pchoke = 3:17 atm.

For the C-D nozzle, Pchoke = 4:74 atm.

We conclude that the C-D nozzle is choked at a higher ambient pressure

than the converging nozzle.

This conclusion can be explained by the following pressure plot for C-D

nozzle operation:

Pamb / P0

(CD nozzle)

0.528

Choking Point

(Converging nozzle)

Third Critical

(CD nozzle)

x

(subsonic ow), the C-D nozzle is choked at a higher back-to-plenum

pressure ratio. The exact value of the this pressure ratio depends only

on the exit-to-throat area ratio.

36

In summary, there are three operating regimes:

A. Pamb =P0 > 0:790, both nozzles are not choked.

B. 0:790 > Pamb =P0 > 0:528, only the C-D nozzle is choked.

C. Pamb =P0 < 0:528, both nozzles are choked.

ii. How do you compare the mass
ow rate between the two nozzles:

A. before choking?

Before any choking occurs, the C-D nozzle has a higher mass
ow

rate (20 % higher) than the converging nozzle simply because the exit

area of the C-D nozzle is 20 % larger than that of the converging nozzle.

As the ambient pressure is reduced, the C-D nozzle gets choked rst.

Once it is choked, its mass
ow rate is not aected by the ambient

pressure anymore.

Meanwhile the mass
ow rate of the converging nozzle keeps increasing

as the ambient pressure is reduced.

B. after choking?

The mass
ow rate is the same in both nozzles after they are both

choked.

Graphically, the mass
ow rate of the two nozzles can be compared as

follows:

.

m

CD

14.2 kg/sec Nozzle

Converging

Nozzle

Pamb / P0

0.528 0.790

7. You are asked to build a supersonic wind tunnel with operating Mach number of 2.0

in the test section. The plenum conditions are constantly kept at 300 K and 10.0 bars.

Due to cost factor, air
ow is delivered at a rate of 1 kg/sec.

(a) If the
ow is treated as isentropic, what is the downstream cross-sectional area?

To achieve a supersonic
ow in the test section, we need a C-D nozzle con-

necting the plenum and the test section, with a Mach 1.0
ow (sonic state)

right at the minimum throat area.

37

From the isentropic
ow table, we obtain

P = 0:52828 ) P = 5:283 bar

P 0

T = 0:83333 ) T = 250 K

T0

The ideal gas equation further gives us the density at the throat:

= 7:365 kg/m3

The size of the throat can be found from the mass
ow rate equation

m_ = Vp Athroat

= k R T Athroat

) Athroat = 4:285 cm2

To nd out the cross-sectional area at the test section, we need to relate the

Mach 2.0
ow in the test section with the sonic state at the throat. From the

isentropic
ow table, Msection = 2:0 gives

Asection = 1:68750 ) Asection = 7:230 cm2

Athroat

(b) If the entropy change between the plenum and the test section is 40 J/kg-K, what

will be the cross-sectional area in the test section? Compare the result with Part

(a) and label the two states on the same T s diagram.

The
ow remains to be adiabatic. Hence, T0 ; T remains constant even in

this non-isentropic
ow.

However, the entropy increase in the nozzle causes a drop in the stagnation

pressure. (Take State 1 to be the plenum state and State 2 to be the test

section state in the following analysis.)

! !

s2 s1 = Cp log T T 0;2 P

R log P 0;2

0;1 0;1

) P 0;2 s2 s 1

P0;1 = exp R

= 0:870

) P0;2 = 8:70 bar

From the isentropic
ow table, M2 = 2:0 gives

P2 = 0:12780 ) P2 = 1:11 bar

P0;2

T2 = 0:55556 ) T2 = 167 K

T

0;2

38

The ideal gas equation further gives us the density in the test section:

2 = 2:32 kg/m3

The cross-sectional area in the test section can be found from the mass
ow

rate equation

m_ = 2 V2 Aq2

= 2 M2 k R T2 A2

) A2 = 8:31 cm2

Comparing this result with that of Part (a), we conclude that a larger test

section area is necessary when irreversible eects are taken into account.

It is also interesting to point out that the ratio between the area obtained in

Part (a) and Part (b):

Asection;a = 7:230 cm2 = 0:870

Asection;b 8:310 cm2

is the same ratio as the stagnation pressure loss. Hence, we conclude from

this observation that

P0 A = constant

for an adiabatic
ow. When stagnation pressure drops, the sonic area in-

creases.

Both the isentropic and non-isentropic solutions are shown in the following

T s diagram for reference:

T P2,a P2,b

*

T2,a = T*2,b

T2,a = T2,b

Isentropic NonIsentropic

Solution Solution

s

s2,a s2,b

Comments:

The ridiculously small test section area is not reasonable for conducting wind

tunnel experiments. We can increase its size by

{ reducing the plenum pressure

{ increasing the plenum temperature

{ paying a higher cost to allow a higher mass
ow rate

39

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial Four: Normal Shock

(a) Conservation of Mass:

2. In what frame of reference are the shock jump relationships derived in?

3. How is the strength of a shock measured by? What does it depend on?

4. Derive the relationship between the entropy production within a shock and the corre-

sponding loss in stagnation pressure across it.

5. Choose the best answer in the following question and explain it:

The Mach number upstream of a shock can/cannot be less than unity.

40

6. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a
ow

across a normal shock:

Across a Normal Shock

P

T

V

c

M

P0

0

T0

A

P

T

Trace the process path across a shock on a T s diagram. (Indicate clearly its

position relative to the stagnation state and the sonic state.)

7. Moving Shock Problem: A shock wave is propagating at Mach 2.0 into still air which

is at atmospheric condition. What is the change of stagnation pressure observed by

someone standing on the ground? How about the change in stagnation temperature?

P0 = ?

M = 2.0 Still air at atm. condition

T0 = ?

Moving shock

41

8. Shock Location Specication Problem: Air enters a C-D nozzle which has an exit-to-

throat area ratio of 1.8 (A5=A2 = 1:8). A normal shock occurs at a location where

the cross-sectional area is 1.2 times that of the throat (A3=A2 = 1:2). The schematic

is shown below:

(3) (4)

Shock

9. Back Pressure Specication Problem: Let us return to the C-D nozzle (with an exit-

to-throat area ratio of 1.2) we worked with last week. It connects again the same air

supply chamber at 300 K and 6.0 bars to the ambient.

T = 300 K

CD Nozzle

42

(a) Last week, we have found that the rst critical point operates at Pamb =P0 =

0:78997 and the third critical point operates at Pamb =P0 = 0:25922. What is the

ambient-to-chamber pressure ratio at the second critical point?

(b) We have learned last week how to compute the mass
ow rate for both choked

and unchoked cases. Let us focus on some o-design operations of this C-D nozzle

this time. Describe qualitatively what happens inside the nozzle for the following

ambient pressure values:

i. Pamb = 5:4 bars

(c) In the cases where standing normal shock occurs in the nozzle, compute its loca-

tion in terms of area ratio with respect to the throat.

(d) Look back to your calculations, how do you compare the shock location for dif-

ferent ambient pressure? Do you expect the shock to be closer to the throat or

to the exit for a high ambient pressure?

43

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Solutions to Tutorial Four: Normal Shock

(a) Conservation of Mass:

For a steady, quasi-one-dimensional analysis, the mass conservation equation

is simply V A = constant.

Shock thickness is usually of the order of a few microns which is much shorter

than most representative length scales in the ow.

Hence, we can treat the ow cross-sectional area to be constant across the

shock. This reduces the mass conservation equation to

V = constant

(b) Momentum Equation:

Apply the results from mass conservation, we can directly integrate the mo-

mentum equation dP = V dV to obtain the following results:

P + V 2 = constant

(c) Conservation of Energy:

The shock process is adiabatic.

h0 = h + V2 = constant

2

The shock process is irreversible. Entropy is produced.

s > 0

2. In what frame of reference are the shock jump relationships derived in?

The shock jump relationships are derived in the shock frame of reference.

Recall that the
ow is treated as steady in the derivation, which is made possible

by a Galilean transformation from a stationary observer to one traveled with the

shock.

We need to be careful when we apply these jump relationships to problems in

which the shock is propagating. A change of reference frame to that of the shock

will be necessary.

44

Associated with this change of reference frame, the stagnation properties will be

dierent but the static properties will remain the same.

3. How is the strength of a shock measured by? What does it depend on?

The strength of a shock can be measured by the pressure jump across it:

= P2 P P 1

1

where P1 and P2 are the static pressure upstream and downstream of the shock

respectively. The larger the pressure jump, the stronger the shock is.

The strength of a shock is dependent on the upstream Mach number:

P2 = 2 k M12 ( k 1 )

P1 k+1

= 2 k (kM+1 1 1 )

2

)

The variation of shock strength with upstream Mach number is shown graphically

in the following gure (for the k = 1:4 case):

10

8

(P2 - P1) / P1

2

0

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

M1

As shown in the gure, the strength of a shock increases with the upstream Mach

number in a non-linear manner. Much higher pressure jump can be achieved at

high Mach numbers. More quantitative results are tabulated in the following table

for further reference:

M1

1.0 0.0000

1.5 1.4583

2.0 3.5000

3.0 9.3333

5.0 28.000

7.0 56.000

45

Remarks: We can treat sound wave (M = 1) as a shock wave with zero strength.

4. Derive the relationship between the entropy production within a shock and the corre-

sponding loss in stagnation pressure across it.

We can apply the Gibbs equation to evaluate the pressure drop between the

upstream and downstream stagnation states.

T0 ds0 = dh0 1 dP0

0

The shock process is an adiabatic process, hence, the stagnation enthalpy (h0) is

constant across the shock

) d h0 = 0

The Gibbs equation is then reduced to

ds0 = 1 dP

0 T0 0

= R dP

P0 0

Direct integration of the above equation between the upstream State (1) and the

downstream State (2) gives

!

s0;2 s0;1 = R log PP0;2

0;1

Since a stagnation state has the same specic entropy as its static state, i.e.

s0;1 = s1; s0;2 = s2

we can also write the previous results as follows:

!

s2 s1 = R log PP0;2

0;1

The above equation relates the stagnation pressure drop to the entropy increase

across a shock.

5. Choose the best answer in the following question and explain it:

The Mach number upstream of a shock cannot be less than unity.

46

From Question 4, we obtain the stagnation pressure drop across a shock in terms

of the associated entropy change:

P0;2 = exp s2 s1

P0;1 R

Recall that the stagnation pressure drop across a shock depends only on the

upstream Mach number. It can be expressed by the following equation (Equation

13.37 in Fox & McDonald):

" # " #

P0;2 = ( k + 1 ) M12 k+1

k 1

k 1 k 1

We can equate the above two equations and express the change of entropy across

the shock in terms of the upstream Mach number as

8" # " # 9

( k + 1 ) M12 k+1

1

< =

k

1 1

s2 s1 = R log

k k

: 2 + ( k 1 ) M12 2 k M12 k + 1 ;

To unfold the physics contained in this complicated equation, we can plot the non-

dimensional entropy change ( ( s2 s1 ) = R ) against the upstream Mach number

(M1 ). Results are shown in the following gure:

1.0

0.5

(s2 - s1) / R

-0.5

Violation of Second Law

-1.0

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

M1

{ entropy increases across the shock for a supersonic upstream Mach number

(solid line),

{ entropy decreases across the shock for a subsonic upstream Mach number

(dotted line).

Apparently, the latter case violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Hence,

we conclude that the Mach number upstream of a shock cannot be less than unity.

This conclusion also reveals the fact that a shock process is irreversible.

47

6. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a ow

across a normal shock:

Across a Normal Shock

P increases

increases

T increases

V decreases

c increases

M decreases

P0 decreases

0 decreases

T0 remains constant

A increases

P decreases

decreases

T remains constant

Trace the process path across a shock on a T s diagram. (Indicate clearly its

position relative to the stagnation state and the sonic state.)

P0,1 P0,2

T

T0,1 = T0,2

P0,1 > P0,2

(2)

T1* = T2*

(1)

s

s1 s2

The upstream State (1) is supersonic, hence, it is located below the sonic state

on the T s diagram.

The downstream State (2) is subsonic, hence, it is located above the sonic state

on the T s diagram.

The shock process is an irreversible, adiabatic process. Entropy is produced from

State (1) to State (2). Hence, State (2) is located to the right of State (1) on the

T s diagram.

48

7. Moving Shock Problem: A shock wave is propagating at Mach 2.0 into still air which

is at atmospheric condition. What is the change of stagnation pressure observed by

someone standing on the ground? How about the change in stagnation temperature?

P0 = ?

M = 2.0 Still air at atm. condition

T0 = ?

Moving shock

{ the shock jump relationships are derived in the shock frame of reference,

{ the stagnation properties are dependent on the reference frame while the static

properties are independent of the reference frame.

Having the above basic concepts in mind, we can properly dene the upstream

state in the shock frame of reference as follows:

M1 = 2.0

P0,2 = ?

P1 = 1.0 atm.

T0,2 = ?

T1 = 288 K

Stationary shock

For an upstream Mach number of 2.0, we obtain from the normal shock table:

M2 = 0:57735

P2 = 4:50000 ) P = 4:50 atm.

2

P1

T2 = 1:68750 ) T = 486 K

2

T1

We have just found out the static pressure and temperature downstream of the

shock in the shock frame of reference. Since the static properties are independent

of reference frame, an observer standing on the ground will also measure the same

static pressure and temperature as the above values.

49

In the shock frame of reference,

p

V1 = M1 pk R T1 = 680 m/sec

V2 = M2 k R T2 = 255 m/sec

M2 = 0.57735 M1 = 2.0

P2 = 4.5 atm. P1 = 1.0 atm.

T2 = 486 K T1 = 288 K

V2 = 255 m/sec V1 = 680 m/sec

server standing on the ground, we need to know the downstream Mach number

in the ground frame of reference. This requires a change of reference frame from

that of the shock to that of the ground.

In the ground frame of reference, an observer measures a downstream velocity of

V2 = 425 m/sec (to the left)

Or equivalently V2 = 425 m/sec (to the right)

This corresponds to a downstream Mach number of

M2 = 0:962 in the ground frame of reference.

M2 = 0.962 M1 = 0

P2 = 4.5 atm. P1 = 1.0 atm.

T2 = 486 K T1 = 288 K

V2 = 425 m/sec V1 = 0 m/sec

P2 = 0:55192 ) P = 8:15 atm.

0;2

P 0;2

T2 = 0:84382 ) T = 576 K

0;2

T0;2

Hence, the change of stagnation pressure and temperature is:

P0 = 8:15 1:0 atm. = 7:15 atm.

T0 = 576 288 K = 288 K

50

8. Shock Location Specication Problem: Air enters a C-D nozzle which has an exit-to-

throat area ratio of 1.8 (A5=A2 = 1:8). A normal shock occurs at a location where

the cross-sectional area is 1.2 times that of the throat (A3=A2 = 1:2). The schematic

is shown below:

(3) (4)

Shock

Since there is a shock in the diverging section of the nozzle, we can conclude

that we achieve Mach 1.0 at the throat. Then the ow goes supersonic from

the throat to Station (3).

As the ow accelerates from Station (1) to Station (3), pressure decreases

continuously.

Across the shock, the ow is compressed. Hence, pressure increases from

Station (3) to Station (4).

The ow then becomes subsonic after the shock and decelerates in the di-

verging section. This leads to a pressure rise from Station (4) to Station (5).

P / P0

0.528

x

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

State (1) is subsonic, hence, its temperature is higher than the sonic temper-

ature.

State (2) is sonic.

51

State (3) is supersonic, hence, its temperature is lower than the sonic tem-

perature.

State (4) is subsonic after the shock:

{ Its entropy is higher than that of State (3) because of irreversibility

through the shock.

{ Its temperature is higher than that of State (3) because of shock com-

pression.

{ Hence, it is located to the right of and above State (3).

State (5) is subsonic. Its temperature is higher than that of State (4) because

of uid deceleration in the diverging section.

T

T0

(5)

(1)

(4)

* (2)

T

(3)

We can express the operating pressure ratio as a product of several pressure

ratios:

P5 = P5 P0;5 P0;4 P0;3

P0;1 P0;5 P0;4 P0;3 P0;1

Each of the pressure ratios on the right hand side of the above equation can

be determined separately by knowing the local Mach number. Let us examine

them individually:

{ P5=P0;5 depends on the local Mach number, M5 , only, which is an un-

known up to this moment.

{ P0;5=P0;4 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (4) to Station

(5).

{ P0;4=P0;3 depends on the Mach number upstream of the shock, M3 . In

this problem, we achieve the sonic state at Station (2) because the ow

is supersonic between Station (2) and Station (3).

A3 = A3 = 1:2

A2 A3

52

which gives

M3 = 1:534 from isentropic ow table

This gives a stagnation pressure loss of

P0;4 = 0:91865 from normal shock table

P0;3

{ P0;3=P0;1 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (1) to Station

(3).

We simplify to the following equation:

P5 = 0:91865 P5

P0;1 P0;5}

| {z

f1 (M5 )

We need one more piece of information to complete this problem, namely the

local Mach number at Station (5).

We can nd out the Mach number at Station 5 by relating the area ratio at

dierent stations as follows:

A5 = A5 A5 A4 A4 A3

A2 A5 A4 A4 A3 A2

Similarly, the area ratios in the above equation can be determined separately

by knowing the local Mach number. Let us examine them individually:

{ A5=A2 = 1:8 as given.

{ A5=A4 = 1 because the ow is isentropic between Station (4) and Station

(5).

{ A4=A4 depends on the local Mach number, M4 , which is governed by the

Mach number upstream of the shock, M3 . For an upstream Mach number

of 1.534, we obtain from the normal shock table,

M4 = 0:68939

which in turn gives an area ratio of

A4 = 1:10230 from isentropic ow table

A4

{ A4=A3 = 1 because there is no area change across a shock.

{ A3=A2 = 1:2 as given.

53

Hence, we can solve for the area ratio at Station (5):

A5 =A5 = 1:65345

which gives

M5 = 0:381 and P5 = 0:90446

P0;5

Hence, we conclude that the operating pressure ratio to be

P5 = 0:83088

P0;1

9. Back Pressure Specication Problem: Let us return to the C-D nozzle (with an exit-

to-throat area ratio of 1.2) we worked with last week. It connects again the same air

supply chamber at 300 K and 6.0 bars to the ambient.

T = 300 K

CD Nozzle

(a) Last week, we have found that the rst critical point operates at Pamb =P0 =

0:78997 and the third critical point operates at Pamb =P0 = 0:25922. What is the

ambient-to-chamber pressure ratio at the second critical point?

The second critical point corresponds to an isentropic, supersonic
ow all the

way up to the C-D nozzle exit and then passes through a normal shock.

For an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1.2, the condition just upstream of the

shock, State (1), is given by the isentropic
ow table:

M1 = 1:534 and P1 = 0:25922 (third critical)

P0;1

For an upstream Mach number of 1.534, the pressure jump across this shock

can be obtained by the normal shock table as

P2 = 2:57871 (shock jump)

P1

54

Hence, the ambient-to-chamber pressure ratio at the second critical point is

P2 = P2 P1 = (2:57871) (0:25922) = 0:66845

P0;1 P1 P0;1

(b) We have learned last week how to compute the mass
ow rate for both choked

and unchoked cases. Let us focus on some o-design operations of this C-D nozzle

this time. Describe qualitatively what happens inside the nozzle for the following

ambient pressure values:

Recall from last week, the rst critical (FC) point is

PFC = 0:78997

P0

and the third critical (TC) point is

PTC = 0:25922

P0

P / P0

Please be reminded again that the rst, second and third critical points are

dened by the nozzle geometry, namely the exit-to-throat area ratio. They

take on dierent values for dierent nozzle geometry.

We need to compare the following ambient pressure values with the rst,

second and third critical pressure values before we conclude the
ow behavior

inside the nozzle.

i. Pamb = 5:4 bars

{ Pamb =P0 = 0:9 in this case. It is higher than the rst critical point.

{ The nozzle is not choked. The
ow remains subsonic inside the entire

nozzle.

55

{ Pressure drops in the converging section and rises in the diverging sec-

tion.

ii. Pamb = 4:5 bars

{ Pamb =P0 = 0:75 in this case. It is between the rst and the second

critical points.

{ The nozzle is choked. The
ow reaches Mach 1.0 at the throat and goes

supersonic for a portion in the diverging section.

{ A normal shock is expected to occur in the diverging section of the

nozzle which terminates the supersonic
ow.

{ The
ow becomes subsonic after the shock. Pressure rises in the re-

maining portion of the diverging section.

{ Since the
ow is subsonic, the
ow comes out of the nozzle to match

with the ambient pressure.

iii. Pamb = 4:2 bars

{ Pamb =P0 = 0:70 in this case. It is between the rst and the second

critical points again.

{ Similar
ow behavior is expected within the nozzle.

{ But the shock location is dierent.

iv. Pamb = 2:4 bars

{ Pamb =P0 = 0:40 in this case. It is between the second and the third

critical points.

{ The
ow remains isentropic and supersonic throughout the entire di-

verging section.

{ When the
ow comes out of the nozzle exit, it is over-expanded (pres-

sure is lower than the ambient value).

{ But a normal shock is too strong to match with the ambient pressure.

Instead oblique shocks (weaker than normal shock) are expected to

occur outside the nozzle to match with the ambient pressure.

v. Pamb = 0:6 bars

{ Pamb =P0 = 0:10 in this case. It is lower than the third critical point.

{ The
ow remains isentropic and supersonic throughout the entire di-

verging section.

{ When the
ow comes out of the nozzle exit, it is under-expanded (pres-

sure is higher than the ambient value).

{ Expansion waves (causes pressure drop) are expected to occur outside

the nozzle to match with the ambient pressure.

(c) In the cases where standing normal shock occurs in the nozzle, compute its loca-

tion in terms of area ratio with respect to the throat.

56

Case (ii) and (iii) in Part (b) will have a normal shock located in the diverging

section of the nozzle.

The solution procedure is similar in both cases. They follow the same logic

but the shock location will be dierent in the two cases.

Let us rst label the states which will facilitate our calculations as follows:

P / P0

(1)

1.0

(5)

(2)

0.528

(3) (4)

x

Stagnation Sonic Shock Exit

State State Location

{ State (2) is the sonic state, at the throat.

{ State (3) is immediate upstream of the shock.

{ State (4) is immediate downstream of the shock.

{ State (5) is the exit state whose pressure has to match with that of the

ambient (Subsonic ow has the obligation to match the imposed pressure.)

When we examine the problem statement carefully, we are only given the

operating pressure ratio and the exit-to-throat area ratio of the C-D noz-

zle. Hence, we need to work out the solution based on these two pieces of

information.

Let us express the pressure ratio in the following manner:

P5 = P5 P0;5 P0;4 P0;3

P0;1 P0;5 P0;4 P0;3 P0;1

{ P5=P0;1 is imposed by the problem statement (0.75 in Case (ii) and 0.70

in Case (iii)).

{ P5=P0;5 depends on the exit Mach number, M5 .

{ P0;5=P0;4 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (4) to Station

(5).

{ P0;4=P0;3 depends on the Mach number upstream of the shock, M3 .

{ P0;3=P0;1 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (1) to Station

(3).

57

Hence, we simplify to the following relationship:

P5 = P5 P0;4 (1)

P 0;

| {z }1 P 0 ;5 P 0

| {z } | {z }; 3

Given f (M ) f (M )

1 5 2 3

A5 = A5 A5 A4 A4 A3 A3

A2 A5 A4 A4 A3 A3 A2

{ A5=A2 = 1:2 as specied in the problem statement.

{ A5=A5 depends on the exit Mach number, M5 .

{ A5=A4 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (4) to Station (5).

{ A4=A4 depends on the Mach number downstream of the shock, M4 .

{ A4=A3 = 1 because there is no area variation across a shock.

{ A3=A3 depends on the Mach number upstream of the shock, M3.

{ A3=A2 = 1 because the ow is sonic at Station (2) before it reaches

supersonic at Station (3) and it is isentropic from Station (2) to Station

(3).

Hence, we simplify to the following relationship:

1:2 = A5 A4 A3 (2)

A 5 A

|{z} |{z} |{z}4 A 3

g1 (M5 ) g2 (M4 ) g1 (M3 )

The solution process consists of the following steps:

i. Guess M3 (between unity and 1.534 (design exit condition)).

{ Look up the isentropic ow table to nd out A3 =A3.

{ Look up the normal shock table to nd M4

{ Look up the normal shock table to nd P0;4=P0;3

ii. With the value of M4 just obtained, look up A4 =A4 in the isentropic ow

table.

iii. Substitute the above values into Equation (2) to nd out A5=A5.

iv. With the value of A5 =A5 just obtained, look up the corresponding M5

and P5 =P0;5 from the isentropic ow table.

v. With P0;4 =P0;3 and P5=P0;5 gured out in the previous steps, we can sub-

stitute their values into Equation (1).

vi. If the product between P0;4 =P0;3 and P5=P0;5 equals the value of P5=P0;1

as specied in the problem statement, the guess is correct in Step (i).

Otherwise, keep guessing dierent values for M3 and repeat the above

process until the pressure ratio matches with what is given in the problem.

58

(d) Look back to your calculations, how do you compare the shock location for dif-

ferent ambient pressure? Do you expect the shock to be closer to the throat or

to the exit for a high ambient pressure?

There are two mechanisms to obtain pressure rise in the diverging section of

the nozzle:

{ compression due to normal shock,

{ subsonic pressure recovery after the shock.

These two mechanisms work against each other. We need to evaluate the two

alternatives separately:

{ If the shock is closer to the throat, the pressure jump due to the shock

is less intense. But the subsonic ow (after the shock) has the entire

diverging section to recover its pressure. It is operating close to the rst

critical condition.

{ If the shock is closer to the exit, the pressure jump due to the shock is

more intense. But the subsonic ow (after the shock) does not have much

ow passage to recover its pressure. It is operating close to the second

critical condition (lower than the rst critical).

As a conclusion, the shock is expected to be closer to the throat for a higher

ambient pressure.

59

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial Five: Fanno Flow

2. Trace out a Fanno curve on a T s plane and locate the corresponding stagnation and

sonic states on the same diagram.

3. Show that the Mach number corresponds to the maximum entropy point on a Fanno

curve is unity.

4. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a
ow

through a constant-area, frictional duct:

M <1 M >1

P

T

V

c

M

P0

0

T0

s

A

P

T

P + V2

60

5. A
ow is supplied by a converging nozzle (unchoked).

(a) Will the addition of a diverging section increase or decrease the mass
ow rate?

(b) What about adding a constant-area pipe? Will it increase or decrease the mass

ow rate?

(c) Sketch the variation of the mass
ow rate, m_ , with back-to-stagnation pressure

ratio, Pb=P0, for the above two cases on the same plot and highlight the dierences.

Pamb < P0

P0 , T0

61

7. Fanno Flow in Subsonic Regime

P0,1 , T0,1 Converging Nozzle

Pb

L=5m

D = 0.2 m

(a) Where can Mach 1.0 be realized?

In this part, we operate the above setup at a pressure ratio of Pb=P0;1 = 0.60.

What is the ow conditions at the exit (P; T; M )?

How much do we need to lower the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio to reach the

choking condition? What does this ratio depend on? (Recall that it depends on

the exit-to-throat area ratio for a C-D nozzle.)

After we lower the pressure ratio to the value we computed in Part (c), the ow is

choked. What do you expect to happen if an extra two meters of pipe section is

added to the existing system? Do you expect the ow is still choked at the exit?

Explain your answer by showing the corresponding states on a T s diagram.

62

8. Fanno Flow in Supersonic Regime

P0,1 , T0,1 CD Nozzle (A2 / A1 = 2.0)

L

Pb

(1)

(2) (e)

D = 0.2 m

(a) Slightly dierent from the last problem, there are two possible locations at which

Mach 1.0 is attainable in the above setup. Where are they?

(b) L = Lmax

In the supersonic operation mode, determine the pipe length Lmax which gives a

sonic
ow right at the pipe exit.

i. For L = 2:0 m, determine the range of the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio,

Pb=P0;1, over which

A. a normal shock appears in the diverging section of the C-D nozzle

63

C. oblique shocks appear outside the pipe

A. sketch the process path from the nozzle inlet to the pipe exit on a T s

diagram.

B. sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from the

nozzle inlet to the pipe exit.

C. outline the solution procedure to locate the shock position in cases where

normal shock appears.

64

(d) L > Lmax (Common case)

i. For L = 5:0 m, qualitatively describe the
ow in the system for the following

pressure ratios:

A. Pb=P0;1 = 0:50

B. Pb=P0;1 = 0:10

A. sketch the process path from the nozzle inlet to the pipe exit on a T s

diagram.

B. sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from the

nozzle inlet to the pipe exit.

65

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Solutions to Tutorial Five: Fanno Flow

The Fanno curve is derived from the conservation of mass and the conservation of

energy principles.

All states on the same Fanno curve have the same

{ mass ux, m=A

_

{ stagnation enthalpy, h0

Eects of changing the mass ux and stagnation enthalpy on the Fanno curve are

displayed in the following gures:

Changing m=A

_ Changing h0

T T increasing h0

T0 .

m

increasing

A

T*

s s

2. Trace out a Fanno curve on a T s plane and locate the corresponding stagnation and

sonic states on the same diagram.

Since the stagnation temperature is constant for a Fanno
ow (adiabatic), all the

stagnation states lies on the horizontal line (T = T0).

The ratio of sonic to stagnation temperature is a constant for any local static

state

T0 = 1 + k 1

T 2

Hence, the sonic temperature is also a constant. All the sonic states lies on the

horizontal line (T = T ).

66

T

10

T0 Locus of all

1 (static)

stagnation states

Subsonic

regime

1*

T* Locus of all

sonic states

Supersonic

regime

3. Show that the Mach number corresponds to the maximum entropy point on a Fanno

curve is unity.

The road map to solve this problem is as follows:

(a) Derive the equation of a Fanno curve on the T s plane.

(b) Dierentiate the equation with respect to temperature.

(c) Solve for the maximum entropy point:

ds = 0

dT

We rst start with the Gibbs equation:

T ds = du P2 d

ds = Cv dT T R d

(ideal gas)

= Cv dT + R dV ( V = constant)

T V

Integrate the above equation (assume constant Cv ), we obtain

s = Cv log T + R log V + constant (3)

From energy conservation, we have

V2 = h h = Cp (T0 T) (perfect gas)

0

2

q

) V = 2 Cp (T0 T) (4)

67

Combine Equation (3) and Equation (4), we obtain the equation of a Fanno curve

on the T s plane:

s = Cv log T + R2 log[ 2 Cp (T0 T ) ] + constant

At the maximum entropy point,

ds = 0

dT

Cv R 1

T 2 T0 T = 0

Cv R 2 Cp = 0 From Equation (4)

T 2 V2

) V2 = Cp R T

Cv

= kRT

= c2

We conclude that the
ow speed at the maximum entropy point equals the speed

of sound. Hence, it corresponds to a Mach 1.0 point.

4. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a
ow

through a constant-area, frictional duct:

M <1 M >1

P decreases increases

decreases increases

T decreases increases

V increases decreases

c decreases increases

M increases decreases

P0 decreases decreases

0 decreases decreases

T0 remains constant remains constant

s increases increases

A increases increases

P decreases decreases

decreases decreases

T remains constant remains constant

P + V2 decreases decreases

68

5. A
ow is supplied by a converging nozzle (unchoked).

(a) Will the addition of a diverging section increase or decrease the mass
ow rate?

The addition of a diverging section will increase the mass
ow rate. The

reasons are outlined as follows:

{ Pressure rises in the diverging section for a subsonic
ow which demands

the pressure at the nozzle throat to be lower than the back pressure.

{ This leads to a higher Mach number at the nozzle throat, hence, a higher

mass
ow rate in the system.

(b) What about adding a constant-area pipe? Will it increase or decrease the mass

ow rate?

The addition of a constant-area pipe will decrease the mass
ow rate. The

reasons are outlined as follows:

{ Pressure drops along the pipe for a subsonic
ow which demands the

pressure at the nozzle exit to be higher than the back pressure.

{ This leads to a lower Mach number at the nozzle exit, hence, a lower

mass
ow rate in the system.

Pressure distribution of the above three cases can be compared in the following

gure:

P / P0

Converging

Nozzle Only Pipe Section

(Pressure drops)

Pb / P0

Diverging Section

(Pressure rises)

x

Throat

(c) Sketch the variation of the mass
ow rate, m_ , with back-to-stagnation pressure

ratio, Pb=P0, for the above two cases on the same plot and highlight the dierences.

The C-D nozzle is choked at a much higher pressure ratio (determined by the

exit-to-throat area ratio) than the frictional pipe (determined by fLmax=D).

The mass
ow rate out of a C-D nozzle is higher than that out of a frictional

pipe.

Mass
ow rate of the above three cases can be compared in the following gure:

69

.

m

CD

. Nozzle

mnozzle

. . Converging

mpipe < mnozzle

Nozzle

ConstantArea

Pipe

Pb / P0

0.528 1.0

Pchoke, PIPE < 0.528 Pchoke, CD > 0.528

Control Volume

Pamb < P0

P0 , T0

As a rst step of our analysis, let us choose a control volume as indicated above

by the dotted line.

We need to turn to the momentum equation

Z Z

~FS + F~B = @

~V ( dV ) + ~ V~ dA~

V

|@t CV {z

| {z }

} | CS {z }

external forces storage (acceleration) net momentum out ow

and examine the dierences in

{ momentum ux across the control surfaces

{ pressure forces on the control volume

before we conclude the motion of the cart.

As we start lowering the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio, the exit plane pressure

at the converging nozzle and the pipe are equal to the back pressure (subsonic

ow). Hence, the net pressure force on the cart is zero.

70

Let us examine the momentum
ux

e Ve2 Ae = RPTe Ve2 Ae

e

for both cases. The two exit states can be represented on the T s diagram as

follows:

T Pb = Pe

Pipe Exit

T

Nozzle Exit

{ Pe;nozzle = Pe;pipe

{ Ve;nozzle > Ve;pipe

{ Te;nozzle < Te;pipe

Hence, we can conclude that the momentum ux out of the converging nozzle is

greater than that out of the frictional pipe.

As a conclusion, The cart will move to the right.

7. Fanno Flow in Subsonic Regime

P0,1 , T0,1 Converging Nozzle

Pb

(1) (e)

L=5m

D = 0.2 m

(a) Where can Mach 1.0 be realized?

71

Mach 1.0 can only be realized at the pipe exit.

(b) Unchoked Case

In this part, we operate the above setup at a pressure ratio of Pb=P0;1 = 0.60.

What is the ow conditions at the exit (P; T; M )?

We have learned from Question 5 that the pipe is choked at a lower pressure

ratio than the converging nozzle.

In our case here, Pb=P0;1 = 0:60 > 0:528 (choking condition for converging

nozzle). Hence, we can conclude

{ the pipe is not choked

{ ow is subsonic at the exit

{ exit plane pressure, Pe, equals the back pressure, Pb

We can write the pressure ratio as follows:

Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f P P

1;f 1

P0;1 Pe Pe;f P1;f P1 P0;1

Let us examine the individual terms in the above equation:

{ Pb=P0;1 = 0:60 as given.

{ Pb=Pe = 1 because exit pressure equals back pressure for subsonic ow.

{ Pe=Pe;f depends on the exit Mach number, Me (from Fanno ow table).

{ Pe;f =P1;f = 1 because Station (1) and Station (e) are on the same Fanno

curve and are driven to the same reference f state.

{ P1;f =P1 depends on the inlet Mach number, M1 (from Fanno ow table).

{ P1=P0;1 also depends on the inlet Mach number, M1 (from isentropic ow

table).

We then simplify to the following relationship:

P

0:60 = Pe 1;f P1 (5)

Pe;f P1 P0;1

The pressure ratios in Equation (5) depend on two unknown Mach numbers

(M1 ; Me). We can relate them by using the pipe geometry:

! !

f L = f Lmax f Lmax

D D 1 D e

where

{ fL=D = 0:5 as given by system specication.

{ (fLmax =D)1 depends on the inlet Mach number, M1 (from Fanno ow

table).

72

{ (fLmax =D)e depends on the exit Mach number, Me (from Fanno ow

table).

We have

! !

0:5 = f LDmax f Lmax

D (6)

1 e

The solution procedure is an iterative one. It is outlined as follows:

i. Guess M1 .

ii. Look up the Fanno ow table to nd out (fLmax=D)1.

iii. Calculate (fLmax =D)e from Equation (6).

iv. Look up the Fanno ow table to nd the corresponding Me.

v. With these two Mach numbers (M1 ; Me),

{ look up the Fanno ow table to nd Pe=Pe;f

{ look up the Fanno ow table to nd P1;f =P1

{ look up the isentropic ow table to nd P1 =P0;1

vi. If the product of the above pressure ratios equals 0.60 (Equation (5)), the

guess is correct in Step (i). Otherwise, keep guessing dierent values for

M1 and repeat the above procedure until the product of pressure ratios

converges to 0.60.

(c) Choked Case

How much do we need to lower the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio to reach the

choking condition? What does this ratio depend on? (Recall that it depends on

the exit-to-throat area ratio for a C-D nozzle.)

The solution procedure for the choked case is simpler than the unchoked case

because we know

{ Me = 1

{ Pb = P1;f

This also implies that

!

f L = f Lmax = 0:5

D D 1

From the Fanno ow table, we obtain the inlet Mach number to be

M1 = 0:5978

With M1 = 0:5978,

{ the Fanno ow table gives

P1 = 1:7705

P1;f

73

{ the isentropic
ow table gives

P1 = 0:78538

P0;1

The choking pressure ratio can then be computed as

Pb = P1;f P1 = 1 (0:78538) = 0:4436

P0;1 P1 P0;1 1:77051

This choking pressure ratio depends on the value of fL=D of the pipe.

(d) L > Lmax

After we lower the pressure ratio to the value we computed in Part (c), the
ow is

choked. What do you expect to happen if an extra two meters of pipe section is

added to the existing system? Do you expect the
ow is still choked at the exit?

Explain your answer by showing the corresponding states on a T s diagram.

After the
ow is choked, addition of extra pipe section will reduce the mass

ow rate inside the pipe. This corresponds to switching to another Fanno

curve with a smaller mass
ux value (m=A_ ) on the T s diagram.

Since the exit pressure cannot be greater than the back pressure in subsonic

ow (no shock mechanism), the
ow leaves the exit subsonically with Pe = Pb.

In other words, the addition of extra pipe section unchokes the system.

This adjustment of
ow conditions within the system is possible because sub-

sonic
ow can communicate. The addition of extra pipe section downstream

can aect the pipe inlet condition upstream. In this case, it reduces the local

Mach number at the pipe inlet. As we shall see in the next question, super-

sonic
ow does not have this communication means. It can only adjust to

extra pipe section by shock/expansion mechanism.

The above conclusion can be summarized graphically in the following gure:

T

T0 Flow changes from

unchoked (higher entropy Fanno Curve (1) to

(2) due to longer pipe) Pb Fanno Curve (2)

(1)

choked

T*

.

m

smaller

A

s

74

8. Fanno Flow in Supersonic Regime

P0,1 , T0,1 CD Nozzle (A2 / A1 = 2.0)

L

Pb

(1)

(2) (e)

D = 0.2 m

(a) Slightly dierent from the last problem, there are two possible locations at which

Mach 1.0 is attainable in the above setup. Where are they?

Mach 1.0 can be realized at

{ the throat of the C-D nozzle

{ exit of the frictional pipe.

(b) L = Lmax

In the supersonic operation mode, determine the pipe length Lmax which gives a

sonic
ow right at the pipe exit.

Under supersonic operation mode, the inlet Mach number, M2 , is governed

by the area ratio of the C-D nozzle.

For an area ratio of A2=A1 = 2:0, we obtain from the isentropic
ow table

M2 = 2:197

From the Fanno
ow table, this corresponds to

!

f Lmax = 0:36017

D 2

which gives a critical pipe length of

Lmax = 3:602 m

i. For L = 2:0 m, determine the range of the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio,

Pb=P0;1, over which

75

A. a normal shock appears in the diverging section of the C-D nozzle

There are two limiting cases to consider here:

Case I Case II

2a 2b

{ With the normal shock right at the nozzle throat, the ow goes sub-

sonic in the diverging section of C-D nozzle.

{ Pipe inlet Mach number, M2 , is governed by the area ratio of the

C-D nozzle (subsonic solution from isentropic ow table):

M2 = 0:3060; P2 = 0:93712

P0;2

{ With M2 = 0:3060, the Fanno ow table gives

!

P2 = 3:5479 f Lmax = 5:031

P2;f D 2

{ This further gives the value of fLmax=D at Station (e)

! !

f Lmax = f Lmax f L = 4:831

D e D 2 D

{ From the Fanno ow table, this corresponds to an exit Mach number

of 0.3105 and a pressure ratio

Pe = 3:4947

Pe;f

{ This gives the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio for Case I to be

Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f P P P

2;f 2 0;2

P0;1

Pe Pe;f P2;f P2 P0;2 P0;1

1

= (1) (3:4947) (1) 3:5479 (0:93712) (1)

= 0:9231

76

Case II: lower limit

{ With the normal shock right at the pipe inlet, the
ow goes super-

sonic in the diverging section of C-D nozzle until it hits a shock at the

nozzle exit, then goes subsonic right before entering the pipe section.

{ The Mach number upstream of the shock is governed by the area

ratio of C-D nozzle (supersonic solution from isentropic
ow table):

M2a = 2:197 P2a = 0:093936

P0;2a

{ With M2a = 2:197, the normal shock table gives

M2b = 0:54744 P2b = 5:4656

P2a

{ With M2b = 0:54744, the Fanno
ow table gives

!

P2b = 1:9438 f Lmax = 0:74305

P2b;f D 2b

{ This gives the value of fLmax =D at Station (e)

! !

f Lmax = f LDmax f L = 0:54305

D e 2b D

{ From the Fanno
ow table, this corresponds to an exit Mach number

of 0.5874 and a pressure ratio

Pe = 1:8037

Pe;f

{ This gives the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio for Case II to be

Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f P P P P

2b;f 2b 2a 0;2a

P0;1

Pe Pe;f P2b;f P2b P2a P0;2a P0;1

1

= (1) (1:8037) (1) 1:9438 (5:4656) (0:093936) (1)

= 0:4764

Hence, a normal shock appears in the diverging section of the C-D

nozzle when

0:4764 < Pb < 0:9231

P0;1

77

B. a normal shock appears in the pipe

There are two limiting cases to consider here:

Case II Case III

2a 2b

ea eb

Case II: upper limit It has already been studied in the previous part.

Case III: lower limit

{ With the normal shock right at the pipe exit, the
ow remains su-

personic from the nozzle throat all the way up to the pipe exit just

before the shock, then exits subsonically after the shock.

{ The pipe inlet Mach number, M2 , is again governed by the area ratio

of C-D nozzle (supersonic solution from isentropic
ow table). It has

been found from the previous part:

M2 = 2:197 P2 = 0:093936

P0;2

{ With M2 = 2:197, the Fanno
ow table gives

!

P2 = 0:35567 f Lmax = 0:36012

P2;f D 2

{ This gives the value of fLmax =D at Station (ea)

! !

f Lmax = f Lmax f L = 0:16012

D ea D 2 D

{ From the Fanno
ow table, this corresponds to a Mach number of

Mea = 1:566 and a pressure ratio

Pea = 0:57292

Pea;f

{ With Mea = 1:566, the normal shock table gives

Meb = 0:6790 Peb = 2:6944

Pea

78

{ This gives the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio for Case III to be

Pb = Pb Peb Pea Pea;f P P P

2;f 2 0;2

P0;1

Peb Pea Pea;f P2;f P2 P0;2 P0;1

1

= (1) (2:6944) (0:57292) (1) 0:35567 (0:093936) (1)

= 0:4077

Hence, a normal shock appears in the pipe section when

0:4077 < Pb < 0:4764

P0;1

For any back-to-stagnation pressure ratio which is lower than the critical

value corresponds to Case III, the
ow within the C-D nozzle and pipe

section will be unaected. All the pressure adjustment will take place

outside the pipe. We will expect

oblique shocks if the back pressure is higher than the design condition

oblique expansion waves if the back pressure is lower than the design

condition

The back-to-stagnation pressure ratio corresponds to the design condition

(free of shock/expansion) is

Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f P P P

2;f 2 0;2

P0;1 P P2 P0;2 P0;1

Pe Pe;f 2;f

= (1) (0:57292) (1) 1 (0:093936) (1)

0:35567

= 0:1513

Oblique shocks appear outside the pipe when the back-to-stagnation

pressure ratio is between the design condition and the critical value

corresponds to Case III:

0:1513 < PPb < 0:4077

0;1

D. oblique expansion waves appear outside the pipe

Oblique expansion waves appear outside the pipe when the back-to-

stagnation pressure ratio is below the design condition:

Pb < 0:1513

P0;1

79

ii. For each of the above cases,

A. sketch the process path from the nozzle inlet to the pipe exit on a T s

diagram.

Normal Shock in Nozzle Normal Shock in Pipe

T T

T0 T0

(2) Pe = Pb Pe = Pb

(e) (b)

(b) (e)

(1) (1)

T* T*

(a)

(a)

(2)

s s

T T

T0 T0

Pb

(1) (1)

T* Pe < P b T* P e > Pb

(e) (e)

Pb

(2) (2)

s s

Remarks:

State (a) and State (b) are the upstream and downstream states of the

normal shock respectively.

80

B. sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from the

nozzle inlet to the pipe exit.

Normal Shock in Nozzle Normal Shock in Pipe

a b a b

P P

P0 P0

0.528 0.528

a b a b

x x

(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

P P

P0 P0

0.528 0.528

x x

(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

C. outline the solution procedure to locate the shock position in cases where

normal shock appears.

Similar to our previous procedure in locating a normal shock in the di-

verging section of a C-D nozzle, we need to solve this problem iteratively.

The solution procedure is outlined below for the case with a normal shock

standing in the diverging section of C-D nozzle (more dicult case):

81

a b

B. Obtain the pressure ratio, Pa=P0;a, from the isentropic ow table (func-

tion of Ma ).

C. Obtain the Mach number downstream of the shock, Mb , and the pres-

sure ratios (Pb=Pa; P0;b=P0;a) from the normal shock table (function of

Ma ).

D. Relate Mb to the Mach number at the nozzle exit, M2 , as follows:

A2 = A2 A2 Ab Aa

A1 A2 Ab Aa A1

{ A2=A1 = 2:0 as given by system geometry.

{ A2=Ab = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (b) to Station

(2).

{ Ab =Aa = P0;a=P0;b because the shock process is adiabatic. This ratio

depends on Ma .

{ Aa =A1 = 1 because the isentropic ow from Station (1) to Station

(a) is choked at Station (1).

E. We then obtain the simplied equation:

2:0 = AA2 P0;a

P0;b

2

F. With the pressure ratio, P0;a=P0;b, determined in Step (C), the above

equation gives the value of A2 =A2 which denes the Mach number at

the nozzle exit, M2 (from the isentropic ow table).

G. Obtain P2=P0;2 from the isentropic ow table (function of M2 ).

H. Obtain P2=P2;f ; (fLmax =D)2 from the Fanno ow table (function of

M2 ).

I. Relate the Mach number at pipe exit, Me, with the Mach number at

pipe inlet, M2, as follows:

! ! !

f Lmax = f Lmax fL

D e D 2 D

82

J. With fL=D = 0:2 (given by system specication), the above equation

gives the value of (fLmax=D)e which denes the Mach number at the

pipe exit, Me (subsonic solution from the Fanno
ow table).

K. Obtain Pe=Pe;f from the Fanno
ow table (function of Me ).

L. The overall back-to-stagnation pressure ratio can then be computed as

follows: P P P P P

Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f 2;f 2 0;2 0;b 0;a

P0;1 Pe Pe;f P P2 P0;2 P0;b P0;a P0;1

2;f

{ Pb=Pe = 1 because exit pressure equals back pressure for subsonic

exit.

{ Pe;f =P2;f = 1 because Station (2) and Station (e) are on the same

Fanno curve and are driven to the same reference f state.

{ P0;2=P0;b = 1 because the
ow is isentropic from Station (b) to

Station (2).

{ P0;a=P0;1 = 1 because the
ow is isentropic from Station (1) to

Station (a).

M. We then simplify to the following relationship:

Pb = Pe P2;f P2 P0;b

P0;1

Pe;f

| {z } |P{z2 } P0;2}

| {z

P0;a}

| {z

Step K Step H Step G Step C

All the pressure ratios have been determined in the previous steps. We

just need to multiply all these pressure ratios together and check if their

product equals the given back-to-stagnation pressure ratio. If it is, the

guess is correct in Step (A). Otherwise, keep guessing dierent values

of Ma and repeat the above procedure until the product of pressure

ratios converges to the required value.

The case with a normal shock standing in the pipe section can be analyzed

in a similar manner and is easier!

(d) L > Lmax (Common case)

Since the fLmax =D values for supersonic
ow is much smaller than those of

subsonic
ow, for most applications, L > Lmax .

Since L > Lmax and supersonic
ow cannot communicate with downstream,

a shock is unavoidable within the pipe section.

The
ow goes subsonic after the shock. It can communicate with the down-

stream condition. It either exits the pipe subsonically, matching the back

pressure or sonically with an exit pressure higher than the back pressure.

To decide between these two possible situations, we need to compare the back

pressure, Pb , with the sonic pressure on the Fanno curve, Pf.

83

{ If Pb > Pf, the
ow exits subsonically and Pe = Pb.

{ If Pb < Pf, the
ow exits sonically and Pe > Pb. Expansion waves are

expected to occur outside the pipe to adjust to the lower back pressure.

In our present case, the sonic pressure on the Fanno curve, Pf, can be found

as follows:

i. From Part (b), we know that M2 = 2:197 in supersonic operation mode.

ii. From the isentropic
ow table, we obtain

P2 = 0:093936

P0;2

iii. From the Fanno
ow table, we obtain

P2 = 0:35567

P2;f

iv. Combine these two pressure ratios, we obtain

P2;f P2;f P2 P0;2

P0;1 = P2 P0;2 P0;1

= 0:35567 1 (0:093936) (1)

= 0:2641

i. For L = 5:0 m, qualitatively describe the
ow in the system for the following

pressure ratios:

In both cases, there is a normal shock within the system because L >

Lmax .

A. Pb=P0;1 = 0:50

Since Pb > Pf, the
ow exits subsonically with exit pressure equals

the back pressure.

No pressure adjustment is necessary outside the pipe.

B. Pb=P0;1 = 0:10

Since Pb < Pf, the
ow exits sonically with exit pressure higher than

the back pressure.

Pressure adjustment in the form of oblique expansion is expected to

occur outside the pipe.

84

ii. For each of the above cases,

A. sketch the process path from the nozzle inlet to the pipe exit on a T s

diagram.

Pb > Pf Pb < Pf

T T

T0 T0

Pe = Pb

(b) (b)

(e)

Pf* Pe = Pf*

(1)

T* T*

(1) (e)

Pb

(a) (a)

(2) (2)

s s

B. sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from the

nozzle inlet to the pipe exit.

Pb > Pf Pb < Pf

a b a b

P P

P0 P0

0.528 0.528

a b a b

x x

(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

85

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial Six: Rayleigh Flow

1. What do all the states on the same Rayleigh curve have in common?

2. Trace out a Rayleigh curve on a T s plane and locate the corresponding stagnation

and sonic states on the same diagram.

Shock Heat Addition

P0;1A1 = P0;7A7

P0;6A6 = P0;9A9

(b) Sketch the process path for the above system on a T s diagram. Indicate both

the static and stagnation states. Are State (2) and State (8) on the same Fanno

curve?

86

(c) Sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from Station (1)

to Station (9).

p

(a) M = 1= k at the maximum temperature point

(b) M = 1 at the maximum entropy point

5. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a
ow

through a constant-area duct with heat transfer:

M <1 M >1 M <1 M >1

(heating) (heating) (cooling) (cooling)

P

T

V

M

P0

0

T0

s

A

P

T

6. In your opinion, which assumption(s) in the Rayleigh
ow analysis may be potential

source(s) of error in solving a real life problem?

Remarks:

The procedure for solving Rayleigh
ow problems is very similar to the approach used

for Fanno
ow except that the link between any two
ow states in Rayleigh
ow is

determined by heat transfer q=m rather than wall friction fL=D.

87

7. This problem examines the eects of heat transfer on the
ow pattern ahead of a

combustor inlet.

Heat Addition

P = 1.0 bar

T = 250 K

V = 100 m/sec

Chamber

Air at 250 K and 1.0 bar is moving at 100 m/sec towards the entrance of a

combustion chamber. Determine the exit conditions if 300 kJ/kg is added to the

ow during the combustion process.

How much more heat can be added without changing the conditions at the en-

trance to the combustor?

Let us add sucient fuel to the system so that the exit stagnation temperature

is raised to 1500 K now. Assume that the receiver pressure is very low. What

do you expect to happen in the system? Describe the ow both qualitatively and

quantitatively.

88

8. A converging-diverging nozzle with an area ratio of 3.0, supplies air to a supersonic

wind tunnel. If there is moisture in the air, it is possible for the water vapor to

condense during the expansion process if the local static temperature drops below the

saturation temperature. In practice, this condensation process occurs very rapidly,

leading to an almost discontinuous change in the
ow properties. Assume that the

stagnation temperature of the air/water vapor mixture entering the nozzle is 600 K and

that the mass fraction of water vapor in the stream is Yw = mwater =mmixture = 0:01.

The saturation temperature for the air/water vapor mixture is 14 C and the heat of

vaporization of water is 2470 kJ/kg.

Front

i. without condensation

ii. with condensation

How is the test section Mach number aected by the presence of the condensation

process?

(c) Sketch the nozzle expansion process without and with condensation on a T s

diagram, including all appropriate stagnation and sonic states.

89

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Solutions to Tutorial Six: Rayleigh Flow

1. What do all the states on the same Rayleigh curve have in common?

The Rayleigh curve is derived from the conservation of mass and the conservation

of linear momentum principles.

All the states on the same Rayleigh curve have the same mass
ux (m=A

_ ), and

impulse (thrust) function, (P + V ).

2

2. Trace out a Rayleigh curve on a T s plane and locate the corresponding stagnation

and sonic states on the same diagram.

Along a Rayleigh curve, neither the stagnation temperature nor the stagnation

pressure is constant. Hence, the stagnation states are not as trivial as those of

the previous
ows we have studied in class.

Nevertheless, the conservation of energy principle tells us that the stagnation

temperature always increases when there is heat addition into the
ow regardless

the
ow is subsonic or supersonic.

Based on this conclusion, we can draw the stagnation lines (with positive slopes)

on the T s diagram in the following gure:

T

M=1/ k

M=1

Locus of all

stagnation

states

We then need to address the question: \Which stagnation line corresponds to the

subsonic/supersonic regime?" To answer this question, it will be helpful to think

about a normal shock process on a Rayleigh line.

Justication: Across a shock,

(a) V = constant

(b) P + V 2 = constant

90

(c) T0 = constant

Conditions (a) and (b) guarantee that the upstream and downstream states of a

shock lies on the same Rayleigh line. It is represented as follows:

T

T0,1 = T0,2

(2)

subsonic

(1)

supersonic

T0;2 = T0;1

Hence, the stagnation states of (1) and (2) must be on the same horizontal line

on the T s diagram. Because s2 > s1 (due to irreversibility within the shock),

we can conclude that the upper stagnation curve corresponds to the supersonic

regime and the lower one corresponds to the subsonic regime.

To trace out the sonic states, we need to realize

T0 = k + 1 = constant

T 2

Hence, the shapes of the sonic curves resemble those of the stagnation curves.

As a conclusion, all the stagnation and sonic states can be summarized in the

following diagram:

T

M=1/ k

onic

Supers M=1

Locus of all ic

stagnation Subson

states

onic

Supers

u b s onic

Locus of all S

sonic states

91

3. Consider the following system:

Shock Heat Addition

P0;1A1 = P0;7A7

P0;6A6 = P0;9A9

{ The product, P0 A , is constant for a steady, adiabatic ow.

{ In our case here, the ow is adiabatic from Station (1) to Station (7) but

heat addition occurs from Station (7) and Station (8). Hence,

P0;1 A1 = P0;7 A7

P0;6 A6 6= P0;9 A9

{ From conservation of mass, we can show that

Pp0 A = constant

T0

Since the heat addition from Station (7) to Station (8) raises the stagna-

tion temperature at Station (9) relative to that of Station (6), we conclude

that

P0;6 A6 < P0;9 A9

92

(b) Sketch the process path for the above system on a T s diagram. Indicate both

the static and stagnation states.

T

(1)

T0

(8)

(2) (3)

(7)

(9)

T*

(4)

(6)

(5)

Are State (2) and State (8) on the same Fanno curve?

Since there is heat addition from Station (7) to Station (8), Station (2) can-

not be on the same Fanno curve as Station (8) [h0;8 > h0;2 but (m=A _ )8 =

(m=A

_ )2:]

(c) Sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from Station (1)

to Station (9).

Shock Heat Addition

P

P0

1.0

0.53

x

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

93

4. Show the following results are true on a Rayleigh curve:

(a) M = 1 at the maximum entropy point

p

(b) M = 1= k at the maximum temperature point

The strategy to prove the necessary results is to obtain the derivatives: ds=dT

and dT=ds based on the following principles:

{ Gibbs equation

{ ideal gas equation

{ conservation of mass

{ conservation of linear momentum

Then set the derivatives to zero to obtain the corresponding Mach number con-

dition.

Let us start with the Gibbs equation:

T ds = du P2 d

ds = Cv dT T R d

(ideal gas)

We then try to relate the density change, d, with temperature change, dT ,

through mass and momentum conservation. Let

P + V 2 = C1 Momentum conservation

V = C2 Mass conservation

we have

P + C2 = C1

2

R T + C2 = C1

2

temperature, i.e. knowing one enables us to nd the other.

We can relate the dierentials in the above equation as follows:

R dT + R T d C22 d = 0

2

or equivalently

d = R dT

V2 RT

94

We are ready to substitute the above results into the Gibbs equation now. It will

give

ds = Cv dT

T

R2 dT

V2 RT

Further rearrangement gives

ds = Cv R2 (7)

dT T V2 RT

dT = T (V 2 R T ) (8)

ds C V2 C RT

v p

(a) At the maximum temperature point,

dT = 0

ds

Equation (8) implies

V2 = RT

= k Rk T

c

= k

2

) M 2 = k1

or M = p1

k

(b) At the maximum entropy point,

ds = 0

dT

Equation (7) implies

Cv = R2

T V2 RT

R T = RC T

2

V2

v

2

V = RT 1 + C R

v

= R T CpC (Cp = Cv + R)

v

= kRT

= c2

) M = 1

95

5. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a
ow

through a constant-area duct with heat transfer:

(heating) (heating) (cooling) (cooling)

P decreases increases increases decreases

decreases p increases increases p decreases

T increases (0 <pM < 1= k) increases decreases (0 <p M < 1= k) decreases

decreases (1= k < M < 1) increases (1= k < M < 1)

V increases decreases decreases increases

M increases decreases decreases increases

P0 decreases decreases increases increases

0 decreases decreases increases increases

T0 increases increases decreases decreases

s increases increases decreases decreases

A increases increases decreases decreases

P decreases decreases increases increases

decreases decreases increases increases

T increases increases decreases decreases

6. In your opinion, which assumption(s) in the Rayleigh ow analysis may be potential

source(s) of error in solving a real life problem?

Heat transfer causes the stagnation temperature to change signicantly in the

ow, which leads to a large variation of static temperature. The perfect gas as-

sumption (constant specic heats) may not be appropriate. At higher and higher

temperatures, more and more energy modes are activated within the molecules.

In general, this causes the specic heats to rise with temperature.

In cases where combustion occurs, chemical composition of the constituent gases

changes signicantly. Reactant species will be consumed and product species will

be produced. Their relative ratio changes as combustion proceeds. Values like

gas constant, R, and specic heat ratio, k, will no longer be constant but depend

on the extent of combustion.

Remarks:

The procedure for solving Rayleigh ow problems is very similar to the approach used

for Fanno ow except that the link between any two ow states in Rayleigh ow is

determined by heat transfer q=m rather than wall friction fL=D.

96

7. This problem examines the eects of heat transfer on the
ow pattern ahead of a

combustor inlet.

Heat Addition

P = 1.0 bar

T = 250 K

V = 100 m/sec

Chamber

Air at 250 K and 1.0 bar is moving at 100 m/sec towards the entrance of a

combustion chamber. Determine the exit conditions if 300 kJ/kg is added to the

ow during the combustion process.

In this unchoked case, the chamber inlet can take in all the ow which comes

towards it. Hence,

T1 = 250 K P1 = 1:0 bar V1 = 100 m/sec

For T1 = 250 K, c1 = 317 m/sec. This gives an inlet Mach number of

M1 = 0:3156

From the isentropic ow table, we obtain

T1 = 0:9805 ) T0;1 = 255 K

T0;1

From the Rayleigh ow table, we obtain

T0;1 = 0:3763 T1 = 0:4427 P1 = 2:106

T0;1;R

T1;R P1;R

From conservation of energy, we have

q = Cp ( T0;2 T0;1 )

) T0;2 = q + 1

T0;1 Cp T0;1

= 2:172

97

At Station (2),

T0;2 = T0;2 T0;1 T0;1;R

T0;2;R T0;1 T0;1;R T0;2;R

= (2:172) (0:3763) (1)

= 0:8173

From the Rayleigh
ow table, this corresponds to an exit Mach number of

M2 = 0:5985 (subsonic)

and

T2 = 0:9152 P2 = 1:598

T2;R P2;R

The exit state is

T T

T2 = TT2 T2;R T1;R T1 = (0:9152) (1) 0:4427

1 (250 K) = 517 K

2;R 1;R 1

P P

P2 = PP2 P2;R P1;R P1 = (1:598) (1) 2:106

1 (1:0 bar) = 0:7588 bar

2;R 1;R 1

How much more heat can be added without changing the conditions at the en-

trance to the combustor?

For the just choked case, M2 = 1. This implies

T0;2 = T0;1;R

Apply the same energy equation in Part (a), we have

q = Cp ( T0;2 T0;1 )

= Cp ( T0;1;R T0;1 )

T

= Cp T0;1 ( 0;1;R 1 )

T0;1!

= 1:004 kJ (255 K) 1 1

kg K 0:3763

= 424 kJ/kg

Hence, we can add an extra 124 kJ/kg into the ow before we choke it

thermally.

At this choked condition, the stagnation temperature at Station (2) is

T0;1;R

1

T0;2 = T0;1;R = T T0;1 = 0:3763 (255 K) = 678 K

0;1

98

(c) Choked Case

Let us add sucient fuel to the system so that the exit stagnation temperature

is raised to 1500 K now. Assume that the receiver pressure is very low. What

do you expect to happen in the system? Describe the
ow both qualitatively and

quantitatively.

In this case,

T0;2 = 1500 K > 678 K (choking condition)

The original
ow cannot accommodate this large amount of heat. Something

has to happen in order to take in so much heat addition. In other words, it

cannot stay on the same Rayleigh line.

Recall that the upstream (1) state can always communicate with the down-

stream states in a subsonic
ow by means of pressure waves.

\Sensing" the super-critical heat addition downstream, the
ow decelerates

from the free stream to the inlet. Spillage occurs ahead of the inlet. It is

shown schematically as follows:

Heat Addition

P = 1.0 bar

T = 250 K

V = 100 m/sec

(1) (2)

M = 0.3156

Combustion

}

Chamber

Spillage

dierent Rayleigh line with a smaller m=A

_ value.

Since the receiver (back) pressure is very low, we can assume that the ow is

choked at the exit station (2), i.e.

M2 = 1

With M2 = 1, we conclude that

T0;2 = T0;1;R = 1500 K

This leads to

T0;1 = 255 = 0:17

T0;1;R 1500

99

From the Rayleigh
ow table, we obtain

M1 = 0:1977 < 0:3156 = M1

The
ow decelerates from M1 = 0:3156 to M1 = 0:1977 at the inlet.

With M1 = 0:1977, we obtain from the isentropic
ow table

T1 = 0:9922 P1 = 0:9731

T0;1 P0;1

The inlet state is

T1 = TT1 TT0;1 TT0;1 T1 = (0:9922) (1) 0:9805

1 (250 K) = 253 K

0;1 0;1 1

P1 = PP1 PP0;1 PP0;1 P1 = (0:9731) (1) 0:9333

1 (1 bar) = 1:04 bar

0;1 0;1 1

To determine the exit condition, we need to look up the Rayleigh
ow table

for M1 = 0:1977.

T1 = 0:2024 P1 = 2:275

T1;R P1;R

Recall that the exit state is the R reference state due to choking, we can

conclude the exit condition to be

T2 = T1;R = TT T1 = 0:2024

1;R

1

1 (253 K) = 1250 K

P2 = P1;R = PP P1 = 2:275

1;R

1

1 (1:04 bar) = 0:457 bar

This heat addition process can be described qualitatively by the following

T s diagram:

T

exit

inlet

upstream

more heat addition

.

m

smaller

A

s

100

8. A converging-diverging nozzle with an area ratio of 3.0, supplies air to a supersonic

wind tunnel. If there is moisture in the air, it is possible for the water vapor to

condense during the expansion process if the local static temperature drops below the

saturation temperature. In practice, this condensation process occurs very rapidly,

leading to an almost discontinuous change in the
ow properties. Assume that the

stagnation temperature of the air/water vapor mixture entering the nozzle is 600 K and

that the mass fraction of water vapor in the stream is Yw = mwater =mmixture = 0:01.

The saturation temperature for the air/water vapor mixture is 14 C and the heat of

vaporization of water is 2470 kJ/kg.

Condensation

Front

Condensation occurs when Tc = 14C = 287 K.

) Tc = 287 = 0:4783

T0;c 600

From isentropic ow table, we obtain

Mc = 2:335 Ac = 2:264

Ac

Since the ow is choked at Station (1) before reaching supersonic in the

diverging section, Ac = A1 . Hence,

Acond = 2:264

Athroat

(b) Determine the test section Mach number

i. without condensation

With A2 =A1 = 3:0, the isentropic ow table gives a supersonic solution

of

M2 = 2:637

101

ii. with condensation

When the water vapor condenses, it releases the heat of vaporization to

the air
ow. The amount of heat release is

q_ = m_ water hfg

Since the condensation process occurs over a very short distance in space,

we can assume that there is no signicant area variation during the heat

addition process.

Hence, we can apply our Rayleigh
ow analysis to analyze this
ow.

Let us label the states as follows in our analysis:

cx cy

T0;cx = 0:73404

T0;cx;R

Apply conservation of energy across the condensation front, we have

q_ = m_ mixture Cp (T0;cy !T0;cx)

m_ water h = C T T0;cy 1

fg p 0;cx

m_ mixture

!

T 0;cx

! !

(0:01) 2470 kJ = 1:004 kJ (600 K) T0;cy 1

kg kg K T0;cx

) T0;cy = 1:041

T0;cx

We then relate the Mach number upstream and downstream of the con-

densation front as follows:

T0;cy = T0;cy T0;cy;R T0;cx;R

T0;cx T0;cy;R T0;cx;R T0;cx

1:041 = T0;cy (1) 1

T0;cy;R 0:73404

) T0;cy = 0:7641

T0;cy;R

102

The Rayleigh
ow table gives

Mcy = 2:154

which gives an area ratio of

Acy = 1:926

Acy

from the isentropic
ow table.

After the condensation front, the
ow continues to expand isentropically

from Station (cy) to Station (2). Their Mach numbers can be related by

their area ratio.

Acy = Acy Acy A2

A2 Acy A2 A2

2:264 = (1:926) (1) A2

3 A2

) A 2

A = 2:552

2

which corresponds to a test section Mach number of

M2 = 2:465

How is the test section Mach number aected by the presence of the condensation

process?

Without condensation, M2 = 2:637.

With condensation, M2 = 2:465.

The condensation process reduces the Mach number in the test section.

This is because the heat addition process slows down the supersonic
ow at

the condensation front (Mcx = 2:335 ! Mcy = 2:154).

103

(c) Sketch the nozzle expansion process without and with condensation on a T s

diagram, including all appropriate stagnation and sonic states.

T

T0

(1)

T*

(cy)

(cx)

(2) with condensation

s

104

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial Seven: Angular Momentum Principle

1. In control volume analysis, all governing principles share the same common structure:

storage = in
ow out
ow + production

The main dierence between dierent physical principles is in the production term, P .

For the following principles, what is this production term equal to?

(a) conservation of mass

2. The Reynolds Transport Theorem is the core basis in control volume analysis. It serves

as a bridge between the control mass and the control volume approach. We can state

it as: ! Z Z

dN = @ ( dV ) +

~ dA~

V

dt system @t CV CS

For the following principles, what are the quantities N and ?

(a) conservation of mass

105

(d) conservation of energy

3. What is the main criterion in choosing a suitable control volume in problem solving?

Pressure is always directed into / out of the control volume of interest.

6. The angular momentum principle can be expressed in the following two forms:

Form 1: Z

~

~r Fs + (~r ~g) ( dV ) + T~shaft

CV

Z Z

= @

~

r ~ ( dV ) +

V ~r ~ V~ dA~

V

@t CV CS

Form 2: Z

~

~r Fs + (~r ~g) ( dV ) + T~shaft

CV

Z h i

~r 2~! V~ + !~ (~! ~r) + ~!_ ~r ( dV )

CV

= @t @ Z

~r V~ ( dV ) +

Z

~r V~ V~ dA~

CV CS

(a) What is the main dierence between the above two forms?

106

7. A total water discharge of 200 cm3 is issued from a sprinkler as shown in the following

gure:

2

Aj = 0.1 cm

10 cm 10 cm 10 cm Wj Wj Wj

40 o

40 o

A

Wj Wj Wj

10 cm 10 cm 10 cm

Assume that the jet speed is the same from all the holes.

(a) Static Case: Determine the torque that must be applied to the sprinkler arms to

hold them from rotating.

(b) Frictionless Case: Determine the angular speed if the arms are free to rotate and

there is no friction.

(c) Frictional Case: Determine the angular speed if there is a constant frictional

torque of 1 N-m resisting rotation of the arms.

(d) Relative Motion: Determine the absolute velocity of the
uid leaving Hole A in

Part (b) and (c).

(e) Sketch the corresponding velocity vector diagrams for Part (d).

107

8. Refer to the schematic below, a \wye" joint splits a pipe
ow into two equal amounts,

Q=2, which exit at a distance R0 from the x-axis. The system rotates about the x axis

at a rate

.

Q/2

, R0 >> Dpipe

Q x

R0

Q/2

(a) Inertial Frame Analysis: Apply the angular momentum principle in an inertial

frame to

i. determine the torque required to turn the pipe (constant speed).

acceleration

_ on the existing system (constant acceleration).

(b) Rotating Frame Analysis: Repeat the analysis in Part (a) in a rotating frame.

108

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Solutions to Tutorial Seven: Angular Momentum Principle

1. In control volume analysis, all governing principles share the same common structure:

storage = in
ow out
ow + production

The main dierence between dierent physical principles is in the production term, P .

For the following principles, what is this production term equal to?

(a) conservation of mass

Mass can neither be created nor destroyed.

Pmass = 0

(b) conservation of linear momentum

According to Newton's law of motion, we can change the momentum of a

system by apply an external force on it.

X

Plin:mom: = F~

There are two main types of forces:

{ Surface force

It is present along the control surfaces of your selected control volume.

The best way to identify the surface forces is to trace along the entire

control surface and ask yourself the question \What force does my

control volume experience along this surface?"

Some examples of surface force are pressure force (normal direction)

and friction (tangential direction).

{ Body force

It is present due to the contents inside the selected control volume under

the in
uence of the surrounding force eld.

Some examples of body force are gravitational force and electrostatic

force.

(c) conservation of angular momentum

If we draw the analogy between linear momentum in translational motion and

angular momentum in rotational motion, external force will be analogous to

external torque. Hence, X

Pang:mom: = ~

109

Since the angular momentum equation is derived from the linear momentum

equation, all the external forces, F~ , (both surface and body) in the linear

momentum equation are capable of generating torque, ~r F~ , on the same

control volume as long as the line of action of the force does not pass through

the center of rotation.

(d) conservation of energy

We can change the total energy of a system by adding heat (Q) or doing work

(W ) on the system

Penergy = Qin + Win

2. The Reynolds Transport Theorem is the core basis in control volume analysis. It serves

as a bridge between the control mass and the control volume approach. We can state

it as: ! Z Z

dN = @ ( dV ) +

~ dA~

V

dt system @t CV CS

Most physical laws are Lagrangian in nature, i.e. they are derived for a system

with a xed amount of substance (control mass approach).

However, this approach is not easy to follow for a
uid system simply because a

uid can be deformed continuously as it moves around in space.

The Reynolds Transport Theorem relates the rate of change of an extensive prop-

erty N of a control mass system

!

dN

dt system

with the rate of change of the same property in a control volume

@ Z ( dV ) + Z V~ dA~

|@t CV {z } | CS {z }

storage out
ow - in
ow

There are two major components in the above equation:

{ The rst one is the storage term which accounts for the rate of increase in

property N within the control volume.

{ The second one is the net out
ow term which accounts for the loss of property

N due to the
uid motion in and out of the control volume.

Only with the Reynolds Transport Theorem, we can then relate the physical laws

to what we measure in a xed region in space (control volume approach).

110

For the following principles, what are the quantities N and ?

The quantity N is an extensive property of the system whereas the quantity is

its intensive counterpart.

(a) conservation of mass

N = M (total mass of system), =1

(b) conservation of linear momentum

N=M ~ (total linear momentum of system), = V~

(c) conservation of angular momentum

N = A~ (total angular momentum of system), = ~r V~

(d) conservation of energy

~2

N = E (total energy of system), = u + jV2j + g z

Remarks: With the results of Question 1 and 2, we can summarize all the conservation

laws in the following form:

@ Z ( dV ) + Z V~ dA~ = P

@t CV CS

3. What is the main criterion in choosing a suitable control volume in problem solving?

We should put the control surfaces at places where

{ we know how the
ow behaves, for example, (V~ ; P )

{ we want to know something about, for example, frictional shear, exit pressure.

4. From what physical principle is the angular momentum equation derived?

The angular momentum equation is derived by taking the cross product between

the position vector, ~r, and the linear momentum equation.

Hence, its main physics comes from Newton's law of motion.

The main dierence is that the linear momentum equation governs the transla-

tional motion while the the angular momentum equation governs the rotational

motion of the system.

111

5. Choose the best answer in the following question:

Pressure is always directed into the control volume of interest.

Pressure is a compressive force. Hence, it is always directed into the system of

interest.

6. The angular momentum principle can be expressed in the following two forms:

Form 1: Z

~

~r Fs + (~r ~g) ( dV ) + T~shaft

CV

@ Z ~r V~ ( dV ) + Z ~r V~ V~ dA~

= @t

CV CS

Form 2: Z

~

~r Fs + (~r ~g) ( dV ) + T~shaft

Z CV

h i

~r 2~! V~ + !~ (~! ~r) + ~!_ ~r ( dV )

CV

@ Z

= @t

~r V~ ( dV ) +

Z

~r V~ V~ dA~

CV CS

(a) What is the main dierence between the above two forms?

Form 1 is derived in an inertial frame.

Form 2 is derived in a rotating (non-inertial) frame.

We need to make sure that the velocity vector, V~ , is consistent with the cor-

responding choice of reference frame when we invoke the angular momentum

principle.

As long as we use the two forms in a consistent manner, they should give

identical results.

(b) Give a verbal description to each term in the equations.

~rR F~s is the torque generated by surface force, F~s.

CVR (~r ~g)( dV ) is the torque generated by gravitational force.

RCV ~r (2~! V~ ) ( dV ) is the torque generated by Coriolis force.

RCV ~r [~! (~! ~r)] ( dV ) is the torque generated by centripetal force.

CV ~r (~!_ ~r) ( dV ) is the \ctitious" torque due to angular acceleration

of the

R

rotating reference frame.

@t CV (~r V~ ) ( dV ) is the rate of increase in angular momentum within the

@

control

R

volume.

CS (~r V~ ) ( V~ dA~ ) is the net out
ow of angular momentum caused by
uid

motion in and out of the control volume.

112

7. A total water discharge of 200 cm3 is issued from a sprinkler as shown in the following

gure:

2

Aj = 0.1 cm

10 cm 10 cm 10 cm Wj Wj Wj

40 o

40 o

A

Wj Wj Wj

10 cm 10 cm 10 cm

Assume that the jet speed is the same from all the holes.

We rst choose a control volume to include the entire sprinkler arm as indicated

above.

Let us solve this angular momentum problem using an inertial reference frame

and see how the analysis works. The corresponding angular momentum equation

is Z Z

X @

~ = @t ~

~r V ( dV ) +

~r V~ V~ dA~

CV CS

We then examine every individual term in the above equation:

{ The sources of external torque in this problem come from

shaft torque, ~shaft

frictional torque, ~f

{ The storage term is zero because we are dealing with a steady problem.

{ The net angular momentum out
ow term can be evaluated by rst considering

the jet out of one hole only:

Wj

ri

ri

V~ dA~ = (r Vt) ( Wj Aj ) ~ek = (r Vt) Q6 ~ek

~r V~

where Vt is the tangential velocity component measured in an inertial frame.

113

{ Consider the relative motion equation V~ = U~ + W~ , we can resolve it in the

tangential direction as

Vt = Ut + Wt

= ri ! + Wj sin

) r Vt = ri2 ! + ri Wj sin

= ri2 ! + ri Q sin

6 Aj

{ Hence, the angular momentum out
ow from this hole is equal to

!

Q 2 Q

ri 6 A sin ri ! 6 ~ek

j

{ The total angular momentum out
ow can be obtained by summing the con-

tribution from all six holes together

Z 3 "

X Q !

Q #

~ ~ ~

~r V V dA = 2 2

ri 6 A sin ri ! 6 ~ek

CS i=1 j

where r1 = 10 cm, r2 = 20 cm, r3 = 30 cm.

The entire angular momentum equation can then be simplied to

" #

Q Q

2

shaft + f = 3 6 A (r1 + r2 + r3) sin ! r1 + r2 + r3 2 2

j

This general equation of motion forms the common basis for the following special

cases of interests.

(a) Static Case: Determine the torque that must be applied to the sprinkler arms to

hold them from rotating.

In this static case, we have

{!=0

{ f = 0

The restraining torque is

Q 2 !

shaft = 18 A (r1 + r2 + r3 ) sin

j

(b) Frictionless Case: Determine the angular speed if the arms are free to rotate and

there is no friction.

In this frictionless case, we have

114

{ shaft = 0

{ f = 0

The angular speed of the sprinkler arm is

! = 6QA rr21 +

+ r2 + r3 sin

r22 + r32

j 1

(c) Frictional Case: Determine the angular speed if there is a constant frictional

torque of 1 N-m resisting rotation of the arms.

In this frictional case, we have

{ shaft = 0

The angular speed of the sprinkler arm is

" #

1 Q

! = r2 + r2 + r2 6 A (r1 + r2 + r3 ) sin Q 3 f

1 2 3 j

which reduces to the results in Part (b) for f = 0.

(d) Relative Motion: Determine the absolute velocity of the
uid leaving Hole A in

Part (b) and (c).

In both cases, we can apply the relative motion equation V~ = U~ + W~ to

analyze the velocity components.

{ Radial component:

Vr = Ur + Wr

= 0 + Wj cos

= Q cos

6 Aj

{ Tangential component:

Vt = Ut + Wt

= r3 ! + Wj sin

= 6QA sin r3 !

j

The absolute velocity of the
uid is given by

q

V = Vt2 + Vr2

v

u !2 !2

u

t Q Q

= 6 Aj sin r3 ! + 6 Aj cos

v

u !2

u

t Q r 2 Q r ! sin

= + ( 3 !)

6 Aj 3 Aj 3

115

(e) Sketch the corresponding velocity vector diagrams for Part (d).

Q

W=

6 Aj

Vr = Wr

V Vt = U Wt

U = r3

8. Refer to the schematic below, a \wye" joint splits a pipe
ow into two equal amounts,

Q=2, which exit at a distance R0 from the x-axis. The system rotates about the x axis

at a rate

.

Q/2

, R0 >> Dpipe

Q x

R0

Q/2

(a) Inertial Frame Analysis: Apply the angular momentum principle in an inertial

frame to

i. determine the torque required to turn the pipe (constant speed).

ii. determine the additional torque which is required to generate an angular

acceleration

_ on the existing system (constant acceleration).

The angular momentum equation in an inertial frame is

Z Z

X @

~ = @t ~

~r V ( dV ) +

~r V~ V~ dA~

CV CS

Let us rst consider a control volume which includes the upper tube only:

116

CV1 Q/2

dr

, r @@@

@@@ R0

y

Q @@@

x

and velocity vectors as

~r = r cos ~i + sin ~j

V~ = 2QA cos ~i + sin ~j + r

sin ~k

~r V~ = r cos ~i + sin ~j

2QA cos ~i + sin ~j + r

sin ~k

= Q r sin cos ~i ~j + r2

sin cos ~i ~k

2A

+ r sin cos ~j ~i + r2

sin2 ~j ~k

Q

2A

= r

sin sin ~i cos ~j

2

The total angular momentum stored in the upper tube can be obtained

by integrating the above expression along the entire upper tube length

Z Z R = sin h i

~

~r V ( dV ) =

0

r2

sin sin ~i cos ~j ( A dr)

CV1 0

= A R20

sin ~i cos ~j

3

3 sin

The storage term can then be obtained by take the time derivative of the

above expression. (Notice that only the angular speed is a function of

time.)

@ Z ~r V~ ( dV ) = A R03

_ sin ~i cos ~j

@t CV 1 3 sin2

The angular momentum out
ow term can be obtained by evaluating the

~r V~ expression at r = R0 = sin

Z " 2 # Q

~

~ ~

R

~

~r V V dA = sin sin i cos j

0 ~ 2

CS

1

117

These procedures conclude the analysis of the upper tube. We can then

proceed to analyze the lower tube by following the same procedures.

y

,

Q x

r @@@

@@@ R0 z

@@@

dr

Q/2

CV2

vectors

~r = r cos ~i sin ~j

V~ = 2QA cos ~i sin ~j r

sin ~k

@ Z ~r V~ ( dV ) = A R03

_ sin ~i + cos ~j

@t CV "3 sin2

# Q

2

Z R 2

and ~r V~ V~ dA~ = sin sin ~i + cos ~j

0 2

CS2

To obtain the global conservation equation for the entire system, we need

to sum up the results from the upper and the lower tubes.

@ Z ~r V~ ( dV ) + Z ~r V~ V~ dA~

@t CV CS

2 A R 3 !

= Q R0

+ 3 sin

_ ~i

2 0

that the applied torque is

2 A R 3 !

~ = Q R0

+ 3 sin

_ ~i

2 0

The rst term corresponds to the torque required to turn the pipe at

constant speed,

, while the second term corresponds to the additional

torque required to produce an angular acceleration,

, _ on the existing

system. Hence,

~

= Q R02

~i

2 A R 3

_

~

_ = 3 sin ~i 0

118

(b) Rotating Frame Analysis: Repeat the analysis in Part (a) in a rotating frame.

The angular momentum equation in a rotating frame is

Z h i

~ ~r 2~! V~ + ~! (~! ~r) + ~!_ ~r ( dV )

CV

= @t @ Z

~r V~ ( dV ) +

Z

~r V~ V~ dA~

CV CS

Let us rst consider a control volume which includes the upper tube only:

CV1 Q/2

dr

, r @@@

@@@ R0

y

Q @@@

x

velocity and angular velocity vectors as

~r = r cos ~i + sin ~j

V~ = 2QA cos ~i + sin ~j

~! =

~i

Since ~r is collinear to V~ , their cross product is equal to zero

~r V~ = ~0

Hence, the storage term and the net out
ow term both equal zero and do not

contribute to the angular momentum balance in the rotating frame.

Let us evaluate each cross product term in the \ctitious" torque carefully:

2 ~! V~ = 2

~i 2QA cos ~i + sin ~j

= QA

sin ~i ~j

= QA

sin ~k

h i

!~ ~r =

~i r cos ~i + sin ~j

= r

sin ~i ~j

= r

sin ~k

119

!~ (~! ~r) =

~i r

sin

~k

= r

2 sin ~i ~k

= r

2h sin ~j i

_!~ ~r =

_ ~i r cos ~i + sin ~j

= r

_ sin ~i ~j

= r

_ sin ~k

These combine to give

~ _ Q

~k r

2 sin ~j

_

and

~r 2 ~! V~ + ~! (~! ~r) + ~!_ ~r = r sin2 QA

+ r

_ ~i

h i

Q

r sin cos A + r

~j r2

2 sin cos ~k

_

The combined \ctitious" torque can be obtained by integrating the above

expression along the entire upper tube length

Z h i

~r 2 ~! V~ + ~! (!~ ~r) + ~!_ ~r ( dV )

CV1

Z R0 = sin

Q

rsin2

_ ~ Q

_ ~

=

0 A + r

i i r sin cos A + r

j

r2

2 sin cos ~k ( A dr)

" ! !

Q R 0

_ R 0

_

2 cos Q

R

= ( A) R02 + ~

i 0 + ~j

2 A 3 sin #

sin 2 A 3 sin

R03

2 cos ~k

3 sin2

These procedures conclude the analysis of the upper tube. We can then

proceed to analyze the lower tube by following the same procedures.

120

y

,

Q x

r @@@

@@@ R0 z

@@@

dr

Q/2

CV2

and velocity vectors

~r = r cos ~i sin ~j

V~ = 2QA cos ~i sin ~j

After algebraic

Z

manipulations, we obtain

h i

~r 2 ~! V~ + ~! (~! ~r) + ~!_ ~r ( dV )

CV2

" !

Q

R 0

_ R 2 cos Q

R _ !

= ( A) R02 ~i + 0 + 3 sin ~j

0

2 A + 3 sin sin 2 A

R 3

2 cos #

+ 0 2 ~k

3 sin

To obtain the global conservation equation for the entire system, we need to

sum up the results from the upper and the lower tubes.

Z h i

~r 2 ~! V~ + ~! (!~ ~r) + ~!_ ~r ( dV )

CV

" !#

Q

R 0

_ ~

= ( A) 2 R02

2 A + 3 sin i

From the angular momentum equation in a rotating frame, we deduce that

the applied torque is

Z h i

~ = ~r 2 ~! V~ + ~! (!~ ~r) + !~_ ~r ( dV )

CV

" !#

Q

R 0

_ ~

= ( A) 2 R02

2 A + 3 sin i

The rst term corresponds to the torque required to turn the pipe at constant

speed,

, while the second term corresponds to the additional torque required

_ on the existing system. Hence,

to produce an angular acceleration,

,

~

= Q R02

~i

3 _

~

_ = 2 3 AsinR0

~i

121

This example demonstrates that we can obtain the same results by choosing

either the inertial or rotating reference frame to analyze angular momentum

problems as long as the velocity vector is consistent with the corresponding

chosen reference frame.

In this problem,

{ the production, the storage and the net out
ow terms are all active in the

inertial frame analysis;

{ the production term and the \ctitious" torque are both active but the

storage and the net out
ow terms are both zero in the rotating frame

analysis.

122

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial Eight: Turbomachinery

(a) Can you state it in your own words?

(a) How is it dened?

3. What is/are the necessary condition(s) for two ows to be dynamically similar?

ter?

123

(b) Can you give a physical meaning to specic speed?

T = Q (r2Vt;2 r1Vt;1 )

Pw = Q (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)

H = g1 (U2Vt;2 U1Vt;1 )

(a) What are the assumptions behind these equations?

(b) From which basic principles and denitions are they derived?

7. The least trivial quantity in the above Euler turbomachinery equations is the
uid

tangential velocity relative to an inertial frame, Vt. We often need to invoke the

following equation to nd it out:

V~ = U~ + W ~

How do you verbally describe the dierent velocity vectors in the above equation?

124

8. We encounter two common types of turbomachine:

centrifugal
ow type

axial
ow type

Prociency in analyzing each of them is crucial in designing machines with better

performance. We will examine both of them in this problem.

(a) Centrifugal Flow Type:

Backward Curved Blade

2 W

ii. Which velocity component is responsible for carrying
uid in and out of the

machine?

iii. Determine the following velocity components:

Ur =

Ut =

Wr =

Wt =

) Vr =

Vt =

iv. Determine the torque and power input.

125

(b) Axial Flow Type:

This plane is parallel Inlet Outlet

to the Meridional plane.

U

1

Stator Rotor

Blade Blade

ii. Which velocity component is responsible for carrying
uid in and out of the

machine?

iii. Determine the following velocity components:

Ux =

Ut =

Wx =

Wt =

) Vx =

Vt =

iv. Determine the torque, power input and theoretical head.

126

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics

Solutions to Tutorial Eight: Turbomachinery

(a) Can you state it in your own words?

If there are N dimensional variables characterizing a physical system and

there are M independent physical dimensions associated with these N vari-

ables, we can describe this physical system by using N M non-dimensional

parameters ( groups).

Take the example of nding the drag FD on a sphere in low-speed ows. The

relevant dimensional variables are

{ FD { drag on the sphere (dimension: ML=T 2 )

{ { density of uid (dimension: M=L3 )

{ V { velocity of uid (dimension: L=T )

{ { viscosity of uid (dimension: M=LT )

{ D { diameter of sphere (dimension: L)

There are ve dimensional variables and three independent dimensions (mass

(M), length (L), time (T)) in this description.

The Buckingham Pi Theorem tells us that the same physical problem can

be described by two non-dimensional parameters instead of ve dimensional

variables.

There are many dierent ways to write these two non-dimensional parameters.

One such way is to express them in terms of the drag coecient and Reynolds

number:

CD = 1 FVD2 D2 Re = V D

2

In the analysis of turbomachinery, the relevant dimensional variables are

{ Q { volumetric ow rate (dimension: L3 =T )

{ H { net head (dimension: L)

{ ! { rotational speed (dimension: 1=T )

{ D { impeller size (dimension: L)

{ P { brake horse power (dimension ML2 =T 3)

{ { density of uid (dimension: M=L3 )

These six dimensional variables contain three independent dimensions (M; L;

T ).

127

By Buckingham Pi Theorem, we can characterize the machine performance

by three non-dimensional parameters:

{ CH = g H=(!2 D2) head coecient

{ CP = P=( ! D )

3 5 power coecient

{ CQ = Q=(! D ) 3 ow coecient

Choosing the ow coecient to be the independent non-dimensional param-

eter, we can express the head coecient and the power coecient as:

CH = f1 (CQ)

CP = f2 (CQ)

Remarks:

There are two other non-dimensional parameters which can be formed by

combining the above three non-dimensional parameters:

{ specic speed (to be discussed in Problem 4)

{ eciency, = CH CQ= CP

2. Every ow is characterized by a Reynolds number.

(a) How is it dened?

Reynolds is dened as

Re = V L

where V is a characteristic velocity while L is a characteristic length of the

ow problem.

Take the example of a uniform ow over a sphere. The characteristic veloc-

ity will be the free stream velocity and the characteristic length will be the

diameter of the sphere.

(b) Give a physical meaning to it.

The Reynolds number can be interpreted as the ratio of inertial to viscous

force in a ow.

(c) Why do we ignore its eects in the analysis of turbomachinery?

The higher the ow Reynolds number gets, the less important the viscous

eects are, compared with the inertial eects.

As the ow Reynolds number exceeds a certain limit, we can ignore the viscous

eects without causing too much error in our analysis.

Take the example of the Moody diagram. The friction factor is a function of

both relative roughness (e=D) and Reynolds number (Re).

128

As the Reynolds number reaches 106 or above, the value of friction factor

approaches nearly a constant value for relative roughness greater than 0.001

and becomes independent of the Reynolds number.

3. What is/are the necessary condition(s) for two
ows to be dynamically similar?

The two
ows must be geometrically similar.

The independent non-dimensional parameters which characterize the
ow must

be of comparable magnitude.

ter?

The specic speed does not depend on the size of the system.

(b) Can you give a physical meaning to specic speed?

Specic speed can be interpreted as the operation speed of the machine at

which it produces a unit head rise per unit ow rate through the system.

(c) It can be expressed by two common forms. What are they?

Specic speed is another non-dimensional parameter which characterizes the

machine operation.

It can be formed by combining dierent non-dimensional parameters in such

a way that the size of the system (D) is factored out of its denition.

It can be formed by combining the ow coecient and the head coecient as

follows:

C 1=2 1=2

Ns = Q3=4 = !HQ3=4

CH

or by combining the power coecient and the head coecient as follows:

1=2

Ns = 5=4 = !HP5=4

C 1=2

P

CH

The net head of a pump signies the amount of energy gained by the uid as it

passes through the machine.

It is related to the power required to drive the pump through the pump eciency.

129

6. The Euler turbomachine equations are:

T = Q (r2Vt;2 r1Vt;1 ) (9)

Pw = Q (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1) (10)

1

H = g (U2Vt;2 U1Vt;1 ) (11)

The main assumptions are:

steady state (no storage term)

uniform ow at each station ( ow variables do not vary with azimuthal di-

rection)

(Optional) In evaluating the tangential velocity component Vt, we often invoke

one more assumption in the analysis: attached ow is achieved on the blade

surface (no ow separation).

(b) From which basic principles and denitions are they derived?

Equation (9) is derived from the conservation of angular momentum principle

based on the above assumptions.

Equation (10) is derived from Equation (9) together with the denition of me-

chanical power Pw = T !.

Equation (11) is derived from Equation (10) based on a 100 % eciency assump-

tion, i.e. all the mechanical power is converted to head gain in the uid. The

head value calculated in this way is called the theoretical head. It represented the

upper limit of any physical system.

7. The least trivial quantity in the above Euler turbomachinery equations is the
uid

tangential velocity relative to an inertial frame, Vt. We often need to invoke the

following equation to nd it out:

V~ = U~ + W ~

How do you verbally describe the dierent velocity vectors in the above equation?

V~ is the
uid velocity measured with respect to an inertial frame.

U~ is the blade velocity measured with respect to an inertial frame.

W~ is the
uid velocity measured with respect to the rotating blade (non-inertial

frame).

130

8. We encounter two common types of turbomachine:

centrifugal
ow type

axial
ow type

Prociency in analyzing each of them is crucial in designing machines with better

performance. We will examine both of them in this problem.

(a) Centrifugal Flow Type:

Backward Curved Blade

2 W

W2

2

V2

U2 = r2

ii. Which velocity component is responsible for carrying
uid in and out of the

machine?

The radial velocity component (Vr ; Wr ) is responsible for carrying
uid

in and out of a centrifugal machine.

iii. Determine the following velocity components:

Ur = 0

Ut = r !

Wr = 2 Qr b (mass conservation)

131

Wt = Wr cot (assume attached
ow)

= Q cot

2rb

) Vr = Ur + Wr

= Q

2rb

Vt = Ut Wt

= r ! 2 Qr b cot

iv. Determine the torque and power input.

By the Euler turbomachine equation,

T = Q (r2 Vt;2 r1 Vt;1 )

P = Q (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)

where subscripts 1 ;2 refer to the inlet and outlet stations respectively.

v. What is the theoretical head? Give a verbal description to it.

By the Euler turbomachine equation,

H = g1 (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)

It corresponds to the ideal case (no losses), which gives the maximum

head available.

132

(b) Axial Flow Type:

This plane is parallel Inlet Outlet

to the Meridional plane.

U

1

Stator Rotor

Blade Blade

V1

U1 = r

W1

1

1

ii. Which velocity component is responsible for carrying
uid in and out of the

machine?

The axial velocity component (Wx; Vx) is responsible for carrying
uid in

and out of an axial machine.

iii. Determine the following velocity components:

Ux = 0

Ut = r !

Wx = ( r 2 Q r 2 ) (mass conservation)

o i

133

Wt = Wx cot (assume attached
ow)

Q

=

( ro ri2 ) cot

2

) Vx = Ux + Wx

= Q

( ro ri2 )

2

Vt = Ut + Wt

= r ! + ( r2 Q r2 ) cot

o i

where ri and ro denote the inner and outer radii of the rotor cross section

respectively.

Remarks:

At the design point operation, the stator blade outlet angle 1 is set so that

tan 1 = VVx;1

t;1

to achieve
ow attachment.

iv. Determine the torque, power input and theoretical head.

The results from the Euler turbomachine equation apply to both centrifu-

gal and axial machines:

T = Q (r2 Vt;2 r1 Vt;1 )

P = Q (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)

H = g1 (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)

where subscripts 1 ;2 refer to the inlet and outlet stations respectively.

v. What is/are your assumption(s) in determining the results in Part(iv)?

Usually, we assume a mean radius value rm to evaluate the U and Vt

terms in the above equations:

rm = ri +2 ro

U = rm !

Vt = rm ! + (r2 Q r2) cot

o i

which is an approximation itself.

By doing so, we can avoid integrating the angular momentum distribution

along the radial direction at both the inlet and the outlet.

But this assumption requires the dierence between the outer and inner

radius, ro ri, to be small compared with the mean radius, (ro + ri)=2.

134

References

Fox, R. W. & McDonald, A. T., Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Wiley, New York,

1973.

Shapiro, A. H., The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow,

Volume I, Wiley, New York, 1953.

White, F. W., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986.

Zucker, R. D., Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Matrix, Ohio, 1977.

135

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